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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166704/the-prevalence-and-causes-of-visual-impairment-in-seven-year-old-children
#1
Soraya Ghaderi, Hassan Hashemi, Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur, Abbasali Yekta, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Ali Mirzajani, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
BACKGROUND: To report the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in seven-year-old children in Iran and its relationship with socio-economic conditions. METHODS: In a cross-sectional population-based study, first-grade students in the primary schools of eight cities in the country were randomly selected from different geographic locations using multistage cluster sampling. The examinations included visual acuity measurement, ocular motility evaluation, and cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction...
November 22, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166338/use-of-organs-from-hepatitis-c-virus-positive-donors-for-uninfected-recipients-a-potential-cost-effective-approach-to-save-lives
#2
Patrick B Trotter, Dominic M Summers, Ines Ushiro-Lumb, Matthew Robb, J Andrew Bradley, James Powell, Christopher J E Watson, James Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Organs from hepatitis C virus (HCV) seropositive (HCVpos) individuals are seldom used for transplantation because of the risk of disease transmission. Because transmitted HCV is now amenable to effective treatment we estimated the potential impact of using HCVpos deceased donor organs for transplantation. METHODS: The Potential Donor Audit (PDA) of patients (<80years) dying in UK critical care units and the UK Transplant Registry (UKTR) was searched to identify HCVpos potential and proceeding deceased donors...
November 22, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166305/botulinum-toxin-therapy-is-syringe-type-related-to-cost-effectiveness
#3
Mark Anthony Foglietti, Lauren Wright, Alanna Foglietti-Fostyk
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium botulinum toxin is effective through cleaving presynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the release of acetylcholine and inhibits muscle contraction. Several serotypes of botulinum toxin (BT) exist; however, only 2 types have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for commercial and medical use, A and B. Both types of BT must be administered intramuscularly with a syringe, but the type of syringe is the injector's preference...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166197/combining-natural-ingredients-and-beliefs-the-dayak-tribe-s-experience-caring-for-sick-children-with-traditional-medicine
#4
Shinta Widiastuty Anggerainy, Dessie Wanda, Happy Hayati
Instead of seeking conventional health care, the Dayak tribe in Borneo, Indonesia, treats sick children at home with traditional medicine. The objective of this descriptive, qualitative study was to explore the Dayak tribe's use of traditional medicine to care for sick children. Comprehensive interviews were conducted with 10 caregivers, with collected data analyzed using content analysis. Key recurring themes identified were: 1) traditional medicine as first aid; 2) ease of access and cost-effectiveness; 3) traditional medicine was not always effective; 4) a combination of natural ingredients and beliefs; 5) the importance of "communicating" with plants; and 6) engagement with metaphysical forces...
2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165986/scalable-low-bandgap-sb2se3-thin-film-photocathodes-for-efficient-visible-near-infrared-solar-hydrogen-evolution
#5
Li Zhang, Yanbo Li, Changli Li, Qiao Chen, Zhen Zhen, Xin Jiang, Miao Zhong, Fuxiang Zhang, Hongwei Zhu
A highly efficient low-bandgap (1.2-0.8 eV) photoelectrode is critical for accomplishing efficient conversion of visible-near-infrared sunlight into storable hydrogen. Herein, we report Sb2Se3 polycrystalline thin film photocathode having a low-bandgap (1.2-1.1 eV) for efficient hydrogen evolution for wide solar-spectrum utilization. The photocathode was fabricated by a facile thermal evaporation of single Sb2Se3 powder source onto the Mo-coated soda-lime glass substrate, followed by annealing under Se vapor and surface modification with anti-photocorrosive CdS/TiO2 bilayer and Pt catalyst...
November 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165952/identifying-and-eliminating-the-barriers-to-patient-education-for-patients-in-the-early-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Sherry Rivera
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often do not have the knowledge they need to adequately manage their disease and prevent progression. Educating patients with the early stages of CKD is warranted and may assist in delaying progression of disease, improving outcomes, and reducing health expenditures. However, evidence is currently lacking regarding the best methods and approach to educating patients in the early stages of CKD. Multiple patient, provider, and system barriers can interfere with the delivery of patient education in the early stages of CKD...
