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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025406/impact-of-empagliflozin-on-subclinical-left-ventricular-dysfunctions-and-on-the-mechanisms-involved-in-myocardial-disease-progression-in-type-2-diabetes-rationale-and-design-of-the-empa-heart-trial
#1
Andrea Natali, Lorenzo Nesti, Iacopo Fabiani, Enrico Calogero, Vitantonio Di Bello
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes patients. Unlike the other hypoglycemic drugs, SGLT2 inhibitors have shown potential benefits for reducing cardiovascular death and risk factors, aside from lowering plasma glucose levels. With this study we aim at determining whether the treatment with empagliflozin is associated with an improvement in LV functions in diabetic patients with asymptomatic LV dysfunction against Sitagliptin, which is presumably neutral on myocardial function...
October 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024427/combined-liver-kidney-perfusion-enhances-protective-effects-of-normothermic-perfusion-on-livers-grafts-from-donation-after-cardiac-death
#2
Xiaoshun He, Fei Ji, Zhiheng Zhang, Yunhua Tang, Lu Yang, Shanzhou Huang, Wenwen Li, Qiao Su, Wei Xiong, Zebin Zhu, Linhe Wang, Lei Lv, Jiyou Yao, Linan Zhang, Longjuan Zhang, Zhiyong Guo
It has been showed that combined liver-kidney normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is able to better maintain the circuit's biochemical milieu. Nevertheless, whether the combined perfusion is superior to liver perfusion alone in protecting livers from donation after cardiac death (DCD) is unclear. We aimed to test the hypothesis and explored the mechanisms. Livers from 15 DCD pig donors were subjected to either static cold storage group (Group A), liver alone NMP group (Group B), or combined liver-kidney NMP group (Group C)...
October 10, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021259/preload-stress-echocardiography-predicts-outcomes-in-patients-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-low-gradient-aortic-stenosis
#3
Kenya Kusunose, Hirotsugu Yamada, Susumu Nishio, Yuta Torii, Yukina Hirata, Hiromitsu Seno, Yoshihito Saijo, Takayuki Ise, Koji Yamaguchi, Shusuke Yagi, Takeshi Soeki, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: The projected aortic valve area (AVAproj) at a normal transvalvular flow rate using dobutamine is helpful to determine the actual severity of aortic stenosis (AS) and to predict risk of adverse events in low-gradient AS cases with unclear surgical indication. Our study aimed to identify the independent and incremental value of preload stress echocardiography-derived AVAproj to predict outcomes in patients with preserved ejection fraction and low-gradient AS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively performed echocardiographic studies in 79 patients with low-gradient AS (age, 77±7 years; 30% men) with preload stress echocardiography using leg positive pressure...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993547/development-of-novel-therapies-for-cardiovascular-diseases-by-clinical-application-of-basic-research
#4
Kimio Satoh
Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is secreted from vascular smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, activated platelets, and cardiac fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress. Excessive and continuous activation of the RhoA/Rho-kinase system promotes the secretion of CyPA, resulting in the development of multiple cardiovascular diseases. Basigin (Bsg), a transmembrane glycoprotein that activates matrix metalloproteinases, is an extracellular receptor for CyPA that promotes cell proliferation and inflammation. Thus, the CyPA/Bsg system is potentially a novel therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases...
October 6, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990610/effects-of-cyanidin-3-0-glucoside-on-cardiac-structure-and-function-in-an-animal-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#5
Pema Raj, Jason L McCallum, Christopher Kirby, Gurman Grewal, Liping Yu, Jeffrey T Wigle, Thomas Netticadan
Cyanidin 3-0-glucoside (CG) is a polyphenol with potential health benefits. In this study, we investigated, for the first time, the cardioprotective effects of CG in an animal model of myocardial infarction (MI), a major cause of death worldwide. Sham and MI rats were administered CG (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) daily for one week prior to surgery, and 8 weeks post-surgery. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiac structure and function at 4 and 8 weeks. At 4 weeks, MI rats had significantly lower body mass when compared to control rats, and CG administration significantly prevented this decrease...
