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Fast and slow decisions

Song Qi, Demis Hassabis, Jiayin Sun, Fangjian Guo, Nathaniel Daw, Dean Mobbs
Flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which an organism flees from an approaching threat, is an ecological metric of cost-benefit functions of escape decisions. We adapted the FID paradigm to investigate how fast- or slow-attacking "virtual predators" constrain escape decisions. We show that rapid escape decisions rely on "reactive fear" circuits in the periaqueductal gray and midcingulate cortex (MCC), while protracted escape decisions, defined by larger buffer zones, were associated with "cognitive fear" circuits, which include posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, circuits implicated in more complex information processing, cognitive avoidance strategies, and behavioral flexibility...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xukai Zhang, Yi Lei, Hang Yin, Peng Li, Hong Li
Performance-related feedback plays an important role in improving human being's adaptive behavior. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), previous studies have associated a particular component, i.e., reward positivity (RewP), with outcome evaluation processing and found that this component was affected by waiting time before outcome evaluation. Prior research has also suggested that anxious individuals are more prone to detecting threats and susceptible to negative emotions, and show different patterns of brain activity in outcome evaluation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kaja Zuwala, Camilla F Riber, Kaja Borup Løvschall, Anna H F Andersen, Lise Sørensen, Paulina Gajda, Martin Tolstrup, Alexander N Zelikin
Macromolecular (pro)drugs hold much promise as broad-spectrum antiviral agents as either microbicides or carriers for intracellular delivery of antiviral drugs. Intriguing opportunity exists in combining the two modes of antiviral activity in the same polymer structure such that the same polymer acts as a microbicide and also serves to deliver the conjugated drug (ribavirin) into the cells. We explore this opportunity in detail and focus on the polymer backbone as a decisive constituent of such formulations...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Melanie Sauerland, Anna Sagana, Siegfried L Sporer, John T Wixted
In vast contrast to the multitude of lineup studies that report on the link between decision time, confidence, and identification accuracy, only a few studies looked at these associations for showups, with results varying widely across studies. We therefore set out to test the individual and combined value of decision time and post-decision confidence for diagnosing the accuracy of positive showup decisions using confidence-accuracy characteristic curves and Bayesian analyses. Three-hundred-eighty-four participants viewed a stimulus event and were subsequently presented with two showups which could be target-present or target-absent...
2018: PloS One
Jesse Walker, Jane L Risen, Thomas Gilovich, Richard Thaler
We present evidence of sudden-death aversion (SDA)-the tendency to avoid "fast" strategies that provide a greater chance of success, but include the possibility of immediate defeat, in favor of "slow" strategies that reduce the possibility of losing quickly, but have lower odds of ultimate success. Using a combination of archival analyses and controlled experiments, we explore the psychology behind SDA. First, we provide evidence for SDA and its cost to decision makers by tabulating how often NFL teams send games into overtime by kicking an extra point rather than going for the 2-point conversion (Study 1) and how often NBA teams attempt potentially game-tying 2-point shots rather than potentially game-winning 3-pointers (Study 2)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
John Kinnear, Nick Wilson, Anthony O'Dwyer
BACKGROUND: The complexity of modern clinical practice has highlighted the fallibility of individual clinicians' decision-making, with effective teamwork emerging as a key to patient safety. Dual process theory is widely accepted as a framework for individual decision-making, with type 1 processes responsible for fast, intuitive and automatic decisions and type 2 processes for slow, analytical decisions. However, dual process theory does not explain cognition at the group level, when individuals act in teams...
January 9, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Veronika Lerche, Andreas Voss
The diffusion model (Ratcliff, Psychol Rev 85(2):59-108, 1978) is a stochastic model that is applied to response time (RT) data from binary decision tasks. The model is often used to disentangle different cognitive processes. The validity of the diffusion model parameters has, however, rarely been examined. Only few experimental paradigms have been analyzed with those being restricted to fast response time paradigms. This is attributable to a recommendation stated repeatedly in the diffusion model literature to restrict applications to fast RT paradigms (more specifically, to tasks with mean RTs below 1...
December 9, 2017: Psychological Research
Jegath C Athilingam, Roy Ben-Shalom, Caroline M Keeshen, Vikaas S Sohal, Kevin J Bender
The medial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in higher order cognitive functions like decision making and social cognition. These complex behaviors emerge from the coordinated firing of prefrontal neurons. Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) control the timing of excitatory neuron firing via somatic inhibition and generate gamma (30-100 Hz) oscillations. Therefore, factors that regulate how FSIs respond to gamma-frequency input could affect both prefrontal circuit activity and behavior. Here, we show that serotonin (5HT), which is known to regulate gamma power, acts via 5HT2A receptors to suppress an inward-rectifying potassium conductance in FSIs...
December 5, 2017: ELife
Pooyan Kazemian, Mariel S Lavieri, Mark P Van Oyen, Chris Andrews, Joshua D Stein
PURPOSE: To generate personalized forecasts of how patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) experience disease progression at different intraocular pressure (IOP) levels to aid clinicians with setting personalized target IOPs. DESIGN: Secondary analyses using longitudinal data from 2 randomized controlled trials. PARTICIPANTS: Participants with moderate or advanced OAG from the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS) or the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS)...
