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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778217/the-inflammasome-regulation-of-nitric-oxide-and-antimicrobial-host-defence
#1
Rajalaksmy A Ramachandran, Christopher Lupfer, Hasan Zaki
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signalling molecule that plays diverse physiological functions including antimicrobial host defence. During microbial infection, NO is synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), which is expressed by host immune cells through the recognition of microbial pattern molecules. Therefore, sensing pathogens or their pattern molecules by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are located at the cell surface, endosomal and phagosomal compartment, or in the cytosol, is key in inducing iNOS and eliciting antimicrobial host defence...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778193/single-nucleotide-variants-in-innate-immune-genes-associated-with-salmonella-shedding-and-colonization-in-swine-on-commercial-farms
#2
Margaret H Ainslie-Garcia, Abdolvahab Farzan, Mohsen Jafarikia, Brandon N Lillie
Foodborne human salmonellosis is an important food safety concern worldwide. Food-producing animals are one of the major sources of human salmonellosis, and thus control of Salmonella at the farm level could reduce Salmonella spread in the food supply system. Genetic selection of pigs with resistance to Salmonella infection may be one way to control Salmonella on swine farms. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between genetic variants in the porcine innate immune system with on-farm Salmonella shedding and Salmonella colonization tested at slaughter...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777721/pentraxins-crp-i-and-crp-ii-are-post-translationally-deiminated-and-differ-in-tissue-specificity-in-cod-gadus-morhua-l-ontogeny
#3
Bergljót Magnadóttir, Polly Hayes, Berglind Gísladóttir, Birkir Þór Bragason, Mariya Hristova, Anthony P Nicholas, Sigríður Guðmundsdóttir, Sigrun Lange
Pentraxins are fluid phase pattern recognition molecules that form an important part of the innate immune defence and are conserved between fish and human. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), two pentraxin-like proteins have been described, CRP-I and CRP-II. Here we show for the first time that these two CRP forms are post-translationally deiminated (an irreversible conversion of arginine to citrulline) and differ with respect to tissue specific localisation in cod ontogeny from 3 to 84 days post hatching. While both forms are expressed in liver, albeit at temporally differing levels, CRP-I shows a strong association with nervous tissue while CRP-II is strongly associated to mucosal tissues of gut and skin...
May 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777327/intensity-discrimination-and-speech-recognition-of-cochlear-implant-users
#4
Colette M McKay, Natalie Rickard, Katherine Henshall
The relation between speech recognition and within-channel or across-channel (i.e., spectral tilt) intensity discrimination was measured in nine CI users (11 ears). Within-channel intensity difference limens (IDLs) were measured at four electrode locations across the electrode array. Spectral tilt difference limens were measured with (XIDL-J) and without (XIDL) level jitter. Only three subjects could perform the XIDL-J task with the amount of jitter required to limit use of within-channel cues. XIDLs (normalized to %DR) were correlated with speech recognition (r = 0...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777175/artificial-intelligence-in-radiology
#5
REVIEW
Ahmed Hosny, Chintan Parmar, John Quackenbush, Lawrence H Schwartz, Hugo J W L Aerts
Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, particularly deep learning, have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks. Methods ranging from convolutional neural networks to variational autoencoders have found myriad applications in the medical image analysis field, propelling it forward at a rapid pace. Historically, in radiology practice, trained physicians visually assessed medical images for the detection, characterization and monitoring of diseases. AI methods excel at automatically recognizing complex patterns in imaging data and providing quantitative, rather than qualitative, assessments of radiographic characteristics...
May 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776613/high-resolution-melting-analysis-hrm-for-the-assessment-of-clonality-in-feline-b-cell-lymphomas
#6
Manfred Henrich, Svenja Scheffold, Werner Hecht, Manfred Reinacher
Analysis of clonality is gaining importance in diagnosing lymphomas in veterinary medicine. Usually, PCR for the analysis of antigen receptor rearrangement (PARR) is followed by electrophoretic separation of the PCR products. Aim of this study was to test the feasibility of HRM for the assessment of clonality in B-cell lymphomas of cats. High resolution melting analysis differentiates PCR products by their different melting point using the decrease in fluorescence of an intercalating dye during melting of the PCR product...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776429/assessing-adhd-symptoms-in-children-and-adults-evaluating-the-role-of-objective-measures
#7
Theresa S Emser, Blair A Johnston, J Douglas Steele, Sandra Kooij, Lisa Thorell, Hanna Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic guidelines recommend using a variety of methods to assess and diagnose ADHD. Applying subjective measures always incorporates risks such as informant biases or large differences between ratings obtained from diverse sources. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that ratings and tests seem to assess somewhat different constructs. The use of objective measures might thus yield valuable information for diagnosing ADHD. This study aims at evaluating the role of objective measures when trying to distinguish between individuals with ADHD and controls...