October 9, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989880/arrhythmias-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Gaurav Agarwal, Satish Kumar Singh
Chronic hyperglycaemia of Type 2 diabetes mellitus causes long term damage to heart resulting in coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and sudden death from arrhythmias. AIMS: To study the prevalence of different types of arrhythmias in T2DM, particularly in association with Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN). METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 100 patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) presenting with cardiac arrhythmias, was done at our hospital over 2 years...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988575/alcohol-s-effects-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#7
Mariann R Piano
Alcohol use has complex effects on cardiovascular (CV) health. The associations between drinking and CV diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and cardiomyopathy have been studied extensively and are outlined in this review. Although many behavioral, genetic, and biologic variants influence the interconnection between alcohol use and CV disease, dose and pattern of alcohol consumption seem to modulate this most. Low-to-moderate alcohol use may mitigate certain mechanisms such as risk and hemostatic factors affecting atherosclerosis and inflammation, pathophysiologic processes integral to most CV disease...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986773/feasibility-of-combined-risk-stratification-with-coronary-ct-angiography-and-stress-myocardial-spect-in-patients-with-chronic-coronary-artery-disease
#8
Tomonari Kiriyama, Yoshimitsu Fukushima, Hiromitsu Hayashi, Hitoshi Takano, Shin-Ichiro Kumita
OBJECTIVE: To examine the additional prognostic value of coronary CT angiography (CTA) over myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. METHODS: A series of 157 patients (mean age 69 ± 9 years; 76% male; median follow-up 49 months; range 12-82 months) underwent stress MPI with SPECT and coronary CTA within a 6-month interval. Summed stress score (SSS) and summed difference score (SDS) of stress MPI, number of vessels with stenosis, and presence of left main trunk stenosis and high-risk plaques on coronary CTA were examined...
October 6, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982613/klotho-protects-the-heart-from-hyperglycemia-induced-injury-by-inactivating-ros-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammation-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Yue Guo, Xiaodong Zhuang, Zena Huang, Jing Zou, Daya Yang, Xun Hu, Zhimin Du, Lichun Wang, Xinxue Liao
Cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The anti-aging protein Klotho has been found to protect cells from inflammation and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to explore the cardioprotective effects of Klotho on DCM and the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cells and neonatal cardiomyocytes were incubated with 33mM glucose in the presence or absence of Klotho. Klotho pretreatment effectively inhibited high glucose-induced inflammation, ROS generation, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, fibrosis and hypertrophy in both H9c2 cells and neonatal cardiomyocytes...
October 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981443/ameliorative-effect-of-azadirachta-indica-on-sodium-fluoride-induced-hypertension-through-improvement-of-antioxidant-defence-system-and-upregulation-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-signaling
#10
Temidayo Olutayo Omóbòwálé, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Bukola Ayokunmi Alaba, Olufunke Eunice Ola-Davies, Olumuyiwa Abiola Adejumobi, Ebunoluwa Racheal Asenuga, Temitayo Olabisi Ajibade, Adeolu Alex Adedapo, Momoh Audu Yakubu
BACKGROUND: Toxicities due to fluoride exposure from natural and industrial sources occur commonly in man and animals with severe consequences ranging from mild cardiac derangements to sudden death. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of the methanol extract of Azadirachta indica (AI) against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced hypertension and genotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into six groups of ten rats each as follows: Group A, the control group received distilled water; Group B rats were administered NaF at 600 ppm in drinking water; Groups C and D rats were pre-treated with the methanol extract of AI and thereafter administered NaF at 600 ppm in drinking water for 7 consecutive days; Groups E and F rats were co-administered with AI and NaF...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978553/ctrp9-regulates-the-fate-of-implanted-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-mobilizes-their-protective-effects-against-ischemic-heart-injury-via-multiple-novel-signaling-pathways
#11
Wenjun Yan, Yongzhen Guo, Ling Tao, Wayne Bond Lau, Lu Gan, Zheyi Yan, Rui Guo, Erhe Gao, G William Wong, Walter L Koch, Yajing Wang, Xin-Liang Ma
Background -Cell therapy remains the most promising approach against ischemic heart injury. However, the poor survival of engrafted stem cells in the ischemic environment limits their therapeutic efficacy for cardiac repair post myocardial infarction (MI). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-9 (CTRP9) is a novel pro-survival cardiokine with significantly downregulated expression after MI. Here, we tested a hypothesis that CTRP9 might be a cardiokine required for a healthy microenvironment promoting implanted stem cell survival and cardioprotection...
October 4, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975767/cd47-blockade-reduces-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-donation-after-cardiac-death-rat-kidney-transplantation
#12
Xuanchuan Wang, Min Xu, Jianluo Jia, Zhengyan Zhang, Joseph P Gaut, Gundumi A Upadhya, Pamela T Manning, Yiing Lin, William C Chapman
Modulation of nitric oxide (NO) activity through blockade of CD47 signaling has been shown to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in various models of tissue ischemia. Here, we evaluate the potential effect of an antibody-mediated CD47 blockade in a syngeneic and an allogeneic DCD rat kidney transplant model. The donor organ was subjected to 1 hr of warm ischemia time after circulatory cessation, then flushed with a CD47 monoclonal antibody (CD47mAb) in the treatment group, or an isotype-matched immunoglobulin in the control group...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973101/coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-vs-functional-stress-testing-for-patients-with-suspected-coronary-artery-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Andrew J Foy, Sanket S Dhruva, Brandon Peterson, John M Mandrola, Daniel J Morgan, Rita F Redberg
Importance: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a new approach for the diagnosis of anatomical coronary artery disease (CAD), but it is unclear how CCTA performs compared with the standard approach of functional stress testing. Objective: To compare the clinical effectiveness of CCTA with that of functional stress testing for patients with suspected CAD. Data Sources: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and MEDLINE for English-language randomized clinical trials of CCTA published from January 1, 2000, to July 10, 2016...
