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Ahmadreza Baghaie, Susanne Schnell, Ali Bakhshinejad, Mojtaba F Fathi, Roshan M D'Souza, Vitaliy L Rayz
Flow fields in cerebral aneurysms can be measured in vivo with phase-contrast MRI (4D Flow MRI), providing 3D anatomical magnitude images as well as 3-directional velocities through the cardiac cycle. The low spatial resolution of the 4D Flow MRI data, however, requires the images to be co-registered with higher resolution angiographic data for better segmentation of the blood vessel geometries to adequately quantify relevant flow descriptors such as wall shear stress or flow residence time. Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography (TOF MRA) is a non-invasive technique for visualizing blood vessels without the need to administer contrast agent...
June 15, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Monique Chalansonnet, Maria Carreres-Pons, Thomas Venet, Aurélie Thomas, Lise Merlen, Carole Seidel, Frédéric Cosnier, Hervé Nunge, Benoît Pouyatos, Jordi Llorens, Pierre Campo
Chronic occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) has debilitating motor and sensory effects in humans, which can increase the risk of falls. Although no mention of vestibulotoxic effects is contained in the literature, epidemiological and experimental data suggest that CS2 could cause low-frequency hearing loss when associated with noise exposure. Low-frequency noise might also perturb the peripheral balance receptor through an as-yet unclear mechanism. Here, we studied how exposure to a low-frequency noise combined with 250-ppm CS2 affected balance in rats...
June 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Elizaveta Chervyachkova, Seraphine Valeska Wegner
Towards the bottom-up assembly of synthetic cells from molecular building blocks it is an ongoing challenge to assemble micrometer sized compartments that host different processes into precise multicompartmental assemblies, also called prototissues. The difficulty lies in controlling interactions between different compartments dynamically both in space and time, as these interactions determine how they organize with respect to each other and how they work together. In this study, we have been able to control the self-assembly and social self-sorting of four different types of colloids, which we use as a model for synthetic cells, into two separate families with visible light...
June 21, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Athanasios Charalampopoulos, Robert Lewis, Peter Hickey, Charlotte Durrington, Charlie Elliot, Robin Condliffe, Ian Sabroe, David G Kiely
Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) is the most common type of pulmonary hypertension, although an accurate prevalence is challenging. PH-LHD includes PH due to systolic or diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, mitral or aortic valve disease and congenital left heart disease. In recent years a new and distinct phenotype of "combined post-capillary and pre-capillary PH," based on diastolic pulmonary gradient and pulmonary vascular resistance, has been recognized. The roles of right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary vascular compliance in PH-LHD have also been elucidated recently and they appear to have significant clinical implications...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Jianing Shi, Changming Cheng, Jun Ma, Choong-Chin Liew, Xiaoping Geng
Gastric cancer (stomach cancer) is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Identifying gastric cancer patients at an early and curable stage of the disease is essential if mortality rates for this disease are to decrease. A non-invasive blood-based test that is an indicator of gastric cancer risk would likely be of benefit in identifying gastric cancer patients at an early stage, and such a test may enhance clinical decision making. This study identified a four-gene expression signature in peripheral blood samples associated with gastric cancer...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Lisa Lehnen, Wigbert Schorcht, Inken Karst, Martin Biedermann, Gerald Kerth, Sebastien J Puechmaille
Population sex ratios are of high ecological relevance, but are challenging to determine in species lacking conspicuous external cues indicating their sex. Acoustic sexing is an option if vocalizations differ between sexes, but is precluded by overlapping distributions of the values of male and female vocalizations in many species. A method allowing the inference of sex ratios despite such an overlap will therefore greatly increase the information extractable from acoustic data. To meet this demand, we developed a novel approach using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to infer the sex ratio of populations from acoustic data...
