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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331449/quantifying-axonal-responses-in-patient-specific-models-of-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#1
Kabilar Gunalan, Bryan Howell, Cameron C McIntyre
Medical imaging has played a major role in defining the general anatomical targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapies. However, specifics on the underlying brain circuitry that is directly modulated by DBS electric fields remain relatively undefined. Detailed biophysical modeling of DBS provides an approach to quantify the theoretical responses to stimulation at the cellular level, and has established a key role for axonal activation in the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS. Estimates of DBS-induced axonal activation can then be coupled with advances in defining the structural connectome of the human brain to provide insight into the modulated brain circuitry and possible correlations with clinical outcomes...
January 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330488/motor-skill-learning-and-reward-consumption-differentially-affect-vta-activation
#2
Susan Leemburg, Tara Canonica, Andreas Luft
Dopamine release from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) terminals in the primary motor cortex (M1) enables motor skill acquisition. Here, we test the hypothesis that dopaminergic VTA neurons projecting to M1 are activated when rewards are obtained during motor skill acquisition, but not during task execution at plateau performance, or by rewards obtained without performing skilled movements. Rats were trained to perform a skilled reaching task for 3 days (acquisition) or 7 days (plateau). In combination with retrograde labelling of VTA-to-M1 projection neurons, double immunofluorescence for c-fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was used to assess activation of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic VTA neurons...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324910/deep-brain-nucleus-targeting-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-essential-tremor-by-image-guided-surgery-using-neuronavigation-system-with-tractography-and-volume-of-tissue-of-activated-assessment
#3
Amir Nikouei, Pooya Torkian, Tohid Emami Meybodi, Arash Javad Mousavi, Amir Saied Seddighi
OBJECTIVE: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective surgical approach for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia and essential tremor (ET). Traditionally, DBS is performed using frame-based stereotactic technique. Recently, image guided surgery (IGS) using neuronavigation has gained popularity in neurosurgical procedures. We aim to investigate whether DBS using neuronavigation is capable of improving patient's outcome and minimize its complications. SUBJECT AND METHODS: From February 2011 to October 2016, 20 patients with PD and 6 patients with ET were enrolled in the study...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309799/circuit-based-frameworks-of-depressive-behaviors-the-role-of-reward-circuitry-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Knowland, Byung Kook Lim
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common but serious neuropsychiatric affliction that comprises a diverse set of symptoms such as the inability to feel pleasure, lack of motivation, changes in appetite, and cognitive difficulties. Given the patient to patient symptomatic variability in MDD and differing severities of individual symptoms, it is likely that maladaptive changes in distinct brain areas may mediate discrete symptoms in MDD. The advent and recent surge of studies using viral-genetic approaches have allowed for circuit-specific dissection of networks underlying motivational behavior...
January 5, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307710/nucleus-accumbens-subnuclei-regulate-motivated-behavior-via-direct-inhibition-and-disinhibition-of-vta-dopamine-subpopulations
#5
Hongbin Yang, Johannes W de Jong, YeEun Tak, James Peck, Helen S Bateup, Stephan Lammel
Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in motivation and reward processing. Although the activity of these mesolimbic DA neurons is controlled by afferent inputs, little is known about the circuits in which they are embedded. Using retrograde tracing, electrophysiology, optogenetics, and behavioral assays, we identify principles of afferent-specific control in the mesolimbic DA system. Neurons in the medial shell subdivision of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) exert direct inhibitory control over two separate populations of mesolimbic DA neurons by activating different GABA receptor subtypes...