December 1, 2017: Ophthalmology
Kelly M Cheever, Jane McDevitt, Ryan Tierney, W Geoffrey Wright
Vestibular and oculomotor testing is emerging as a valuable assessment in sport-related concussion (SRC). However, their usefulness for tracking recovery and guiding return-to-play decisions remains unclear. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate their clinical usefulness for tracking SRC recovery. Vestibular and oculomotor assessments were used to measure symptom provocation in an acute group (n=21) concussed≤10 days, prolonged symptoms group (n=10) concussed ≥16 days (median=84 days), healthy group (n=58) no concussions in >6 months...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Peter Csermely
I hypothesize that re-occurring prior experience of complex systems mobilizes a fast response, whose attractor is encoded by their strongly connected network core. In contrast, responses to novel stimuli are often slow and require the weakly connected network periphery. Upon repeated stimulus, peripheral network nodes remodel the network core that encodes the attractor of the new response. This "core-periphery learning" theory reviews and generalizes the heretofore fragmented knowledge on attractor formation by neural networks, periphery-driven innovation, and a number of recent reports on the adaptation of protein, neuronal, and social networks...
January 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Eva Déli, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Brain electric activity exhibits two important features: oscillations with different timescales, characterized by diverse functional and psychological outcomes, and a temporal power law distribution. In order to further investigate the relationships between low- and high- frequency spikes in the brain, we used a variant of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem which states that, when we assess the nervous activity as embedded in a sphere equipped with a fractal dimension, we achieve two antipodal points with similar features (the slow and fast, scale-free oscillations)...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Sunil V Patel, David D Paskar, Richard L Nelson, Satyanarayana S Vedula, Scott R Steele
BACKGROUND: Surgeons who perform laparotomy have a number of decisions to make regarding abdominal closure. Material and size of potential suture types varies widely. In addition, surgeons can choose to close the incision in anatomic layers or mass ('en masse'), as well as using either a continuous or interrupted suturing technique, of which there are different styles of each. There is ongoing debate as to which suturing techniques and suture materials are best for achieving definitive wound closure while minimising the risk of short- and long-term complications...
November 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Beth L Parkin, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: Having investigated the decision making of world class elite and subelite athletes (see Parkin and Walsh, 2017; Parkin et al., 2017), here the abilities of those at the earliest stage of entry to elite sport are examined. Junior elite athletes have undergone initial national selection and are younger than athletes examined previously (mean age 13 years). Decision making under mental pressure is explored in this sample. During performance an athlete encounters a wide array of mental pressures; these include the psychological impact of errors, negative feedback, and requirements for sustained attention in a dynamic environment (Anshel and Wells, 2000; Mellalieu et al...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Brian Hanley
The purpose of this study was to analyse and compare pacing profiles of senior men and women competing in the 2017 World Cross Country Championships. Finishing and split times were collated for 118 men and 81 women competing over the newly introduced race distance of 10 km (five laps of approximately 2 km). Athletes were grouped according to finishing time, and changes in pace measured using lap times, except between Laps 1 and 2 because of a shorter first lap (times relative to the winner were used instead)...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
Joanne C Van Slooten, Sara Jahfari, Tomas Knapen, Jan Theeuwes
The pupil response under constant illumination can be used as a marker of cognitive processes. In the past, pupillary responses have been studied in the context of arousal and decision-making. However, recent work involving Parkinson's patients suggested that pupillary responses are additionally affected by reward sensitivity. Here, we build on these findings by examining how pupil responses are modulated by reward and loss while participants (N = 30) performed a Pavlovian reversal learning task. In fast (transient) pupil responses, we observed arousal-based influences on pupil size both during the expectation of upcoming value and the evaluation of unexpected monetary outcomes...
2017: PloS One
Randee J Kastner, Elisa Sicuri, Christopher M Stone, Gabriel Matwale, Ambrose Onapa, Fabrizio Tediosi
INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) preventable through mass drug administration (MDA), is one of six diseases deemed possibly eradicable. Previously we developed one LF elimination scenario, which assumes MDA scale-up to continue in all countries that have previously undertaken MDA. In contrast, our three previously developed eradication scenarios assume all LF endemic countries will undertake MDA at an average (eradication I), fast (eradication II), or instantaneous (eradication III) rate of scale-up...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Isabelle Dagry, Pierre Barrouillet
Not all the information processed in working memory (WM) must be retained. Due to the strict limitations of its capacity, the mechanisms that prevent WM from being cluttered and choked by no longer relevant information are of paramount importance. The present study tested the hypothesis put forward by the SOB-CS model of an active and attention-demanding mechanism that would remove no-longer relevant items from WM. Such a mechanism has been advocated to account for the well-known fact that, in complex span tasks, processing distractors at a slower pace results in better recall of memory items...
December 2017: Cognition
David Mateo, Yoke Kong Kuan, Roland Bouffanais
Social interaction increases significantly the performance of a wide range of cooperative systems. However, evidence that natural swarms limit the number of interactions suggests potentially detrimental consequences of excessive interaction. Using a canonical model of collective motion, we find that the collective response to a dynamic localized perturbation-emulating a predator attack-is hindered when the number of interacting neighbors exceeds a certain threshold. Specifically, the effectiveness in avoiding the predator is enhanced by large integrated correlations, which are known to peak at a given level of interagent interaction...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Christian Eisenhawer, Michael K Felten, Thomas Hager, Mikhail Gronostayskiy, Philipp Bruners, Andrea Tannapfel, Thomas Kraus
BACKGROUND: Health surveillance of formerly asbestos exposed individuals focus on early detection of asbestos related diseases, such as lung fibrosis (asbestosis), pleural plaques, mesothelioma and lung cancer in particular. One main concern is the early and clear identification of lesions with a high risk of malignant changes and their undelayed clinical work-up. False positive results may lead to unnecessary and often painful diagnostic interventions, which create high costs when applied to a large cohort and also may discredit the whole program...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
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