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Fast and slow decisions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760504/beliefs-about-others-intentions-determine-whether-cooperation-is-the-faster-choice
#1
Juana Castro Santa, Filippos Exadaktylos, Salvador Soto-Faraco
Is collaboration the fast choice for humans? Past studies proposed that cooperation is a behavioural default, based on Response Times (RT) findings. Here we contend that the individual's reckoning of the immediate social environment shapes her predisposition to cooperate and, hence, response latencies. In a social dilemma game, we manipulate the beliefs about the partner's intentions to cooperate and show that they act as a switch that determines cooperation and defection RTs; when the partner's intention to cooperate is perceived as high, cooperation choices are speeded up, while defection is slowed down...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698044/recollection-is-fast-and-slow
#2
C J Brainerd, K Nakamura, W-F A Lee
We implemented a new approach to measuring the relative speeds of different cognitive processes, one that extends multinomial models of memory and reasoning from discrete decisions to latencies. We applied it to the dual-process prediction that familiarity is faster than recollection. Relative to prior work on this prediction, the advantages of the new approach are that it jointly measures specific retrieval processes and their latencies, provides separate sets of latency-retrieval parameters for list items and related distractors, and supplies latency parameters for bias processes as well as retrieval processes...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672515/decision-making-improves-sperm-chemotaxis-in-the-presence-of-noise
#3
Justus A Kromer, Steffen Märcker, Steffen Lange, Christel Baier, Benjamin M Friedrich
To navigate their surroundings, cells rely on sensory input that is corrupted by noise. In cells performing chemotaxis, such noise arises from the stochastic binding of signalling molecules at low chemoattractant concentrations. We reveal a fundamental relationship between the speed of chemotactic steering and the strength of directional fluctuations that result from the amplification of noise in a chemical input signal. This relation implies a trade-off between steering that is slow and reliable, and steering that is fast but less reliable...
April 19, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626622/bacteroides-fragilis-a-whole-maldi-based-workflow-from-identification-to-confirmation-of-carbapenemase-production-for-routine-laboratories
#4
M Cordovana, M Kostrzewa, J Sóki, E Witt, S Ambretti, A B Pranada
Bacteroides fragilis is a frequent anaerobic pathogen and can cause severe infections. Resistance to carbapenems, associated with the cfiA gene encoded carbapenemase, represents an emerging problem. To date, no rapid methods are available to detect and confirm this resistance mechanism in routine laboratories, and the missed recognition of carbapenemase-producing strains can lead to therapeutic failures. In this study we have investigated a whole MALDI-TOF MS-based workflow to detect carbapenemase-producing B...
April 4, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614154/criterion-free-measurement-of-motion-transparency-perception-at-different-speeds
#5
Francesca Rocchi, Timothy Ledgeway, Ben S Webb
Transparency perception often occurs when objects within the visual scene partially occlude each other or move at the same time, at different velocities across the same spatial region. Although transparent motion perception has been extensively studied, we still do not understand how the distribution of velocities within a visual scene contribute to transparent perception. Here we use a novel psychophysical procedure to characterize the distribution of velocities in a scene that give rise to transparent motion perception...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572234/ctdna-analysis-for-cancer-not-so-fast
#6
(no author information available yet)
An expert panel has concluded that more research is needed before circulating tumor DNA analyses are adopted in clinical care. This finding may slow the use of such testing among oncologists, some of whom are already basing treatment decisions on the results of these assays.
