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Charles Cole, Ashley Byrne, Anna E Beaudin, E Camilla Forsberg, Christopher Vollmers
RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful technique to investigate and quantify entire transcriptomes. Recent advances in the field have made it possible to explore the transcriptomes of single cells. However, most widely used RNA-seq protocols fail to provide crucial information regarding transcription start sites. Here we present a protocol, Tn5Prime, that takes advantage of the Tn5 transposase-based Smart-seq2 protocol to create RNA-seq libraries that capture the 5' end of transcripts. The Tn5Prime method dramatically streamlines the 5' capture process and is both cost effective and reliable...
March 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Mahfuza Mubarak, Hyokyung Jeon, Md Shahinul Islam, Cheolho Yoon, Jong-Seong Bae, Seong-Ju Hwang, Won San Choi, Ha-Jin Lee
Herein, Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide (MF-LDH) hollow nanospheres were successfully prepared by a one-step thermal method. After the thermal treatment of MF-LDH nanospheres at 400 °C, the MF-LDH was converted into the corresponding oxide, Mg/Fe layered double oxide (MF-LDO), which maintained the hollow nanosphere structure. The MF-LDO hollow nanospheres exhibited excellent adsorption efficiency for both As(V) and Cr(VI), showing 99% removal within 5 min and providing maximum removal capacities of 178...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Andleeb Z Naqvi, Kabir-Ud-Din
Phase separation in amphiphilic systems is an important phenomenon. The temperature at which an amphiphilic solution phase separates is known as Cloud Point (CP). This article reviews in detail the process of phase separation in various amphiphiles (surfactants, polymers and drugs) and effect of different classes of additives on the CP of these amphiphilic systems. Ions affect the CP of drugs in a different way: kosmotropes and hard bases decrease while chaotropes and soft bases increase the CP of nonionic and cationic surfactants...
February 3, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Emanuele Rinninella, Roberto Persiani, Domenico D'Ugo, Francesco Pennestrì, Americo Cicchetti, Eugenio Di Brino, Marco Cintoni, Giacinto Abele Donato Miggiano, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maria Cristina Mele
BACKGROUND: Postoperative complications and length of hospital stay (LOS) are major issues and affect hospital costs. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols are effective in reducing morbidity and LOS after major surgery. We propose a nutritional protocol within ERAS programs in colorectal surgery, starting from preadmission. METHODS: We compared the ERAS + NutriCatt approach versus the ERAS standard program adopted in our center in the previous months...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
Gennaro Ilardi, Daniela Russo, Silvia Varricchio, Giovanni Salzano, Giovanni Dell'Aversana Orabona, Virginia Napolitano, Rosa Maria Di Crescenzo, Alessandra Borzillo, Francesco Martino, Francesco Merolla, Massimo Mascolo, Stefania Staibano
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) can play a causative role in the development of sinonasal tract malignancies. In fact, HPV may be the most significant causative agent implicated in sinonasal tumorigenesis and is implicated in as many as 21% of sinonasal carcinomas. To date, there are no definitive, reliable and cost-effective, diagnostic tests approved by the FDA for the unequivocal determination of HPV status in head and neck cancers. We followed an exhaustive algorithm to correctly test HPV infection, including a sequential approach with p16INK4a IHC, viral DNA genotyping and in situ hybridization for E6/E7 mRNA...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Timothy J Green, Peter Speck
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , is becoming a valuable model for investigating antiviral defense in the Lophotrochozoa superphylum. In the past five years, improvements to laboratory-based experimental infection protocols using Ostreid herpesvirus I (OsHV-1) from naturally infected C. gigas combined with next-generation sequencing techniques has revealed that oysters have a complex antiviral response involving the activation of all major innate immune pathways. Experimental evidence indicates C. gigas utilizes an interferon-like response to limit OsHV-1 replication and spread...
