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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445462/cell-diversity-and-network-dynamics-in-photosensitive-human-brain-organoids
#1
Giorgia Quadrato, Tuan Nguyen, Evan Z Macosko, John L Sherwood, Sung Min Yang, Daniel R Berger, Natalie Maria, Jorg Scholvin, Melissa Goldman, Justin P Kinney, Edward S Boyden, Jeff W Lichtman, Ziv M Williams, Steven A McCarroll, Paola Arlotta
In vitro models of the developing brain such as three-dimensional brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity to study aspects of human brain development and disease. However, the cells generated within organoids and the extent to which they recapitulate the regional complexity, cellular diversity and circuit functionality of the brain remain undefined. Here we analyse gene expression in over 80,000 individual cells isolated from 31 human brain organoids. We find that organoids can generate a broad diversity of cells, which are related to endogenous classes, including cells from the cerebral cortex and the retina...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444700/fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-and-super-resolution-microscopies-shed-light-on-the-directed-and-self-assembly-of-functional-porphyrins-onto-carbon-nanotubes-and-flat-surfaces
#2
Boyang Mao, David González Calatayud, Vincenzo Mirabello, Haobo Ge, Benjamin J Hodges, Robert M J Jacobs, Ashley M Shepherd, José Alberto Ribeiro Martins, Navaratnarajah Kuganathan, Jorge Bernardino De La Serna, Stanley W Botchway, Sofia Ioana Pascu
Two new routes to functionalized SWNTs have been established using a bulky Zn(II)-porphyrin featuring thiolate groups at the periphery. We probed the optical properties of this Zinc(II)-substituted, bulky aryl porphyrin and those of the corresponding new nano-composites with single walled carbon nanotube (SWNTs) and coronene, as a model for graphene. We report hereby on: (i) the supramolecular interactions between the pristine SWNTs and Zn(II)-porphyrin by virtue of π-π stacking, and (ii) a novel covalent binding strategy based on the Bingel reaction...
April 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444555/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-a-novel-atomized-liquid-needle-free-transdermal-delivery-system
#3
Yi-Huei Huang, Chieh-Shen Hu, Yi-Jhen Ke, Chiao-Hsi Chiang, Po-Da Hong, Ming-Kung Yeh
Needle-free jet injections constitute a crucial method for drug delivery. A novel liquid drug delivery system has been proposed recently, in which pressure atomizes liquid before delivering that atomized liquid to the patient's body; however, the mechanism and efficiency of the system are unclear. This study explored the shot delivery pressure, penetration depth, and cumulative amount of permeation of this system. This system was used to deliver 0.5% (w/v) methylene blue to agarose phantoms at various shot delivery pressures...
April 25, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442495/aspirin-prevents-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-cdx2-expression-stimulated-by-acid-and-bile-salts-in-oesophageal-squamous-cells-of-patients-with-barrett-s-oesophagus
#4
Xiaofang Huo, Xi Zhang, Chunhua Yu, Edaire Cheng, Qiuyang Zhang, Kerry B Dunbar, Thai H Pham, John P Lynch, David H Wang, Robert S Bresalier, Stuart J Spechler, Rhonda F Souza
OBJECTIVE: In previous studies using oesophageal squamous cells from patients with Barrett's oesophagus (normal oesophageal squamous (NES)-B cells) and from patients without Barrett's oesophagus (NES-G cells), we showed that acid and bile salts induced caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) expression only in NES-B cells. CDX2, a transcription factor required to form intestinal epithelium, is a target of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signalling, which can be inhibited by aspirin...