2018: PloS One
Pablo F Barcelona, Alba Galan, Hinyu Nedev, Yifan Jian, Marinko V Sarunic, H Uri Saragovi
Many neurodegenerative retinal diseases are treated with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) delivered by invasive intravitreal injection (IVT). In Diabetic Retinopathy there is a scarcity of effective agents that can be delivered using non-invasive methods, and there are significant challenges in the validation of novel therapeutic targets. ProNGF represents a potential novel target, and IVT administration of a function-blocking anti-proNGF mAb is therapeutic in a mouse model of DR. We therefore compared invasive IVT to less invasive systemic intravenous (IV) and local subconjunctival (SCJ) administration, for therapy of Diabetic Retinopathy...
2018: PloS One
Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Meiji Soe Aung, Shigeo Morimoto, Masahiko Ito, Kenji Kudo, Nobumichi Kobayashi
PURPOSE: Among the pneumococcal proteins, pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is considered the most promising candidate for a serotype-independent vaccine. This study aimed to investigate the serotype, genetic diversity of PspA, lineage (genotype) and drug resistance traits of pneumococcal isolates from paediatric patients. METHODOLOGY: A total of 678 non-invasive pneumococcal isolates obtained from June to November 2016 were analysed. All isolates were characterized for PspA families, serotypes and macrolide resistance genes...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
John G Hanly, Elizabeth Kozora, Steven Beyea, Julius Birnbaum
The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) case definitions for 19 neuropsychiatric syndromes constitute a comprehensive classification of nervous system events in SLE patients. However, additional strategies are needed to determine whether a neurological syndrome is attributable to SLE versus a competing co-morbidity. Cognitive function is a clinical surrogate of overall brain health with applications in both diagnosis and determination of clinical outcomes. Ischemic and inflammatory mechanisms are both key components of the immunopathogenesis of NPSLE, including abnormalities of the blood-brain-barrier and autoantibody mediated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 21, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Bikramjit Ghosh, Philip B B Crosbie, Barbara F Nowak, Andrew R Bridle
Finfish with asymptomatic Yersinia ruckeri infections pose a major risk as they can transmit the pathogen and cause clinical outbreaks in stock populations. Current tools have insufficient quantitative ability for accurately detecting the trace levels of Y. ruckeri typically associated with asymptomatic infection, necessitate invasive or lethal sampling, or require long processing times. This study presents a highly sensitive qPCR-based method, targeting part of the Y. ruckeri 16S rRNA sequence, that is capable of detecting extremely low levels of Y...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Yoshiteru Noda, Takema Kato, Asuka Kato, Haruki Nishizawa, Jun Miyazaki, Mayuko Ito, Sumire Terasawa, Takao Sekiya, Takuma Fujii, Hiroki Kurahashi
Examination of maternal plasma cell free DNA (cfDNA) for noninvasive prenatal testing for fetal trisomy is a highly effective method for pregnant women at high risk. This can be also applied to fetal gender determination in female carriers of severe X-linked disease. PCR analysis is a relatively simpler and less expensive method of detecting Y chromosome-specific repeats (Y-specific PCR; YSP), but is limited by the risk of false-negative results. To address this, we have developed a combined strategy incorporating YSP and an estimation of the fetal DNA fraction...
June 21, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
Allison K Ikeda, Qiao Li, Arshed A Quyuumi, Raj C Dedhia
PURPOSE: Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) is being increasingly utilized in the setting of moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). While moderate-severe OSA confers excess cardiovascular risk, the impact of HGNS on cardiovascular requires further investigation. With the advent of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), one can non-invasively study real-time changes to the autonomic nervous system. This study evaluates the effect of HGNS therapy on autonomic output, using PAT-integrated polysomnography...
June 21, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Tatsuya Fukuyama, Sho Nakama, Yusuke T Maeda
The control of solute flux by either microscopic phoresis or hydrodynamic advection is a fundamental way to transport molecules, which are ubiquitously present in nature and technology. We study the transport of large solutes such as DNA driven by a time-dependent thermal field in a polymer solution. Heat propagation of a heat spot moving back and forth gives rise to the molecular focusing of DNA with frequency-tunable control. We develop a model where the viscoelastic expansion of a solution and the viscosity gradient of a smaller solute are coupled, which explains the underlying hydrodynamic focusing...
