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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324109/sex-specific-life-course-changes-in-the-neuro-metabolic-phenotype-of-glut3-null-heterozygous-mice-ketogenic-diet-ameliorates-electroencephalographic-seizures-and-improves-sociability
#1
Yun Dai, Yuanzi Zhao, Masatoshi Tomi, Bo-Chul Shin, Shanthie Thamotharan, Andrey Mazarati, Raman Sankar, Elizabeth A Wang, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Jingjing Zhang, Andrew Frew, Jeffry R Alger, Peter Clark, Monica Sondhi, Sudatip Kositamongkol, Leah Leibovitch, Sherin U Devaskar
We tested the hypothesis that exposure of glut3+/- mice to a ketogenic diet ameliorates autism-like features which includes aberrant behavior and electrographic seizures. We first investigated the life course sex-specific changes in basal plasma-CSF-brain metabolic profile, brain glucose transport/uptake, glucose and monocarboxylate transporter proteins, and ATP in the presence or absence of systemic insulin administration. Glut3+/- male but not female mice (5m of age) displayed reduced CSF glucose/lactate concentrations with no change in brain Glut1, Mct2, glucose uptake or ATP...
January 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323725/bronchoscopy-oral-or-nasal-insertion
#2
Geertje M de Boer, Yasemin Türk, Virginie H Meuleman-van Waning, Gert-Jan Braunstahl
BACKGROUND: Flexible bronchoscopy is a frequently used procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of various lung disorders. As there is no standardized guideline on the insertion of the bronchoscope, and few studies are available on the subject, we conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial to compare nasal and oral insertion. METHODS: In total, 66 patients who underwent bronchoscopy without sedation were randomly assigned to either oral or nasal insertion...
April 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319694/sexual-trauma-is-more-strongly-associated-with-tonic-immobility-than-other-types-of-trauma-a-population-based-study
#3
Juliana Kalaf, Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho, Liliane Maria Pereira Vilete, Mariana Pires Luz, William Berger, Mauro Mendlowicz, Eliane Volchan, Sergio Baxter Andreoli, Maria Inês Quintana, Jair de Jesus Mari, Ivan Figueira
BACKGROUND: Tonic immobility is an involuntary motor and vocal inhibition reaction, considered the last-ditch response of the defensive cascade model. It is elicited in context of inescapable threat and perception of entrapment. Our aim was to investigate the association between different traumatic events and peritraumatic tonic immobility (PTI) in a representative sample of the general population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of general population from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo with 3231 victims of traumatic events aged 15-75 years who completed the Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318970/transcricothyroid-endoscopic-subglottic-surgery-for-posterior-glottic-stenosis-a-case-report
#4
Koji Matsushima, Kentaro Matsuura, Teppei Takeda, Yuko Sasaki, Akira Fukuo, Kota Wada, Yusuke Watanabe
Posterior glottic stenosis (PGS) is a rare but life-threatening condition mostly caused by damage to the interarytenoid mucosa by an endotracheal tube. In surgical treatment of PGS, airway patency is prioritized, and the laryngeal functions involved in swallowing and phonation are considerably sacrificed. In the majority of cases, lateralization of a vocal fold or partial excision of a vocal fold and arytenoid cartilage results in glottal closure insufficiency and deterioration of phonatory function. We present the first report of transcricothyroid endoscopic subglottic surgery to treat a 46-year-old man with PGS who was intubated for 10 days...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318967/pitch-strength-as-an-outcome-measure-for-treatment-of-dysphonia
#5
Lisa M Kopf, Cristina Jackson-Menaldi, Adam D Rubin, Jean Skeffington, Eric J Hunter, Mark D Skowronski, Rahul Shrivastav
BACKGROUND: Measurement of treatment outcomes is critical for the spectrum of voice treatments (ie, surgical, behavioral, or pharmacological). Outcome measures typically include visual (eg, stroboscopic data), auditory (eg, Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice; Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain), and objective correlates of vocal fold vibratory characteristics, such as acoustic signals (eg, harmonics-to-noise ratio, cepstral peak prominence) or patient self-reported questionnaires (eg, Voice Handicap Index, Voice-Related Quality of Life)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318485/shaping-the-sound-of-voice
#6
Ralph Marcucio
The proper development of the vocal cords requires embryos to contain a certain number of progenitor cells, and mutations that lead to an overflow of cells can cause malformations of the voice box.
