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Pattern recognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719181/differential-ligand-binding-specificities-of-the-pulmonary-collectins-are-determined-by-the-conformational-freedom-of-a-surface-loop
#1
Michael J Rynkiewicz, Huixing Wu, Tanya R Cafarella, Nikolaos M Nikolaidis, James Frederick Head, Barbara A Seaton, Francis X McCormack
Lung surfactant proteins (SP) play critical roles in surfactant function and innate immunity. SP-A and SP-D, members of the collectin family of C-type lectins, exhibit distinct ligand specificities, effects on surfactant structure, and host defense functions despite extensive structural homology. SP-A binds to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major surfactant lipid component, but not phosphatidylinositol (PI), whereas SP-D shows the opposite preference. Additionally, SP-A and SP-D recognize widely divergent pathogen-associated molecular patterns...
July 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718398/comparative-study-of-nmr-spectral-profiling-for-the-characterization-and-authentication-of-cannabis
#2
Xinyi Wang, Peter de Harrington, Steven Baugh
For the authentication of botanical materials, it is difficult to obtain representative reference materials because botanicals vary significantly with respect to cultivation conditions. Chemical profiling of plant extracts or spectral fingerprinting can differentiate botanicals and group them by their chemical profiles. NMR spectroscopy yields a powerful and useful method for profiling plant extracts. Both 500 MHz (1)H and (1)H-(1)H correlation NMR spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition were used to discriminate among Cannabis samples...
July 18, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715499/helicobacter-pylori-modulates-host-cell-responses-by-cagt4ss-dependent-translocation-of-an-intermediate-metabolite-of-lps-inner-core-heptose-biosynthesis
#3
Saskia C Stein, Eugenia Faber, Simon H Bats, Tatiana Murillo, Yvonne Speidel, Nina Coombs, Christine Josenhans
Highly virulent Helicobacter pylori cause proinflammatory signaling inducing the transcriptional activation and secretion of cytokines such as IL-8 in epithelial cells. Responsible in part for this signaling is the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) that codetermines the risk for pathological sequelae of an H. pylori infection such as gastric cancer. The Cag type IV secretion system (CagT4SS), encoded on the cagPAI, can translocate various molecules into cells, the effector protein CagA, peptidoglycan metabolites and DNA...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715445/cytological-diagnostic-features-of-late-breast-implant-seromas-from-reactive-to-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma
#4
Arianna Di Napoli, Giuseppina Pepe, Enrico Giarnieri, Claudia Cippitelli, Adriana Bonifacino, Mauro Mattei, Maurizio Martelli, Carlo Falasca, Maria Christina Cox, Iolanda Santino, Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli
Late breast implant seroma may be the presentation of a breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL), which claims for a prompt recognition. However, BI-ALCL diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) might be challenging for pathologists lacking experience with peri-implant breast effusions. Sixty-seven late breast implant seromas collected by FNA from 50 patients were evaluated by Papanicolaou smear stain and immunocytochemistry on cell blocks. A diagnostic algorithm based on the cellular composition, cell morphology and percentage of CD30+ cells was developed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715416/signatures-of-inflammation-and-impending-multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-the-hyperacute-phase-of-trauma-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Claudia P Cabrera, Joanna Manson, Joanna M Shepherd, Hew D Torrance, David Watson, M Paula Longhi, Mimoza Hoti, Minal B Patel, Michael O'Dwyer, Sussan Nourshargh, Daniel J Pennington, Michael R Barnes, Karim Brohi
BACKGROUND: Severe trauma induces a widespread response of the immune system. This "genomic storm" can lead to poor outcomes, including Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). MODS carries a high mortality and morbidity rate and adversely affects long-term health outcomes. Contemporary management of MODS is entirely supportive, and no specific therapeutics have been shown to be effective in reducing incidence or severity. The pathogenesis of MODS remains unclear, and several models are proposed, such as excessive inflammation, a second-hit insult, or an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714877/alternative-pre-mrna-splicing-in-mammals-and-teleost-fish-a-effective-strategy-for-the-regulation-of-immune-responses-against-pathogen-infection
#6
REVIEW
Ming Xian Chang, Jie Zhang
Pre-mRNA splicing is the process by which introns are removed and the protein coding elements assembled into mature mRNAs. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing provides an important source of transcriptome and proteome complexity through selectively joining different coding elements to form mRNAs, which encode proteins with similar or distinct functions. In mammals, previous studies have shown the role of alternative splicing in regulating the function of the immune system, especially in the regulation of T-cell activation and function...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714502/insights-into-the-rna-binding-mechanism-of-human-l1-orf1p-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#7
Muthukumaran Rajagopalan, Sangeetha Balasubramanian, Amutha Ramaswamy
The recognition and binding of nucleic acids by ORF1p, an L1 retrotransposon protein, have not yet been clearly understood due to the lack of structural knowledge. The present study attempts to identify the probable single-stranded RNA binding pathway of trimeric ORF1p using computational methods like ligand mapping methodology combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Using the ligand mapping methodology, the possible RNA interacting sites on the surface of the trimeric ORF1p were identified. The crystal structure of the ORF1p timer and an RNA molecule of 29 nucleotide bases in length were used to generate the structure of the ORF1p complex based on information on predicted binding sites as well as the functional states of the CTD...
