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Pattern recognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161330/fasciola-spp-mapping-of-the-mf6-epitope-and-antigenic-analysis-of-the-mf6p-hdm-family-of-heme-binding-proteins
#1
Victoria Martínez-Sernández, María J Perteguer, Mercedes Mezo, Marta González-Warleta, Teresa Gárate, M Adela Valero, Florencio M Ubeira
MF6p/FhHDM-1 is a small cationic heme-binding protein which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) MF6, and abundantly present in parenchymal cells and secreted antigens of Fasciola hepatica. Orthologs of this protein (MF6p/HDMs) also exist in other causal agents of important foodborne trematodiasis, such as Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Paragonimus westermani. Considering that MF6p/FhHDM-1 is relevant for heme homeostasis in Fasciola and was reported to have immunomodulatory properties, this protein is expected to be a useful target for vaccination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161081/diet-obesity-and-asthma
#2
Lisa G Wood
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries as Western dietary patterns have been widely adopted. These diets are characterized by excess energy intake as well as regular consumption of processed or "fast" foods and limited consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The result is a high intake of saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium; and a low intake of fiber, vitamins, and other phytochemicals. This type of poor-quality diet has been associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160799/-25-a-similarity-analysis-of-audio-signal-to-develop-a-human-activity-recognition-using-similarity-networks
#3
Alejandra García-Hernández, Carlos E Galván-Tejada, Jorge I Galván-Tejada, José M Celaya-Padilla, Hamurabi Gamboa-Rosales, Perla Velasco-Elizondo, Rogelio Cárdenas-Vargas
Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is one of the main subjects of study in the areas of computer vision and machine learning due to the great benefits that can be achieved. Examples of the study areas are: health prevention, security and surveillance, automotive research, and many others. The proposed approaches are carried out using machine learning techniques and present good results. However, it is difficult to observe how the descriptors of human activities are grouped. In order to obtain a better understanding of the the behavior of descriptors, it is important to improve the abilities to recognize the human activities...
November 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159999/-economies-of-experience-disambiguation-of-degraded-stimuli-leads-to-a-decreased-dispersion-of-eye-movement-patterns
#4
Magdalena Ewa Król, Michał Król
We demonstrate "economies of experience" in eye-movement patterns-that is, optimization of eye-movement patterns aimed at more efficient and less costly visual processing, similar to the priming-induced formation of sparser cortical representations or reduced reaction times. Participants looked at Mooney-type, degraded stimuli that were difficult to recognize without prior experience, but easily recognizable after exposure to their undegraded versions. As predicted, eye-movement dispersion, velocity, and the number of fixations decreased with each stimulus presentation...
November 20, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159990/context-effects-and-spoken-word-recognition-of-chinese-an-eye-tracking-study
#5
Michael C W Yip, Mingjun Zhai
This study examined the time-course of context effects on spoken word recognition during Chinese sentence processing. We recruited 60 native Mandarin listeners to participate in an eye-tracking experiment. In this eye-tracking experiment, listeners were told to listen to a sentence carefully, which ended with a Chinese homophone, and look at different visual probes (Chinese characters or different line-drawing pictures) presented concurrently on the computer screen naturally. Different types of context and probe types were manipulated in the experiment...
November 20, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159763/chinese-learners-of-english-see-chinese-words-when-reading-english-words
#6
Fengyang Ma, Haiyang Ai
The present study examines when second language (L2) learners read words in the L2, whether the orthography and/or phonology of the translation words in the first language (L1) is activated and whether the patterns would be modulated by the proficiency in the L2. In two experiments, two groups of Chinese learners of English immersed in the L1 environment, one less proficient and the other more proficient in English, performed a translation recognition task. In this task, participants judged whether pairs of words, with an L2 word preceding an L1 word, were translation words or not...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157548/imaging-of-benign-odontogenic-lesions
#7
REVIEW
William C Scarfe, Shiva Toghyani, Bruno Azevedo
Numerous benign cysts or solid tumors may present in the jaws. These arise from tooth-forming tissues in the dental alveolus or from nonodontogenic tissues in the basal bone of the mandible and maxilla. Radiologists provide 2 deliverables to assist in diagnosis and management: (1) appropriately formatted images demonstrating the location and extent of the lesion and (2) interpretive reports highlighting specific radiologic findings and an impression providing a radiologic differential diagnosis. This article provides guidance on essential image protocols for planning treatments, a radiologic differential diagnostic algorithm based on location and pattern recognition, and a summary of the main features of benign odontogenic lesions...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157501/evaluation-and-management-of-autoimmune-encephalitis-a-clinical-overview-for-the-practicing-child-psychiatrist
#8
REVIEW
GenaLynne C Mooneyham, William Gallentine, Heather Van Mater
Medical conditions that present with psychiatric symptoms are becoming increasingly well-recognized in response to the emergence of the field of neuroimmunology. As the availability of testing for novel antineuronal antibodies has increased, so too has the clinical awareness of this diagnostic spectrum. Psychiatrists may have little exposure to this area of expertise, yet may be called on to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with complex neuropsychiatric syndromes secondary to autoimmune encephalitis...
