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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227131/sound-preference-test-in-animal-models-of-addicts-and-phobias
#1
Ryo Soga, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hirokazu Takahashi, Ryo Soga, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hirokazu Takahashi, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Ryohei Kanzaki, Ryo Soga, Hirokazu Takahashi
Biased or too strong preference for a particular object is often problematic, resulting in addiction and phobia. In animal models, alternative forced-choice tasks have been routinely used, but such preference test is far from daily situations that addicts or phobic are facing. In the present study, we developed a behavioral assay to evaluate the preference of sounds in rodents. In the assay, several sounds were presented according to the position of free-moving rats, and quantified the sound preference based on the behavior...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223929/the-effects-of-age-from-young-to-middle-adulthood-and-gender-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-dopaminergic-midbrain
#2
Andrew C Peterson, Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Herta H Chao, Chiang-Shan R Li
Dysfunction of the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is implicated in psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, schizophrenia and movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the prevalence of these disorders varies by age and sex, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. The objective of this study was to delineate the distinct resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the VTA and SNc and examine the effects of age, from young to middle-adulthood, and sex on the rsFC of these two dopaminergic structures in a data set of 250 healthy adults (18-49 years of age, 104 men)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223145/rapid-induction-of-dopamine-sensitization-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-induced-by-a-single-injection-of-cocaine
#3
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Terry E Robinson, Brandon J Aragona
Repeated intermittent exposure to cocaine results in the neurochemical sensitization of dopamine (DA) transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Indeed, the excitability of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is enhanced within hours of initial psychostimulant exposure. However, it is not known if this is accompanied by a comparably rapid change in the ability of cocaine to increase extracellular DA concentrations in the ventral striatum. To address this question we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in awake-behaving rats to measure DA responses in the NAc shell following an initial intravenous cocaine injection, and then again 2-h later...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220796/beyond-the-classic-vta-extended-amygdala-projections-to-da-striatal-paths-in-the-primate
#4
Julie L Fudge, Emily A Kelly, Ria Pal, Joseph L Bedont, Lydia Park, Brian Ho
The central extended amygdala (CEA) has been conceptualized as a 'macrosystem' that regulates various stress-induced behaviors. Consistent with this, the CEA highly expresses corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), an important modulator of stress responses. Stress alters goal-directed responses associated with striatal paths, including maladaptive responses such as drug seeking, social withdrawal, and compulsive behavior. CEA inputs to the midbrain dopamine (DA) system are positioned to influence striatal functions through mesolimbic DA-striatal pathways...
February 21, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219982/enhanced-sensitivity-to-hyperpolarizing-inhibition-in-mesoaccumbal-relative-to-nigrostriatal-dopamine-neuron-subpopulations
#5
Rahilla A Tarfa, Rebekah C Evans, Zayd M Khaliq
Midbrain dopamine neurons recorded in vivo pause their firing in response to reward omission and aversive stimuli. While the initiation of pauses typically involves synaptic or modulatory input, intrinsic membrane properties may also enhance or limit hyperpolarization raising the question of how intrinsic conductances shape pauses in dopamine neurons. Using retrograde labeling and electrophysiological techniques combined with computational modeling, we examined the intrinsic conductances that shape pauses evoked by current injections and synaptic stimulation in subpopulations of dopamine neurons grouped according to their axonal projections to the nucleus accumbens or dorsal striatum in mice...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219000/acute-ghrelin-changes-food-preference-from-high-fat-diet-to-chow-during-binge-like-eating-in-rodents
#6
Tina Bake, Kim T Hellgren, Suzanne L Dickson
Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone released from the empty stomach, provides a gut-brain signal that promotes many appetitive behaviors, including anticipatory and goal-directed behaviors for palatable treats high in sugar and/or fat. Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin is able to influence and/or may even have a role in binge-like behavior in rodents. To this end, we used a palatable scheduled feeding (PSF) paradigm in which ad libitum chow-fed rodents are trained to "binge" on high fat diet (HFD) offered each day for a limited period of 2 hr...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214679/estradiol-is-a-critical-regulator-of-food-reward-behavior
#7
Jennifer E Richard, Lorena López-Ferreras, Rozita H Anderberg, Kajsa Olandersson, Karolina P Skibicka
Food intake is reduced by estrogenic hormones, levels of which vary throughout life and fluctuate throughout the ovarian cycle in females. However, estrogens have also been shown to increase reward derived from drugs of abuse, where motivational properties of drugs and progression to addiction are potentiated by estrogens. Whether reward derived from food, and specifically motivational properties of food, are altered by estrogens remains unknown. Here we investigated the effect of the estrous cycle on food reward behavior and show estrous cycle dictated variability in food motivation, measured by progressive ratio operant conditioning, in female rats...
