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Fast and slow decisions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344631/a-behavioural-syndrome-but-less-evidence-for-a-relationship-with-cognitive-traits-in-a-spatial-orientation-context
#1
Andrea C Schuster, Uwe Zimmermann, Carina Hauer, Katharina Foerster
BACKGROUND: Animals show consistent individual behavioural differences in many species. Further, behavioural traits (personality traits) form behavioural syndromes, characterised by correlations between different behaviours. Mechanisms maintaining these correlations could be constrained due to underlying relationships with cognitive traits. There is growing evidence for the non-independence of animal personality and general cognitive abilities in animals, but so far, studies on the direction of the relationship between them revealed contradictory results...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205567/opposing-effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-human-vigor
#2
Benjamin Griffiths, Ulrik R Beierholm
The vigor with which humans and animals engage in a task is often a determinant of the likelihood of the task's success. An influential theoretical model suggests that the speed and rate at which responses are made should depend on the availability of rewards and punishments. While vigor facilitates the gathering of rewards in a bountiful environment, there is an incentive to slow down when punishments are forthcoming so as to decrease the rate of punishments, in conflict with the urge to perform fast to escape punishment...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143434/combination-of-ivim-dwi-and-3d-asl-for-differentiating-true-progression-from-pseudoprogression-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-after-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-study-protocol-of-a-prospective-diagnostic-trial
#3
Zhi-Cheng Liu, Lin-Feng Yan, Yu-Chuan Hu, Ying-Zhi Sun, Qiang Tian, Hai-Yan Nan, Ying Yu, Qian Sun, Wen Wang, Guang-Bin Cui
BACKGROUND: Standard therapy for Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) involves maximal safe tumor resection followed with radiotherapy and concurrent adjuvant temozolomide. About 20 to 30% patients undergoing their first post-radiation MRI show increased contrast enhancement which eventually recovers without any new treatment. This phenomenon is referred to as pseudoprogression. Differentiating tumor progression from pseudoprogression is critical for determining tumor treatment, yet this capacity remains a challenge for conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
February 1, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131862/evidence-accumulation-detected-in-bold-signal-using-slow-perceptual-decision-making
#4
Paul M Krueger, Marieke K van Vugt, Patrick Simen, Leigh Nystrom, Philip Holmes, Jonathan D Cohen
BACKGROUND: We assessed whether evidence accumulation could be observed in the BOLD signal during perceptual decision making. This presents a challenge since the hemodynamic response is slow, while perceptual decisions are typically fast. NEW METHOD: Guided by theoretical predictions of the drift diffusion model, we slowed down decisions by penalizing participants for incorrect responses. Second, we distinguished BOLD activity related to stimulus detection (modeled using a boxcar) from activity related to integration (modeled using a ramp) by minimizing the collinearity of GLM regressors...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065714/transient-inactivation-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-rats-disrupts-avoidance-of-a-dynamic-object
#5
Jan Svoboda, Veronika Lobellová, Anna Popelíková, Nikhil Ahuja, Eduard Kelemen, Aleš Stuchlík
Although animals often learn and monitor the spatial properties of relevant moving objects such as conspecifics and predators to properly organize their own spatial behavior, the underlying brain substrate has received little attention and hence remains elusive. Because the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in conflict monitoring and effort-based decision making, and ACC neurons respond to objects in the environment, it may also play a role in the monitoring of moving cues and exerting the appropriate spatial response...
January 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981181/stress-potentiates-decision-biases-a-stress-induced-deliberation-to-intuition-sidi-model
#6
REVIEW
Rongjun Yu
Humans often make decisions in stressful situations, for example when the stakes are high and the potential consequences severe, or when the clock is ticking and the task demand is overwhelming. In response, a whole train of biological responses to stress has evolved to allow organisms to make a fight-or-flight response. When under stress, fast and effortless heuristics may dominate over slow and demanding deliberation in making decisions under uncertainty. Here, I review evidence from behavioral studies and neuroimaging research on decision making under stress and propose that stress elicits a switch from an analytic reasoning system to intuitive processes, and predict that this switch is associated with diminished activity in the prefrontal executive control regions and exaggerated activity in subcortical reactive emotion brain areas...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883158/fast-or-slow-foods-describing-natural-variations-in-oral-processing-characteristics-across-a-wide-range-of-asian-foods
#7
C G Forde, C Leong, E Chia-Ming, K McCrickerd
The structural properties of foods have a functional role to play in oral processing behaviours and sensory perception, and also impact on meal size and the experience of fullness. This study adopted a new approach by using behavioural coding analysis of eating behaviours to explore how a range of food textures manifest as the microstructural properties of eating and expectations of fullness. A selection of 47 Asian foods were served in fixed quantities to a panel of participants (N = 12) and their eating behaviours were captured via web-camera recordings...
