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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099588/dobutamine-stress-echocardiography-safety-in-chagas-disease-patients
#1
Daniela do Carmo Rassi, Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira, Rogerio Gomes Furtado, Fabio de Paula Turco, Luciano Henrique Melato, Viviane Tiemi Hotta, Colandy Godoy de Oliveira Nunes, Luiz Rassi, Salvador Rassi
Background: A few decades ago, patients with Chagas disease were predominantly rural workers, with a low risk profile for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). As urbanization has increased, they became exposed to the same risk factors for CAD of uninfected individuals. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) has proven to be an important tool in CAD diagnosis. Despite being a potentially arrhythmogenic method, it is safe for coronary patients without Chagas disease. For Chagas disease patients, however, the indication of DSE in clinical practice is uncertain, because of the arrhythmogenic potential of that heart disease...
January 16, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097803/regulation-of-mrna-following-brain-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#2
REVIEW
Donald J DeGracia
There is growing appreciation that mRNA regulation plays important roles in disease and injury. mRNA regulation and ribonomics occur in brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) following stroke and cardiac arrest and resuscitation. It was recognized over 40 years ago that translation arrest (TA) accompanies brain I/R and is now recognized as part of the intrinsic stress responses triggered in neurons. However, neuron death correlates to a prolonged TA in cells fated to undergo delayed neuronal death (DND). Dysfunction of mRNA regulatory processes in cells fated to DND prevents them from translating stress-induced mRNAs such as heat shock proteins...
January 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094777/high-resolution-structural-evidence-suggests-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-forms-microdomains-with-acidic-stores-lysosomes-in-the-heart
#3
Daniel Aston, Rebecca A Capel, Kerrie L Ford, Helen C Christian, Gary R Mirams, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Antony Galione, Rebecca A B Burton, Derek A Terrar
Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NAADP) stimulates calcium release from acidic stores such as lysosomes and is a highly potent calcium-mobilising second messenger. NAADP plays an important role in calcium signalling in the heart under basal conditions and following β-adrenergic stress. Nevertheless, the spatial interaction of acidic stores with other parts of the calcium signalling apparatus in cardiac myocytes is unknown. We present evidence that lysosomes are intimately associated with the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in ventricular myocytes; a median separation of 20 nm in 2D electron microscopy and 3...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088910/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-sglt2i-their-role-in-cardiometabolic-risk-management
#4
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Michael J Theodorakis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel category of oral antidiabetic drugs that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and increase renal glucose excretion, thus lowering plasma glucose levels. This unique mechanism of SGLT2i action is insulin independent, thus improving glycemic control without promoting hypoglycemia in the absence of exogenously administered insulin. METHODS: The present narrative review addresses the putative associations between SGLT2i and several cardiovascular (CV) and microvascular risk factors, as well as their effects on cardiac and renal function...
January 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087471/il-6-promotes-m2-macrophage-polarization-by-modulating-purinergic-signaling-and-regulates-the-lethal-release-of-nitric-oxide-during-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#5
Liliana M Sanmarco, Nicolás E Ponce, Laura M Visconti, Natalia Eberhardt, Martin G Theumer, Ángel R Minguez, Maria P Aoki
The production of nitric oxide (NO) is a key defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens but it must be tightly controlled in order to avoid excessive detrimental oxidative stress. In this study we described a novel mechanism through which interleukin (IL)-6 mediates the regulation of NO release induced in response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Using a murine model of Chagas disease, we found that, in contrast to C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice, IL-6-deficient (IL6KO) mice exhibited a dramatic increase in plasma NO levels concomitant with a significantly higher amount of circulating IL-1β and inflammatory monocytes...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079007/novel-therapies-targeting-cardioprotection-and-regeneration
#6
Valeria Garrido, Evelyn Mendoza-Torres, Jaime A Riquelme, Ariel Díaz, Marcela Pizarro, Mario Bustamante, Myra N Chavez, María Paz Ocaranza, Rosemarie Mellado, Ramon Corbalan, Miguel L Allende, Sergio Lavandero
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The heart is susceptible to pathologies that impact the myocardium directly, such myocardial infarction and consequent heart failure, as well as conditions with indirect cardiac effects, such cancer treatment-related cardiotoxicity. As the contractile cells of the heart, cardiomyocytes are essential for normal cardiac function. Various stress stimuli may result in transient damage or cell death in cardiomyocytes through apoptosis, necrosis or maladaptive autophagy...