March 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318453/helicobacter-pylori-in-the-tonsillar-tissue-a-possible-association-with-chronic-tonsillitis-and-laryngopharyngeal-reflux
#7
N Siupsinskiene, I Katutiene, V Jonikiene, D Janciauskas, S Vaitkus
OBJECTIVE: To identify Helicobacter pylori infection in tonsillar tissue samples from patients undergoing tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis versus tonsillar hypertrophy, and to assess the possible relationships between H pylori and patients' sociodemographic data and laryngopharyngeal reflux. METHODS: In this prospective study, 97 patients who underwent tonsillectomy were divided into the following 2 groups: patients with chronic tonsillitis (n = 62) and patients with tonsillar hypertrophy (control group; n = 35)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317118/accuracy-of-self-esteem-judgments-at-zero-acquaintance
#8
Sarah Hirschmüller, Stefan C Schmukle, Sascha Krause, Mitja D Back, Boris Egloff
OBJECTIVE: Perceptions of strangers' self-esteem can have wide-ranging interpersonal consequences. Aiming to reconcile inconsistent results from previous research that had predominantly suggested that self-esteem is a trait that can hardly be accurately judged at zero acquaintance, we examined unaquainted others' accuracy in inferring individuals' actual self-esteem. METHOD: Ninety-nine participants were videotaped in a self-introductory situation, and self-esteem self-reports and reports by well-known informants were obtained as separate accuracy criteria...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316098/therapeutic-options-for-dysfunctional-breathing-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
Bodo Niggemann, Christine Lehmann, Dorothea Pfeiffer-Kascha, Christa Weiss
Dysfunctional breathing is common and represents important differential diagnoses for respiratory discomfort. Typical examples include habit cough, sighing dyspnoea, hyperventilation syndrome, dysfunctional breathing patterns or vocal cord dysfunction (1,2). Comorbidities are frequent, especially with bronchial asthma. In some cases dysfunctional breathing may be a sequelae of child neglect or abuse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314958/unilateral-vocal-fold-immobility-a-tertiary-hospital-s-experience-over-5-years
#10
Vyas M N Prasad, Raja Fakhoury, Diane Helou, Georges Lawson, Marc Remacle
The objective of the study was to determine the etiology and subsequent management of patients with unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) and compare our results with other such studies. This was a retrospective case series of all patients that were treated for UVFI at one single tertiary referral centre between 2010 and 2014. The medical records of 161 patients over a 5-year period diagnosed with UVFI were analyzed. We looked at the patient demographics, side of immobility, etiology, management and voice assessment...
March 17, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314822/topography-and-lateralized-effect-of-acute-aromatase-inhibition-on-auditory-processing-in-a-seasonal-songbird
#11
Geert De Groof, Jacques Balthazart, Charlotte A Cornil, Annemie Van der Lindena
It is increasingly recognized that brain-derived estrogens (neuroestrogens) can regulate brain physiology and behavior much faster than what was previously known from the transcriptional action of estrogens on nuclear receptors. One of the best examples of such neuromodulation by neuroestrogens concerns the acute regulation of sensory coding by the auditory cortex as demonstrated by electrophysiological studies of selected neurons in zebra finches. Yet, the spatial extent of such modulation by neuroestrogens is not known...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314807/non-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-with-a-coexisting-contralateral-nerve-demonstrating-extralaryngeal-branching
#12
James D Constable, Srinivasalu Bathala, Jacob J Ahmed, Julian A McGlashan
Non-recurrence and extralaryngeal branching are 2 of the more frequently encountered anomalies of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. If not anticipated intraoperatively, these abnormalities can put the nerve at risk, with subsequent vocal cord palsy. It is therefore important to report on and understand these abnormalities. We present a unique case of a non-recurrent laryngeal nerve with a coexisting contralateral nerve demonstrating extralaryngeal branching. This case allows us to demonstrate the importance of arteria lusoria in head and neck surgery, and to conclude that non-recurrence and extralaryngeal branching can occur separately within individual nerves in the same patient...