December 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304042/periaqueductal-efferents-to-dopamine-and-gaba-neurons-of-the-vta
#6
Niels R Ntamati, Meaghan Creed, Ridouane Achargui, Christian Lüscher
Neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) modulate threat responses and nociception. Activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on the other hand can cause reinforcement and aversion. While in many situations these behaviors are related, the anatomical substrate of a crosstalk between the PAG and VTA remains poorly understood. Here we describe the anatomical and electrophysiological organization of the VTA-projecting PAG neurons. Using rabies-based, cell type-specific retrograde tracing, we observed that PAG to VTA projection neurons are evenly distributed along the rostro-caudal axis of the PAG, but concentrated in its posterior and ventrolateral segments...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289371/glucose-modulates-human-ventral-tegmental-activity-in-response-to-sexual-stimuli
#7
Martin Ulrich, Philipp Stauß, Georg Grön
BACKGROUND: Attribution of salience to sexual stimuli is mediated by the dopaminergic midbrain, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The existence of glucose-sensing neurons in the VTA, as suggested by animal studies, offers the opportunity to modulate aberrant salience coding involved in sexual disorders such as sexual addiction. Recent neuroimaging work supported that VTA activity in humans can be modulated by intravenously infusing a small bolus of glucose. However, that study used appetitive food stimuli, leaving the possibility that glucose modulation of VTA-mediated salience coding might be bound to this class of stimuli...
January 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288746/a-new-synthetic-drug-5-2-aminopropyl-indole-5-it-induces-rewarding-effects-and-increases-dopamine-d1-receptor-and-dopamine-transporter-mrna-levels
#8
Chrislean Jun Botanas, Seong Shoon Yoon, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Raly James Custodio, Taeseon Woo, Joung-Wook Seo, Choon-Gon Jang, Ji Seul Yang, Yoon Mi Yoon, Yong Sup Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the use of recreational synthetic psychoactive substances, which is a cause of concern among healthcare providers and legal authorities. In particular, there have been reports on the misuse of 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API; 5-IT), a new synthetic drug, and of fatal and non-fatal intoxication. Despite these reports, little is known about its psychopharmacological effects and abuse potential. Here, we investigated the abuse potential of 5-IT by evaluating its rewarding and reinforcing effects through conditioned place preference (CPP) (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg, i...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287910/ventral-tegmental-area-d2-receptor-knockdown-enhances-choice-impulsivity-in-a-delay-discounting-task-in-rats
#9
Kimberly A Bernosky-Smith, Yan-Yan Qiu, Malte Feja, Yun Beom Lee, Brian Loughlin, Jun-Xu Li, Caroline E Bass
Impulsivity associated with abnormal dopamine (DA) function has been observed in several disorders, including addiction. Choice impulsivity is the preference for small, immediate rewards over larger rewards after a delay, caused by excessive discounting of future rewards. Addicts have abnormally high discount rates and prefer the smaller rewards sooner. While impulsivity has been inversely correlated with DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability in the midbrain and striatum, it is difficult to mechanistically link the two, due to the diverse neuroanatomical localization of D2Rs, which are found throughout the brain, in many types of neurons and neuronal subcompartments...
December 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275491/vancomycin-and-tobramycin-impregnated-mineralized-allograft-for-the-surgical-regenerative-treatment-of-peri-implantitis-a-1-year-follow-up-case-series
#10
José Nart, Beatriz de Tapia, Àngels Pujol, Andrés Pascual, Cristina Valles
OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis using a vancomycin and tobramycin impregnated allograft (VTA) after a 12-month period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirteen consecutive patients who required a regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis were recruited. For the 17 implant sites, a flap was raised, and after mechanical and chemical implant decontamination, a vancomycin and tobramycin impregnated allograft was placed in the defect and then covered with a collagen membrane...
