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Fast and slow decisions

Carey D Balaban, Joseph M Furman
This study provides the first clear evidence that the generation of optokinetic nystagmus fast phases is a decision process that is influenced by performance of a concurrent disjunctive reaction time task (DRT). Ten subjects performed an auditory DRT during constant velocity optokinetic stimulation. Eye movements were measured in three dimensions with a magnetic search coil. Slow phase (SP) durations were defined as the interval between fast phases (FPs). There were three main findings. Firstly, human optokinetic nystagmus SP durations are consistent with a model of a Gaussian basic interval generator (a type of biological clock), such that FPs can be triggered randomly at the end of a clock cycle (mean duration: 200-250 ms); Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests could not reject the modeled cumulative distribution for any data trials...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Luigi Pagliaro, Agostino Colli
The clinician - the doctor who treats sick people - should be able to establish a good human relationship with his or her patients and their family; should be able to reach a diagnosis even in patients with rare diseases, or atypical presentations - or should refer the patient to a senior colleague; and should be able to recommend the best treatment (or no treatment at all). And he - or she - should be able to draw these abilities from the "deliberate practice" according to Ericsson, i.e. from the combination of experience with reflection - not, or with much lesser strength, from the medical literature as suggested by Evidence-Based Medicine...
September 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Patrizia d'Ettorre, Claudio Carere, Lara Demora, Pauline Le Quinquis, Lisa Signorotti, Dalila Bovet
Emotional state may influence cognitive processes such as attention and decision-making. A cognitive judgement bias is the propensity to anticipate either positive or negative consequences in response to ambiguous information. Recent work, mainly on vertebrates, showed that the response to ambiguous stimuli might change depending on an individual's affective state, which is influenced by e.g. the social and physical environment. However, the response to ambiguous stimuli could also be affected by the individual's behavioural type (personality), a question that has been under-investigated...
September 27, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Lewis Forder, Benjamin James Dyson
Competitive environments in which individuals compete for mutually-exclusive outcomes require rational decision making in order to maximize gains but often result in poor quality heuristics. Reasons for the greater reliance on lose-shift relative to win-stay behaviour shown in previous studies were explored using the game of Rock, Paper, Scissors and by manipulating the value of winning and losing. Decision-making following a loss was characterized as relatively fast and relatively inflexible both in terms of the failure to modulate the magnitude of lose-shift strategy and the lack of significant neural modulation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Wouter Kool, Fiery A Cushman, Samuel J Gershman
Many accounts of decision making and reinforcement learning posit the existence of two distinct systems that control choice: a fast, automatic system and a slow, deliberative system. Recent research formalizes this distinction by mapping these systems to "model-free" and "model-based" strategies in reinforcement learning. Model-free strategies are computationally cheap, but sometimes inaccurate, because action values can be accessed by inspecting a look-up table constructed through trial-and-error. In contrast, model-based strategies compute action values through planning in a causal model of the environment, which is more accurate but also more cognitively demanding...
August 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Chung-Chuan Lo, Xiao-Jing Wang
Automatic responses enable us to react quickly and effortlessly, but they often need to be inhibited so that an alternative, voluntary action can take place. To investigate the brain mechanism of controlled behavior, we investigated a biologically-based network model of spiking neurons for inhibitory control. In contrast to a simple race between pro- versus anti-response, our model incorporates a sensorimotor remapping module, and an action-selection module endowed with a "Stop" process through tonic inhibition...
August 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Robert O Deaner, Vittorio Addona, Rickey E Carter, Michael J Joyner, Sandra K Hunter
Background. Previous studies have demonstrated that men are more likely than women to slow in the marathon (footrace). This study investigated whether the sex difference in pacing occurs for a shorter race distance. Materials & Methods. Data were acquired from the Bolder Boulder 10 km road race for the years 2008-2013, which encompassed 191,693 performances. There were two pacing measures, percentage change in pace of the first 3 miles relative to the final 3.2 miles and percentage change in pace of the first mile relative to the final 5...
2016: PeerJ
Aimee Greeter
Providers are struggling to understand how the macro-level changes occurring in the healthcare industry will affect them on a micro-level, especially as they pertain to the shift toward value-based reimbursement. This article presents a guide to physicians and practice administration, in both the private and hospital-employed practice setting, on how to effectively manage this shift from fee-for-volume to fee-for-value. It analyzes new reimbursement models, population health management trends, and second-generation alignment and compensation models to help the reader understand practical tactics and overarching strategies to prepare for the changing method of reimbursement in the health-care industry...
May 2016: Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM
Saleh M H Mohamed, Norbert A Börger, Reint H Geuze, Jaap J van der Meere
Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation, and achieving future goals. Many behavioural studies have suggested that atypical lateral brain functions and difficulties in allocating effort to protect performance against stressors (i.e., state regulation) are key factors in ADHD...
October 2016: Brain and Cognition
Michael J Siniscalchi, Victoria Phoumthipphavong, Farhan Ali, Marc Lozano, Alex C Kwan
The ability to shift between repetitive and goal-directed actions is a hallmark of cognitive control. Previous studies have reported that adaptive shifts in behavior are accompanied by changes of neural activity in frontal cortex. However, neural and behavioral adaptations can occur at multiple time scales, and their relationship remains poorly defined. Here we developed an adaptive sensorimotor decision-making task for head-fixed mice, requiring them to shift flexibly between multiple auditory-motor mappings...