November 24, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834893/robust-approach-for-nonuniformity-correction-in-infrared-focal-plane-array
#8
Ayoub Boutemedjet, Chenwei Deng, Baojun Zhao
In this paper, we propose a new scene-based nonuniformity correction technique for infrared focal plane arrays. Our work is based on the use of two well-known scene-based methods, namely, adaptive and interframe registration-based exploiting pure translation motion model between frames. The two approaches have their benefits and drawbacks, which make them extremely effective in certain conditions and not adapted for others. Following on that, we developed a method robust to various conditions, which may slow or affect the correction process by elaborating a decision criterion that adapts the process to the most effective technique to ensure fast and reliable correction...
November 10, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821768/engineering-dynamical-control-of-cell-fate-switching-using-synthetic-phospho-regulons
#9
Russell M Gordley, Reid E Williams, Caleb J Bashor, Jared E Toettcher, Shude Yan, Wendell A Lim
Many cells can sense and respond to time-varying stimuli, selectively triggering changes in cell fate only in response to inputs of a particular duration or frequency. A common motif in dynamically controlled cells is a dual-timescale regulatory network: although long-term fate decisions are ultimately controlled by a slow-timescale switch (e.g., gene expression), input signals are first processed by a fast-timescale signaling layer, which is hypothesized to filter what dynamic information is efficiently relayed downstream...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790180/not-everybody-sees-the-ness-in-the-darkness-individual-differences-in-masked-suffix-priming
#10
Joyse Medeiros, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia
The present study explores the role of individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition. Participants completed a masked priming lexical decision experiment on suffixed words in which targets could be preceded by suffix-related words (words sharing the same suffix) or by affixed primes with a different suffix. Participants also completed a monomorphemic word lexical decision and were divided in two groups (fast and slow readers) according to their performance in this task. When the suffix priming data were analyzed taking into consideration participants' reading speed as a proxy for their greater reliance on orthography or on semantics, a significant interaction between reading speed and the magnitude of the masked suffix priming effects emerged...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784198/hearing-taboo-words-can-result-in-early-talker-effects-in-word-recognition-for-female-listeners
#11
Samantha E Tuft, Conor T MᶜLennan, Maura L Krestar
Previous spoken word recognition research using the long-term repetition-priming paradigm found performance costs for stimuli mismatching in talker identity. That is, when words were repeated across the two blocks, and the identity of the talker changed reaction times (RTs) were slower than when the repeated words were spoken by the same talker. Such performance costs, or talker effects, followed a time course, occurring only when processing was relatively slow. More recent research suggests that increased explicit and implicit attention towards the talkers can result in talker effects even during relatively fast processing...
November 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760815/beat-to-beat-control-of-human-optokinetic-nystagmus-slow-phase-durations
#12
Carey D Balaban, Joseph M Furman
This study provides the first clear evidence that the generation of optokinetic nystagmus fast phases (FPs) is a decision process that is influenced by performance of a concurrent disjunctive reaction time task (DRT). Ten subjects performed an auditory DRT during constant velocity optokinetic stimulation. Eye movements were measured in three dimensions with a magnetic search coil. Slow phase (SP) durations were defined as the interval between FPs. There were three main findings. Firstly, human optokinetic nystagmus SP durations are consistent with a model of a Gaussian basic interval generator (a type of biological clock), such that FPs can be triggered randomly at the end of a clock cycle (mean duration: 200-250 ms)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727255/-walking-among-doctors-and-patients-stories-and-reflections
#13
Luigi Pagliaro, Agostino Colli
The clinician - the doctor who treats sick people - should be able to establish a good human relationship with his or her patients and their family; should be able to reach a diagnosis even in patients with rare diseases, or atypical presentations - or should refer the patient to a senior colleague; and should be able to recommend the best treatment (or no treatment at all). And he - or she - should be able to draw these abilities from the "deliberate practice" according to Ericsson, i.e. from the combination of experience with reflection - not, or with much lesser strength, from the medical literature as suggested by Evidence-Based Medicine...