June 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Martin Vielreicher, Dana Kralisch, Simon Völkl, Fabian Sternal, Andreas Arkudas, Oliver Friedrich
Biomimetic scaffolds are of great interest to tissue engineering (TE) and tissue repair as they support important cell functions. Scaffold coating with soluble collagen-I has been used to achieve better tissue integration in orthopaedy, however, as collagen persistence was only temporary such efforts were limited. Adequate coverage with cell-derived ECM collagen-I would promise great success, in particular for TE of mechanically challenged tissues. Here, we have used label-free, non-invasive multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to characterise bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) - a promising biomaterial for bone TE - and their potency to stimulate collagen-I formation by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kelly M Chen, Karen White, Junaid Shabbeer, Maximilian Schmid
PURPOSE: To examine trends in patients submitting samples for cell-free DNA screening to determine whether they reflect a shift towards NIPT use in the low-risk population. METHODS: A review of demographic information was performed for all specimens submitted to the Ariosa Diagnostics clinical laboratory for the Harmony® prenatal test between January 1, 2014 and December 30, 2017. The proportions of specimens for patients under 35 years and 35 years and older were compared...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
I E Timina, N N Askerova, G G Karmazanovskiĭ, I I Piatkova, A E Zotikov
BACKGROUND: The introduction into clinical practice of contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic examination made it possible to assess patency of tibial arteries and perfusion of crural muscles in patients with occlusive lesions of lower-limb arteries. These findings are important for planning optimal treatment policy and assessing efficacy of operative or medicamentous treatment. OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at investigating a possibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination for assessment of patency of tibial arteries and quantitative assessment of perfusion of crural muscles in patient with occlusive lesions of lower-limb arteries...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Mallika Bariya, Ziba Shahpar, Hyejin Park, Junfeng Sun, Younsu Jung, Wei Gao, Hnin Yin Yin Nyein, Tiffany Sun Liaw, Li-Chia Tai, Quynh P Ngo, Minghan Chao, Yingbo Zhao, Mark Hettick, Gyoujin Cho, Ali Javey
As recent developments in noninvasive biosensors spearhead the thrust towards personalized health and fitness monitoring, there is a need for high throughput, cost effective fabrication of flexible sensing components. Towards this goal, we present roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printed electrodes that are robust under a range of electrochemical sensing applications. We use inks and electrode morphologies designed for electrochemical and mechanical stability, achieving devices with uniform redox kinetics printed on 150-meter flexible substrate rolls...
June 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Luis Filipe Nakayama, Vinicius Campos Bergamo, Leticia Sant'ana Cardoso Silva, Nilva Simeren Bueno Moraes
Here we report the case of a 78-year-old male patient with a 2-day history of low visual acuity and fundus and who was diagnosed with central retinal artery occlusion. In addition, the patient had an allergy to fluorescein. A fundus examination of the left eye found a pink optic disc with blurred margins, diffuse pallor in the retina with arterial attenuation, and a normal band of the retinal area in the macular region. Optical coherence tomography revealed increased thickness of the inner retina. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) revealed a decreased flow signal in the superficial layers, with reduced flow signal in the choriocapillaris...
June 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Joshua Shubert, Muyinatu A Lediju Bell
It is well known that there are structural differences between cortical and cancellous bone. However, spinal surgeons currently have no reliable method to non-invasively determine these differences in real-time when choosing the optimal starting point and trajectory to insert pedicle screws and avoid surgical complications associated with breached or weakened bone. This paper explores 3D photoacoustic imaging of a human vertebra to noninvasively differentiate cortical from cancellous bone for this surgical task...
June 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Leo Huan-Hsuan Hsu, Pu Deng, Yixin Zhang, Xiaocheng Jiang
Extracellular electron transfer (EET) from electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) plays a critical role in renewable bioelectricity harvesting through microbial fuel cells (MFC). Comprehensive interpretation and interrogation of EET mechanisms can provide valuable information to enhance MFC performance, which, however, are still restricted by the intrinsic complexity of natural biofilm. Here, we design core/shell EAB-encapsulating cables as a one-dimensional model system to facilitate EET studies, where the local microenvironments can be rationally controlled to establish structure-function correlations with full biological relevance...
June 20, 2018: Nano Letters
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