January 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209735/the-epac-phospholipase-c%C3%AE%C2%B5-pathway-regulates-endocannabinoid-signaling-and-cocaine-induced-disinhibition-of-vta-dopamine-neurons
#8
Jiaqing Tong, Xiaojie Liu, Casey Vickstrom, Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Youming Lu, Alan V Smrcka, Qing-Song Liu
Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) is a direct effector for the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. Epac activates the phospholipase Cε (PLCε) pathway. PLCβ has been linked to the synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Here, we report that Epac facilitates endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde synaptic depression through activation of PLCε. Intracellular loading of a selective Epac agonist 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP into ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons enabled previously ineffective stimuli to induce depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) and long-term depression of IPSCs (I-LTD) in the VTA...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194001/enhancing-vta-cav1-3-l-type-ca-2-channel-activity-promotes-cocaine-and-mood-related-behaviors-via-overlapping-ampa-receptor-mechanisms-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#9
A Martínez-Rivera, J Hao, T F Tropea, T P Giordano, M Kosovsky, R C Rice, A Lee, R L Huganir, J Striessnig, N A Addy, S Han, A M Rajadhyaksha
Genetic factors significantly influence susceptibility for substance abuse and mood disorders. Rodent studies have begun to elucidate a role of Cav1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels in neuropsychiatric-related behaviors, such as addictive and depressive-like behaviors. Human studies have also linked the CACNA1D gene, which codes for the Cav1.3 protein, with bipolar disorder. However, the neurocircuitry and the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Cav1.3 in neuropsychiatric phenotypes are not well established...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186690/reduced-levels-of-cacna1c-attenuate-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-function
#10
Chantelle E Terrillion, David T Dao, Roger Cachope, Mary Kay Lobo, Adam C Puche, Joseph F Cheer, Todd D Gould
Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which codes for the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) Cav 1.2, is associated with clinical diagnoses of bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is linked to these syndromes and LTCCs are required for normal DAergic neurotransmission between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). It is unclear, however, how variations in CACNA1C genotype, and potential subsequent changes in expression levels in these regions, modify risk...
February 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178514/projection-target-defined-effects-of-orexin-and-dynorphin-on-vta-dopamine-neurons
#11
Corey Baimel, Benjamin K Lau, Min Qiao, Stephanie L Borgland
Circuit-specific signaling of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons drives different aspects of motivated behavior, but the neuromodulatory control of these circuits is unclear. We tested the actions of co-expressed lateral hypothalamic peptides, orexin A (oxA) and dynorphin (dyn), on projection-target-defined dopamine neurons in mice. We determined that VTA dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens lateral shell (lAcbSh), medial shell (mAcbSh), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) are largely non-overlapping cell populations with different electrophysiological properties...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177164/midbrain-dopaminergic-neuron-activity-across-alternating-brain-states-of-urethane-anaesthetised-rat
#12
Magdalena Walczak, Tomasz Błasiak
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are implicated in the control of motor functions and reward-driven behaviours. The function of this neuronal population is strongly connected with distinct patterns of firing - irregular or bursting, which either maintains basal levels of dopamine or leads to phasic release, respectively. Heterogeneity of dopaminergic neurons, observed on both structural and functional levels, is also reflected in different responses of DA neurons to changes in global brain states. Preparation of urethane anaesthetised animal is a broadly used model to study brain state dependent activity of neurons...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167137/deletion-of-rictor-in-catecholaminergic-neurons-alters-locomotor-activity-and-ingestive-behavior
#13
Sophia Kaska, Rebecca Brunk, Vedrana Bali, Megan Kechner, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
While the etiology of depression is not fully understood, increasing evidence from animal models suggests a role for the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in pathogenesis. In this paper, we investigate the potential role of VTA mechanistic target of rapamycin 2 (TORC2) signaling in mediating susceptibility to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a well-established mouse model of depression. Utilizing genetic and viral knockout of Rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of target of rapamycin), a requisite component of TORC2, we demonstrate that decreasing Rictor-dependent TORC2 signaling in catecholaminergic neurons, or within the VTA specifically, does not alter susceptibility to CSDS...
