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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165901/influence-of-ventral-tegmental-area-input-on-cortico-subcortical-networks-underlying-action-control-and-decision-making
#1
Anja Richter, Oliver Gruber
It is argued that the mesolimbic system has a more general function in processing all salient events, including and extending beyond rewards. Saliency was defined as an event that is unexpected due to its frequency of occurrence and elicits an attentional-behavioral switch. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), signals were measured in response to the modulation of salience of rewarding and nonrewarding events during a reward-based decision making task, the so called desire-reason dilemma paradigm (DRD)...
November 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165386/alterations-in-rat-accumbens-endocannabinoid-and-gaba-content-during-fentanyl-treatment-the-role-of-ghrelin
#2
Magdalena Sustkova-Fiserova, Chrysostomos Charalambous, Tereza Havlickova, Marek Lapka, Pavel Jerabek, Nina Puskina, Kamila Syslova
The opioid-induced rise of extracellular dopamine, endocannabinoid anandamide and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations triggered by opioids in the nucleus accumbens shell (NACSh) most likely participate in opioid reward. We have previously demonstrated that systemic administration of ghrelin antagonist (JMV2959) significantly decreased morphine-induced dopamine and anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) increase in the NACSh. Fentanyl is considered as a µ-receptor-selective agonist. The aim of this study was to test whether JMV2959, a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist, can influence the fentanyl-induced effects on anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and GABA in the NACSh and specify the involvement of GHS-R1A located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAC)...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162435/pioglitazone-reduces-mortality-prevents-depressive-like-behavior-and-impacts-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-6-ohda-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-rats
#3
Jéssica Mendes Bonato, Taysa Bervian Bassani, Humberto Milani, Maria Aparecida Vital, Rúbia Maria Weffort de Oliveira
Deficiencies in adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been suggested to be a possible pathophysiological mechanism that underlies depressive symptoms that are often observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Pioglitazone, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, has been shown to exert antiinflammatory and antidepressant effects and modulate neural plasticity in several neurodegenerative disorders. The present study investigated the effects of pioglitazone on depressive phenotypes and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of PD that was induced by bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) infusions in the substantia nigra pars compact (SNpc)...
November 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158185/cdk5-mediated-phosphorylation-of-sirt2-contributes-to-depressive-like-behavior-induced-by-social-defeat-stress
#4
Zheng Zhang, Pei Zhang, Guang-Jian Qi, Feng-Juan Jiao, Qing-Zhi Wang, Jian-Guo Yan, Feng He, Qian Zhang, Ze-Xi Lv, Xiang Peng, Hong-Wei Cai, Xiaoqian Chen, Ning Sun, Bo Tian
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, severe and recurrent psychiatric disorder worldwide; however, the underlying neuropathological mechanisms remain elusive. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) appear to play an essential role in depression. As the class III HDACs, Sirt1 and Sirt2 have attracted the most interest in the nervous system. Indeed, chronic stress decreased Sirt1 activity and down-regulated Sirt1 gene expression in MDD. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of literature on the role of Sirt2. To study the role of Sirt2 we established a MDD mouse model in wild type and Sirt2 knockout C57BL/6 mice using social defeat stress (SDS)...
November 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155800/nicotinic-receptors-mediate-stress-nicotine-detrimental-interplay-via-dopamine-cells-activity
#5
C Morel, S P Fernandez, F Pantouli, F J Meye, F Marti, S Tolu, S Parnaudeau, H Marie, F Tronche, U Maskos, M Moretti, C Gotti, M-H Han, A Bailey, M Mameli, J Barik, P Faure
Epidemiological studies report strong association between mood disorders and tobacco addiction. This high comorbidity requires adequate treatment but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We demonstrate that nicotine exposure, independent of drug withdrawal effects, increases stress sensitivity, a major risk factor in mood disorders. Nicotine and stress concur to induce long-lasting cellular adaptations within the dopamine (DA) system. This interplay is underpinned by marked remodeling of nicotinic systems, causing increased ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons' activity and stress-related behaviors, such as social aversion...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154364/non-contingent-exposure-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence-recruits-mir-218-to-regulate-dcc-expression-in-the-vta
#6
Santiago Cuesta, José Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Steven Silvestrin, Dominique Nouel, Angélica Torres-Berrio, Lauren M Reynolds, Andreas Arvanitogiannis, Cecilia Flores
The development of the dopamine input to the medial prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence and is a process that is vulnerable to disruption by stimulant drugs such as amphetamine. We have previously linked the amphetamine-induced disruption of dopamine connectivity and prefrontal cortex maturation during adolescence to the downregulation of the Netrin-1 receptor, DCC, in dopamine neurons. However, how DCC expression in dopamine neurons is itself regulated is completely unknown. MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation of mRNA translation and stability is a prominent mechanism linking environmental events to changes in protein expression...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153928/enhancing-excitability-of-dopamine-neurons-promotes-motivational-behaviour-through-increased-action-initiation
#7
Linde Boekhoudt, Ellen C Wijbrans, Jodie H K Man, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Johannes W de Jong, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Roger A H Adan
Motivational deficits are a key symptom in multiple psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, schizophrenia and addiction. A likely neural substrate for these motivational deficits is the brain dopamine (DA) system. In particular, DA signalling in the nucleus accumbens, which originates from DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been identified as a crucial substrate for effort-related and activational aspects of motivation. Unravelling how VTA DA neuronal activity relates to motivational behaviours is required to understand how motivational deficits in psychiatry can be specifically targeted...