September 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Reza Shadmehr, Helen J Huang, Alaa A Ahmed
Given two rewarding stimuli, animals tend to choose the more rewarding (or less effortful) option. However, they also move faster toward that stimulus [1-5]. This suggests that reward and effort not only affect decision-making, they also influence motor control [6, 7]. How does the brain compute the effort requirements of a task? Here, we considered data acquired during walking, reaching, flying, or isometric force production. In analyzing the decision-making and motor-control behaviors of various animals, we considered the possibility that the brain may estimate effort objectively, via the metabolic energy consumed to produce the action...
July 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Chris van der Togt, Liviu Stănişor, Arezoo Pooresmaeili, Larissa Albantakis, Gustavo Deco, Pieter R Roelfsema
How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the visual (area V1) and frontal cortex (area FEF) of monkeys. We devised a new icon-selection task. On each day, the monkeys saw 2 new icons (small pictures) and learned which one was relevant. We rewarded eye movements to a saccade target connected to the relevant icon with a curve...
August 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Priska Stahel, John P Cant, Jayden A R MacPherson, Harma Berends, Michael A Steele
To support decision-making around diet selection choices to manage glycemia following a meal, a novel mechanistic model of intermittent gastric emptying and plasma glucose-insulin dynamics was developed. Model development was guided by postprandial timecourses of plasma glucose, insulin and the gastric emptying marker acetaminophen in infant calves fed meals of 2 or 4 L milk replacer. Assigning a fast, slow or zero first-order gastric emptying rate to each interval between plasma samples fit acetaminophen curves with prediction errors equal to 9% of the mean observed acetaminophen concentration...
2016: PloS One
Joseph Bernstein, Eli Kupperman, Leonid Ari Kandel, Jaimo Ahn
INTRODUCTION: Through shared decision making, the physician and patient exchange information to arrive at an agreement about the patient's preferred treatment. This process is predicated on the assumption that there is a single preferred treatment, and the goal of the dialog is to discover it. In contrast, psychology theory (ie, prospect theory) suggests that people can make decisions both analytically and intuitively through parallel decision-making processes, and depending on how the choice is framed, the two processes may not agree...
July 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Michelle C Odden, Andrew E Moran, Pamela G Coxson, Carmen A Peralta, Lee Goldman, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential for gait speed to inform decisions regarding optimal systolic blood pressure targets in older adults. DESIGN: Forecasting study from 2014 to 2023 using the Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model, a Markov model. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PARTICIPANTS: U.S. adults aged 60-94 stratified into fast walking, slow walking, and poor functioning (noncompleters) based on measured gait speed...
May 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Anna Heath, Ioanna Manolopoulou, Gianluca Baio
The Expected Value of Perfect Partial Information (EVPPI) is a decision-theoretic measure of the 'cost' of parametric uncertainty in decision making used principally in health economic decision making. Despite this decision-theoretic grounding, the uptake of EVPPI calculations in practice has been slow. This is in part due to the prohibitive computational time required to estimate the EVPPI via Monte Carlo simulations. However, recent developments have demonstrated that the EVPPI can be estimated by non-parametric regression methods, which have significantly decreased the computation time required to approximate the EVPPI...
October 15, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
Saleh M H Mohamed, Norbert A Börger, Reint H Geuze, Jaap J van der Meere
INTRODUCTION: Many clinical studies have shown that performance of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is impaired when stimuli are presented at a slow rate compared to a medium or fast rate. According to the cognitive-energetic model, this finding may reflect difficulty in allocating sufficient effort to regulate the motor activation state. Other studies have shown that the left hemisphere is relatively responsible for keeping humans motivated, allocating sufficient effort to complete their tasks...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Cynthia Huang-Pollock, Roger Ratcliff, Gail McKoon, Zvi Shapiro, Alex Weigard, Hilary Galloway-Long
Slow, variable, and error-prone performance on speeded reaction time (RT) tasks has been well documented in childhood ADHD, but equally well documented is the context-dependent nature of those deficits, particularly with respect to event rate. As event rates increase (or, as the interstimulus intervals become shorter), RTs decrease, a pattern of performance that has long been interpreted as evidence that cognitive deficits in ADHD are a downstream consequence of a fundamental difficulty in the regulation of arousal to meet task demands...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Amir Omidvarnia, Mangor Pedersen, Jennifer M Walz, David N Vaughan, David F Abbott, Graeme D Jackson
Dynamic functional brain connectivity analysis is a fast expanding field in computational neuroscience research with the promise of elucidating brain network interactions. Sliding temporal window based approaches are commonly used in order to explore dynamic behavior of brain networks in task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. However, the low effective temporal resolution of sliding window methods fail to capture the full dynamics of brain activity at each time point. These also require subjective decisions regarding window size and window overlap...
May 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Carolin T Haas, Jennifer K Roe, Gabriele Pollara, Meera Mehta, Mahdad Noursadeghi
The decision to treat active tuberculosis (TB) is dependent on microbiological tests for the organism or evidence of disease compatible with TB in people with a high demographic risk of exposure. The tuberculin skin test and peripheral blood interferon-γ release assays do not distinguish active TB from a cleared or latent infection. Microbiological culture of mycobacteria is slow. Moreover, the sensitivities of culture and microscopy for acid-fast bacilli and nucleic acid detection by PCR are often compromised by difficulty in obtaining samples from the site of disease...
2016: BMC Medicine
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