January 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157462/recognition-of-pigment-network-pattern-in-dermoscopy-images-based-on-fuzzy-classification-of-pixels
#9
Jose Luis Garcia-Arroyo, Begonya Garcia-Zapirain
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: One of the most relevant dermoscopic patterns is the pigment network. An innovative method of pattern recognition is presented for its detection in dermoscopy images. METHODS: It consists of two steps. In the first one, by means of a supervised machine learning process and after performing the extraction of different colour and texture features, a fuzzy classification of pixels into the three categories present in the pattern's definition ("net", "hole" and "other") is carried out...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156364/pattern-recognition-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-gray-matter-volume-measurements-classifies-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Harry Rubin-Falcone, Francesca Zanderigo, Binod Thapa-Chhetry, Martin Lan, Jeffrey M Miller, M Elizabeth Sublette, Maria A Oquendo, David J Hellerstein, Patrick J McGrath, Johnathan W Stewart, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Bipolar Disorder (BD) cannot be reliably distinguished from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) until the first manic or hypomanic episode. Consequently, many patients with BD are treated with antidepressants without mood stabilizers, a strategy that is often ineffective and carries a risk of inducing a manic episode. We previously reported reduced cortical thickness in right precuneus, right caudal middle-frontal cortex and left inferior parietal cortex in BD compared with MDD...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154993/serration-pattern-analysis-for-differentiating-epidermolysis-bullosa-acquisita-from-other-pemphigoid-diseases
#11
Joost M Meijer, Ingeborg Atefi, Gilles F H Diercks, Artem Vorobyev, Janny Zuiderveen, Hillegonda J Meijer, Hendri H Pas, Detlef Zillikens, Enno Schmidt, Marcel F Jonkman
BACKGROUND: Direct immunofluorescence microscopy (DIF) of a skin biopsy specimen is the reference standard for the diagnosis of pemphigoid diseases (PD). Serration pattern analysis enables differentiation of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) from other PD using DIF microscopy alone. However, practice gaps need to be addressed for implication of this technique in daily routine diagnostics. OBJECTIVE: to determine and optimize the technical requirements for serration pattern analysis of DIF microscopy and determine inter-rater conformity of serration pattern analysis...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154963/macrophage-scavenger-receptor-1-contributes-to-pathogenesis-of-fulminant-hepatitis-via-neutrophil-mediated-complement-activation
#12
Yuan Tang, Huifang Li, Junru Li, Yunzhi Liu, Yanli Li, Jing Zhou, Jia Zhou, Xiao Lu, Wei Zhao, Jinlin Hou, Xiang-Yang Wang, Zhengliang Chen, Daming Zuo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (Msr1, also called SRA)is a pattern recognition receptor primarily expressed on myeloid cells, playing an important role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Since MSR1 expression was up-regulated in the livers of patients with fulminant hepatitis (FH), we investigated the functional mechanism of Msr1 as related to FH pathogenesis. METHODS: Msr1-deficient (Msr1(-/-)) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were infected with mouse hepatitis virus strain-A59 (MHV-A59) to induce FH, and the levels of tissue damage, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), inflammatory cytokines and complement C5a were measured and compared...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154808/genetic-host-factors-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-carcinogenesis-emerging-new-paradigms
#13
REVIEW
Michiel C Mommersteeg, Jun Yu, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Gwenny M Fuhler
Helicobacter Pylori is a gram negative rod shaped microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately half the world's population. Infection with c may cause chronic gastritis which via a quite well described process known as Correas cascade can progress through sequential development of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia to gastric cancer. H. pylori is currently the only bacterium that is classified as a class 1 carcinogen by the WHO, although the exact mechanisms by which this bacterium contributes to gastric carcinogenesis are still poorly understood...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154281/gradual-cerebral-hypoperfusion-impairs-fear-conditioning-and-object-recognition-learning-and-memory-in-mice-potential-roles-of-neurodegeneration-and-cholinergic-dysfunction
#14
Jogender Mehla, Sean Lacoursiere, Emily Stuart, Robert J McDonald, Majid H Mohajerani
In the present study, male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to gradual cerebral hypoperfusion by implanting an ameroid constrictor (AC) on the left common carotid artery (CCA) and a stenosis on the right CCA. In the sham group, all surgical procedures were kept the same except no AC was implanted and stenosis was not performed. One month following the surgical procedures, fear conditioning and object recognition tests were conducted to evaluate learning and memory functions and motor functions were assessed using a balance beam test...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152682/estrogenicity-of-halogenated-bisphenol-a-in-vitro-and-in-silico-investigations
#15
Jie Zhang, Tiezhu Li, Tuoyi Wang, Cuiping Yuan, Shuning Zhong, Tianzhu Guan, Zhuolin Li, Yongzhi Wang, Hansong Yu, Quan Luo, Yongjun Wang, Tiehua Zhang
The binding interactions of bisphenol A (BPA) and its halogenated derivatives (halogenated BPAs) to human estrogen receptor α ligand binding domain (hERα-LBD) was investigated using a combined in vitro and in silico approach. First, the recombinant hERα-LBD was prepared as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS. A native fluorescent phytoestrogen, coumestrol, was employed as tracer for the fluorescence polarization assay. The results of the in vitro binding assay showed that bisphenol compounds could bind to hERα-LBD as the affinity ligands...