April 25, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442407/light-magnetic-hyperthermia-triggered-drug-released-from-multi-functional-thermo-sensitive-magnetoliposomes-for-precise-cancer-synergetic-theranostics
#5
Yuxin Guo, Yang Zhang, Jinyuan Ma, Qi Li, Yang Li, Xinyi Zhou, Dan Zhao, Hua Song, Qing Chen, Xuan Zhu
Precise delivery of antineoplastic drugs to specific tumor region has drawn much attention in recent years. Herein, a light/magnetic hyperthermia triggered drug delivery with multiple functionality is designed based on methotrexate (MTX) modified thermo-sensitive magnetoliposomes (MTX-MagTSLs). In this system, MTX and oleic acid modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can be applied in biological and magnetic targeting. Meanwhile, lipophilic fluorescent dye Cy5.5 and MNPs are encapsulated into the bilayer of liposomes, which can not only achieve dual-imaging effect to verify the MTX-MagTSLs accumulation in tumor region, but also provide an appropriate laser irradiation region to release Doxorubicin (Dox) under alternating magnetic field (AMF)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442362/blockade-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-blocks-the-acquisition-of-reward-related-learning
#6
E Galaj, R Nisanov, R Ranaldi
In the present study we investigated whether stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a role in the acquisition of food-based conditioned approach learning. Rats were exposed to 3 (in Experiment 1) or 7 (in Experiment 2) conditioning sessions in which 30, randomly presented light (CS) presentations were paired with delivery of food pellets (US), followed by one session with no light or food and finally one CS-only test session with only light stimulus presentations...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441605/biological-effects-and-medical-applications-of-infrared-radiation
#7
Shang-Ru Tsai, Michael R Hamblin
Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441288/investigation-of-optically-stimulated-luminescence-and-signal-fading-properties-of-several-materials
#8
W Geoffrey West, Kimberlee J Kearfott, Chun Yong Seow
Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry involves the illumination of an irradiated sample on an appropriate material to produce a stimulated emission of light, whose intensity is indicative of the radiation dose. This technique is currently used for personnel dosimetry, environmental dosimetry, and geological dating applications. While a great deal of published research focusing on α-Al2O3:C and natural materials used for geological dating exist, relatively little is known about the OSL properties of thermoluminescent (TL) materials...
June 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439924/prevalence-and-predictors-of-thyroid-functional-abnormalities-in-newly-diagnosed-al-amyloidosis
#9
E Muchtar, D S Dean, A Dispenzieri, D Dingli, F K Buadi, M Q Lacy, S R Hayman, P Kapoor, N Leung, S Russell, J A Lust, Yi Lin, R Warsame, W Gonsalves, T V Kourelis, R S Go, R Chakraborty, S Zeldenrust, R A Kyle, S Vincent Rajkumar, S K Kumar, M A Gertz
BACKGROUND: Data on the effect of systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) on thyroid function are limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of hypothyroidism in AL amyloidosis patients and determine its predictors. METHODS: 1142 newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis patients were grouped based on the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement at diagnosis: hypothyroid group (TSH above upper normal reference; >5 mIU L(-1) ; n = 217, 19% of study participants) and euthyroid group (n = 925, 81%)...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439519/structured-illumination-diffuse-optical-tomography-for-noninvasive-functional-neuroimaging-in-mice
#10
Matthew D Reisman, Zachary E Markow, Adam Q Bauer, Joseph P Culver
Optical intrinsic signal (OIS) imaging has been a powerful tool for capturing functional brain hemodynamics in rodents. Recent wide field-of-view implementations of OIS have provided efficient maps of functional connectivity from spontaneous brain activity in mice. However, OIS requires scalp retraction and is limited to superficial cortical tissues. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) techniques provide noninvasive imaging, but previous DOT systems for rodent neuroimaging have been limited either by sparse spatial sampling or by slow speed...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438413/functional-redundancy-between-canonical-endocannabinoid-signaling-systems-in-the-modulation-of-anxiety
#11
Gaurav Bedse, Nolan D Hartley, Emily Neale, Andrew D Gaulden, Toni A Patrick, Philip J Kingsley, Md Jashim Uddin, Niels Plath, Lawrence J Marnett, Sachin Patel
BACKGROUND: Increasing the available repertoire of effective treatments for mood and anxiety disorders represents a critical unmet need. Pharmacological augmentation of endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been suggested to represent a novel approach to the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, the functional interactions between two canonical eCB pathways mediated via anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamine [AEA]) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the regulation of anxiety are not well understood...
