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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231069/the-potential-of-transcranial-photobiomodulation-therapy-for-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Farzad Salehpour, Seyed Hossein Rasta
Major depressive disorder is a common debilitating mood disorder that affects quality of life. Prefrontal cortex abnormalities, an imbalance in neurotransmitters, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the major factors in the etiology of major depressive disorder. Despite the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder, 30%-40% of patients do not respond to antidepressants. Given this, exploring the alternative therapies for treatment or prevention of major depressive disorder has aroused interest among scientists...
February 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230868/tuning-calcium-biosensors-with-a-single-site-mutation-structural-dynamics-insights-from-femtosecond-raman-spectroscopy
#2
Sean R Tachibana, Longteng Tang, Yanli Wang, Liangdong Zhu, Weimin Liu, Chong Fang
Fluorescent protein biosensors are popular reporters for biological processes and life sciences, but their fundamental working mechanisms remain unclear. To characterize the functional fluorescence events on their native timescales, we implemented wavelength-tunable femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) to shed light on a blue-green emission-ratiometric fluorescent protein based Ca(2+) biosensor with a single Pro377Arg mutation. The transient Raman modes of the embedded chromophore from ca. 1000-1650 cm(-1) exhibit characteristic intensity and frequency dynamics which infer the underlying atomic motions and photochemical reaction stages...
February 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230208/optogenetic-activation-of-vglut2-expressing-excitatory-neurons-blocks-epileptic-seizure-like-activity-in-the-mouse-entorhinal-cortex
#3
Latefa Yekhlef, Gian Luca Breschi, Stefano Taverna
We investigated whether an anti-epileptic effect is obtained by selectively activating excitatory neurons expressing ChR2 under the promoter for the synaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). VGLUT2-expressing cells were optically stimulated while local field potential and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in mouse entorhinal cortical slices perfused with the proconvulsive compound 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). In control conditions, blue light flashes directly depolarized the majority of putative glutamatergic cells, which in turn synaptically excited GABAergic interneurons...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229020/an-open-source-device-for-operant-licking-in-rats
#4
Matthew Longley, Ethan L Willis, Cindy X Tay, Hao Chen
We created an easy-to-use device for operant licking experiments and another device that records environmental variables. Both devices use the Raspberry Pi computer to obtain data from multiple input devices (e.g., radio frequency identification tag readers, touch and motion sensors, environmental sensors) and activate output devices (e.g., LED lights, syringe pumps) as needed. Data gathered from these devices are stored locally on the computer but can be automatically transferred to a remote server via a wireless network...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227694/portable-closed-loop-optogenetic-stimulation-device
#5
Epsy S Edward, Abbas Z Kouzani, Rajas P Kale, Susannah J Tye, Epsy S Edward, Abbas Z Kouzani, Rajas P Kale, Susannah J Tye, Rajas P Kale, Susannah J Tye, Abbas Z Kouzani, Epsy S Edward
This paper presents a closed-loop optogenetic stimulation device to achieve online modulation of neurons. The device is designed to be mountable on small rodents in pre-clinical settings. Considering the size of rodents and the need for portability, a single-piece self-contained device is developed which allows real-time photostimulation based on detected neuronal states. It consists of three components: a neural recorder, a control algorithm, and an optogenetic stimulator. The neural recorder which is realized by analogue circuitry measures the neural signal...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227567/a-method-to-assess-the-location-and-positional-stability-of-supra-choroidal-retinal-neuroprostheses
#6
Barry S Gow, Gregg J Suaning, Barry S Gow, Gregg J Suaning, Barry S Gow, Gregg J Suaning
Electrical stimulation of the retina is now firmly established as a means of restoration of rudimentary vision for blindness particularly that caused by retinitis pigmentosa. Of the various approaches, the novel positioning of an ultra-thin stimulating electrode array (SEA) posterior to the choroid has shown promising results. Following their implantation, reliable imaging methods are essential to establish the SEA's location relative to the optic disk and retinal vasculature. Because the opacity of the choroid precludes the use of conventional light-based fundus imaging, we developed an instrument (Wangiscope) that relies on infra-red illumination from LEDs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227507/efficient-assembly-of-multi-color-fiberless-optoelectrodes-with-on-board-light-sources-for-neural-stimulation-and-recording
#7
K Kampasi, J Seymour, E Stark, G Buzsaki, K D Wise, E Yoon, K Kampasi, J Seymour, E Stark, G Buzsaki, K D Wise, E Yoon, E Yoon, K Kampasi, J Seymour, G Buzsaki, E Stark, K D Wise
Fiberless optoelectrodes are an emerging tool to enable brain circuit mapping by providing precise optical modulation and electrical monitoring of many neurons. While optoelectrodes having an on-board light source offer compact and optically efficient device solutions, many of them fail to provide robust thermal and electrical design to fully exploit the recording capabilities of the device. In this work, we present a novel fiberless multicolor optoelectrode solution, which meets the optical and thermal design requirements of an in vivo neural optoelectrode and offers potential for low-noise neural recording...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227506/a-pdms-based-optical-waveguide-for-transcutaneous-powering-of-microelectrode-arrays