September 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688007/individual-differences-in-exploratory-activity-relate-to-cognitive-judgement-bias-in-carpenter-ants
#14
Patrizia d'Ettorre, Claudio Carere, Lara Demora, Pauline Le Quinquis, Lisa Signorotti, Dalila Bovet
Emotional state may influence cognitive processes such as attention and decision-making. A cognitive judgement bias is the propensity to anticipate either positive or negative consequences in response to ambiguous information. Recent work, mainly on vertebrates, showed that the response to ambiguous stimuli might change depending on an individual's affective state, which is influenced by e.g. the social and physical environment. However, the response to ambiguous stimuli could also be affected by the individual's behavioural type (personality), a question that has been under-investigated...
January 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658703/behavioural-and-neural-modulation-of-win-stay-but-not-lose-shift-strategies-as-a-function-of-outcome-value-in-rock-paper-scissors
#15
Lewis Forder, Benjamin James Dyson
Competitive environments in which individuals compete for mutually-exclusive outcomes require rational decision making in order to maximize gains but often result in poor quality heuristics. Reasons for the greater reliance on lose-shift relative to win-stay behaviour shown in previous studies were explored using the game of Rock, Paper, Scissors and by manipulating the value of winning and losing. Decision-making following a loss was characterized as relatively fast and relatively inflexible both in terms of the failure to modulate the magnitude of lose-shift strategy and the lack of significant neural modulation...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564094/when-does-model-based-control-pay-off
#16
Wouter Kool, Fiery A Cushman, Samuel J Gershman
Many accounts of decision making and reinforcement learning posit the existence of two distinct systems that control choice: a fast, automatic system and a slow, deliberative system. Recent research formalizes this distinction by mapping these systems to "model-free" and "model-based" strategies in reinforcement learning. Model-free strategies are computationally cheap, but sometimes inaccurate, because action values can be accessed by inspecting a look-up table constructed through trial-and-error. In contrast, model-based strategies compute action values through planning in a causal model of the environment, which is more accurate but also more cognitively demanding...
August 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551824/conflict-resolution-as-near-threshold-decision-making-a-spiking-neural-circuit-model-with-two-stage-competition-for-antisaccadic-task
#17
Chung-Chuan Lo, Xiao-Jing Wang
Automatic responses enable us to react quickly and effortlessly, but they often need to be inhibited so that an alternative, voluntary action can take place. To investigate the brain mechanism of controlled behavior, we investigated a biologically-based network model of spiking neurons for inhibitory control. In contrast to a simple race between pro- versus anti-response, our model incorporates a sensorimotor remapping module, and an action-selection module endowed with a "Stop" process through tonic inhibition...
August 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547544/fast-men-slow-more-than-fast-women-in-a-10-kilometer-road-race
#18
Robert O Deaner, Vittorio Addona, Rickey E Carter, Michael J Joyner, Sandra K Hunter
Background. Previous studies have demonstrated that men are more likely than women to slow in the marathon (footrace). This study investigated whether the sex difference in pacing occurs for a shorter race distance. Materials & Methods. Data were acquired from the Bolder Boulder 10 km road race for the years 2008-2013, which encompassed 191,693 performances. There were two pacing measures, percentage change in pace of the first 3 miles relative to the final 3.2 miles and percentage change in pace of the first mile relative to the final 5...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443053/navigating-the-shift-to-value-based-reimbursement-how-fast-is-too-fast-and-how-slow-is-too-slow
#19
Aimee Greeter
Providers are struggling to understand how the macro-level changes occurring in the healthcare industry will affect them on a micro-level, especially as they pertain to the shift toward value-based reimbursement. This article presents a guide to physicians and practice administration, in both the private and hospital-employed practice setting, on how to effectively manage this shift from fee-for-volume to fee-for-value. It analyzes new reimbursement models, population health management trends, and second-generation alignment and compensation models to help the reader understand practical tactics and overarching strategies to prepare for the changing method of reimbursement in the health-care industry...
May 2016: Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429094/post-error-adjustments-and-adhd-symptoms-in-adults-the-effect-of-laterality-and-state-regulation
#20
Saleh M H Mohamed, Norbert A Börger, Reint H Geuze, Jaap J van der Meere
Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation, and achieving future goals. Many behavioural studies have suggested that atypical lateral brain functions and difficulties in allocating effort to protect performance against stressors (i.e., state regulation) are key factors in ADHD...
October 2016: Brain and Cognition
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