May 2017: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165892/assays-for-estimating-hiv-incidence-updated-global-market-assessment-and-estimated-economic-value
#7
Charles S Morrison, Rick Homan, Natasha Mack, Pairin Seepolmuang, Megan Averill, Jamilah Taylor, Jennifer Osborn, Peter Dailey, Neil Parkin, Stefano Ongarello, Timothy D Mastro
INTRODUCTION: Accurate incidence estimates are needed to characterize the HIV epidemic and guide prevention efforts. HIV Incidence assays are cost-effective laboratory assays that provide incidence estimates from cross-sectional surveys. We conducted a global market assessment of HIV incidence assays under three market scenarios and estimated the economic value of improved incidence assays. METHODS: We interviewed 27 stakeholders, and reviewed journal articles, working group proceedings, and manufacturers' sales figures...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165857/isolation-of-phage-display-library-derived-scfv-antibody-specific-to-listeria-monocytogenes-by-a-novel-immobilized-method
#8
Nguyen Xuan-Hung, Thu-Le Trinh, Huong Thi-Bich Vu, Huan Quang Le, Anh To Kim
AIMS: To select Listeria monocytogenes specific scFv antibodies from a phage display library by a novel simple and cost-effective immobilization method. METHODS AND RESULTS: Light Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) was used as biomass support matrix for biopanning of a phage display library to select Listeria monocytogenes specific scFv antibody. Four rounds of positive selection against LECA-immobilized L. monocytogenes and an additional subtractive panning against L...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165855/physical-activity-coaching-by-australian-exercise-physiologists-is-cost-effective-for-patients-referred-from-general-practice
#9
Ben Ewald, Fiona Stacey, Natalie Johnson, Ronald C Plotnikoff, Elizabeth Holliday, Wendy Brown, Erica L James
OBJECTIVE: Interventions to promote physical activity for sedentary patients seen in general practice may be a way to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Coaching by an exercise physiologist is publicly funded in Australia, but cost effectiveness has not been documented. METHODS: In a three-arm randomised controlled trial, face-to-face coaching and telephone coaching over 12 weeks were compared with a control group using the outcome of step count for one week at baseline, three months and twelve months...
November 22, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165515/-statement-of-the-advisory-committee-on-immunizations-of-sociedad-chilena-de-infectolog%C3%A3-a-about-outbreaks-of-hepatitis-a-in-chile
#10
Rodolfo Villena, Jan Wilhelm, Ximena Calvo, Jaime Cerda, Carola Escobar, Gabriela Moreno, Liliana Veliz, Marcela Potin
This document represents the position of the Chilean Infectious Diseases Society Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices regarding hepatitis A epidemiological situation in Chile. The recommendations are based on local epidemiological data, the hepatitis A virus infection characteristics and the global experience with the available vaccines. In relation to hepatitis A, Chile is no longer a highly endemic area but actually an intermediate one, currently concentrating cases in individuals over 15 years of age, with frequent outbreaks...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165359/environmentally-friendly-compatibilizers-from-soybean-oil-for-ternary-blends-of-poly-lactic-acid-pla-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-pcl-and-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-phb
#11
María Jesús Garcia-Campo, Luis Quiles-Carrillo, Jaime Masia, Miguel Jorge Reig-Pérez, Nestor Montanes, Rafael Balart
Ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with a constant weight percentage of 60%, 10% and 30% respectively were compatibilized with soybean oil derivatives epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), maleinized soybean oil (MSO) and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). The potential compatibilization effects of the soybean oil-derivatives was characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. The effects on morphology were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)...
November 22, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165212/newly-arrived-african-migrants-to-spain-epidemiology-and-burden-disease
#12
Joaquín Salas-Coronas, María Teresa Cabezas-Fernández, Ana Belén Lozano-Serrano, Manuel Jesús Soriano-Pérez, José Vázquez-Villegas, José Ángel Cuenca-Gómez
The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological profile, clinical characteristics, and microbiological findings in African immigrants newly arrived to Spain attended at a specialized reference unit from October 2004 to February 2017. A common protocol for the screening of imported and cosmopolitan diseases was designed to evaluate patients with ≤ 12 months of stay in Spain. A total of 523 patients were included in the study, 488 (93.3%) of sub-Saharan origin. A high number of helminthic infections were diagnosed in sub-Saharan patients, including geohelminthiasis (hookworms 14...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165101/therapeutic-potentials-and-cytochrome-p450-mediated-interactions-involving-herbal-products-indicated-for-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Cyprian Ogbonna Onyeji, Sharon I Igbinoba, Gbola Olayiwola
There has been an increase in the use of herbal products to complement conventional drugs in the treatment of various diseases especially in developing countries. This may be attributable to the relatively cost-effectiveness and ease of accessibility of these products as well as the perception of their safety profiles. However, there are numerous literature reports on herbs altering the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of other co-administered drugs thereby modulating the therapeutic outcomes. The prevalence of diabetes is on a steady increase worldwide and it is now identified as one of the main threats to human health...
November 20, 2017: Drug Metabolism Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164952/review-of-vaccine-effectiveness-assumptions-used-in-economic-evaluations-of-infant-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#14
Matthew Wasserman, Heather Sings, Dylan Jones, Sarah Pugh, Margaret Moffatt, Raymond Farkouh
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have provided a significant clinical and economic impact globally. The majority of countries which have implemented an infant PCV program have observed a substantial reduction in the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumococcal pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM) due to vaccine serotypes. After 17 years of use, many countries have evaluated and re-evaluated the value of their vaccine program using cost-effectiveness analyses; however, many of these analyses do not reflect the current body of evidence...