December 24, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273501/selective-%C3%AE-synuclein-knockdown-in-monoamine-neurons-by-intranasal-oligonucleotide-delivery-potential-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Diana Alarcón-Arís, Ariadna Recasens, Mireia Galofré, Iria Carballo-Carbajal, Nicolás Zacchi, Esther Ruiz-Bronchal, Rubén Pavia-Collado, Rosario Chica, Albert Ferrés-Coy, Marina Santos, Raquel Revilla, Andrés Montefeltro, Isabel Fariñas, Francesc Artigas, Miquel Vila, Analia Bortolozzi
Progressive neuronal death in brainstem nuclei and widespread accumulation of α-synuclein are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reduction of α-synuclein levels is therefore a potential therapy for PD. However, because α-synuclein is essential for neuronal development and function, α-synuclein elimination would dramatically impact brain function. We previously developed conjugated small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences that selectively target serotonin (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) neurons after intranasal administration...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251597/activation-of-the-dopaminergic-pathway-from-vta-to-the-medial-olfactory-tubercle-generates-odor-preference-and-reward
#12
Zhijian Zhang, Qing Liu, Pengjie Wen, Jiaozhen Zhang, Xiaoping Rao, Ziming Zhou, Hongruo Zhang, Xiaobin He, Juan Li, Zheng Zhou, Xiaoran Xu, Xueyi Zhang, Rui Luo, Guanghui Lv, Haohong Li, Pei Cao, Liping Wang, Fuqiang Xu
Odor-preferences are usually influenced by life experiences. However, the neural circuit mechanisms remain unclear. The medial olfactory tubercle (mOT) is involved in both reward and olfaction, while the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are considered to be engaged in reward and motivation. Here, we found that the VTA (DAergic)-mOT pathway could be activated by different types of naturalistic rewards as well as odors in DAT-cre mice. Optogenetic activation of the VTA-mOT DAergic fibers was able to elicit preferences for space, location and neutral odor, while pharmacological blockade of the dopamine receptors in the mOT fully prevented the odor-preference formation...
December 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247796/theta-burst-modulation-of-mid-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-affects-salience-coding-in-the-human-ventral-tegmental-area
#13
Martin Ulrich, Sabrina Lorenz, Markus W Spitzer, Leon Steigleder, Thomas Kammer, Georg Grön
In the context of hedonic (over-)eating the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a core part of the dopaminergic reward system plays a central role in coding incentive salience of high-caloric food. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether transcranial magnetic theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over the right mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (mid-VLPFC) can induce modulation of calorie-sensitive brain activation in the VTA. The prefrontal location for TBS had been predetermined by seed-based resting-state fMRI with a functionally defined portion of the VTA serving as seed region obtained from an independent second fMRI experiment...
December 13, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246771/antagonism-of-the-d1-and-d2-like-dopamine-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-attenuates-forced-swim-stress-and-morphine-priming-induced-reinstatement-of-extinguished-rats
#14
Zahra Farzinpour, Zahra Mousavi, Saeideh Karimi-Haghighi, Abbas Haghparast
Dopaminergic pathways from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) play a critical role in reward-related phenomena as well as in the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. Stress is a major trigger for inducing reinstatement, however, the interaction between stress and the dopaminergic system is not well known. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors within the NAc in forced swim stress (FSS)- and priming-induced reinstatement of morphine-seeking behaviors...
