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Fast and slow decisions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886408/the-fate-of-distractors-in-working-memory-no-evidence-for-their-active-removal
#1
Isabelle Dagry, Pierre Barrouillet
Not all the information processed in working memory (WM) must be retained. Due to the strict limitations of its capacity, the mechanisms that prevent WM from being cluttered and choked by no longer relevant information are of paramount importance. The present study tested the hypothesis put forward by the SOB-CS model of an active and attention-demanding mechanism that would remove no-longer relevant items from WM. Such a mechanism has been advocated to account for the well-known fact that, in complex span tasks, processing distractors at a slower pace results in better recall of memory items...
December 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871122/effect-of-correlations-in-swarms-on-collective-response
#2
David Mateo, Yoke Kong Kuan, Roland Bouffanais
Social interaction increases significantly the performance of a wide range of cooperative systems. However, evidence that natural swarms limit the number of interactions suggests potentially detrimental consequences of excessive interaction. Using a canonical model of collective motion, we find that the collective response to a dynamic localized perturbation-emulating a predator attack-is hindered when the number of interacting neighbors exceeds a certain threshold. Specifically, the effectiveness in avoiding the predator is enhanced by large integrated correlations, which are known to peak at a given level of interagent interaction...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855951/migrating-pleural-plaque-in-a-patient-with-asbestos-induced-pleural-disease-a-case-report
#3
Christian Eisenhawer, Michael K Felten, Thomas Hager, Mikhail Gronostayskiy, Philipp Bruners, Andrea Tannapfel, Thomas Kraus
BACKGROUND: Health surveillance of formerly asbestos exposed individuals focus on early detection of asbestos related diseases, such as lung fibrosis (asbestosis), pleural plaques, mesothelioma and lung cancer in particular. One main concern is the early and clear identification of lesions with a high risk of malignant changes and their undelayed clinical work-up. False positive results may lead to unnecessary and often painful diagnostic interventions, which create high costs when applied to a large cohort and also may discredit the whole program...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838150/genital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infections-clear-more-slowly-in-men-than-women-but-are-less-likely-to-become-established
#4
Joanna Lewis, Malcolm J Price, Paddy J Horner, Peter J White
Background: Rigorous estimates for clearance rates of untreated chlamydia infections are important for understanding chlamydia epidemiology and designing control interventions, but were previously only available for women. Methods: We used data from published studies of chlamydia-infected men who were retested at a later date without having received treatment. Our analysis allowed new infections to take one of 1, 2, or 3 courses, each clearing at a different rate...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812672/rapid-and-direct-recoveries-of-predators-and-prey-through-synchronized-ecosystem-management
#5
Jameal F Samhouri, Adrian C Stier, Shannon M Hennessey, Mark Novak, Benjamin S Halpern, Phillip S Levin
One of the twenty-first century's greatest environmental challenges is to recover and restore species, habitats and ecosystems. The decision about how to initiate restoration is best-informed by an understanding of the linkages between ecosystem components and, given these linkages, an appreciation of the consequences of choosing to recover one ecosystem component before another. However, it remains difficult to predict how the sequence of species' recoveries within food webs influences the speed and trajectory of restoration, and what that means for human well-being...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725117/the-effect-of-fast-and-slow-decisions-on-risk-taking
#6
Michael Kirchler, David Andersson, Caroline Bonn, Magnus Johannesson, Erik Ø Sørensen, Matthias Stefan, Gustav Tinghög, Daniel Västfjäll
We experimentally compare fast and slow decisions in a series of experiments on financial risk taking in three countries involving over 1700 subjects. To manipulate fast and slow decisions, subjects were randomly allocated to responding within 7 seconds (time pressure) or waiting for at least 7 or 20 seconds (time delay) before responding. To control for different effects of time pressure and time delay on measurement noise, we estimate separate parameters for noise and risk preferences within a random utility framework...