#8
Ali Ersen, Mesut Sahin, Ali Ersen, Mesut Sahin, Ali Ersen, Mesut Sahin
Implantable microelectrode arrays (MEAs) usually have on-site electronics that need to be powered, both in neural recording and stimulation applications. Interconnecting wires between implanted electrodes and the outside world constitute a major source of complications. Our solution to this tethering problem is to design a light waveguide that can collect the optical power transcutaneously and transmit it to the microelectrode array where it is to be converted to an electric current. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based waveguide was fabricated and its attenuation was measured in vitro and found to be 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226858/a-miniature-closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-device
#9
Mahboubeh Parastarfeizabadi, Abbas Z Kouzani, Ian Gibson, Susannah J Tye, Mahboubeh Parastarfeizabadi, Abbas Z Kouzani, Ian Gibson, Susannah J Tye, Mahboubeh Parastarfeizabadi, Ian Gibson, Susannah J Tye, Abbas Z Kouzani
This paper presents a miniature light-weight closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) device that delivers on-demand stimulation current pulses by monitoring and analysing local field potentials. The device includes monitoring and DBS units, each designed and fabricated on a separate small round circuit board. The closed-loop DBS device has been successfully validated by injecting a pre-recorded neural signal into its input, and collecting and analysing its output. The monitoring unit has an amplification gain of 113 dB in frequency range of 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223726/dendritic-cells-engineered-to-secrete-anti-dcr3-antibody-augment-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-response-against-pancreatic-cancer-in-vitro
#10
Jiang Chen, Xiao-Zhong Guo, Hong-Yu Li, Jia-Jun Zhao, Wen-Da Xu
AIM: To investigate the enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against pancreatic cancer (PC) in vitro induced by dendritic cells (DCs) engineered to secrete anti-DcR3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). METHODS: DCs, T lymphocytes and primary PC cells were obtained from PC patients. DCs were transfected with a designed humanized anti-DcR3 monoclonal antibody heavy and light chain mRNA and/or total tumor RNA (DC-tumor-anti-DcR3 RNA or DC-total tumor RNA) by using electroporation technology...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223530/differential-tor-activation-and-cell-proliferation-in-arabidopsis-root-and-shoot-apexes
#11
Xiaojuan Li, Wenguo Cai, Yanlin Liu, Hui Li, Liwen Fu, Zengyu Liu, Lin Xu, Hongtao Liu, Tongda Xu, Yan Xiong
The developmental plasticity of plants relies on the remarkable ability of the meristems to integrate nutrient and energy availability with environmental signals. Meristems in root and shoot apexes share highly similar molecular players but are spatially separated by soil. Whether and how these two meristematic tissues have differential activation requirements for local nutrient, hormone, and environmental cues (e.g., light) remain enigmatic in photosynthetic plants. Here, we report that the activation of root and shoot apexes relies on distinct glucose and light signals...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223484/rhythmic-brain-stimulation-reduces-anxiety-related-behavior-in-a-mouse-model-based-on-meditation-training
#12
Aldis P Weible, Denise M Piscopo, Mary K Rothbart, Michael I Posner, Cristopher M Niell
Meditation training induces changes at both the behavioral and neural levels. A month of meditation training can reduce self-reported anxiety and other dimensions of negative affect. It also can change white matter as measured by diffusion tensor imaging and increase resting-state midline frontal theta activity. The current study tests the hypothesis that imposing rhythms in the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), by using optogenetics to induce oscillations in activity, can produce behavioral changes. Mice were randomly assigned to groups and were given twenty 30-min sessions of light pulses delivered at 1, 8, or 40 Hz over 4 wk or were assigned to a no-laser control condition...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223358/structural-and-biochemical-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-obge-a-central-regulator-of-bacterial-persistence
#13
Sotirios Gkekas, Ranjan Kumar Singh, Alexander V Shkumatov, Joris Messens, Maarten Fauvart, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels, Wim Versées
The Obg protein family belongs to the TRAFAC (translation factor) class of P-loop GTPases and is conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes. Essential roles in many different cellular processes have been suggested for the Obg protein from Escherichia coli (ObgE), and we recently showed that it is a central regulator of bacterial persistence. Here, we report the first crystal structure of ObgE at 1.85 Å resolution in the GDP-bound state, showing the characteristic N-terminal domain and a central G domain that are common to all Obg proteins...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222420/camalexin-induced-cell-membrane-scrambling-and-cell-shrinkage-in-human-erythrocytes
#14
Mustafa Almasry, Mohamed Jemaà, Morena Mischitelli, Florian Lang, Caterina Faggio
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The thaliana phytoalexin Camalexin has been proposed for the treatment of malignancy. Camalexin counteracts tumor growth in part by stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms contributing to the complex machinery executing eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, ceramide, protein kinase C and caspases...
