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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934723/neural-mechanisms-underlying-the-disruption-of-male-courtship-behavior-by-adult-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-in-mice
#1
Carlos Dombret, Daphné Capela, Kevin Poissenot, Caroline Parmentier, Emma Bergsten, Cédric Pionneau, Solenne Chardonnet, Hélène Hardin-Pouzet, Valérie Grange-Messent, Matthieu Keller, Isabelle Franceschini, Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja
BACKGROUND: Courtship behavior plays a critical role in attracting females and reproduction success. However, the effects of exposure to a ubiquitous contaminant di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on these behaviors and, in particular, on courtship vocalizations have not been examined. OBJECTIVE: The effects of adult exposure to DEHP on courtship and mating behaviors and gonadotropic axis and neural mechanisms involved in DEHP-induced effects were analyzed in male mice...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934302/predicting-couple-therapy-outcomes-based-on-speech-acoustic-features
#2
Md Nasir, Brian Robert Baucom, Panayiotis Georgiou, Shrikanth Narayanan
Automated assessment and prediction of marital outcome in couples therapy is a challenging task but promises to be a potentially useful tool for clinical psychologists. Computational approaches for inferring therapy outcomes using observable behavioral information obtained from conversations between spouses offer objective means for understanding relationship dynamics. In this work, we explore whether the acoustics of the spoken interactions of clinically distressed spouses provide information towards assessment of therapy outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933949/behavior-and-performance-of-dairy-cows-after-transfer-from-tied-to-cubicle-housing
#3
Anne Pavlenko, Lena Lidfors, David R Arney, Tanel Kaart, Andres Aland
Behavior and performance changes when tied dairy cows were moved to a loose housing system in a cubicle system were investigated. Behavioral observations were made for 3 consecutive days in 3 periods after transition. The cows (n = 105) were observed on 18 sampling occasions for 1 month. Recordings were made of body positions and general and social behaviors. Monthly milk records were collected 1 year before and 1 year after transition. Cows walked more during the 1st observation period than during the other periods (p < ...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933047/the-right-touch-stroking-of-ct-innervated-skin-promotes-vocal-emotion-processing
#4
Annett Schirmer, Thomas C Gunter
Research has revealed a special mechanoreceptor, called C-tactile (CT) afferent, that is situated in hairy skin and that seems relevant for the processing of social touch. We pursued a possible role of this receptor in the perception of other social signals such as a person's voice. Participants completed three sessions in which they heard surprised and neutral vocal and nonvocal sounds and detected rare sound repetitions. In a given session, participants received no touch or soft brushstrokes to the arm (CT innervated) or palm (CT free)...
September 20, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930710/at-the-intersection-of-faith-culture-and-family-dynamics-a-complex-case-of-refusal-of-treatment-for-childhood-cancer
#5
Amy E Caruso Brown
Refusing treatment for potentially curable childhood cancers engenders much discussion and debate. I present a case in which the competent parents of a young Amish child with acute myeloid leukemia deferred authority for decision making to the child's maternal grandfather, who was vocal in his opposition to treatment. I analyze three related concerns that distinguish this case from other accounts of refused treatment. First, I place deference to grandparents as decision makers in the context of surrogate decision making more generally...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929066/surgical-treatment-of-retrosternal-goitre
#6
Kiera Welman, Richard Heyes, Paras Dalal, Sarah Hough, Marciano Bunalade, Vladimir Anikin
This study aims to evaluate surgical approaches to the management of retrosternal goitre. Between 2004 and 2014, 35 patients (eight males; mean age 67.4 ± 10.9 years) with retrosternal goitre (mainly right-sided in 9, left-sided in 14 and bilateral in 12) underwent surgery. A palpable neck mass was found in 11 (31.4%), stridor in 10 (28.6%) and thyrotoxicosis in 4 (11.4%) cases. 4 (11.4%) patients were asymptomatic. Tracheal compression was detected radiologically in 27 (77.2%) patients with deviation in 18 (51...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928640/hdac3-inhibitor-rgfp966-modulates-neuronal-memory-for-vocal-communication-signals-in-a-songbird-model
#7
Mimi L Phan, Mark M Gergues, Shafali Mahidadia, Jorge Jimenez-Castillo, David S Vicario, Kasia M Bieszczad
Epigenetic mechanisms that modify chromatin conformation have recently been under investigation for their contributions to learning and the formation of memory. For example, the role of enzymes involved in histone acetylation are studied in the formation of long-lasting memories because memory consolidation requires gene expression events that are facilitated by an open state of chromatin. We recently proposed that epigenetic events may control the entry of specific sensory features into long-term memory by enabling transcription-mediated neuronal plasticity in sensory brain areas...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928564/comparison-of-i-gel%C3%A2-and-laryngeal-mask-airway-supreme%C3%A2-in-different-head-and-neck-positions-in-spontaneously-breathing-pediatric-population