March 23, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565792/slowing-down-fast-thinking-to-enhance-understanding
#7
COMMENT
Edmund G Howe
Stress can make the comprehension of complex information more difficult, yet patients and their family members often must receive, process, and make decisions based on new, complex information presented in unfamiliar and stressful clinical environments such the intensive care unit. Family members may be asked to make decisions regarding the donation of organs and genetic tissue soon after the death of a loved one, based on new, complex information, under tight time limits. How can we assist patients and families better process complex information while under stress, and to make better decisions for themselves or for a loved one?...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507207/how-cognitive-and-reactive-fear-circuits-optimize-escape-decisions-in-humans
#8
Song Qi, Demis Hassabis, Jiayin Sun, Fangjian Guo, Nathaniel Daw, Dean Mobbs
Flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which an organism flees from an approaching threat, is an ecological metric of cost-benefit functions of escape decisions. We adapted the FID paradigm to investigate how fast- or slow-attacking "virtual predators" constrain escape decisions. We show that rapid escape decisions rely on "reactive fear" circuits in the periaqueductal gray and midcingulate cortex (MCC), while protracted escape decisions, defined by larger buffer zones, were associated with "cognitive fear" circuits, which include posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, circuits implicated in more complex information processing, cognitive avoidance strategies, and behavioral flexibility...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472850/slow-is-also-fast-feedback-delay-affects-anxiety-and-outcome-evaluation
#9
Xukai Zhang, Yi Lei, Hang Yin, Peng Li, Hong Li
Performance-related feedback plays an important role in improving human being's adaptive behavior. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), previous studies have associated a particular component, i.e., reward positivity (RewP), with outcome evaluation processing and found that this component was affected by waiting time before outcome evaluation. Prior research has also suggested that anxious individuals are more prone to detecting threats and susceptible to negative emotions, and show different patterns of brain activity in outcome evaluation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432822/macromolecular-prodrugs-of-ribavirin-polymer-backbone-defines-blood-safety-drug-release-and-efficacy-of-anti-inflammatory-effects
#10
Kaja Zuwala, Camilla F Riber, Kaja Borup Løvschall, Anna H F Andersen, Lise Sørensen, Paulina Gajda, Martin Tolstrup, Alexander N Zelikin
Macromolecular (pro)drugs hold much promise as broad-spectrum antiviral agents as either microbicides or carriers for intracellular delivery of antiviral drugs. Intriguing opportunity exists in combining the two modes of antiviral activity in the same polymer structure such that the same polymer acts as a microbicide and also serves to deliver the conjugated drug (ribavirin) into the cells. We explore this opportunity in detail and focus on the polymer backbone as a decisive constituent of such formulations...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346394/decision-time-and-confidence-predict-choosers-identification-performance-in-photographic-showups
#11
Melanie Sauerland, Anna Sagana, Siegfried L Sporer, John T Wixted
In vast contrast to the multitude of lineup studies that report on the link between decision time, confidence, and identification accuracy, only a few studies looked at these associations for showups, with results varying widely across studies. We therefore set out to test the individual and combined value of decision time and post-decision confidence for diagnosing the accuracy of positive showup decisions using confidence-accuracy characteristic curves and Bayesian analyses. Three-hundred-eighty-four participants viewed a stimulus event and were subsequently presented with two showups which could be target-present or target-absent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337583/sudden-death-aversion-avoiding-superior-options-because-they-feel-riskier
#12
Jesse Walker, Jane L Risen, Thomas Gilovich, Richard Thaler
We present evidence of sudden-death aversion (SDA)-the tendency to avoid "fast" strategies that provide a greater chance of success, but include the possibility of immediate defeat, in favor of "slow" strategies that reduce the possibility of losing quickly, but have lower odds of ultimate success. Using a combination of archival analyses and controlled experiments, we explore the psychology behind SDA. First, we provide evidence for SDA and its cost to decision makers by tabulating how often NFL teams send games into overtime by kicking an extra point rather than going for the 2-point conversion (Study 1) and how often NBA teams attempt potentially game-tying 2-point shots rather than potentially game-winning 3-pointers (Study 2)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317467/evaluating-team-decision-making-as-an-emergent-phenomenon
#13
John Kinnear, Nick Wilson, Anthony O'Dwyer
BACKGROUND: The complexity of modern clinical practice has highlighted the fallibility of individual clinicians' decision-making, with effective teamwork emerging as a key to patient safety. Dual process theory is widely accepted as a framework for individual decision-making, with type 1 processes responsible for fast, intuitive and automatic decisions and type 2 processes for slow, analytical decisions. However, dual process theory does not explain cognition at the group level, when individuals act in teams...
April 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224184/experimental-validation-of-the-diffusion-model-based-on-a-slow-response-time-paradigm
#14
Veronika Lerche, Andreas Voss
The diffusion model (Ratcliff, Psychol Rev 85(2):59-108, 1978) is a stochastic model that is applied to response time (RT) data from binary decision tasks. The model is often used to disentangle different cognitive processes. The validity of the diffusion model parameters has, however, rarely been examined. Only few experimental paradigms have been analyzed with those being restricted to fast response time paradigms. This is attributable to a recommendation stated repeatedly in the diffusion model literature to restrict applications to fast RT paradigms (more specifically, to tasks with mean RTs below 1...