May 18, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776048/critical-neural-networks-with-short-and-long-term-plasticity
#8
L Michiels van Kessenich, M Luković, L de Arcangelis, H J Herrmann
In recent years self organized critical neuronal models have provided insights regarding the origin of the experimentally observed avalanching behavior of neuronal systems. It has been shown that dynamical synapses, as a form of short-term plasticity, can cause critical neuronal dynamics. Whereas long-term plasticity, such as Hebbian or activity dependent plasticity, have a crucial role in shaping the network structure and endowing neural systems with learning abilities. In this work we provide a model which combines both plasticity mechanisms, acting on two different time scales...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775486/peroxidasin-contributes-to-lung-host-defense-by-direct-binding-and-killing-of-gram-negative-bacteria
#9
Ruizheng Shi, Zehong Cao, Hong Li, Jochen Graw, Guogang Zhang, Victor J Thannickal, Guangjie Cheng
Innate immune recognition is classically mediated by the interaction of host pattern-recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns; this triggers a series of downstream signaling events that facilitate killing and elimination of invading pathogens. In this report, we provide the first evidence that PXDN (also known as vascular peroxidase-1) directly binds to gram-negative bacteria and mediates bactericidal activity, thus, contributing to lung host defense. PXDN contains five leucine-rich repeats and four immunoglobulin domains, which allows for its interaction with lipopolysaccharide, a membrane component of gram-negative bacteria...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774640/regulatory-roles-of-flavonoids-on-inflammasome-activation-during-inflammatory-responses
#10
REVIEW
Young-Su Yi
Inflammation is an innate immune response to noxious stimuli to protect the body from pathogens and dangers. Inflammatory responses consist of two main steps: priming and triggering. In priming, inflammatory cells increase expressions of inflammatory molecules, while in triggering, inflammasomes are activated, resulting in cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Inflammasomes are protein complexes comprising intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) (e.g. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and caspases-4/5/11) and pro-caspase-1 with or without a bipartite adaptor molecule ASC...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774475/neuropsychological-profiles-of-breast-cancer-and-brain-tumor-cohorts-in-northeast-ontario-canada
#11
Matias Mariani, Mark William Glister Collins
PURPOSE: As developments in cancer treatment have improved outcomes, research has increasingly focused on the role of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) in quality of life for cancer survivors. Impairment profiles have been heterogeneous across studies, necessitating the study of these effects across different cohorts. The purpose of this preliminary study is to compare the memory profiles of Northeast Ontario breast and CNS cancer patients, as there is no literature which exists for profiling CRCI within this largely rural region...
May 17, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774186/ring-enhancing-lesions-in-neonatal-meningitis-an-analysis-of-neuroradiology-pitfalls-through-exemplificative-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
Mario Ganau, Kshitij Mankad, Uma Rami Srirambhatla, Zubair Tahir, Felice D'Arco
Very often the clinical course of neonatal meningitis (NM) is characterized by sudden worsening, at times associated with cerebrovascular complications and strokes or the formation of cerebral abscesses. The immediate recognition of these pathological patterns is pivotal in providing clinicians with useful information to differentiate between those different pathological entities, which may both present as ring-enhancing lesions on neuroradiology investigations. Understanding their natural history and diagnostic features is of paramount importance to timely adopt the most appropriate medical and surgical management...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773941/periodontal-disease-and-diabetes-perceptions-communication-and-referral-between-rural-primary-care-physicians-and-dentists
#13
Paige M Fisketjon, Eric L Johnson
Background and objective: Connections between oral health and systemic disease, specifically diabetes, are well described in the literature. Screening strategies for diabetes in dental settings and dental screenings in diabetes care settings exist. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the communication and referral patterns between dentists and physicians in a rural state with respect to recognition of dental disease and diabetes. Methods: Surveys were sent to the members of the North Dakota Academy of Family Physicians, the North Dakota Medical Association, and the North Dakota Dental Association...