March 16, 2018: Viruses
Carol H Wysham, Dominic Pilon, Mike Ingham, Marie-Hélène Lafeuille, Bruno Emond, Rhiannon Kamstra, Michael Pfeifer, Patrick Lefebvre
OBJECTIVE: To compare glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) control and medication costs between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with canagliflozin 300 mg (CANA) or a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) in a real-world setting. METHODS: Adults with T2DM newly initiated on CANA or a GLP-1 RA (index date) were identified from IQVIA™ Real-World Data Electronic Medical Records U.S. database (March 29, 2012-April 30, 2016). Inverse probability of treatment weighting accounted for differences in baseline characteristics...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
Yves Lacasse, Ai-Yui M Tan, François Maltais, Jerry A Krishnan
Two landmark trials conducted more than 35 years ago provided scientific evidence that, under very specific circumstances, long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) may prolong life. These two trials enrolled 290 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe daytime hypoxemia documented by direct arterial blood gas measurement. From this moment, LTOT became a standard of care and the indications for oxygen therapy have expanded to include nocturnal oxygen therapy for isolated nocturnal oxygen desaturation, ambulatory oxygen to correct exercise-induced desaturation, and short-burst oxygen to relieve dyspnea...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Patricio López-Jaramillo, Silvia González-Gómez, Diego Zarate-Bernal, Andrés Serrano, Leonor Atuesta, Christian Clausen, Claudia Castro-Valencia, Paul Camacho-Lopez, Johanna Otero
The simplification of fixed dose medications by using a single 'polypill' is an attractive strategy to improve adherence to medications which has shown benefit to cardiovascular risk factor control and cardiovascular disease prevention or delay in the progression of these diseases. We review the evidence obtained from a series of clinical trials demonstrating an improvement in adherence to the polypill compared to the use of each compound separately, and found similar or better control of the classical cardiovascular risk factors and a similar safety profile...
March 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
Marco Guarene, Carla Badulli, Anna L Cremaschi, Ilaria Sbarsi, Rosalia Cacciatore, Carmine Tinelli, Annamaria Pasi, Paola Bergamaschi, Cesare G Perotti
INTRODUCTION: Allele-level donor-recipient match at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C and HLA-DRB1 loci impacts the outcome after cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancies and modifies the strategy of donor selection. High definition of both class I and II HLA loci at time of listing is a way to improve the attractiveness of cord blood bank inventories, reducing the time for donor search and procurement and simplifying donor choice, in particular, for patients of non-European heritage...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Jeiwan Tan, Wooseok Yang, Yunjung Oh, Hyungsoo Lee, Jaemin Park, Jooho Moon
Amorphous molybdenum sulfide (a-MoSx) is a promising hydrogen evolution catalyst owing to its low cost and high activity. A simple electrodeposition method (cyclic voltammetry) allows uniform formation of a-MoSx films on conductive surfaces. However, the morphology of a-MoSx, deposited on a TiO2/Sb2Se3 photocathode could be modulated by varying the starting potential. The cathodically initiated a-MoSx showed conformal film-like morphology, while anodic initiation induced inhomogeneous particulate deposition...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Paula V Monje
This chapter describes protocols to establish simplified in vitro assays of Schwann cell (SC) differentiation in the absence of neurons. The assays are based on the capacity of isolated primary SCs to increase or decrease the expression of myelination-associated genes in response to the presence or absence of cell permeable analogs of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). No special conditions of media or substrates beyond the administration or removal of cAMP analogs are required to obtain a synchronous response on differentiation and dedifferentiation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kristine M Ravelo, Natalia D Andersen, Paula V Monje
To date, magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) remains a powerful method to isolate distinct cell populations based on differential cell surface labeling. Optimized direct and indirect MACS protocols for cell immunolabeling are presented here as methods to divest Schwann cell (SC) cultures of contaminating cells (specifically, fibroblast cells) and isolate SC populations at different stages of differentiation. This chapter describes (1) the preparation of single-cell suspensions from established human and rat SC cultures, (2) the design and application of cell selection strategies using SC-specific (p75NGFR , O4, and O1) and fibroblast-specific (Thy-1) markers, and (3) the characterization of both the pre- and post-sorting cell populations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lesley Uttley, Iñigo Bermejo, Shijie Ren, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Ruth Wong, David L Scott, Adam Young, Matt Stevenson