November 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149481/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-amphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-fiber-degeneration-in-the-hippocampus-of-postnatal-rats
#8
Tanawan Leeboonngam, Ratchadaporn Pramong, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
Chronic amphetamine (AMPH) abuse leads to damage of the hippocampus, the brain area associated with learning and memory process. Previous results have shown that AMPH-induced dopamine neurotransmitter release, reactive oxygen species formation and degenerative protein aggregation lead to neuronal death. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, plays a role as a neuroprotective agent. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of melatonin on AMPH-induced hippocampal damage in the postnatal rat acts through the dopaminergic pathway...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146239/innately-activated-tlr4-signal-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-sustained-by-crf-amplification-loop-and-regulates-impulsivity
#9
Irina Balan, Kaitlin T Warnock, Adam Puche, Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis, Laure Aurelian
Cognitive impulsivity is a heritable trait believed to represent the behavior that defines the volition to initiate alcohol drinking. We have previously shown that a neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal located in the central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) controls the initiation of binge drinking in alcohol-preferring P rats, and TLR4 expression is upregulated by alcohol-induced corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) at these sites. However, the function of the TLR4 signal in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-shell), a site implicated in the control of reward, drug-seeking behavior and impulsivity and the contribution of other signal-associated genes, are still poorly understood...
November 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142291/resveratrol-modulates-cocaine-induced-inhibitory-synaptic-plasticity-in-vta-dopamine-neurons-by-inhibiting-phosphodiesterases-pdes
#10
Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Li Zhao, Fanxing Zeng, Qing-Song Liu
Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin synthesized by plants, including grapes. It displays a wide range of neuroprotective benefits associated with anti-aging. Recent studies have shown that resveratrol regulates dopaminergic transmission and behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether and how resveratrol alters basal inhibitory synaptic transmission and cocaine-induced inhibitory synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that resveratrol elevated cAMP levels by itself and further potentiated a forskolin-induced increase in cAMP levels in midbrain slices, consistent with reported effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138105/adrenergic-receptor-agonists-modulation-of-dopaminergic-and-non-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#11
Kamil Pradel, Tomasz Blasiak, Wojciech B Solecki
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) neuronal population consists of dopaminergic (DAergic) and non-DAergic neurons (mainly GABAergic), the activity of which is intertwined with VTA behavioral functions. Both DAergic and GABAergic neurons in the VTA have been shown to express adrenergic receptors (ARs) and respond to AR stimulation. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of selective AR agonists on DAergic and non-DAergic neuronal activity in the central and lateral parts of the VTA using in vivo electrophysiological recording combined with microiontophoretic drug application in anaesthetized rats...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137945/the-effects-of-local-microinjection-of-selective-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-into-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-on-sleep-and-wakefulness-in-the-rat
#12
Jaime M Monti, Héctor Jantos
The effects of the dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor agonists SKF38393, bromocriptine and quinpirole, respectively, on spontaneous sleep were analyzed in adult rats prepared for chronic sleep recordings. Local administration of the DAergic agonists into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) during the light phase of the light-dark cycle induced a significant reduction of rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) and the number of REM periods. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole significantly increased wakefulness (W)...
November 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137852/dysarthria-in-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia-depends-on-the-posterior-location-of-active-electrode-contacts-a-pilot-study
#13
K A M Pauls, P J Bröckelmann, S Hammesfahr, J Becker, A Hellerbach, V Visser-Vandewalle, T A Dembek, I G Meister, L Timmermann
BACKGROUND: Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (GPi-DBS) is an efficient treatment for primary dystonia. We investigated stimulation-induced dysarthria, which is the most frequent side-effect of GPi-DBS. METHODS: Speech was recorded while reading a standard text, and performing rapid syllable repetitions ON and OFF DBS in ten dystonia patients (6 men; 3 cervical, 4 segmental, 3 generalized, unselected for DBS-related speech impairments). Speech and articulation rate, pauses, and syllable repetition rates were extracted via acoustic analysis...