March 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438164/aggregation-dispersion-transitions-of-t4-phage-triggered-by-environmental-ion-availability
#12
Bożena Szermer-Olearnik, Marek Drab, Mateusz Mąkosa, Maria Zembala, Jakub Barbasz, Krystyna Dąbrowska, Janusz Boratyński
BACKGROUND: Bacteriophage survives in at least two extremes of ionic environments: bacterial host (high ionic-cytosol) and that of soil (low ionic-environmental water). The impact of ionic composition in the micro- and macro-environments has not so far been addressed in phage biology. RESULTS: Here, we discovered a novel mechanism of aggregation/disaggregation transitions by phage virions. When normal sodium levels in phage media (150 mM) were lowered to 10 mM, advanced imaging by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering all revealed formation of viral packages, each containing 20-100 virions...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437174/more-than-fever-thermoregulatory-responses-to-immunological-stimulation-and-consequences-of-thermoregulatory-strategy-on-innate-immunity-in-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#13
Jeffrey M Goessling, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
Organisms possess a range of thermoregulatory strategies that may vary in response to sickness, thereby driving important life-history consequences. Because the immune system is vital to maintaining organism function, understanding the suite of immune responses to infection indicates basic costs and benefits of physiological strategies. Here, we assessed consequences of thermoregulation and seasonality on immune function in both immunologically stimulated and nonstimulated gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436514/cpg-loaded-mos2-nanosheets-as-multifunctional-agents-for-photothermal-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
Qiusen Han, Xinhuan Wang, Xinghang Jia, Shuangfei Cai, Wei Liang, Yan Qin, Rong Yang, Chen Wang
Single or few-layered MoS2 nanosheets, as a novel class of 2D nanomaterials, have received tremendous attention due to their fantastic physical and chemical properties. Here, we fabricated MoS2-PEG-CpG with a small and uniform size as a multifunctional platform for photothermal enhanced immunotherapy. MoS2 nanosheets were fabricated by chemical exfoliation and further probe sonication. To realize MoS2-based adjuvant delivery, MoS2 nanosheets were functionalized with cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form MoS2-PEG-CpG nanoconjugates...
April 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436473/volumetric-chemical-imaging-by-stimulated-raman-projection-microscopy-and-tomography
#15
Xueli Chen, Chi Zhang, Peng Lin, Kai-Chih Huang, Jimin Liang, Jie Tian, Ji-Xin Cheng
Volumetric imaging allows global understanding of three-dimensional (3D) complex systems. Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and optical projection tomography have been reported to image 3D volumes with high resolutions and at high speeds. Such methods, however, usually rely on fluorescent labels for chemical targeting, which could perturb the biological functionality in living systems. We demonstrate Bessel-beam-based stimulated Raman projection (SRP) microscopy and tomography for label-free volumetric chemical imaging...
