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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450826/return-to-throwing-after-shoulder-or-elbow-injury
#1
REVIEW
Terrance A Sgroi, John M Zajac
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Throwing places high demands on the human body, and specific characteristics are developed over time unique to these athletes. When returning to throw after injury, it is important to follow a criterion-based progression that allows the body to be prepared appropriately for the stresses that throwing will require. There is currently a void in the literature for criteria-based progression that helps these athletes return to the highest level of play. RECENT FINDINGS: As injury rates continue to rise in baseball, there is increased evidence showing contributions of the core and lower extremity to the baseball pitch...
February 15, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450627/can-the-use-of-a-single-integrated-unitary-autonomic-index-provide-early-clues-for-eventual-eligibility-for-olympic-games
#2
Daniela Lucini, Roberto Sala, Antonio Spataro, Mara Malacarne, Manuela Benzi, Stefano Tamorri, Massimo Pagani
PURPOSE: Optimal autonomic regulation and stress resilience might be considered critical elements of athletic performance. We hypothesize that a novel unitary autonomic index for sports (ANSIs), together with a somatic stress related symptom score (4SQ) might help characterize athletes who were eventually selected for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games Italian team (Rio +). METHODS: In this retrospective study we examined 778 athletes (age 24.4 ± 6.7 yrs) who underwent a planned yearly pre-participation screening...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450135/development-of-a-specific-index-to-detect-malnutrition-in-athletes-validity-in-weight-class-or-intermittent-fasted-athletes
#3
François D Desgorces, Christophe Moinard, Mounir Chennaoui, Jean-François Toussaint, Cyril Petibois, Philippe Noirez
Fasted or weight-category athletes manage their training under strict diet conditions that could impair the stress-recovery balance and result in acute or chronic fatigue. However, to date, no validated biomarker are available to quantify this phenomena. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a specific index combining plasma albumin and weight change to detect nutrition-related risks of fatigue increase and under-performance in athletes experiencing particular nutritional conditions. An athlete's nutrition risk index (ANRI) equation, based on data from lightweight and heavyweight rowers, was developed using relationship between plasma albumin concentrations combined to weight changes with sport performance and overtraining scores and was tested by odds ratio for failure...
June 2017: Biochimie open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444412/heart-rate-variability-responses-to-acute-and-repeated-post-exercise-sauna-in-trained-cyclists
#4
Anthony S Leicht, Aaron Halliday, Wade H Sinclair, Shaun D'Auria, Martin Buchheit, Glen P Kenny, Jamie Stanley
Short- to medium-term (i.e. 4-14 days) heating protocols induce physiological adaptations including improved cardiac autonomic modulations, as assessed using heart rate variability, which may contribute to greater exercise performance. Whether similar cardiac autonomic changes occur during an intense heating protocol (sauna) reported to increase plasma volume in athletes remains to be confirmed. This study examined the changes in heart rate and its variability during a single, extreme heat (sauna) exposure and repeated exposures in athletes...
February 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443703/the-thrower-s-shoulder
#5
Jonathan D Gelber, Lonnie Soloff, Mark S Schickendantz
Overhead athletes subject their shoulders to extreme repetitive torque, compression, distraction, and translation stresses, resulting in adaptive changes of the soft tissues and osseous structures within and around the glenohumeral joint. These anatomic adaptations result in biomechanical enhancements, which improve performance. Understanding the difference between necessary and adaptive changes and pathologic findings is critical when making treatment decisions. Injuries to the shoulder of the overhead athlete can be generally classified into three groups: internal impingement, internal impingement with acquired secondary anterior instability, and primary anterior or multidirectional instability...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442213/elbow-injuries-in-the-adolescent-thrower
#6
REVIEW
Timothy B Griffith, James Kercher, S Clifton Willimon, Crystal Perkins, Xavier A Duralde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With an increasing rate of adolescent elbow injuries, especially in throwing athletes, the purpose of this review is to investigate the current literature regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and non-operative and operative outcomes of medial epicondyle fractures, ulnar collateral ligament repair, osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow, and olecranon stress fractures. RECENT FINDINGS: Acceptable outcomes with both non-operative and operative treatments of medial epicondyle fractures have been reported, with surgical indications continuing to evolve...