November 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137290/expression-of-protein-kinase-a-and-the-kappa-opioid-receptor-in-selected-brain-regions-and-conditioned-place-aversion-in-morphine-dependent-rats
#14
Xiuhua Song, Wenqiang Li, Yuzhong Shi, Jingdan Zhang, Yi Li
This study examined adaptive changes in protein kinase A (PKA) and kappa opioid receptor (KOR) in selected addiction-related brain regions before and after conditioned place aversion (CPA). Seventy-two male SD rats were randomly assigned to an experimental group (morphine + naloxone, "MN") and 2 control groups: MS (morphine + saline) and SN (saline + naloxone). MN rats were intraperitoneally injected with morphine twice per day for 6.5 days and naloxone once and trained to establish CPA model. MS and SN rats were injected with equivalent volumes of morphine plus saline and saline plus naloxone, respectively...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133763/effects-of-melatonin-levels-on-neurotoxicity-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Yan Li, Shu-Mei Wang, Lei Guo, Jian Zhu, Ying Wang, Lei Li, Yan-Xin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Damage of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) results in similar characteristics to the cognitive deficiency seen with the progress of Parkinson's disease (PD). Since the course of mPFC damage is still unclear, our study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (MT) on neurotoxicity in the mPFC of a rat model of PD. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four normal, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: normal + normal saline (NS), normal + 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), sham pinealectomy (PX) + 6-OHDA, PX + 6-OHDA, and MT + 6-OHDA...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127598/gaba-uptake-inhibition-reduces-in-vivo-extraction-fraction-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-of-long-evans-rats-measured-by-quantitative-microdialysis-under-transient-conditions
#16
Shannon L Zandy, Rueben A Gonzales
Inhibitory signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in the mechanism of action for many drugs of abuse. Although drugs of abuse have been shown to alter extracellular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the VTA, knowledge on how uptake mechanisms are regulated in vivo is limited. Quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis is commonly used to examine the extracellular concentration and clearance of monoamine neurotransmitters, however it is unclear whether this method is sensitive to changes in clearance for amino acid neurotransmitters such as GABA...
November 10, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114204/acute-ethanol-administration-upregulates-synaptic-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-amygdala
#17
Josephine R Tarren, Henry A Lester, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
Alcohol and nicotine are two of the most frequently abused drugs, with their comorbidity well described. Previous data show that chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain areas. Effects of ethanol on specific brain nAChR subtypes within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway may be a key element in the comorbidity of ethanol and nicotine. However, it is unknown how alcohol affects the abundance of these receptor proteins. In the present study, we measured the effect of acute binge ethanol on nAChR α4 subunit levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and amygdala (Amg) by western blot analysis using a knock-in mouse line, generated with a normally functioning α4 nAChR subunit tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113897/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-win55-212-2-treatment-on-mesostriatal-dopaminergic-and-cannabinoid-systems-in-the-rat-brain
#18
Panagiotis Perdikaris, Martha Tsarouchi, Eleni Fanarioti, Evangelos Natsaridis, Ada Mitsacos, Panagiotis Giompres
Cannabinoid administration modulates dopamine transmission via an indirect, multisynaptic mechanism that includes the activation of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R). The present study evaluated in rodents, the effects of acute and chronic (20 days) WIN55,212-2 administration, a non-selective CB1R agonist, on dopamine uptake and synthesis in the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways and associate them to its effects on the endocannabinoid system. The effect of spontaneous withdrawal, after different abstinence periods (7 days, 20 days), was also assessed...
November 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111478/verbal-working-memory-and-functional-large-scale-networks-in-schizophrenia
#19
Maria R Dauvermann, Thomas Wj Moorhead, Andrew R Watson, Barbara Duff, Liana Romaniuk, Jeremy Hall, Neil Roberts, Graham L Lee, Zoë A Hughes, Nicholas J Brandon, Brandon Whitcher, Douglas Hr Blackwood, Andrew M McIntosh, Stephen M Lawrie
The aim of this study was to test whether bilinear and nonlinear effective connectivity (EC) measures of working memory fMRI data can differentiate between patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC). We applied bilinear and nonlinear Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) for the analysis of verbal working memory in 16 SZ and 21 HC. The connection strengths with nonlinear modulation between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) were evaluated...
October 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107956/estradiol-increases-the-sensitivity-of-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons-to-dopamine-and-ethanol
#20
Bertha J Vandegrift, Chang You, Rosalba Satta, Mark S Brodie, Amy W Lasek
Gender differences in psychiatric disorders such as addiction may be modulated by the steroid hormone estrogen. For instance, 17β-estradiol (E2), the predominant form of circulating estrogen in pre-menopausal females, increases ethanol consumption, suggesting that E2 may affect the rewarding properties of ethanol and thus the development of alcohol use disorder in females. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is critically involved in the rewarding and reinforcing effects of ethanol. In order to determine the role of E2 in VTA physiology, gonadally intact female mice were sacrificed during diestrus II (high E2) or estrus (low E2) for electrophysiology recordings...
2017: PloS One
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