#8
Swati Gupta, Neelam Dogra, Kanchan Chauhan
BACKGROUND: Although the advantages of ventilation with i-gel™ and laryngeal mask airway Supreme (LMA-Supreme™) has been well documented, they are still under debate for surgeries requiring flexion and extension of neck such as thyroid surgery, tonsillectomy, and neck exploration. Hence, we conducted a study to demonstrate the effect of neck flexion and extension in spontaneously breathing anesthetized pediatric patients utilizing i-gel™ and LMA-Supreme™. METHODS: A prospective, randomized comparative study was conducted on sixty children, thirty each in i-gel™ and LMA-Supreme™ group...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927659/socioeconomic-variables-of-patients-with-spasmodic-dysphonia-a-preliminary-study
#9
Ashley P O'Connell Ferster, Robert T Sataloff, Patricia A Shewokis, Amanda Hu
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To characterize socioeconomic status (SES) variables of spasmodic dysphonia (SD) patients and determine their impact on voice outcomes after treatment with botulinum toxin. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SD patients treated with botulinum toxin for the past 10 years (July 2007-July 2017) for whom sufficient SES and outcome data were available were included. Spearman rho nonparametric correlation coefficients were calculated to determine if SES variables were significantly associated with self-perceived vocal quality...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925286/vocal-function-exercises-for-normal-voice-the-effects-of-varying-dosage
#10
Maria Bane, Vrushali Angadi, Emily Dressler, Richard Andreatta, Joseph Stemple
PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of varying dosage of vocal function exercise (VFE) home practice on attainment of pre-established maximum phonation time (MPT) goals in individuals with normal voice. High dosage VFE practice was expected to result in greatest MPT. The overarching goal of this study was to contribute to a VFE dosage-response curve, potentially including a point of observable toxicity. METHOD: Twenty-eight females ages 18-25 with normal voice participated in this pre-post longitudinal group study...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923293/two-polysomnographic-features-of-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-clinical-variations-insight-for-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Yun Shen, Yong-Ping Dai, Yi Wang, Jie Li, Kang-Ping Xiong, Cheng-Jie Mao, Jun-Ying Huang, Wei-Feng Luo, Chun-Feng Liu
INTRODUCTION: Loss of REM sleep muscle atonia (RWA) and dream-enactment behavior (DEB) are two associated features of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which is frequently associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies have examined both DEB and RWA simultaneously in patients with PD. This study aimed to evaluate relationships between RWA, DEB and clinical characteristics of PD. METHODS: We conducted overnight polysomnography in 145 patients with PD. DEB (motor behaviors and/or vocalizations during REM) and increased RWA (IRWA; tonic and phasic chin EMG density ≥ 30% and ≥15%, respectively) were identified...
September 5, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922833/the-knockout-of-synapsin-ii-in-mice-impairs-social-behavior-and-functional-connectivity-generating-an-asd-like-phenotype
#12
Caterina Michetti, Angela Caruso, Marco Pagani, Mara Sabbioni, Lucian Medrihan, Gergely David, Alberto Galbusera, Monica Morini, Alessandro Gozzi, Fabio Benfenati, Maria Luisa Scattoni
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy are neurodevelopmental conditions that appear with high rate of co-occurrence, suggesting the possibility of a common genetic basis. Mutations in Synapsin (SYN) genes, particularly SYN1 and SYN2, have been recently associated with ASD and epilepsy in humans. Accordingly, mice lacking Syn1 or Syn2, but not Syn3, experience epileptic seizures and display autistic-like traits that precede the onset of seizures. Here, we analyzed social behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations emitted in 2 social contexts by SynI, SynII, or SynIII mutants and show that SynII mutants display the most severe ASD-like phenotype...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922190/spinal-metastasis-characterized-on-fdg-pet-ct-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Shahroz Khan, Hannah Son
Spinal metastases are rare in head and neck cancer. We present a rare case of vocal cord squamous cell cancer that metastasized to the spinal cord and cauda equina. A 63-year-old man presented with acute back pain and bilateral leg weakness 5 months after having a surgical treatment for moderately differentiated vocal cord squamous cell cancer (T2 N0 M0). Restaging F-FDG PET examination demonstrated a soft tissue mass with intense hypermetabolism in the distal spinal cord and a hypermetabolic leptomeningeal metastatic deposit at the L3 level...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921742/processing-of-temporally-patterned-sounds-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-seba-s-short-tailed-bat-carollia-perspicillata
#14
