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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321187/infection-by-the-helminth-parasite-fasciola-hepatica-requires-rapid-regulation-of-metabolic-virulence-and-invasive-factors-to-adjust-to-its-mammalian-host
#1
Krystyna Cwiklinski, Heather Jewhurst, Paul McVeigh, Tara Barbour, Aaron G Maule, Jose Tort, Sandra M O'Neill, Mark W Robinson, Sheila Donnelly, John P Dalton
The parasite Fasciola hepatica infects a broad range of mammals with impunity.  Following ingestion of parasites (metacercariae) by the host, newly excysted juveniles (NEJ) emerge from their cysts, rapidly penetrate the duodenal wall and migrate to the liver.  Successful infection takes just a few hours and involves negotiating hurdles presented by host macromolecules, tissues and micro-environments, as well as the immune system.  Here, transcriptome and proteome analysis of ex vivo F. hepatica metacercariae and NEJ reveal the rapidity and multitude of metabolic and developmental alterations that take place in order for the parasite to establish infection...
January 10, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299861/human-bocavirus-detection-quantification-and-molecular-characterization-in-sewage-and-surface-waters-in-uruguay
#2
Matías Salvo, Andrés Lizasoain, Matías Castells, Viviana Bortagaray, Sebastián Castro, Rodney Colina, Fernando Lopez Tort, Matías Victoria
Human bocavirus (HBoV) infections are related to respiratory and gastroenteric diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of HBoV in both sewage and surface waters in Uruguay. Sixty-eight sewage samples from the cities of Salto, Paysandú, Bella Unión, Fray Bentos, Treinta y Tres and Melo and 36 surface water samples from the cities of Salto, Florida and Santa Lucía were studied. HBoV was screened by multiplex qPCR for the detection of the four subtypes, followed by monoplex qPCRs for the independent quantification of each subtype...
January 3, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282236/probable-standards-of-care-for-suicide-risk-assessment
#3
Joseph H Obegi
The legal standard of care for assessing and responding to suicide risk has historically been ambiguous, creating inconsistency in the testimony of forensic experts and uncertainty about clinical responsibilities among practitioners. In this article, I rigorously apply the legal concept of reasonable care to identify clinical activities that courts could collectively consider as evidence of reasonably careful suicide risk assessments. I derived six clinical activities, which I refer to as probable standards, from a review of legal scholarship in tort law, court cases involving suicidal behavior, and forensic papers on suicide risk assessment...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274087/human-enteric-viruses-in-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-evaluation-of-activated-sludge-combined-with-uv-disinfection-process-reveals-different-removal-performances-for-viruses-with-different-features
#4
A Lizasoain, L F L Tort, M García, L Gillman, A Alberti, J P G Leite, M P Miagostovich, S A Pou, A Cagiao, A Razsap, J Huertas, M Berois, M Victoria, R Colina
This study assess the quality of wastewater through the detection and quantification of important causing gastroenteritis viruses at different stages of the wastewater treatment process in an activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant with ultraviolet disinfection. Ten sampling events were carried out in a campaign along a period of 18 months collecting wastewater samples from the influent, after the activated sludge treatment, and after the final disinfection with UV radiation. Samples were concentrated through ultracentrifugation and analyzed using retro-transcription, PCR and real time quantitative PCR protocols, for detection and quantification of Group A Rotavirus (RVA), Human Astrovirus (HAstV), Norovirus Genogroup II (NoV GII) and Human Adenovirus (HAdV)...
December 22, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240325/tort-law-expert-testimony-in-asbestos-litigation-district-of-south-carolina-holds-the-every-exposure-theory-insufficient-to-demonstrate-specific-causation-even-if-legal-conclusions-are-scientifically-sound-haskins-v-3m-co-nos-2-15-cv-02086-3-15-cv-02123-2017
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240281/comparative-analysis-of-2-robotic-thyroidectomy-procedures-transoral-versus-bilateral-axillo-breast-approach
#6
Young Jun Chai, Hoon Yub Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Sang Ho Jun, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Angkoon Anuwong, Jeremy D Richmon, Ralph P Tufano
BACKGROUND: The surgical outcomes of a single surgeon's initial cases of transoral robotic thyroidectomy (TORT) were compared with the surgeon's initial cases of a bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robotic thyroidectomy. METHODS: The medical reports were retrospectively reviewed. The BABA robotic thyroidectomies were performed between 2008 and 2009, and TORTs were performed between 2012 and 2016. RESULTS: Each group comprised 50 patients...