July 17, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714429/structural-brain-correlations-of-visuospatial-and-visuoperceptual-tests-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Anna Isabel Garcia-Diaz, Barbara Segura, Hugo Cesar Baggio, Maria Jose Marti, Francesc Valldeoriola, Yaroslau Compta, Nuria Bargallo, Carme Uribe, Anna Campabadal, Alexandra Abos, Carme Junque
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is relevant because it is a marker for evolution to dementia. However, the selection of suitable tests to evaluate separate cognitive domains in mild cognitive impairment related to PD remains an open question. The current work aims to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of several visuospatial/visuoperceptual tests using the same sample and a multimodal MRI approach. METHODS: The study included 36 PD patients and 20 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and education...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713295/women-s-reasons-for-leaving-the-engineering-field
#9
Nadya A Fouad, Wen-Hsin Chang, Min Wan, Romila Singh
Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712612/patient-reported-outcome-and-observer-reported-outcome-assessment-in-rare-disease-clinical-trials-an-ispor-coa-emerging-good-practices-task-force-report
#10
Katy Benjamin, Margaret K Vernon, Donald L Patrick, Eleanor Perfetto, Sandra Nestler-Parr, Laurie Burke
BACKGROUND: Rare diseases (RDs) affect a small number of people within a population. About 5000 to 8000 distinct RDs have been identified, with an estimated 6% to 8% of people worldwide suffering from an RD. Approximately 75% of RDs affect children. Frequently, these conditions are heterogeneous; many are progressive. Regulatory incentives have increased orphan drug designations and approvals. OBJECTIVE: To develop emerging good practices for RD outcomes research addressing the challenges inherent in identifying, selecting, developing, adapting, and implementing patient-reported outcome (PRO) and observer-reported outcome (ObsRO) assessments for use in RD clinical trials...
July 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712330/the-role-of-abnormalities-in-the-corpus-callosum-in-social-cognition-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Skye McDonald, Jacqueline A Rushby, Katie I Dalton, Samantha K Allen, Nicklas Parks
The corpus callosum (CC) is vulnerable to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Social cognition requires integration of non-verbal and verbal information in order to understand social behaviour and may be compromised if the CC is damaged. 17 adults with severe, chronic TBI and 17 control participants underwent structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. A region of interest analysis examined fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) across regions of the CC. Performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT): part 1 (emotion recognition) and parts 2 and 3 (social inference), was examined in relation to FA and MD...
July 17, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712310/primary-cutaneous-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-in-a-sporotrichoid-pattern-a-case-report
#12
Daniel J Lewis, Harina Vin, Tiffany Hinojosa, Michael T Tetzlaff, Bouthaina S Dabaja, Madeleine Duvic
We present the extraordinary case of a 72-year-old man with a history of primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (pcPTCL-NOS) previously controlled with topical agents who developed tumours in a sporotrichoid pattern. Culture of the tumours was negative, and histopathology showed findings consistent with recurrent pcPTCL. The tumours were successfully treated with localised radiation therapy. Sporotrichoid lesions are an extremely rare and atypical presentation of cutaneous lymphoma, with only 2 other cases reported in the literature...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711781/the-nature-of-hydrogen-bonding-interactions-in-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-revealed-by-polarized-ir-spectroscopy
#13
Barbara Hachuła
The influence of hydrogen-bonding interactions in the solid phase on the IR spectroscopic pattern of the νOH band of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was studied experimentally by IR spectroscopy with the use of polarized light at two temperatures (293K and 77K) and in isotopic dilution. The neat and deuterated crystals of (S)-naproxen ((S)-NPX), (R)-flurbiprofen ((R)-FBP), (RS)-flurbiprofen ((RS)-FBP) and (RS)-ketoprofen ((RS)-KTP) were obtained by melt crystallization between the two squeezed CaF2 plates...