December 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243529/avolition-apathy-and-white-matter-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-reduced-fractional-anisotropy-between-amygdala-and-insular-cortex
#15
Antonella Amodio, Mario Quarantelli, Armida Mucci, Anna Prinster, Andrea Soricelli, Annarita Vignapiano, Giulia Maria Giordano, Eleonora Merlotti, Alessia Nicita, Silvana Galderisi
The avolition/apathy domain of negative symptoms includes motivation- and pleasure-related impairments. In people with schizophrenia, structural and functional abnormalities were reported in key regions within the motivational reward system, including ventral-tegmental area (VTA), striatum (especially at the level of the nucleus accumbens, NAcc), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as amygdala (Amy) and insular cortex (IC). However, the association of the reported abnormalities with avoliton-apathy is still controversial...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241537/nucleus-accumbens-dopamine-signaling-regulates-sexual-preference-for-females-in-male-mice
#16
Yamit Beny-Shefer, Noga Zilkha, Yael Lavi-Avnon, Nadav Bezalel, Ilana Rogachev, Alexander Brandis, Molly Dayan, Tali Kimchi
Sexual preference for the opposite sex is a fundamental behavior underlying reproductive success, but the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) in governing chemosensory-mediated preference for females in TrpC2-/- and wild-type male mice. TrpC2-/- males, deficient in VNO-mediated signaling, do not display mating or olfactory preference toward females. We found that, during social interaction with females, TrpC2-/- males do not show increased NAcc dopamine levels, observed in wild-type males...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234141/cannabinoid-type-2-receptors-in-dopamine-neurons-inhibits-psychomotor-behaviors-alters-anxiety-depression-and-alcohol-preference
#17
Qing-Rong Liu, Ana Canseco-Alba, Hai-Ying Zhang, Patricia Tagliaferro, Monika Chung, Eugene Dennis, Branden Sanabria, Norman Schanz, Joao Carlos Escosteguy-Neto, Hiroki Ishiguro, Zhicheng Lin, Susan Sgro, Claire M Leonard, Jair Guilherme Santos-Junior, Eliot L Gardner, Josephine M Egan, Jeung Woon Lee, Zheng-Xiong Xi, Emmanuel S Onaivi
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) are expressed in mouse brain dopamine (DA) neurons and are involved in several DA-related disorders. However, the cell type-specific mechanisms are unclear since the CB2R gene knockout mice are constitutive gene knockout. Therefore, we generated Cnr2-floxed mice that were crossed with DAT-Cre mice, in which Cre- recombinase expression is under dopamine transporter gene (DAT) promoter control to ablate Cnr2 gene in midbrain DA neurons of DAT-Cnr2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225337/divergent-effects-of-acute-and-repeated-quetiapine-treatment-on-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-normal-vs-chronic-mild-stress-induced-hypodopaminergic-states
#18
REVIEW
Jared L Moreines, Zoe L Owrutsky, Kimberly G Gagnon, Anthony A Grace
Clinical evidence supports the use of second-generation dopamine D2 receptor antagonists (D2RAs) as adjunctive therapy or in some cases monotherapy in patients with depression. However, the mechanism for the clinical antidepressant effect of D2RAs remains unclear. Specifically, given accumulating evidence for decreased ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system function in depression, an antidepressant effect of a medication that is expected to further reduce dopamine system activity seems paradoxical. In the present paper we used electrophysiological single unit recordings of identified VTA dopamine neurons to characterize the impact of acute and repeated administration of the D2RA quetiapine at antidepressant doses in non-stressed rats and those exposed to the chronic mild stress (CMS) rodent depression model, the latter modeling the hypodopaminergic state observed in patients with depression...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221808/a-cannabinoid-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-ghrelin-induced-activation-of-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-in-mice
#19
Aimilia Lydia Kalafateli, Daniel Vallöf, Julia Winsa Jörnulf, Markus Heilig, Elisabet Jerlhag
Ghrelin has been attributed various physiological processes including food intake and reward regulation, through activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Reward modulation involves the mesolimbic dopamine system, consisting of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons targeting nucleus accumbens (NAc), a system that ghrelin activates through VTA-dependent mechanisms. In the first study, we found that systemic intraperitoneal (ip) administration of rimonabant attenuated intracerebroventricular (icv) ghrelin's ability to cause locomotor stimulation and NAc dopamine release in mice...
December 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217684/retrieval-demands-adaptively-change-striatal-old-new-signals-and-boost-subsequent-long-term-memory
#20
Nora A Herweg, Tobias Sommer, Nico Bunzeck
The striatum is a central part of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and contributes both to the encoding and retrieval of long-term memories. In this regard, the co-occurrence of striatal novelty and retrieval success effects in independent studies underlines the structure's double duty and suggests dynamic contextual adaption. To test this hypothesis and further investigate the underlying mechanisms of encoding and retrieval dynamics, human subjects viewed pre-familiarized scene images intermixed with new scenes and classified them as indoor vs...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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