February 14, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430880/frequency-and-anatomical-distribution-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-in-sacroiliac-joints-of-young-athletes-exploring-background-noise-towards-a-data-driven-definition-of-sacroiliitis-in-early-spondyloarthritis
#7
Ulrich Weber, Anne Grethe Jurik, Anna Zejden, Ejnar Larsen, Steen Hylgaard Jørgensen, Kaspar Rufibach, Christian Schioldan, Søren Schmidt-Olsen
OBJECTIVE: Low grade bone marrow edema (BME) was reported in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) of 25% of healthy individuals and mechanical back pain patients, challenging the imaging discrimination from early spondyloarthritis (SpA). It is unknown whether stress injury in competition sports may trigger BME. We explored frequency and anatomical distribution of SIJ MRI lesions in recreational and elite athletes. METHODS: After pre-test calibration, semicoronal SIJ MRI scans of 20 recreational runners (RR) before/after running and 22 elite ice-hockey players (IP) were assessed by 3 blinded readers for BME and structural lesions using an SIJ quadrant-based module...
February 12, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427565/intensified-training-increases-salivary-free-light-chains-in-trained-cyclists-indication-that-training-volume-increases-oral-inflammation
#8
Jennifer L J Heaney, Sophie C Killer, Ida S Svendsen, Michael Gleeson, John P Campbell
Periods of short-term intensified training (IT) are often used by athletes during training cycles over the season and undergoing phases of increased physical stress may impact upon the immune system. This study investigated the effects of a period of IT on free light chains (FLCs) in saliva - an emerging immune biomarker of oral inflammation - and matched serum samples in well-trained athletes. It also examined if IT influences basal FLC levels and FLC flux during acute exercise. Highly trained male cyclists (n = 10) underwent a 9-day period of IT; before and after IT participants performed a 1 h time trial (TT) on a cycle ergometer, with blood and saliva samples collected pre- and post-exercise...
February 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423690/exposure-to-aged-crumb-rubber-reduces-survival-time-during-a-stress-test-in-earthworms-eisenia-fetida
#9
Sharon Pochron, Jacqueline Nikakis, Kyra Illuzzi, Andrea Baatz, Loriana Demirciyan, Amritjot Dhillon, Thomas Gaylor, Alexa Manganaro, Nicholas Maritato, Michael Moawad, Rajwinder Singh, Clara Tucker, Daniel Vaughan
Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420349/thyroid-disorders-in-athletes
#10
John R Luksch, Philip B Collins
When athletic performance begins to deteriorate, it is important to identify possible underlying etiologies to explain such a phenomenon. Causes include inadequate nutrition, improper training habits, infection, and hematologic or endocrine diseases. In athletes, a thorough investigation of potentially reversible underlying medical conditions may be warranted when there are noted disruptions in training, competition, and recovery. Thyroid disorders should be considered in athletes in whom such a condition is suspected...
February 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420145/body-map-of-regional-versus-whole-body-sweating-rate-and-sweat-electrolyte-concentrations-in-men-and-women-during-moderate-exercise-heat-stress
#11
Lindsay B Baker, Corey T Ungaro, Bridget C Sopeña, Ryan P Nuccio, Adam J Reimel, James M Carter, John R Stofan, Kelly A Barnes
This study determined the relations between regional (REG) and whole body (WB) sweating rate (RSR and WBSR, respectively) and REG and WB sweat [Na+] during exercise. Twenty-six recreational athletes (17 men, 9 women) cycled for 90 min while WB sweat [Na+] was measured using the washdown technique. RSR and REG sweat [Na+] were measured from 9 regions using absorbent patches. RSR and REG sweat [Na+] from all regions were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with WBSR (r=0.58-0.83) and WB sweat [Na+] [r=0.74-0...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420135/impaired-sleep-mediates-the-negative-effects-of-training-load-on-subjective-well-being-in-female-youth-athletes
#12
Andrew Watson, Stacey Brickson
BACKGROUND: Although increased training load (TL) and impaired sleep are associated with decreases in subjective well-being in adult athletes, these relationships among female youth athletes are unclear. It is unknown whether the effects of sleep and TL on well-being are independent or whether alterations in sleep mediate the effects of TL on subjective well-being. HYPOTHESIS: Sleep and TL exert independent effects on subjective well-being among youth athletes, although alterations in sleep mediate a significant portion of the effect of TL on well-being in female youth athletes...
February 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420083/an-investigation-of-neuroinjury-biomarkers-after-sport-related-concussion-from-the-subacute-phase-to-clinical-recovery
#13
Alex P Di Battista, Shawn G Rhind, Andrew J Baker, Rakesh Jetly, Jeff D Debad, Doug Richards, Michael G Hutchison
OBJECTIVES: To characterise a panel of neuroinjury-related blood biomarkers after sport-related concussion (SRC). We hypothesised significant differences in biomarker profiles between athletes with SRC and healthy controls at both subacute and medical clearance time points. METHODS: Thirty-eight interuniversity athletes were recruited over two athletic seasons (n = 19 SRC; n = 19 healthy matched-control). High-sensitivity immunoassay was used to evaluate 11 blood analytes at both the subacute phase after SRC and at medical clearance...