Lisa M Martin, Francisco García-Rosales, M Jerome Beetz, Julio C Hechavarría
This article presents a characterization of cortical responses to artificial and natural temporally-patterned sounds in the bat species Carollia perspicillata, a species that produces vocalizations at rates above 50 Hz. Multi-unit activity was recorded in three different experiments. In the first experiment, amplitude modulated (AM) pure tones were used as stimuli to drive auditory cortex (AC) units. AC units of both ketamine-anesthetized and awake bats could lock their spikes to every cycle of the stimulus modulation envelope, but only if the modulation frequency was below 22 Hz...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919431/neurocircuitry-of-impaired-affective-sound-processing-a-clinical-disorders-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Sascha Frühholz, Matthias Staib
Decoding affective meaning from sensory information is central to accurate and adaptive behavior in many natural and social contexts. Human vocalizations (speech and non-speech), environmental sounds (e.g. thunder, noise, or animal sounds) and human-produced sounds (e.g. technical sounds or music) can carry a wealth of important aversive, threatening, appealing, or pleasurable affective information that sometimes implicitly influences and guides our behavior. Deficits in processing such affective information is detrimental to adaptive environmental behavior, psychological well-being, and social interactive abilities...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918568/brief-report-an-evaluation-of-an-instructional-package-for-teaching-sentence-construction-to-students-with-asd
#16
Robert C Pennington, Jessica Rockhold
In the current study, we investigated the effects of an instructional package on the construction of sentences writing by four children ages 6-9, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We employed a multiple probe across behaviors design to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention package and also conducted probes to assess generalization and increases in the use of spoken sentences. Data indicated that the package was effective and produced variable levels of maintenance and generalized responding across three of the participants...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916776/nestlings-reduce-their-predation-risk-by-attending-to-predator-information-encoded-within-conspecific-alarm-calls
#17
Ahmad Barati, Paul G McDonald
Predation is one of the main threats to altricial nestlings, with predators often locating nests via eavesdropping on begging signals. Nestlings may be able to adjust their begging based on the current level of risk by monitoring both intra- and interspecific alarm calls near the nest. We show that noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) nestlings can differentiate between terrestrial and aerial alarm calls of their own species, as they suppressed begging behaviour for longer in response to terrestrial rather than aerial alarm calls...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916501/awakenings-in-rats-by-ultrasounds-a-new-animal-model-for-paradoxical-kinesia
#18
Luan Castro Tonelli, Markus Wöhr, Rainer Schwarting, Liana Melo-Thomas
Paradoxical kinesia refers to a sudden transient ability of akinetic patients to perform motor tasks they are otherwise unable to perform. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unknown due a paucity of valid animal models that faithfully reproduce paradoxical kinesia. Here, in a first experiment, we present a new method to study paradoxical kinesia by "awakening" cataleptic rats through presenting appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), which are typical for social situations with positive valence, like juvenile play or sexual encounters ("rat laughter")...
September 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916222/estimating-vocal-effort-from-the-aerodynamics-of-labial-fricatives-a-feasibility-study
#19
Yohann Meynadier, Anita El Hajj, Michel Pitermann, Thierry Legou, Antoine Giovanni
OBJECTIVE AND HYPOTHESIS: Vocal effort in loud voice is produced with increased subglottal pressure during vowels and increased supraglottal pressure during consonants. In the paper, our main objective is to check whether it was supported by a parallel increase in the airflow resistance of the laryngeal articulator and of the supralaryngeal articulator, here the lips. STUDY DESIGN AND METHOD: For this comparison, our choice fell on the fricative consonants, as their production allows perfectly synchronous air pressure and airflow measurements...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915296/investigating-the-role-of-salivary-cortisol-on-vocal-symptoms
#20
Sofia Holmqvist, Ada Johansson, Pekka Santtila, Lars Westberg, Bettina von der Pahlen, Susanna Simberg
Purpose: We investigated whether participants who reported more often occurring vocal symptoms showed higher salivary cortisol levels and if such possible associations were different for men and women. Method: The participants (N = 170; men n = 49, women n = 121) consisted of a population-based sample of Finnish twins born between 1961 and 1989. The participants submitted saliva samples for hormone analysis and completed a web questionnaire including questions regarding the occurrence of 6 vocal symptoms during the past 12 months...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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