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stress and cardiac death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428073/isosteviol-prevents-the-prolongation-of-action-potential-in-hypertrophied-cardiomyoctyes-by-regulating-transient-outward-potassium-and-l-type-calcium-channels
#1
Zhuo Fan, Nanying Lv, Xiao Luo, Wen Tan
Cardiac hypertrophy is a thickening of the heart muscle that is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and myocardial infarction. It occurs initially as an adaptive process against increased workloads and often leads to sudden arrhythmic deaths. Studies suggest that the lethal arrhythmia is attributed to hypertrophy-induced destabilization of cardiac electrical activity, especially the prolongation of the action potential. The reduced activity of Ito is demonstrated to be responsible for the ionic mechanism of prolonged action potential duration and arrhythmogeneity...
April 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425440/the-valosin-containing-protein-is-a-novel-mediator-of-mitochondrial-respiration-and-cell-survival-in-the-heart-in-vivo
#2
Paulo Lizano, Eman Rashed, Shaunrick Stoll, Ning Zhou, Hairuo Wen, Tristan T Hays, Gangjian Qin, Lai-Hua Xie, Christophe Depre, Hongyu Qiu
The valosin-containing protein (VCP) participates in signaling pathways essential for cell homeostasis in multiple tissues, however, its function in the heart in vivo remains unknown. Here we offer the first description of the expression, function and mechanism of action of VCP in the mammalian heart in vivo in both normal and stress conditions. By using a transgenic (TG) mouse with cardiac-specific overexpression (3.5-fold) of VCP, we demonstrate that VCP is a new and powerful mediator of cardiac protection against cell death in vivo, as evidenced by a 50% reduction of infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion versus wild type...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421204/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-current-approach-and-potential-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-targets
#3
REVIEW
Georgiana-Emmanuela Gilca, Gabriela Stefanescu, Oana Badulescu, Daniela-Maria Tanase, Iris Bararu, Manuela Ciocoiu
Although ischemic heart disease is the major cause of death in diabetic patients, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is increasingly recognized as a clinically relevant entity. Considering that it comprises a variety of mechanisms and effects on cardiac function, increasing the risk of heart failure and worsening the prognosis of this patient category, DCM represents an important complication of diabetes mellitus, with a silent development in its earlier stages, involving intricate pathophysiological mechanisms, including oxidative stress, defective calcium handling, altered mitochondrial function, remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and consequent deficient cardiomyocyte contractility...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412420/stress-perfusion-cmr-in-patients-with-known-and-suspected-cad-prognostic-value-and-optimal-ischemic-threshold-for-revascularization
#4
Gabriella Vincenti, Pier Giorgio Masci, Pierre Monney, Tobias Rutz, Sarah Hugelshofer, Mirdita Gaxherri, Olivier Muller, Juan F Iglesias, Eric Eeckhout, Valentina Lorenzoni, Cyril Pellaton, Christophe Sierro, Juerg Schwitter
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the ischemia threshold and additional prognostic factors that identify patients for safe deferral from revascularizations in a large cohort of all-comer patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND: Stress-perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is increasingly used in daily practice for ischemia detection. However, there is insufficient evidence about the ischemia burden that identifies patients who benefit from revascularization versus those with a good prognosis who receive drugs only...
April 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409033/aborted-sudden-cardiac-death-in-a-female-patient-presenting-with-takotsubo-like-cardiomyopathy-due-to-epicardial-coronary-vasospasm
#5
Sorin Giusca, Tom Eisele, Peter Nunninger, Benedikt Münz, Grigorios Korosoglou
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle (LV) in the absence of relevant coronary artery stenosis, which typically occurs in elderly women after emotional stress. Catecholamine cardiotoxicity, metabolic disturbance, and coronary microvascular impairment have previously been proposed as underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of takotsubo cardiomyopathy, whereas myocardial stunning resulting from epicardial coronary artery vasospasm is not generally accepted as a cause of takotsubo cardiomyopathy...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408703/accuracy-of-rb-82-pet-ct-mpi-with-regadenoson-stress-including-three-year-clinical-outcomes-reporting-present-pet-ct-regadenoson-stress-experience-at-the-va-north-texas
#6
Michael Brophey, Irfan Farukhi, Rosinda Castanon, Rosinda DeLaPena, Ledjona Bradshaw, Subhash Banerjee
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical accuracy of Rb-82 PET/CT MPI when performed with regadenoson stress in a VA population of patients. Methods: The initial cohort of 480 patients undergoing vasodilator PET MPI with regadenoson stress at our institution from September 2009 through July 2010 were closely tracked for short term outcomes based on correlation with invasive coronary catheterization. Long term outcomes were determined by major adverse cardiac event rates (MACE) based on data extraction from the electronic medical record and grouped by SSS for a three year period...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407402/cirrhotic-cardiomyopathy-implications-for-liver-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Hongqun Liu, Saumya Jayakumar, Mouhieddin Traboulsi, Samuel S Lee
The majority of the patients on a waiting list for liver transplantation have end-stage liver disease. Due to the marked peripheral vasodilatation of end stage cirrhosis that masks a latent myocardial dysfunction, cardiac abnormalities in the resting state are usually subclinical and escape the attention of physicians. However, when challenged, the systolic and diastolic contractile responses are attenuated. In addition to these contractile abnormalities, morphological changes such as enlargement or hypertrophy of cardiac chambers and electrophysiological repolarization changes including a prolonged QT interval can be observed...