November 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151895/toll-like-receptor-4-differentially-mediates-intestinal-and-extra-intestinal-immune-responses-upon-multi-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-association-of-il10-mice-with-chronic-colitis
#16
Anne Grunau, Ulrike Escher, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
Background: Infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) have become a serious threat particularly in hospitalized patients with immunopathological co-morbidities. The well-balanced interplay between immune cells, pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 sensing lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria including PA, and evolving pathways is crucial to prevent the host from invading (opportunistic) pathogens...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150600/mapping-tenascin-c-interaction-with-toll-like-receptor-4-reveals-a-new-subset-of-endogenous-inflammatory-triggers
#17
Lorena Zuliani-Alvarez, Anna M Marzeda, Claire Deligne, Anja Schwenzer, Fiona E McCann, Brian D Marsden, Anna M Piccinini, Kim S Midwood
Pattern recognition underpins innate immunity; the accurate identification of danger, including infection, injury, or tumor, is key to an appropriately targeted immune response. Pathogen detection is increasingly well defined mechanistically, but the discrimination of endogenous inflammatory triggers remains unclear. Tenascin-C, a matrix protein induced upon tissue damage and expressed by tumors, activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated sterile inflammation. Here we map three sites within tenascin-C that directly and cooperatively interact with TLR4...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150558/branched-pectic-galactan-in-phloem-sieve-element-cell-walls-implications-for-cell-mechanics
#18
Thomas A Torode, Rachel E O'Neill, Susan E Marcus, Valerie Cornuault, Sara Pose-Albacete, Rebecca P Lauder, Stjepan Kresimir Kracun, Maja Gro Rydahl, Mathias C F Andersen, William George Tycho Willats, Siobhan Ariel Braybrook, Belinda J Townsend, Mads H Clausen, J Paul Knox
A major question in plant biology concerns the specification and functional differentiation of cell types. This is in the context of constraints imposed by networks of cell walls that both adhere cells and contribute to the form and function of developing organs. Here, we report the identification of a glycan epitope that is specific to phloem sieve element cell walls in several systems. A monoclonal antibody, designated LM26, binds to the cell wall of phloem sieve elements in stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, Miscanthus x giganteus and notably sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) roots where phloem identification is an important factor for the study of phloem unloading of sucrose...
November 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150546/differential-regulation-of-two-tiered-plant-immunity-and-sexual-reproduction-by-anxur-receptor-like-kinases
#19
Hyunggon Mang, Baomin Feng, Zhangjian Hu, Aurelien Boisson-Dernier, Christina Franck, Xiangzong Meng, Yanyan Huang, Jinggeng Zhou, Guangyuan Xu, Taotao Wang, Libo Shan, Ping He
Plants have evolved two tiers of immune receptors to detect infections: cell surface-resident pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense microbial signatures and intracellular nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins that recognize pathogen effectors. How PRRs and NLRs interconnect and activate the specific and overlapping plant immune responses remains elusive. A genetic screen for components controlling plant immunity identified ANXUR1 (ANX1), a malectin-like domain-containing receptor-like kinase, together with its homolog ANX2, as important negative regulators of both PRR- and NLR-mediated immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150086/the-ex-vivo-toll-like-receptor-7-tolerance-induction-in-donor-lymphocytes-prevents-murine-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#20
Nikolaos Zogas, Garyfalia Karponi, Fotios Iordanidis, Stylianos Malasidis, Vasilios Paraskevas, Anastasia Papadopoulou, Zaharias George Scouras, Achilles Anagnostopoulos, Evangelia Yannaki
BACKGROUND AIMS: Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mediated by alloreactive donor T cells. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of conserved pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), represent key players in donors' T-cell activation during aGVHD; however, a regulatory, tolerogenic role for certain TLRs has been recognized in a different context. We investigated whether the ex vivo-induced TLR-2,-4,-7 tolerance in donor cells could prevent alloreactivity in a mismatched transplantation model...
November 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
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