February 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153913/an-anatomically-resolved-mouse-brain-proteome-reveals-parkinson-disease-relevant-pathways
#14
Sung Yun Jung, Jong Min Choi, Maxime W C Rousseaux, Anna Malovannaya, Jean J Kim, Joachim Kutzera, Yi Wang, Yin Huang, Weimin Zhu, Suman Maity, Huda Yahya Zoghbi, Jun Qin
Here we present a mouse brain protein atlas that covers 17 surgically distinct neuroanatomical regions of the adult mouse brain, each less than 1mm3 in size. The protein expression levels are determined for 6,500 to 7,500 gene protein products from each region and over 12,000 gene protein products for the entire brain, documenting the physiological repertoire of mouse brain proteins in an anatomically resolved and comprehensive manner. We explored the utility of our spatially-defined protein profiling methods in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
February 2, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147243/song-associated-reward-correlates-with-endocannabinoid-related-gene-expression-in-male-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#15
Allison H Hahn, Devin P Merullo, Jeremy A Spool, Caroline S Angyal, Sharon A Stevenson, Lauren V Riters
Vocal communication is required for successful social interactions in numerous species. During the breeding season, songbirds produce songs that are reinforced by behavioral consequences (e.g., copulation). However, some songbirds also produce songs not obviously directed at other individuals. The consequences maintaining or reinforcing these songs are less obvious and the neural mechanisms associated with undirected communication are not well-understood. Previous studies indicate that undirected singing is intrinsically rewarding and mediated by opioid or dopaminergic systems; however, endocannabinoids are also involved in regulating reward and singing behavior...
January 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143769/muscarinic-cholinergic-receptor-antagonists-in-the-vta-and-rmtg-have-opposite-effects-on-morphine-induced-locomotion-in-mice
#16
Stephan Steidl, Ekamjeet S Dhillon, Natasha Sharma, Jessica Ludwig
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) each contribute to opiate reward and each receive inputs from the laterodorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, the two principle brainstem cholinergic cell groups. We compared the contributions of VTA or RMTg muscarinic cholinergic receptors to locomotion induced by morphine infusions into the same sites. VTA co-infusion of atropine completely blocked VTA morphine-induced locomotion providing additional support for the important role of VTA muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the stimulant effects of opiates...
January 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135243/hormonal-gain-control-of-a-medial-preoptic-area-social-reward-circuit
#17
Jenna A McHenry, James M Otis, Mark A Rossi, J Elliott Robinson, Oksana Kosyk, Noah W Miller, Zoe A McElligott, Evgeny A Budygin, David R Rubinow, Garret D Stuber
Neural networks that control reproduction must integrate social and hormonal signals, tune motivation, and coordinate social interactions. However, the neural circuit mechanisms for these processes remain unresolved. The medial preoptic area (mPOA), an essential node for social behaviors, comprises molecularly diverse neurons with widespread projections. Here we identify a steroid-responsive subset of neurotensin (Nts)-expressing mPOA neurons that interface with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to form a socially engaged reward circuit...
January 30, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131626/alcohol-vapor-exposure-differentially-impacts-mesocorticolimbic-cytokine-expression-in-a-sex-region-and-duration-specific-manner
#18
Lydia N Baxter-Potter, Angela M Henricks, Anthony L Berger, Kennedy V Bieniasz, Janelle M Lugo, Ryan J McLaughlin
Alcohol exposure elicits the production of cytokines that regulate the host response to infection, immunity, inflammation, and trauma. Although increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been linked to symptoms of alcoholism, few studies have evaluated whether cytokine expression changes across the development of alcohol dependence, or whether these changes are region and/or sex specific. In the present study, we subjected adult male and female rats to different regimens of alcohol vapor exposure (acute, subchronic, or chronic) and measured relative mRNA expression for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in reward-related brain regions...
January 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129051/mere-exposure-preference-change-for-novel-drinks-reflected-in-human-ventral-tegmental-area
#19
Ian C Ballard, Kelly Hennigan, Samuel M McClure
Preferences for novel stimuli tend to develop slowly over many exposures. Psychological accounts of this effect suggest that it depends on changes in the brain's valuation system. Participants consumed a novel fluid daily for 10 days and underwent fMRI on the first and last days. We hypothesized that changes in activation in areas associated with the dopamine system would accompany changes in preference. The change in activation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) between sessions scaled with preference change...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124114/activation-of-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons-produces-wakefulness-through-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-in-mice
#20
Yo Oishi, Yoshiaki Suzuki, Koji Takahashi, Toshiya Yonezawa, Takeshi Kanda, Yohko Takata, Yoan Cherasse, Michael Lazarus
A growing body of evidence suggests that dopamine plays a role in sleep-wake regulation, but the dopamine-producing brain areas that control sleep-wake states are unclear. In this study, we chemogenetically activated dopamine neurons in the ventral midbrain of mice to examine the role of these neurons in sleep-wake regulation. We found that activation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but not in the substantia nigra, strongly induced wakefulness, although both cell populations expressed the neuronal activity marker c-Fos after chemogenetic stimulation...
January 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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