2017: Journal of Risk and Uncertainty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647228/chloramine-demand-estimation-using-surrogate-chemical-and-microbiological-parameters
#7
Sina Moradi, Sanly Liu, Christopher W K Chow, John van Leeuwen, David Cook, Mary Drikas, Rose Amal
A model is developed to enable estimation of chloramine demand in full scale drinking water supplies based on chemical and microbiological factors that affect chloramine decay rate via nonlinear regression analysis method. The model is based on organic character (specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA)) of the water samples and a laboratory measure of the microbiological (Fm) decay of chloramine. The applicability of the model for estimation of chloramine residual (and hence chloramine demand) was tested on several waters from different water treatment plants in Australia through statistical test analysis between the experimental and predicted data...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626827/the-effect-of-rapid-privatisation-on-mortality-in-mono-industrial-towns-in-post-soviet-russia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Aytalina Azarova, Darja Irdam, Alexi Gugushvili, Mihaly Fazekas, Gábor Scheiring, Pia Horvat, Denes Stefler, Irina Kolesnikova, Vladimir Popov, Ivan Szelenyi, David Stuckler, Michael Marmot, Michael Murphy, Martin McKee, Martin Bobak, Lawrence King
BACKGROUND: Population-level data suggest that economic disruptions in the early 1990s increased working-age male mortality in post-Soviet countries. This study uses individual-level data, using an indirect estimation method, to test the hypothesis that fast privatisation increased mortality in Russia. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we surveyed surviving relatives of individuals who lived through the post-communist transition to retrieve demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of their parents, siblings, and male partners...
May 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535524/genetics-and-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-progression
#9
Valentina Corradi, Anna Giuliani, Fiorella Gastaldon, Massimo de Cal, Barbara Mancini, Anna Montaldi, Alberta Alghisi, Irene Capelli, Gaetano La Manna, Claudio Ronco
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease, accounting for 10% of European patients on renal replacement therapy. In the previous years, many approaches to slow the progression of ADPKD were studied and many clinical trials published. In addition to having diagnostic role, the description of the genotype is even important to predict the progression of the disease and contributes, combined with several other factors, to a more precise patients classification...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532466/baseline-and-stress-induced-levels-of-corticosterone-in-male-and-female-afrotropical-and-european-temperate-stonechats-during-breeding
#10
Beate Apfelbeck, Barbara Helm, Juan Carlos Illera, Kim G Mortega, Patrick Smiddy, Neil P Evans
BACKGROUND: Latitudinal variation in avian life histories falls along a slow-fast pace of life continuum: tropical species produce small clutches, but have a high survival probability, while in temperate species the opposite pattern is found. This study investigated whether differential investment into reproduction and survival of tropical and temperate species is paralleled by differences in the secretion of the vertebrate hormone corticosterone (CORT). Depending on circulating concentrations, CORT can both act as a metabolic (low to medium levels) and a stress hormone (high levels) and, thereby, influence reproductive decisions...
May 22, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529478/slow-and-fast-responses-two-mechanisms-of-trial-outcome-processing-revealed-by-eeg-oscillations
#11
Nikita A Novikov, Yulia M Nurislamova, Natalia A Zhozhikashvili, Evgenii E Kalenkovich, Anna A Lapina, Boris V Chernyshev
Cognitive control includes maintenance of task-specific processes related to attention, and non-specific regulation of motor threshold. Depending upon the nature of the behavioral tasks, these mechanisms may predispose to different kinds of errors, with either increased or decreased response time (RT) of erroneous responses relative to correct responses. Specifically, slow responses are related to attentional lapses and decision uncertainty, these conditions tending to delay RTs of both erroneous and correct responses...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526584/a-simple-algorithm-to-predict-falls-in-primary-care-patients-aged-65-to-74%C3%A2-years-the-international-mobility-in-aging-study
#12
Fernando Gomez, Yan Yan Wu, Mohammad Auais, Afshin Vafaei, Maria-Victoria Zunzunegui
OBJECTIVE: Primary care practitioners need simple algorithms to identify older adults at higher risks of falling. Classification and regression tree (CaRT) analyses are useful tools for identification of clinical predictors of falls. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Community-dwelling older adults at 5 diverse sites: Tirana (Albania), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472075/study-of-metastatic-kinetics-in-metastatic-melanoma-treated-with-b-raf-inhibitors-introducing-mathematical-modelling-of-kinetics-into-the-therapeutic-decision
#13
Niklas Hartung, Cécilia T-K Huynh, Caroline Gaudy-Marqueste, Antonin Flavian, Nausicaa Malissen, Marie-Aleth Richard-Lallemand, Florence Hubert, Jean-Jacques Grob
BACKGROUND: Evolution of metastatic melanoma (MM) under B-RAF inhibitors (BRAFi) is unpredictable, but anticipation is crucial for therapeutic decision. Kinetics changes in metastatic growth are driven by molecular and immune events, and thus we hypothesized that they convey relevant information for decision making. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used a retrospective cohort of 37 MM patients treated by BRAFi only with at least 2 close CT-scans available before BRAFi, as a model to study kinetics of metastatic growth before, under and after BRAFi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344631/a-behavioural-syndrome-but-less-evidence-for-a-relationship-with-cognitive-traits-in-a-spatial-orientation-context