March 17, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314241/characterizing-articulation-in-apraxic-speech-using-real-time-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Christina Hagedorn, Michael Proctor, Louis Goldstein, Stephen M Wilson, Bruce Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Shrikanth S Narayanan
Purpose: Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and accompanying analytical methods are shown to capture and quantify salient aspects of apraxic speech, substantiating and expanding upon evidence provided by clinical observation and acoustic and kinematic data. Analysis of apraxic speech errors within a dynamic systems framework is provided and the nature of pathomechanisms of apraxic speech discussed. Method: One adult male speaker with apraxia of speech was imaged using real-time MRI while producing spontaneous speech, repeated naming tasks, and self-paced repetition of word pairs designed to elicit speech errors...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304188/the-effect-of-unilateral-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-on-the-vocal-dysfunction-in-a-patient-with-spasmodic-dysphonia-interrogating-cerebellar-and-pallidal-neural-circuits
#14
Anujan Poologaindran, Zurab Ivanishvili, Murray D Morrison, Linda A Rammage, Mini K Sandhu, Nancy E Polyhronopoulos, Christopher R Honey
Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a neurological disorder of the voice where a patient's ability to speak is compromised due to involuntary contractions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Since the 1980s, SD has been treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX) injections into the throat. This therapy is limited by the delayed-onset of benefits, wearing-off effects, and repeated injections required every 3 months. In a patient with essential tremor (ET) and coincident SD, the authors set out to quantify the effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on vocal function while investigating the underlying motor thalamic circuitry...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304076/sexual-dimorphism-in-laryngeal-muscle-fibers-and-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-the-adult-rat
#15
Charles Lenell, Aaron M Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The human voice is sexually dimorphic in obvious ways, such as differences in fundamental frequency and gross laryngeal anatomy, but also in less apparent ways, such as in the prevalence and types of voice disorders and the manifestation of voice changes in advanced age. Differences between males and females are rarely explored, however, in mechanistic animal studies. The goal of this study was to explore sexual dimorphism in laryngeal function and structure in adult rats by examining ultrasonic vocalization acoustics and muscle fiber size and type in the thyroarytenoid muscle...
March 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303964/discrete-call-types-referring-to-predation-risk-enhance-the-efficiency-of-the-meerkat-sentinel-system
#16
R Rauber, M B Manser
Sentinel behaviour, a form of coordinated vigilance, occurs in a limited range of species, mostly in cooperative breeders. In some species sentinels confirm their presence vocally by giving a single sentinel call type, whereby the rate and subtle acoustic changes provide graded information on the variation of perceived predation risk. In contrast, meerkat (Suricata suricatta) sentinels produce six different sentinel call types. Here we show that manipulation of perception of danger has different effects on the likelihood of emitting these different call types, and that these call types affect foraging individuals differently...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303273/practice-patterns-of-speech-language-pathologists-in-pediatric-vocal-health
#17
Naomi A Hartley, Maia Braden, Susan L Thibeault
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate current practices of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the management of pediatric vocal health, with specific analysis of the influence of clinical specialty and workplace setting on management approaches. Method: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association-certified clinicians providing services within the United States (1%-100% voice caseload) completed an anonymous online survey detailing clinician demographics; employment location and service delivery models; approaches to continuing professional development; and specifics of case management, including assessment, treatment, and discharge procedures...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303202/effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-on-vocal-fold-immobility-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Elsa V Arocho-Quinones, Michael J Hammer, Jonathan M Bock, Peter A Pahapill
BACKGROUND: Vocal fold (VF) immobility is a rare, potentially fatal complication of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous reports suggest that subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) may influence laryngeal function, yet the role of STN-DBS on VF immobility remains unexplored. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of a patient with advanced PD and bilateral VF immobility ultimately requiring a tracheostomy. To assess the effects of STN-DBS on vocal cord function and to correlate these effects with peripheral motor symptoms at different stimulation settings, the patient was evaluated before and after initiation of bilateral STN-DBS...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302186/heritability-of-the-backtest-response-in-piglets-and-its-genetic-correlations-with-production-traits
#19
M W Iversen, J E Bolhuis, I Camerlink, W W Ursinus, I Reimert, N Duijvesteijn
The backtest response of a pig gives an indication of its coping style, that is, its preferred strategy to cope with stressful situations, which may in turn be related to production traits. The objective of this study was therefore to estimate the heritability of the backtest response and estimate genetic correlations with production traits (birth weight, growth, fat depth and loin depth). The backtest was performed by placing the piglet on its back for 60 s and the number of struggles (NrS) and vocalizations (NrV), and the latency to struggle and vocalize (LV) was recorded...
April 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300957/dosage-dependent-effect-of-high-resistance-straw-exercise-in-dysphonic-and-non-dysphonic-women
#20
Sabrina Mazzer Paes, Mara Behlau
Purpose: to study the dosage dependent effect of high-resistance straw exercise in women with behavioral dysphonia and in vocally healthy women. Methods: 25 dysphonic women (DG), with average age of 35 years (SD = 10.5) and 30 vocally healthy women (VHG), with average age of 31.6 years (SD = 10.3). The participants produced a continuous sound into a thin high-resistance straw for seven minutes, being interrupted after the first, third, fifth and seventh minute. At each interval, speech samples were recorded (sustained vowel and counting up to 20) and subsequently acoustically analyzed...
March 9, 2017: CoDAS
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