January 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074924/metabotyping-patients-journeys-reveals-early-predisposition-to-lung-injury-after-cardiac-surgery
#7
Raluca Georgiana Maltesen, Bodil Steen Rasmussen, Shona Pedersen, Munsoor Ali Hanifa, Sergey Kucheryavskiy, Søren Risom Kristensen, Reinhard Wimmer
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and patients with severe symptoms undergo cardiac surgery. Even after uncomplicated surgeries, some patients experience postoperative complications such as lung injury. We hypothesized that the procedure elicits metabolic activity that can be related to the disease progression, which is commonly observed two-three days postoperatively. More than 700 blood samples were collected from 50 patients at nine time points pre-, intra-, and postoperatively...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065839/cardiovascular-function-in-long-term-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-survivors
#8
Saro H Armenian, David Horak, Jessica M Scott, George Mills, Aida Siyahian, Jennifer Berano Teh, Pamela S Douglas, Stephen J Forman, Smita Bhatia, Lee W Jones
Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), as measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), is a powerful independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a broad range of populations. We assessed the safety and feasibility of CPET in aging long-term HCT survivors, a population at high risk for premature-onset of CVD. Next we examined how organ-specific impairments (e.g. cardiac, pulmonary, hematologic) impact VO2peak after HCT. Twenty consecutive HCT survivors underwent a comprehensive assessment of cardiopulmonary health that included CPET, echocardiography with strain, pulmonary function testing, six-minute walk test, and timed-up and go...
January 5, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062619/beyond-natriuretic-peptides-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-heart-failure
#9
REVIEW
Nasrien E Ibrahim, James L Januzzi
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome with an enormous societal burden in terms of cost and morbidity and mortality. Natriuretic peptide (NP) testing is now widely used to support diagnosis, prognostication, and management of patients with HF, but NPs come with limitations, including vulnerability to the presence of obesity, atrial fibrillation, and renal dysfunction, for example. Beyond the NPs, novel biomarkers may supplement traditional clinical and laboratory testing to improve understanding of the complex disease process of HF, and possibly to personalize care for those affected through better individual phenotyping...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061780/rhodiola-crenulata-extract-counteracts-the-effect-of-hypobaric-hypoxia-in-rat-heart-via-redirection-of-the-nitric-oxide-and-arginase-1-pathway
#10
Shih-Wei Hsu, Tsu-Chung Chang, Yu-Kuan Wu, Kuen-Tze Lin, Li-Shian Shi, Shih-Yu Lee
BACKGROUND: Rhodiola crenulata is traditionally used as a folk medicine in Tibet for preventing high-altitude illnesses, including sudden cardiac death (SCD). The cardio-protective effects of Rhodiola crenulata root extract (RCE) against hypoxia in vivo have been recently confirmed. However, the way in which RCE produces these effects remains unclear. The present study is designed to confirm the protective effects of RCE on the heart in acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure and examine the mechanisms by which this occurs...
January 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049598/prognostic-value-of-myocardial-perfusion-analysis-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-a-meta-analysis
#11
Jiancheng Xiu, Kai Cui, Yuegang Wang, Hua Zheng, Gangbin Chen, Qian Feng, Jianping Bin, Juefei Wu, Thomas R Porter
BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion (MP) imaging during stress myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) improves the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, its prognostic value to predict cardiac events in patients with known or suspected CAD is still undefined. METHODS: A search was conducted for single- or multicenter prospective studies that evaluated the prognostic value of stress MCE in patients with known or suspected CAD. A database search was performed through June 2015...
December 31, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041712/broken-heart-tako-tsubo-or-stress-cardiomyopathy-metaphors-meanings-and-their-medical-impact
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Mita Banerjee, Norbert W Paul
The cardiac impact of psychological stress historically and socially understood as boundary experiences of human life has long since become an icon. From the aching heart to the sudden death provoked by awe, horror, grief, anger, and humiliation on one side and extreme enchantment, enthusiasm, and excitement on the other, the broken heart has become a globally recognized and powerful metaphor present from folklore to popular culture to high literature and back to everyday communication. In medicine, the "broken heart syndrome" is described as a relatively new nosological entity that has been used synonymously with the term tako-tsubo or stress cardiomyopathy...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036323/chemical-chaperone-4-phenylbutyric-acid-reduces-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-alleviating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-oxidative-stress
#13
Lian Jian, Yuan Lu, Shan Lu, Chengzhi Lu
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in many countries and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is the cause of many serious heart diseases. Recent reports suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with the progress of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In a previous study, we illustrated that 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) reduces I/R-induced cell death in vitro through inhibiting the ER stress-initiated cell apoptosis. In the present study we investigated whether 4-PBA improves heart function in isolated rat hearts subjected to I/R and elucidated the potential mechanisms involved in 4-PBA-induced cardioprotective effects...
December 30, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008641/effects-of-mirnas-on-myocardial-apoptosis-by-modulating-mitochondria-related-proteins
#14
REVIEW
Yanfang Zhao, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Yanhan Dong, Lei Zhang, Kun Wang, Peifeng Li
Myocardial apoptosis play a vital role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The intrinsic pathway of apoptosis (mitochondrial apoptosis pathway) and abnormal mitochondrial fission and fusion have a detrimental effect on cells under a variety of intracellular stresses including hypoxia, oxidative stress, drug toxicity or DNA damage and contributes to the development of heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short noncoding RNAs, which target 3'-untranslated region of mRNA to switch off gene expression...