#14
Andrea C Schuster, Uwe Zimmermann, Carina Hauer, Katharina Foerster
BACKGROUND: Animals show consistent individual behavioural differences in many species. Further, behavioural traits (personality traits) form behavioural syndromes, characterised by correlations between different behaviours. Mechanisms maintaining these correlations could be constrained due to underlying relationships with cognitive traits. There is growing evidence for the non-independence of animal personality and general cognitive abilities in animals, but so far, studies on the direction of the relationship between them revealed contradictory results...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205567/opposing-effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-human-vigor
#15
Benjamin Griffiths, Ulrik R Beierholm
The vigor with which humans and animals engage in a task is often a determinant of the likelihood of the task's success. An influential theoretical model suggests that the speed and rate at which responses are made should depend on the availability of rewards and punishments. While vigor facilitates the gathering of rewards in a bountiful environment, there is an incentive to slow down when punishments are forthcoming so as to decrease the rate of punishments, in conflict with the urge to perform fast to escape punishment...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143434/combination-of-ivim-dwi-and-3d-asl-for-differentiating-true-progression-from-pseudoprogression-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-after-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-study-protocol-of-a-prospective-diagnostic-trial
#16
Zhi-Cheng Liu, Lin-Feng Yan, Yu-Chuan Hu, Ying-Zhi Sun, Qiang Tian, Hai-Yan Nan, Ying Yu, Qian Sun, Wen Wang, Guang-Bin Cui
BACKGROUND: Standard therapy for Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) involves maximal safe tumor resection followed with radiotherapy and concurrent adjuvant temozolomide. About 20 to 30% patients undergoing their first post-radiation MRI show increased contrast enhancement which eventually recovers without any new treatment. This phenomenon is referred to as pseudoprogression. Differentiating tumor progression from pseudoprogression is critical for determining tumor treatment, yet this capacity remains a challenge for conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
February 1, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131862/evidence-accumulation-detected-in-bold-signal-using-slow-perceptual-decision-making
#17
Paul M Krueger, Marieke K van Vugt, Patrick Simen, Leigh Nystrom, Philip Holmes, Jonathan D Cohen
BACKGROUND: We assessed whether evidence accumulation could be observed in the BOLD signal during perceptual decision making. This presents a challenge since the hemodynamic response is slow, while perceptual decisions are typically fast. NEW METHOD: Guided by theoretical predictions of the drift diffusion model, we slowed down decisions by penalizing participants for incorrect responses. Second, we distinguished BOLD activity related to stimulus detection (modeled using a boxcar) from activity related to integration (modeled using a ramp) by minimizing the collinearity of GLM regressors...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065714/transient-inactivation-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-rats-disrupts-avoidance-of-a-dynamic-object
#18
Jan Svoboda, Veronika Lobellová, Anna Popelíková, Nikhil Ahuja, Eduard Kelemen, Aleš Stuchlík
Although animals often learn and monitor the spatial properties of relevant moving objects such as conspecifics and predators to properly organize their own spatial behavior, the underlying brain substrate has received little attention and hence remains elusive. Because the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in conflict monitoring and effort-based decision making, and ACC neurons respond to objects in the environment, it may also play a role in the monitoring of moving cues and exerting the appropriate spatial response...
January 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981181/stress-potentiates-decision-biases-a-stress-induced-deliberation-to-intuition-sidi-model
#19
REVIEW
Rongjun Yu
Humans often make decisions in stressful situations, for example when the stakes are high and the potential consequences severe, or when the clock is ticking and the task demand is overwhelming. In response, a whole train of biological responses to stress has evolved to allow organisms to make a fight-or-flight response. When under stress, fast and effortless heuristics may dominate over slow and demanding deliberation in making decisions under uncertainty. Here, I review evidence from behavioral studies and neuroimaging research on decision making under stress and propose that stress elicits a switch from an analytic reasoning system to intuitive processes, and predict that this switch is associated with diminished activity in the prefrontal executive control regions and exaggerated activity in subcortical reactive emotion brain areas...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883158/fast-or-slow-foods-describing-natural-variations-in-oral-processing-characteristics-across-a-wide-range-of-asian-foods
#20
C G Forde, C Leong, E Chia-Ming, K McCrickerd
The structural properties of foods have a functional role to play in oral processing behaviours and sensory perception, and also impact on meal size and the experience of fullness. This study adopted a new approach by using behavioural coding analysis of eating behaviours to explore how a range of food textures manifest as the microstructural properties of eating and expectations of fullness. A selection of 47 Asian foods were served in fixed quantities to a panel of participants (N = 12) and their eating behaviours were captured via web-camera recordings...
February 22, 2017: Food & Function
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