July 9, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711423/randomized-trial-of-intelligent-sensor-system-for-early-illness-alerts-in-senior-housing
#14
Marilyn Rantz, Lorraine J Phillips, Colleen Galambos, Kari Lane, Gregory L Alexander, Laurel Despins, Richelle J Koopman, Marjorie Skubic, Lanis Hicks, Steven Miller, Andy Craver, Bradford H Harris, Chelsea B Deroche
OBJECTIVES: Measure the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of using sensor data from an environmentally embedded sensor system for early illness recognition. This sensor system has demonstrated in pilot studies to detect changes in function and in chronic diseases or acute illnesses on average 10 days to 2 weeks before usual assessment methods or self-reports of illness. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study in 13 assisted living (AL) communities of 171 residents randomly assigned to intervention (n=86) or comparison group (n=85) receiving usual care...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710479/endothelial-cells-by-inactivation-of-vhl-gene-direct-angiogenesis-not-vasculogenesis-via-twist1-accumulation-associated-with-hemangioblastoma-neovascularization
#15
Ying Wang, Dan-Qi Chen, Ming-Yu Chen, Kai-Yuan Ji, De-Xuan Ma, Liang-Fu Zhou
Inactivation of the VHL tumour suppressor gene is a highly frequent genetic event in the carcinogenesis of central nervous system-(CNS) hemangioblastomas (HBs). The patterning of the similar embryonic vasculogenesis is an increasing concern in HB-neovascularization, and the classic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis driven by VHL loss-of-function from human endothelium have been questioned. With this regard, we identify a distinct, VHL silencing-driven mechanism in which human vascular endothelial cells by means of increasing cell proliferation and decreasing cell apoptosis, is concomitant with facilitating accumulation of Twist1 protein in vascular endothelial cells in vitro...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710287/rna-search-engines-empower-the-bacterial-intranet
#16
REVIEW
Tom Dendooven, Ben F Luisi
RNA acts not only as an information bearer in the biogenesis of proteins from genes, but also as a regulator that participates in the control of gene expression. In bacteria, small RNA molecules (sRNAs) play controlling roles in numerous processes and help to orchestrate complex regulatory networks. Such processes include cell growth and development, response to stress and metabolic change, transcription termination, cell-to-cell communication, and the launching of programmes for host invasion. All these processes require recognition of target messenger RNAs by the sRNAs...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709937/detection-of-lung-cancer-and-egfr-mutation-by-electronic-nose-system
#17
Dekel Shlomi, Manal Abud, Ori Liran, Jair Bar, Naomi Gai-Mor, Maya Ilouze, Amir Onn, Alon Ben-Nun, Hossam Haick, Nir Peled
BACKGROUND: Early detection of lung cancer (LC) has been well established as a significant key point in patient survival and prognosis. New highly sensitive nanoarray sensors for exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have been developed and coupled with powerful statistical programs may be used when diseases such as LC are suspected. Detection of genetic aberration mutation by nanoarray sensors is the next target. METHODS: Breath samples were taken from patients who were evaluated for suspicious pulmonary lesions...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709002/exosome-rna-unshielding-couples-stromal-activation-to-pattern-recognition-receptor-signaling-in-cancer
#18
Barzin Y Nabet, Yu Qiu, Jacob E Shabason, Tony J Wu, Taewon Yoon, Brian C Kim, Joseph L Benci, Angela M DeMichele, Julia Tchou, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Andy J Minn
Interactions between stromal fibroblasts and cancer cells generate signals for cancer progression, therapy resistance, and inflammatory responses. Although endogenous RNAs acting as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) may represent one such signal, these RNAs must remain unrecognized under non-pathological conditions. We show that triggering of stromal NOTCH-MYC by breast cancer cells results in a POL3-driven increase in RN7SL1, an endogenous RNA normally shielded by RNA binding proteins SRP9/14...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708994/unshielding-exosomal-rna-unleashes-tumor-growth-and-metastasis
#19
Irina Matei, Han Sang Kim, David Lyden
Reciprocal interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment drive cancer progression and therapy resistance. In this issue, Nabet et al. demonstrate that dynamic feedback between tumor and stroma subverts normal inflammatory responses by triggering the release of exosomes containing unshielded RNAs that activate pattern recognition receptors, thereby promoting tumor growth and metastasis.
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708559/texture-characterization-using-shape-co-occurrence-patterns
#20
Gui-Song Xia, Gang Liu, Xiang Bai, Liangpei Zhang
Texture characterization is a key problem in image understanding and pattern recognition. In this paper, we present a flexible shape-based texture representation using shape co-occurrence patterns. More precisely, texture images are first represented by a tree of shapes, each of which is associated with several geometrical and radiometric attributes. Then, four typical kinds of shape co-occurrence patterns based on the hierarchical relationships among the shapes in the tree are learned as codewords. Three different coding methods are investigated for learning the codewords, which can be used to encode any given texture image into a descriptive vector...
July 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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