December 23, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006775/fgf-2-transcriptionally-down-regulates-the-expression-of-bnip3l-via-pi3k-akt-foxo3a-signaling-and-inhibits-necrosis-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-induced-by-high-concentrations-of-hydrogen-peroxide-in-h9c2-cells
#15
Qian Chen, Xiaosong Chen, Conghui Han, Ying Wang, Tao Huang, Yingdong Du, Zhen Dong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiovascular disease is a growing major global public health problem. Necrosis is one of the main forms of cardiomyocyte death in heart disease. Oxidative stress is regarded as one of the key regulators of cardiac necrosis, which eventually leads to cardiovascular disease. Many pharmacological and in vitro studies have suggested that FGF-2 can act directly on cardiomyocytes to maintain the integrity and function of the myocardium and prevent damage during oxidative stress...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000313/a-review-of-the-protective-role-of-melatonin-during-phosphine-induced-cardiotoxicity-focus-on-mitochondrial-dysfunction-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Mohammad Abdollahi, Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
OBJECTIVES: Acute poisoning with aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a major cause of mortality in developing countries. AlP mortality is due to cardiac dysfunction leading to cardiomyocyte death. The main mechanism is an inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in the cardiomyocyte mitochondria, resulting in a decreased ATP production and oxidative stress. Unfortunately, the administration of exogenous drugs does not meet the desired requirements of an effective therapy. Melatonin is an amphiphilic molecule and can easily pass through all cellular compartments with the highest concentration recorded in mitochondria...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997746/autophagy-an-adaptive-physiological-countermeasure-to-cellular-senescence-and-ischaemia-reperfusion-associated-cardiac-arrhythmias
#17
REVIEW
Istvan Lekli, David Donald Haines, Gyorgy Balla, Arpad Tosaki
Oxidative stress placed on tissues that involved in pathogenesis of a disease activates compensatory metabolic changes, such as DNA damage repair that in turn causes intracellular accumulation of detritus and 'proteotoxic stress', leading to emergence of 'senescent' cellular phenotypes, which express high levels of inflammatory mediators, resulting in degradation of tissue function. Proteotoxic stress resulting from hyperactive inflammation following reperfusion of ischaemic tissue causes accumulation of proteinaceous debris in cells of the heart in ways that cause potentially fatal arrhythmias, in particular ventricular fibrillation (VF)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994059/assessing-oxidative-stress-in-tumors-by-measuring-the-rate-of-hyperpolarized-1-13c-dehydroascorbic-acid-reduction-using-13c-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#18
Kerstin N Timm, De-En Hu, Michael Williams, Alan J Wright, Mikko I Kettunen, Brett W C Kennedy, Timothy J Larkin, Piotr Dzien, Irene Marco-Rius, Sarah E Bohndiek, Kevin M Brindle
Rapid cancer cell proliferation promotes the production of reducing equivalents, which counteract the effects of relatively high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS levels increase in response to chemotherapy and cell death while an increase in antioxidant capacity can confer resistance to chemotherapy and is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a major site of NADPH production in the cell, which is used to maintain the main intracellular antioxidant, glutathione, in its reduced state...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993643/effects-of-neuregulin-ggf2-cimaglermin-alfa-dose-and-treatment-frequency-on-left-ventricular-function-in-rats-following-myocardial-infarction
#19
Tom J Parry, Anindita Ganguly, Erika L Troy, J Luis Guerrero, Jennifer F Iaci, Maya Srinivas, Andrea M Vecchione, Donald C Button, Craig S Hackett, Ronald Zolty, Douglas B Sawyer, Anthony O Caggiano
Neuregulins are important growth factors involved in cardiac development and response to stress. Certain isoforms and fragments of neuregulin have been found to be cardioprotective. The effects of a full-length neuregulin-1β isoform, glial growth factor 2 (GGF2; USAN/INN; also called cimaglermin) were investigated in vitro. Various dosing regimens were then evaluated for their effects on left ventricular (LV) function in rats with surgically-induced myocardial infarction. In vitro, GGF2 bound with high affinity to erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene (ErbB) 4 receptors, potently promoted Akt phosphorylation, as well as reduced cell death following doxorubicin exposure in HL1 cells...
December 16, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989602/lung-inflation-with-hydrogen-sulfide-during-the-warm-ischemia-phase-ameliorates-injury-in-rat-donor-lungs-via-metabolic-inhibition-after-cardiac-death
#20
Chao Meng, Xiaoguang Cui, Sihua Qi, Jiahang Zhang, Jiyu Kang, Huacheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury when inhaled or administered intraperitoneally. This study investigated the effects of lung inflation with H2S during the warm ischemia phase on lung grafts from rat donors after cardiac death. METHODS: One hour after cardiac death, donor lungs were inflated in situ for 2 h with either O2 or H2S (O2 or H2S group) during the warm ischemia phase or were deflated as a control procedure (n = 8)...
December 15, 2016: Surgery
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