As part of its Single Technology Appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Pfizer) of tofacitinib (TOF; Xeljanz® ) to submit evidence of the drug's clinical and cost-effectiveness in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after the failure of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
March 15, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
S Renshaw, I L Silva, A Hotouras, S D Wexner, J Murphy, C Bhan
The purpose of this study was to assess outcome measures and cost-effectiveness of robotic colorectal resections in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The Cochrane Library, PubMed/Medline and Embase databases were reviewed, using the text "robotic(s)" AND ("inflammatory bowel disease" OR "Crohn's" OR "Ulcerative Colitis"). Two investigators screened abstracts for eligibility. All English language full-text articles were reviewed for specified outcomes. Data were presented in a summarised and aggregate form, since the lack of higher-level evidence studies precluded meta-analysis...
March 15, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
Augustine Tee, Wai Leng Chow, Colin Burke, Guruprasad Basavarajaiah
INTRODUCTION: In light of the growing evidence base for better clinical results with the use of the dual bronchodilator indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) over inhaled corticosteroid-containing salmeterol/fluticasone combination (SFC), this study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of IND/GLY over SFC in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are at low risk of exacerbations in the Singapore healthcare setting. METHODS: A previously published patient-level simulation model was adapted for use in Singapore by applying local unit costs...
March 16, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Benjamin D Jaffe, Peter J Landolt
Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Janya McCalman, Roxanne Bainbridge, Catherine Brown, Komla Tsey, Adele Clarke
Introduction: Spreading proven or promising Aboriginal health programs and implementing them in new settings can make cost-effective contributions to a range of Aboriginal Australian development, health and wellbeing, and educational outcomes. Studies have theorized the implementation of Aboriginal health programs but have not focused explicitly on the conditions that influenced their spread. This study examined the broader political, institutional, social and economic conditions that influenced negotiations to transfer, implement, adapt, and sustain one Aboriginal empowerment program-the Family Wellbeing (FWB) program-to at least 60 geographical sites across Australia over 24 years...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Kenneth A Miles, Stefan A Voo, Ashley M Groves
Initial clinical research comparing the diagnostic performance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and PET/ Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has largely shown equivalent diagnostic capabilities for these modalities in oncology. These uncertainties about the magnitude of diagnostic benefit are compounded by the considerable health economic challenges associated with clinical implementation. Therefore, there is a need to identify ways to extend the use of this technology beyond simple diagnosis so that PET/MRI can add sufficient clinical value beyond PET/CT or MRI alone, and become a cost-effective imaging modality in clinical practice...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Sandrine Loubière, Alexandre Drezet, Michèle Beau-Faller, Denis Moro-Sibilot, Sylvie Friard, Marie Wislez, Hélène Blons, Catherine Daniel, Virginie Westeel, Anne Madroszyk, Hervé Léna, Patrick Merle, Julien Mazières, Gérard Zalcman, Roger Lacave, Martine Antoine, Franck Morin, Pascale Missy, Fabrice Barlesi, Pascal Auquier, Jacques Cadranel
ALK rearrangement and EGFR / KRAS mutations constitute the primary biomarkers tested to provide targeted or nontargeted therapies in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of biomarker testing for NSCLC.Between 2013 and 2014, 843 treatment-naive patients were prospectively recruited at 19 French hospitals into a longitudinal observational cohort study. Two testing strategies were compared, i.e. with "at least one biomarker status known" and "at least KRAS status known", in addition to "no biomarker testing" as the reference strategy...
March 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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