December 14, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238889/immunomodulatory-effects-of-rhodomyrtus-tomentosa-leaf-extract-and-its-derivative-compound-rhodomyrtone-on-head-kidney-macrophages-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#7
Pinanong Na-Phatthalung, Mariana Teles, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai, Lluís Tort, Camino Fierro-Castro
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is a medicinal plant that shows biological effects including immunomodulatory activity on human and other mammals but not in fish. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of R. tomentosa leaf extract and its active compound, rhodomyrtone, on the immune responses, using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney (HK) macrophages as a model. The tested immune functions included the expression of genes involved in innate immune and inflammatory responses and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 13, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177942/the-net-effects-of-medical-malpractice-tort-reform-on-health-insurance-losses-the-texas-experience
#8
Patricia H Born, J Bradley Karl, W Kip Viscusi
In this paper, we examine the influence of medical malpractice tort reform on the level of private health insurance company losses incurred. We employ a natural experiment framework centered on a series of tort reform measures enacted in Texas in 2003 that drastically altered the medical malpractice environment in the state. The results of a difference-in-differences analysis using a variety of comparison states, as well as a difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis, indicate that ameliorating medical malpractice risk has little effect on health insurance losses incurred by private health insurers...
November 24, 2017: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171044/stemming-the-standard-of-care-sprawl-clinician-self-interest-and-the-case-of-electronic-fetal-monitoring
#9
Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Raymond De Vries, Lisa Hope Harris, Lisa Kane Low
The "best interests of the patient" standard-a complex balance between the principles of beneficence and autonomy-is the driving force of ethical clinical care. Clinicians' fear of litigation is a challenge to that ethical paradigm. But is it ever ethically appropriate for clinicians to undertake a procedure with the primary goal of protecting themselves from potential legal action? Complicating that question is the fact that tort liability is adjudicated based on what most clinicians are doing, not the scientific basis of whether they should be doing it in the first place...
November 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169803/expression-purification-and-characterization-of-two-leucine-aminopeptidases-of-the-blood-fluke-schistosoma-mansoni
#10
Gabriela Maggioli, Gabriel Rinaldi, Ines Giaudrone, Patricia Berasain, José F Tort, Paul J Brindley, Carlos Carmona
Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease (NTD) and considered the most important of the human helminthiases in terms of morbidity and mortality. Whereas treatment with praziquantel has been effective since the 1980s, the potential for the emergence of drug resistance has propelled the search for new interventions. Studies have revealed key roles of proteases in parasitic helminths during establishment of infection, tissue invasion, immune evasion, parasite feeding and development throughout the different developmental stages, pinpointing them as possible candidates...
November 20, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161410/autonomy-affinity-and-the-assessment-of-damages-acb-v-thomson-medical-pte-ltd-2017-sgca-20-and-shaw-v-kovak-2017-ewca-civ-1028
#11
Craig Purshouse
In ACB v Thomson Medical Pte Ltd [2017] SGCA 20 and Shaw v Kovak [2017] EWCA Civ 1028, the idea that 'lost autonomy' should be recognised as a new form of actionable damage in the tort of negligence was rejected in Singapore and England, respectively. This, it will be argued, was the correct outcome. Protecting an interest in autonomy via the tort of negligence would undermine the coherence of that tort. In ACB, however, a new, different, form of damage was recognised: loss of 'genetic affinity'. This commentary will discuss some problems that protecting an interest in 'genetic affinity' raises before critiquing the approach to assessing damages in ACB...
November 17, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130271/the-impact-of-state-medical-malpractice-reform-on-individual-level-health-care-expenditures
#12
Hao Yu, Michael Greenberg, Amelia Haviland
BACKGROUND: Past studies of the impact of state-level medical malpractice reforms on health spending produced mixed findings. Particularly salient is the evidence gap concerning the effect of different types of malpractice reform. This study aims to fill the gap. It extends the literature by examining the general population, not a subgroup or a specific health condition, and controlling for individual-level sociodemographic and health status. METHODS: We merged the Database of State Tort Law Reforms with the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey between 1996 and 2012...
December 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129949/the-effects-of-malpractice-non-economic-damage-caps-on-the-supply-of-physician-labor-heterogeneity-by-physician-age-and-risk
#13
Michael F Pesko, Meagan Cea, Jayme Mendelsohn, Tara F Bishop
We explore the impact of malpractice caps on non-economic damages that were enacted between 2003 and 2006 on the supply of physician labor, separately for high-malpractice risk and low-malpractice risk physician specialty types, and separately by young and old physicians. We use physician data from the Area Resource File for 2000-2011 and malpractice policy data from the Database of State Tort Law Reforms. We study the impact of these caps using a reverse natural experiment, comparing physician supply in nine states enacting new caps to physician supply in ten states that had malpractice caps in place throughout the full time period...