May 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772373/a-novel-c-type-lectin-from-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-ajctl-2-with-preferential-binding-of-d-galactose
#14
Hui Wang, Zhuang Xue, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Feifei Wang, Ying Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
C-type lectins (CTLs) are Ca2+ dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins that share structural homology in their carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, a novel CTL was identified from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (named as AjCTL-2). The deduced amino acid sequence of AjCTL-2 was homologous to CTLs from other animals with the identities ranging from 33% to 40%. It contained a canonical signal peptide at the N-terminus, a low density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa), a C1r/C1s/Uegf/bone morphogenetic protein 1 (CUB), and a CRD with two motif Glu-Pro-Asn (EPN) and Trp-Asn-Asp (WND) in Ca2+ binding site 2...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770580/q969r-polymorphism-in-nlrp3-is-associated-with-immune-responses-to-vaccination-against-bacterial-infections-in-pigs
#15
Hiroki Shinkai, Kei Terada, Daisuke Toki, Masanori Tohno, Hirohide Uenishi
Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin-domain containing-3 (NLRP3) is an important pattern recognition receptor involved in various inflammatory responses and adjuvant effects upon vaccination. We previously identified the Q969R (A2906G) gain-of-function polymorphism in porcine NLRP3, which increased production of interleukin-1β in in vitro gene transfection experiments. Here, we explored the associations between the A2906G polymorphism and antibody responses after vaccination against bacteria in Large White pigs maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions...
May 17, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770187/primary-jejunal-burkitt-lymphoma-in-a-child-ultrasonic-detection
#16
Tatsuya Okamoto, Akane Sekiya, Tomoo Daifu, Ryuichiro Doi, Hisato Kobayashi
Gastrointestinal Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive malignancy in childhood, and early treatment is critical for its favorable prognosis. Ultrasonography is a widely accepted initial imaging workup; therefore, recognition of the sonographic features of BL should contribute to its early diagnosis and initiation of treatment. We present a 4-year-old boy with primary jejunal BL with intussusception mimicking presentation, in which initial abdominal US allowed sustainable detection and characterization of the intestinal lesion...
May 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769346/porcine-deltacoronavirus-accessory-protein-ns6-antagonizes-ifn-%C3%AE-production-by-interfering-with-the-binding-of-rig-i-mda5-to-double-stranded-rna
#17
Puxian Fang, Liurong Fang, Jie Ren, Yingying Hong, Xiaorong Liu, Yunyang Zhao, Dang Wang, Guiqing Peng, Shaobo Xiao
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has recently emerged as an enteric pathogen that can cause serious vomiting and diarrhea in suckling piglets. The first outbreak of PDCoV occurred in the United States in 2014 and was followed by reports of PDCoV in South Korea, China, Thailand, Lao people's Democratic Republic, and Vietnam, leading to economic losses for pig farms and posing considerable threat to the swine industry worldwide. Our previous studies have shown that PDCoV encodes three accessory proteins, NS6, NS7, and NS7a, but the functions of these proteins in viral replication, pathogenesis, and immune regulation remain unclear...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769339/differential-responses-by-human-respiratory-epithelial-cell-lines-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-reflect-distinct-patterns-of-infection-control
#18
Philippa Hillyer, Rachel Shepard, Megan Uehling, Mina Krenz, Faruk Sheikh, Kalyn R Thayer, Lei Huang, Lihan Yan, Debasis Panda, Cindy Luongo, Ursula J Buchholz, Peter L Collins, Raymond P Donnelly, Ronald L Rabin
RSV infects small foci of respiratory epithelial cells via infected droplets. Infection induces expression of types I and III interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the balance of which may restrict viral replication and affect disease severity. We explored this balance by infecting two respiratory epithelial cell lines with low doses of recombinant RSV expressing green fluorescent protein (rgRSV). A549 cells were highly permissive whereas BEAS-2B cells restricted infection to individual cells or small foci...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766783/role-of-formyl-peptide-receptors-in-gastrointestinal-healing
#19
Nella Prevete, Amato De Paulis, Dolores Sgambato, Rosa Marina Melillo, Giuseppe D'Argenio, Lorenzo Romano, Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Marco Romano
The wound healing and the barrier restoration of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa must be continuously ensured to allow homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and of all the surrounding tissues. Several lines of the evidence report a key role of innate immunity, and in particular of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), in controlling the homeostasis of GI tract by sensing commensal and pathogen bacteria, activating the immune response and regulating epithelial repair, thus guaranteeing the morphological and functional recovery of the injured tissue...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766029/seizure-suppressant-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-encapsulated-bdnf-producing-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Chiara Falcicchia, Giovanna Paolone, Dwaine F Emerich, Francesca Lovisari, William J Bell, Tracie Fradet, Lars U Wahlberg, Michele Simonato
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may represent a therapeutic for chronic epilepsy, but evaluating its potential is complicated by difficulties in its delivery to the brain. Here, we describe the effects on epileptic seizures of encapsulated cell biodelivery (ECB) devices filled with genetically modified human cells engineered to release BDNF. These devices, implanted into the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats, highly decreased the frequency of spontaneous seizures by more than 80%. These benefits were associated with improved cognitive performance, as epileptic rats treated with BDNF performed significantly better on a novel object recognition test...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
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