April 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436451/empirical-modeling-of-physiochemical-immune-response-of-multilayer-zinc-oxide-nanomaterials-under-uv-exposure-to-melanoma-and-foreskin-fibroblasts
#16
Muhammad Fakhar-E-Alam, M Waseem Akram, Seemab Iqbal, K S Alimgeer, M Atif, K Sultana, M Willander, Zhiming M Wang
Carcinogenesis is a complex molecular process starting with genetic and epigenetic alterations, mutation stimulation, and DNA modification, which leads to proteomic adaptation ending with an uncontrolled proliferation mechanism. The current research focused on the empirical modelling of the physiological response of human melanoma cells (FM55P) and human foreskin fibroblasts cells (AG01518) to the multilayer zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials under UV-A exposure. To validate this experimental scheme, multilayer ZnO nanomaterials were grown on a femtotip silver capillary and conjugated with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435253/antimicrobial-photodynamic-activity-and-cytocompatibility-of-au25-capt-18-clusters-photoexcited-by-blue-led-light-irradiation
#17
Saori Miyata, Hirofumi Miyaji, Hideya Kawasaki, Masaki Yamamoto, Erika Nishida, Hiroko Takita, Tsukasa Akasaka, Natsumi Ushijima, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Tsutomu Sugaya
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has beneficial effects in dental treatment. We applied captopril-protected gold (Au25(Capt)18) clusters as a novel photosensitizer for aPDT. Photoexcited Au clusters under light irradiation generated singlet oxygen ((1)O2). Accordingly, the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Au25(Capt)18 clusters under dental blue light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation were evaluated. (1)O2 generation of Au25(Capt)18 clusters under blue LED irradiation (420-460 nm) was detected by a methotrexate (MTX) probe...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434944/dose-dependent-t-cell-dynamics-and-cytokine-cascade-following-rvsv-zebov-immunization
#18
Christine Dahlke, Rahel Kasonta, Sebastian Lunemann, Verena Krähling, Madeleine E Zinser, Nadine Biedenkopf, Sarah K Fehling, My L Ly, Anne Rechtien, Hans C Stubbe, Flaminia Olearo, Saskia Borregaard, Alen Jambrecina, Felix Stahl, Thomas Strecker, Markus Eickmann, Marc Lütgehetmann, Michael Spohn, Stefan Schmiedel, Ansgar W Lohse, Stephan Becker, Marylyn M Addo
BACKGROUND: The recent West African Ebola epidemic led to accelerated efforts to test Ebola vaccine candidates. As part of the World Health Organisation-led VSV Ebola Consortium (VEBCON), we performed a phase I clinical trial investigating rVSV-ZEBOV (a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored Ebola vaccine), which has recently demonstrated protection from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in phase III clinical trials and is currently in advanced stages of licensing. So far, correlates of immune protection are incompletely understood and the role of cell-mediated immune responses has not been comprehensively investigated to date...
April 5, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433938/imaging-lysosomal-highly-reactive-oxygen-species-and-lighting-up-cancer-cells-and-tumors-enabled-by-a-si-rhodamine-based-near-infrared-fluorescent-probe
#19
Hongxing Zhang, Jing Liu, Chenlu Liu, Pengcheng Yu, Minjia Sun, Xiaohan Yan, Jian-Ping Guo, Wei Guo
Lysosomes have recently been regarded as the attractive pharmacological targets for selectively killing of cancer cells via lysosomal cell death (LCD) pathway that is closely associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the details on the ROS-induced LCD of cancer cells are still poorly understood, partially due to the absence of a lysosome-targetable, robust, and biocompatible imaging tool for ROS. In this work, we brought forward a Si-rhodamine-based fluorescent probe, named PSiR, which could selectively and sensitively image the pathologically more relavent highly reactive oxygen species (hROS: HClO, HO, and ONOO(-)) in lysosomes of cancer cells...
April 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433688/vitamin-d-downregulates-the-il-23-receptor-pathway-in-human-mucosal-ilc3
#20
Viktoria Konya, Paulo Czarnewski, Marianne Forkel, Anna Rao, Efthymia Kokkinou, Eduardo J Villablanca, Sven Almer, Ulrik Lindforss, Danielle Friberg, Charlotte Höög, Peter Bergman, Jenny Mjösberg
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The IL-23-driven tissue-resident ILC3 play essential roles in intestinal immunity, and targeting IL-23/12 is a promising approach in IBD therapy. OBJECTIVE: We set out to define the role of 1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25D) in regulating functional responses of human mucosal ILC3 to IL-23 plus IL-1β stimulation. METHODS: Transcriptomes of sorted tonsil ILC3 were assessed by microarray analysis...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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