November 22, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164601/clinical-decision-analysis-in-perinatology
#15
Rohan D'Souza, Prakesh S Shah, Beate Sander
Clinical decision-making in perinatology involves tradeoffs between two intricately related individuals - mother and fetus. Decision-making in perinatology is challenging due to competing interests of the mother and the fetus. Although decision analytic methods are increasingly used to develop processes for clinical and cost-effectiveness analyses in perinatology, there are no guidelines on the conduct and reporting of decision analysis studies that takes into account the complexities of the mother-fetus dyad...
November 21, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164506/enzymatic-production-of-glutathione-coupling-with-an-atp-regeneration-system-based-on-polyphosphate-kinase
#16
Hao Cao, Chengcheng Li, Jing Zhao, Fang Wang, Tianwei Tan, Luo Liu
Glutathione (GSH) is an important reducing agent in the living cells. It is synthesized by a two-step reaction and requires two molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for one molecule GSH. The enzymatic cascade reaction in vitro is a promising approach to achieve a high titer and limit side reactions; although, a cost-effective phosphate donor for ATP regeneration is required. Triphosphate (PolyP(3)), tetraphosphate (PolyP(4)), and hexametaphosphate (PolyP(6)) were investigated in this study. Triphosphate inhibited the bifunctional GSH synthetase (GshF) from Streptococcus agalactiae, while no significant inhibition was observed by adding hexametaphosphate...
November 21, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164493/mapping-quality-of-life-eq-5d-from-dapsa-clinical-dapsa-and-haq-in-psoriatic-arthritis
#17
Tomas Mlcoch, Jan Tuzil, Liliana Sedova, Jiri Stolfa, Monika Urbanova, David Suchy, Andrea Smrzova, Jitka Jircikova, Tereza Hrnciarova, Karel Pavelka, Tomas Dolezal
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials and observational studies lacking measures of health-related quality of life (QoL) are often inapplicable when conducting cost-effectiveness analyses using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The only solution is to map QoL ex post from additionally collected clinical outcomes and generic QoL instruments. Nonetheless, mapping studies are absent in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: In this 2-year, prospective, multicentre, non-interventional study of PsA patients, EQ-5D and key clinical parameters such as Disease Activity in PsA (DAPsA), clinical DAPsA (cDAPsA; DAPsA without C-reactive protein [CRP]), and Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ) were collected...
November 21, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164223/output-optimized-electret-nanogenerators-for-self-powered-long-distance-optical-communication-systems
#18
Fang Yuan, Wenbo Li, Shizhe Lin, Nan Wu, Shuwen Chen, Junwen Zhong, Zisheng Xu, Xin Li, Yongjun Xiao, Liang Huang
High-speed optical communication systems are built for real-time, massive and remote information exchange. However, any power outage will paralyse the systems and cause a huge loss. Here we constructed a self-powered long-distance optical communication system (SLOCS) utilizing output enhanced parallel connected electret nanogenerators (NGs) as a backup power for the power outage. The output current of the electret NG was promoted from 1.45 μA to 8.14 μA through optimizing the thickness of the electret film...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164038/timing-of-decompression-in-patients-with-acute-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Jefferson R Wilson, Lindsay A Tetreault, Brian K Kwon, Paul M Arnold, Thomas E Mroz, Christopher Shaffrey, James S Harrop, Jens R Chapman, Steve Casha, Andrea C Skelly, Haley K Holmer, Erika D Brodt, Michael G Fehlings
Study Design: Systematic review. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and synthesis of the literature to assess the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of early (≤24 hours) versus late decompression (>24 hours) in adults with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A systematic search was conducted of Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library, and Google Scholar to identify studies published through November 6, 2014...
September 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164026/a-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-management-of-patients-with-acute-spinal-cord-injury-recommendations-on-the-type-and-timing-of-anticoagulant-thromboprophylaxis
#20
Michael G Fehlings, Lindsay A Tetreault, Bizhan Aarabi, Paul Anderson, Paul M Arnold, Darrel S Brodke, Anthony S Burns, Kazuhiro Chiba, Joseph R Dettori, Julio C Furlan, Gregory Hawryluk, Langston T Holly, Susan Howley, Tara Jeji, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, Mark Kotter, Shekar Kurpad, Brian K Kwon, Ralph J Marino, Allan R Martin, Eric Massicotte, Geno Merli, James W Middleton, Hiroaki Nakashima, Narihito Nagoshi, Katherine Palmieri, Anoushka Singh, Andrea C Skelly, Eve C Tsai, Alexander Vaccaro, Jefferson R Wilson, Albert Yee, James S Harrop
Introduction: The objective of this study is to develop evidence-based guidelines that recommend effective, safe and cost-effective thromboprophylaxis strategies in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to address key questions relating to thromboprophylaxis in SCI. Based on GRADE (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation), a strong recommendation is worded as "we recommend," whereas a weaker recommendation is indicated by "we suggest...
September 2017: Global Spine Journal
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