April 13, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405885/sudden-death-due-to-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-following-negative-stress-test-outcome-genetics-and-clinical-implications
#8
Cristian D'Ovidio, Aldo Carnevale, Vincenzo M Grassi, Enrica Rosato, Bernat Del Olmo, Monica Coll, Oscar Campuzano, Anna Iglesias, Ramon Brugada, Antonio Oliva
This paper discusses the case of a young boy who died suddenly during a football match. The victim's personal and family medical histories were negative for cardiac events. He had undergone a cardiological investigation some months before his death, enabling him to participate in competitive sports. Only post-mortem molecular analysis allowed for a clearer determination of the most plausible cause of death, which was identified as inherited arrhythmogenic heart disease, known as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia...
April 13, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403128/an-oxygenated-and-transportable-machine-perfusion-system-fully-rescues-liver-grafts-exposed-to-lethal-ischemic-damage-in-a-pig-model-of-dcd-liver-transplantation
#9
Philippe Compagnon, Eric Levesque, Hassen Hentati, Mara Disabato, Julien Calderaro, Cyrille Feray, Anne Corlu, José Laurent Cohen, Ismail Ben Mosbah, Daniel Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Control of warm ischemia (WI) lesions that occur with donation after circulatory death (DCD) would significantly increase the donor pool for liver transplantation. We aimed to determine whether a novel, oxygenated and hypothermic machine perfusion device (HMP Airdrive system) improves the quality of livers derived from DCDs using a large animal model. METHODS: Cardiac arrest was induced in female large white pigs by IV injection of potassium chloride...
April 11, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402745/effect-of-ularitide-on-cardiovascular-mortality-in-acute-heart-failure
#10
Milton Packer, Christopher O'Connor, John J V McMurray, Janet Wittes, William T Abraham, Stefan D Anker, Kenneth Dickstein, Gerasimos Filippatos, Richard Holcomb, Henry Krum, Aldo P Maggioni, Alexandre Mebazaa, W Frank Peacock, Mark C Petrie, Piotr Ponikowski, Frank Ruschitzka, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Lisa S Kowarski, Mark Schactman, Johannes Holzmeister
Background In patients with acute heart failure, early intervention with an intravenous vasodilator has been proposed as a therapeutic goal to reduce cardiac-wall stress and, potentially, myocardial injury, thereby favorably affecting patients' long-term prognosis. Methods In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 2157 patients with acute heart failure to receive a continuous intravenous infusion of either ularitide at a dose of 15 ng per kilogram of body weight per minute or matching placebo for 48 hours, in addition to accepted therapy...
April 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400731/il-1-inhibition-may-have-an-important-role-in-treating-refractory-kawasaki-disease
#11
REVIEW
Perrine Dusser, Isabelle Koné-Paut
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute inflammatory vasculitis occurring in young children before 5 years and representing at this age, the main cause of acquired heart disease. A single infusion of 2 g/kg of intravenous immunoglobulins along with aspirin has reduced the frequency of coronary artery aneurysms from 25 to 5%. However, 10-20% of patients do not respond to standard treatment and have an increased risk of cardiac complications and death. The development of more potent therapeutic approaches of KD is an urgent need...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396614/can-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-be-diagnosed-by-autopsy-report-of-a-presumed-case-presenting-as-cardiac-rupture
#12
Andrew Mitchell, François Marquis
BACKGROUND: Takostsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy (TC) is a clinical syndrome featuring transient left ventricular dysfunction and wall-motion abnormalities, usually following emotional or physical stress. The diagnosis of TC depends on fulfillment of multiple clinical criteria. Although the pathogenesis has not been firmly established, myocardial cathecholamine toxicity is thought to represent a primary mechanism. The vast majority of patients with TC survive. However, a rare cause of death in TC is myocardial rupture...
2017: BMC Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395010/inflammation-and-metabolic-cardiomyopathy
#13
Kazuhiko Nishida, Kinya Otsu
Excessive feeding is associated with an increase in the incidence of chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic disturbance induces chronic low-grade inflammation in metabolically-important organs, such as the liver and adipose tissue. Many of the inflammatory signalling pathways are directly triggered by nutrients. The pro-inflammatory mediators in adipocytes and macrophages infiltrating adipose tissue promote both local and systemic pro-inflammatory status...