December 9, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206101/serotonin-enhances-excitability-and-gamma-frequency-temporal-integration-in-mouse-prefrontal-fast-spiking-interneurons
#15
Jegath C Athilingam, Roy Ben-Shalom, Caroline M Keeshen, Vikaas S Sohal, Kevin J Bender
The medial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in higher order cognitive functions like decision making and social cognition. These complex behaviors emerge from the coordinated firing of prefrontal neurons. Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) control the timing of excitatory neuron firing via somatic inhibition and generate gamma (30-100 Hz) oscillations. Therefore, factors that regulate how FSIs respond to gamma-frequency input could affect both prefrontal circuit activity and behavior. Here, we show that serotonin (5HT), which is known to regulate gamma power, acts via 5HT2A receptors to suppress an inward-rectifying potassium conductance in FSIs...
December 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203067/personalized-prediction-of-glaucoma-progression-under-different-target-intraocular-pressure-levels-using-filtered-forecasting-methods
#16
Pooyan Kazemian, Mariel S Lavieri, Mark P Van Oyen, Chris Andrews, Joshua D Stein
PURPOSE: To generate personalized forecasts of how patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) experience disease progression at different intraocular pressure (IOP) levels to aid clinicians with setting personalized target IOPs. DESIGN: Secondary analyses using longitudinal data from 2 randomized controlled trials. PARTICIPANTS: Participants with moderate or advanced OAG from the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS) or the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS)...
December 1, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190849/concussion-recovery-phase-affects-vestibular-and-oculomotor-symptom-provocation
#17
Kelly M Cheever, Jane McDevitt, Ryan Tierney, W Geoffrey Wright
Vestibular and oculomotor testing is emerging as a valuable assessment in sport-related concussion (SRC). However, their usefulness for tracking recovery and guiding return-to-play decisions remains unclear. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate their clinical usefulness for tracking SRC recovery. Vestibular and oculomotor assessments were used to measure symptom provocation in an acute group (n=21) concussed≤10 days, prolonged symptoms group (n=10) concussed ≥16 days (median=84 days), healthy group (n=58) no concussions in >6 months...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168203/the-wisdom-of-networks-a-general-adaptation-and-learning-mechanism-of-complex-systems-the-network-core-triggers-fast-responses-to-known-stimuli-innovations-require-the-slow-network-periphery-and-are-encoded-by-core-remodeling
#18
REVIEW
Peter Csermely
I hypothesize that re-occurring prior experience of complex systems mobilizes a fast response, whose attractor is encoded by their strongly connected network core. In contrast, responses to novel stimuli are often slow and require the weakly connected network periphery. Upon repeated stimulus, peripheral network nodes remodel the network core that encodes the attractor of the new response. This "core-periphery learning" theory reviews and generalizes the heretofore fragmented knowledge on attractor formation by neural networks, periphery-driven innovation, and a number of recent reports on the adaptation of protein, neuronal, and social networks...
January 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147146/relationships-between-short-and-fast-brain-timescales
#19
Eva Déli, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Brain electric activity exhibits two important features: oscillations with different timescales, characterized by diverse functional and psychological outcomes, and a temporal power law distribution. In order to further investigate the relationships between low- and high- frequency spikes in the brain, we used a variant of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem which states that, when we assess the nervous activity as embedded in a sphere equipped with a fractal dimension, we achieve two antipodal points with similar features (the slow and fast, scale-free oscillations)...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099149/closure-methods-for-laparotomy-incisions-for-preventing-incisional-hernias-and-other-wound-complications
#20
REVIEW
Sunil V Patel, David D Paskar, Richard L Nelson, Satyanarayana S Vedula, Scott R Steele
BACKGROUND: Surgeons who perform laparotomy have a number of decisions to make regarding abdominal closure. Material and size of potential suture types varies widely. In addition, surgeons can choose to close the incision in anatomic layers or mass ('en masse'), as well as using either a continuous or interrupted suturing technique, of which there are different styles of each. There is ongoing debate as to which suturing techniques and suture materials are best for achieving definitive wound closure while minimising the risk of short- and long-term complications...
November 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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