February 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221990/an-integrated-circuit-for-simultaneous-extracellular-electrophysiology-recording-and-optogenetic-neural-manipulation
#15
Chang Hao Chen, Elizabeth A McCullagh, Sio Hang Pun, Peng Un Mak, Mang I Vai, Pui In Mak, Achim Klug, Tim C Lei
OBJECTIVE: The ability to record and to control action potential firing in neuronal circuits is critical to understand how the brain functions. The objective of this study is to develop a monolithic integrated circuit (IC) to record action potentials and simultaneously control action potential firing using optogenetics. METHODS: A low-noise and high input impedance (or low input capacitance) neural recording amplifier is combined with a high current laser/light-emitting diode (LED) driver in a single IC...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220946/light-and-energy-based-therapeutics-for-genitourinary-syndrome-of-menopause-consensus-and-controversies
#16
Yona Tadir, Adrian Gaspar, Ahinoam Lev-Sagie, Macrene Alexiades, Red Alinsod, Alex Bader, Alberto Calligaro, Jorge A Elias, Marco Gambaciani, Jorge E Graviria, Cheryl B Iglesia, Ksenija Selih-Martinec, Patricia L Mwesigwa, Urska B Ogrinc, Stefano Salvatore, Paolo Scollo, Nicola Zerbinati, John Stuart Nelson
Gynecologist and plastic surgeons pioneered the application of lasers in medicine and surgery almost 5 decades ago, initially used to treat cervical and vaginal pathologies. Ever since, energy-based devices have been deployed to treat pelvic pathologies and improve fertility. Recent technological developments triggered an unprecedented wave of publications, assessing the efficacy of fractional laser, and radiofrequency on the vaginal wall in reversing natural aging processes. Studies have shown that a certain degree of thermal energy deposited on the vaginal wall stimulates proliferation of the glycogen-enriched epithelium, neovascularization, and collagen formation in the lamina propria, and improves natural lubrication and control of urination...
February 21, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218915/one-step-optogenetics-with-multifunctional-flexible-polymer-fibers
#17
Seongjun Park, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiaoting Jia, Han Kyoung Choe, Benjamin Grena, Jeewoo Kang, Jiyeon Park, Chi Lu, Andres Canales, Ritchie Chen, Yeong Shin Yim, Gloria B Choi, Yoel Fink, Polina Anikeeva
Optogenetic interrogation of neural pathways relies on delivery of light-sensitive opsins into tissue and subsequent optical illumination and electrical recording from the regions of interest. Despite the recent development of multifunctional neural probes, integration of these modalities in a single biocompatible platform remains a challenge. We developed a device composed of an optical waveguide, six electrodes and two microfluidic channels produced via fiber drawing. Our probes facilitated injections of viral vectors carrying opsin genes while providing collocated neural recording and optical stimulation...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218505/theoretically-manipulating-quantum-dots-on-two-dimensional-2d-tio2-monolayer-for-effective-visible-light-absorption
#18
Ting Liao, Ziqi Sun, Shi Xue Dou
Low solar energy harvesting and conversion efficiency has become a major problem in solar energy science and engineering owing to the difficulty in capturing solar energy across the wide solar spectrum, especially in the visible light range. Inspired by the extraordinary properties of materials arising from decreased dimensions, in this study, we explore a nano-contact system formed by a two-dimensional (2D) TiO2 monolayer and II-VI semiconductor (CdX)13 (X = S, Se and Te) nanocages for engineering the visible light absorption...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217874/fabricating-triple-sensitive-polymer-nano-aggregates-via-an-aqueous-iminoboronate-multicomponent-reaction
#19
Yanning Liu, Guo Li, Jiangang Chen, Zhaotie Liu, Zhongwen Liu, Jinqiang Jiang
A triple-sensitive polymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-iminoboronate nitrobenzyl ethanediol chelate (PEG-INEC) is efficiently fabricated via the convenient aqueous iminoboronate multi-component reaction (MCR) of methoxypolyethylene glycol amine (mPEG-NH2 ), 2-formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA), and bis(2-nitrophenyl) ethanediol (BNPE, a photo-cleavable nitrobenzyl alcohol derivate). The aqueous MCR synthetic procedure is followed using (1) H NMR and turbidity analysis. It is shown that polymer nano-aggregates of PEG-INEC in aqueous solution can be dissociated through the stimuli responsive reactions of the hydrophobic iminoboronate nitrobenzyl ethanediol chelates (INECs) when exposed to UV light, acid, and H2 O2 , respectively...
February 20, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217846/enhanced-peroxidase-like-performance-of-gold-nanoparticles-by-hot-electrons
#20
Xinghua Xia, Chen Wang, Yi Shi, Xing-Guo Nie, Yuan-Yuan Dan, Jian Li
Enzyme mimics have been widely used as alternatives to natural enzymes. However, the catalytic performances of enzyme mimics are often decreased due to different spatial structures or absence of functional groups compared to natural enzymes. Herein, we report a highly efficient enzyme-like catalytic performance of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by visible light stimulation. The enzyme-like reaction is evaluated by the catalytic reaction of AuNPs oxidizing a typical chromogenic substrate 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzydine (TMB) with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant...
February 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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