February 8, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409077/ankle-and-foot-injuries-in-the-young-athlete
#14
Nancy A Chauvin, Camilo Jaimes, Asef Khwaja
Injuries to the ankle and foot are common in the young athlete, especially with increasing participation and high levels of competitiveness in youth sports programs. Knowledge of the normal development of the foot and ankle is crucial to understand age-specific injury patterns because acute or chronic/repetitive stress to the developing skeleton results in injuries that differ from those seen in adults. Congenital abnormalities may also predispose children to increased risk of injury and pain. Radiologists must be aware of these distinctions to diagnose and classify injuries correctly for optimum treatment...
February 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406788/defining-the-term-overuse-an-evidence-based-review-of-sport-epidemiology-literature
#15
Elizabeth R Neil, Zachary K Winkelmann, Jessica R Edler
Reference:  Roos KG, Marshall SW. Definition and usage of the term "overuse injury" in the US high school and collegiate sport epidemiology literature: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2014;44(3):405-421. CLINICAL QUESTION:   What is the current context of the term overuse in the epidemiologic sports injury literature? DATA SOURCES:   The authors performed a database search of PubMed and SPORTDiscus. The Boolean phrases athletics AND injury and overuse OR epidemiology were searched...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399735/rotator-cuff-repair-post-operative-rehabilitation-concepts
#16
REVIEW
Terrance A Sgroi, Michelle Cilenti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With improvements in surgical techniques and increased knowledge of rotator cuff healing, there was a need to identify a safe progression after rotator cuff repair. The rehabilitation specialist plays an integral role in the care of these patients, and by implementing an evidence and criteria-based model, patients may be able to return to their prior levels of function sooner with fewer complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Timing of progression for rotator cuff patients should align not only with healing but also potential strain on the involved tissue...
February 5, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393546/comparison-of-metabolic-adaptations-between-endurance-and-sprint-trained-athletes-after-an-exhaustive-exercise-in-two-different-calf-muscles-using-a-multi-slice-31-p-mr-spectroscopic-sequence
#17
Kevin Moll, Alexander Gussew, Maria Nisser, Steffen Derlien, Martin Krämer, Jürgen R Reichenbach
Measurements of exercise-induced metabolic changes, such as oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide exhalation or lactate concentration, are important indicators for assessing the current performance level of athletes in training science. With exercise-limiting metabolic processes occurring in loaded muscles, 31 P-MRS represents a particularly powerful modality to identify and analyze corresponding training-induced alterations. Against this background, the current study aimed to analyze metabolic adaptations after an exhaustive exercise in two calf muscles (m...
February 2, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392111/stress-fracture-of-the-second-proximal-phalanx-of-the-foot-in-teenage-athletes-unrecognized-location-of-stress-fracture
#18
Satoshi Yamaguchi, Shuji Taketomi, Yusei Funakoshi, Kan Tsuchiya, Ryuichiro Akagi, Seiji Kimura, Aya Sadamasu, Seiji Ohtori
Background: Adolescent athletes are a high-risk population for stress fractures. We report four cases of stress fractures of the second proximal phalanx, which had not been previously diagnosed as the location of the stress fracture of the foot, in teenage athletes. Case report: All fractures were on the plantar side of the proximal phalangeal base, and the oblique images of the plain radiograph clearly depicted the fractures. Notably, three out of the four patients had histories of stress fracture of other locations...
October 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387449/-recover-quicker-train-harder-and-increase-flexibility-massage-therapy-for-elite-paracyclists-a-mixed-methods-study
#19
Ann Blair Kennedy, Nirav Patil, Jennifer L Trilk
Objectives: Massage therapy (MT) enhances recovery by reducing pain and fatigue in able-bodied endurance athletes. In athletes with disabilities, no studies have examined similar MT outcomes, yet participation in sport has increased by >1000 athletes from 1996 to 2016 Olympic games. We examined the effect of MT on pain, sleep, stress, function and performance goals on the bike, as well as quality of life off the bike, in elite paracycling athletes. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental, convergent, parallel, mixed-methods design study of one team, with nine paracycling participants, in years 2015 and 2016...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380321/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#20
Derek Tran
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is an objective assessment of exercise capacity. It has become increasingly popular in clinical, research, and athletic performance settings. CPET allows for investigation of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and skeletal muscle systems during exercise-induced stress. The main variable of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) reflects the gold standard measure of exercise capacity. This chapter will describe the method of performing a graded maximal CPET with the Vmax 229 Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Instrument and CardioSoft program...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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