March 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389131/autophagy-metabolic-disease-and-pathogenesis-of-heart-dysfunction
#14
REVIEW
Fulong Wang, Jocelyn Jia, Brian Rodrigues
In normal physiology, autophagy is recognized as a protective housekeeping mechanism that enables elimination of unhealthy organelles, protein aggregates, and invading pathogens, as well as recycling cell components and producing new building blocks and energy for cellular renovation and homeostasis. However, overactive or depressed autophagy is often associated with the pathogenesis of multiple disorders, including cardiac disease. During metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and obesity, dysregulation of autophagy frequently leads to cell death, cardiomyopathy, and cardiac dysfunction...
January 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384410/lingonberry-anthocyanins-protect-cardiac-cells-from-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis
#15
Cara K Isaak, Jay C Petkau, Heather Joy Blewett, Karmin O, Yaw L Siow
Lingonberry grown in Northern Manitoba, Canada contains exceptionally high levels of anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Previous studies from our lab have shown that lingonberry anthocyanins can protect H9c2 cells from ischemia-reperfusion injury and anthocyanin-rich diets have been shown to be associated with decreased cardiovascular disease and mortality. Oxidative stress can impair function and trigger apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study investigated the protective effects of physiologically relevant doses of lingonberry extracts and pure anthocyanins against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death...
April 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381696/sterile-inflammation-and-degradation-systems-in-heart-failure
#16
Kazuhiko Nishida, Kinya Otsu
In most patients with chronic heart failure (HF), levels of circulating cytokines are elevated and the elevated cytokine levels correlate with the severity of HF and prognosis. Various stresses induce subcellular component abnormalities, such as mitochondrial damage. Damaged mitochondria induce accumulation of reactive oxygen species and apoptogenic proteins, and subcellular inflammation. The vicious cycle of subcellular component abnormalities, inflammatory cell infiltration and neurohumoral activation induces cardiomyocyte injury and death, and cardiac fibrosis, resulting in cardiac dysfunction and HF...
April 5, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364778/clinical-and-molecular-findings-in-a-moroccan-family-with-jervell-and-lange-nielsen-syndrome-a-case-report
#17
N Adadi, N Lahrouchi, R Bouhouch, I Fellat, R Amri, M Alders, A Sefiani, C Bezzina, I Ratbi
BACKGROUND: Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man 220400) is a rare autosomal recessive cardioauditory ion channel disorder that affects 1/200,000 to 1/1,000,000 children. It is characterized by congenital profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, a long QT interval, ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and episodes of torsade de pointes on an electrocardiogram. Cardiac symptoms arise mostly in early childhood and consist of syncopal episodes during periods of stress, exercise, or fright and are associated with a high risk of sudden cardiac death...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364596/cardioprotective-effects-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-isolated-rat-heart-and-in-h9c2-cells-via-redox-signaling
#18
Francesca Tullio, Claudia Penna, Karine Cabiale, Saveria Femminò, Marco Galloni, Pasquale Pagliaro
The calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP) release is coupled to the signaling of Angeli's salt in determining vasodilator effects. However, it is unknown whether CGRP is involved in Angeli's salt cardioprotective effects and which are the mechanisms of protection. We aimed to determine whether CGRP is involved in myocardial protection induced by Angeli's salt. We also analyzed the intracellular signaling pathway activated by CGRP. Isolated rat hearts were pre-treated with Angeli's salt or Angeli's salt plus CGRP8-37, a specific CGRP-receptor antagonist, and subjected to ischemia (30-min) and reperfusion (120-min)...
March 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342809/identity-and-function-of-a-cardiac-mitochondrial-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channel-splice-variant
#19
MeiYing Yang, Amadou K S Camara, Mohammed Aldakkak, Wai-Meng Kwok, David F Stowe
We provide evidence for location and function of a small conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SKCa) channel isoform 3 (SK3) in mitochondria (m) of guinea pig, rat and human ventricular myocytes. SKCa agonists protected isolated hearts and mitochondria against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury; SKCa antagonists worsened IR injury. Intravenous infusion of a SKCa channel agonist/antagonist, respectively, in intact rats was effective in reducing/enhancing regional infarct size induced by coronary artery occlusion...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336372/doxorubicin-targets-multiple-players-a-new-view-of-an-old-problem
#20
REVIEW
Donato Cappetta, Francesca Rossi, Elena Piegari, Federico Quaini, Liberato Berrino, Konrad Urbanek, Antonella De Angelis
Anthracycline cardiotoxicity remains a serious problem in paediatric and adult cancer survivors, and the advancement of cardio-oncology is a necessary step for an effective care of the patients that experience adverse cardiovascular effects. In this review, we discuss the multiple instruments used by clinicians that constitute the current strategies for primary and secondary prevention aiming at contrasting the onset of early and late doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxic events. The importance of early detection of cardiotoxicity and the following pharmacological therapy has been acknowledged with the emphasis put on impaired diastolic function, an increasingly recognized precocious sign of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity with an emerging scientific and clinical interest...
March 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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