June 2017: International Review of Law and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117024/behavioral-genetics-in-criminal-and-civil-courts
#14
Maya Sabatello, Paul S Appelbaum
Although emerging findings in psychiatric and behavioral genetics create hope for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders, the introduction of such data as evidence in criminal and civil proceedings raises a host of ethical, legal, and social issues. Should behavioral and psychiatric genetic data be admissible in judicial proceedings? If so, what are the various means for obtaining such evidence, and for what purposes should its admission be sought and permitted? How could-and should-such evidence affect judicial outcomes in criminal and civil proceedings? And what are the potential implications of using behavioral and psychiatric genetic evidence for individuals and communities, and for societal values of equality and justice? This article provides an overview of the historical and current developments in behavioral genetics...
November 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096914/the-medical-incapacity-hold-a-policy-on-the-involuntary-medical-hospitalization-of-patients-who-lack-decisional-capacity
#15
Erick H Cheung, Jonathan Heldt, Thomas Strouse, Paul Schneider
BACKGROUND: Medically hospitalized patients who lack decisional capacity may request, demand, or attempt to leave the hospital despite grave risk to themselves. The treating physician in this scenario must determine how to safeguard such patients, including whether to attempt to keep them in the hospital. However, in many jurisdictions, there are no laws that address this matter directly. In this absence, psychiatrists are often called upon to issue an involuntary psychiatric hold (civil commitment) to keep the patient from leaving...
September 21, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071448/effects-of-acute-handling-stress-on-short-term-central-expression-of-orexigenic-anorexigenic-genes-in-zebrafish
#16
Raul Cortés, Mariana Teles, Miguel Oliveira, Camino Fierro-Castro, Lluis Tort, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter
Physiological mechanisms driving stress response in vertebrates are evolutionarily conserved. These mechanisms involve the activation of both the hypothalamic-sympathetic-chromaffin cell (HSC) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. In fish, the reduction of food intake levels is a common feature of the behavioral response to stress but the central mechanisms coordinating the energetic response are not well understood yet. In this work, we explore the effects of acute stress on key central systems regulating food intake in fish as well as on total body cortisol and glucose levels...
October 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068289/medical-malpractice-reform-a-fix-for-a-problem-long-out-of-fashion
#17
Richard Mark Kirkner
State tort reforms have all but relegated the malpractice crisis to the history books. But there's good news for those of you into all things retro: The House of Representatives just voted to fix the malpractice crisis by a 222-197 margin.
October 2017: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050988/physiological-and-immune-response-of-juvenile-rainbow-trout-to-dietary-bovine-lactoferrin
#18
Trinh Dinh Khuyen, Syaghalirwa N M Mandiki, Valérie Cornet, Jessica Douxfils, Stéphane Betoulle, Peter Bossier, Felipe E Reyes-López, Lluis Tort, Patrick Kestemont
Lactoferrin, a large multifunctional glycoprotein, is involved in many physiological functions but its immunomodulatory pathways are not well characterized in fish. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal effect of dietary bovine lactoferrin (BLf) at low (0.1%) and high (1%) on immunological organs of rainbow trout juveniles. BLf diets did not affect specific growth rate, haematocrit, splenic index, spleen respiratory burst activity as well as humoral (mIgM) and neutrophils (MPO) gene expressions after short term - 35 days (D35) and long term nutrient test - 51 days (D51) of feeding...
October 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034379/medical-malpractice-an-introduction-for-the-dental-practitioner
#19
Inbal Blau, Liran Levin
With the plethora of medical malpractice claims, health care providers are forced to deal not only with medical matters but also with legal issues. Thus, unfortunately, every time health care providers give a medical treatment, they should be aware of the legal implications of their act. Most medical malpractice cases will be resolved in civil law and will have financial implications, but in extreme cases (such as causing death by negligence) criminal procedure may also be conducted, meaning criminal sanctions (imprisonment or fine)...
2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021795/neuroendocrine-and-immune-responses-undertake-different-fates-following-tryptophan-or-methionine-dietary-treatment-tales-from-a-teleost-model
#20
Rita Azeredo, Marina Machado, António Afonso, Camino Fierro-Castro, Felipe E Reyes-López, Lluis Tort, Manuel Gesto, Marta Conde-Sieira, Jesús M Míguez, José L Soengas, Eva Kreuz, Sven Wuertz, Helena Peres, Aires Oliva-Teles, Benjamin Costas
Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2× dietary requirement level) or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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