October 2, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969536/progress-of-stem-cell-transplantation-for-treating-myocardial-infarction
#14
Zhi Chen, Chunyu Zeng, Wei Eric Wang
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal treatment, myocardial infarction (MI) remains a major cause of death worldwide. Stem cell transplantation, as a promising therapy hoping to improve myocardial function and generate new myocardium, has been intensely studied for treating MI. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the recent advance of stem cell transplantation for treating MI in clinical trials and in preclinical studies. RESULTS: Several types of adult stem cells have been applied to clinical trials and exerted beneficial effects against MI...
September 26, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962519/from-the-cover-alcohol-inhibition-of-the-enzymatic-activity-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-impairs-cardiac-glucose-utilization-contributing-to-alcoholic-cardiomyopathy
#15
Xiaoqing Yan, Lianpin Wu, Qian Lin, Xiaozhen Dai, Haiqi Hu, Kai Wang, Chi Zhang, Minglong Shao, Lu Cai, Yi Tan
Heavy consumption of alcohol induces cardiomyopathy and is associated with metabolic changes in the heart. The role of altered metabolism in the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy remains largely unknown but is examined in the present study. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on cardiac damage was examined in mice fed an alcohol or isocaloric control diet for 2 months. Signaling pathways of alcohol-induced metabolic alteration and pathologic changes were examined in both animal hearts and H9c2 cell cultures...
October 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954802/henry-ford-heart-score-randomized-trial-rapid-discharge-of-patients-evaluated-for-possible-myocardial-infarction
#16
Tiberio M Frisoli, Richard Nowak, Kaleigh L Evans, Michael Harrison, Maath Alani, Saira Varghese, Mehnaz Rahman, Samantha Noll, Katherine R Flannery, Alex Michaels, Mishel Tabaku, Gordon Jacobsen, James McCord
BACKGROUND: Hospital evaluation of patients with chest pain is common and costly. The HEART score risk stratification tool that merges troponin testing into a clinical risk model for evaluation emergency department patients with possible acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been shown to effectively identify a substantial low-risk subset of patients possibly safe for early discharge without stress testing, a strategy that could have tremendous healthcare savings implications. METHOD AND RESULTS: A total of 105 patients evaluated for AMI in the emergency departments of 2 teaching hospitals in the Henry Ford Health System (Detroit and West Bloomfield, MI), between February 2014 and May 2015, with a modified HEART score ≤3 (which includes cardiac troponin I <0...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951984/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-protects-human-neural-stem-cells-from-oxidative-stress
#17
Ayako Motomura, Mikiko Shimizu, Akira Kato, Kazuya Motomura, Akane Yamamichi, Hiroko Koyama, Fumiharu Ohka, Tomohide Nishikawa, Yusuke Nishimura, Masahito Hara, Tetsuya Fukuda, Yasuhiko Bando, Toshihide Nishimura, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Atsushi Natsume
In previous clinical trials, we showed that remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC) reduced myocardial damage in children undergoing treatment for congenital heart defects and postoperative renal failure in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. In rabbit experiments, pre-treatment with plasma and plasma dialysate (obtained using 15-kDa cut-off dialysis membrane) from donor rabbits subjected to rIPC similarly protected against cardiac infarction. However, the protective substances containing in rIPC plasma have been unknown...
September 26, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942939/relation-of-coronary-flow-reserve-to-other-findings-on-positron-emission-tomography-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-and-left-heart-catheterization-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-being-evaluated-for-kidney-transplant
#18
Yehuda Paz, Rachelle Morgenstern, Richard Weinberg, Mariana Chiles, Navdeep Bhatti, Ziad Ali, Sumit Mohan, Sabahat Bokhari
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and often goes undetected. Abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR), which predicts increased risk of cardiac death, may be present in patients with ESRD without other evidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). We prospectively studied 131 patients who had rest and dipyridamole pharmacologic stress N(13)-ammonia positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (PET MPI) for kidney transplant evaluation...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940060/psychosocial-implications-of-living-with-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-in-adulthood
#19
Ebony Richardson, Catherine Spinks, Andrew Davis, Christian Turner, John Atherton, Julie McGaughran, Christopher Semsarian, Jodie Ingles
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare inherited arrhythmogenic disease with a high risk of sudden cardiac death. The impact on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and psychosocial outcomes is not known. We sought to provide the first description of HR-QoL and psychosocial wellbeing of adults with CPVT, parents of affected children and at-risk relatives. Participants were recruited through the Australian Genetic Heart Disease Registry and invited to complete a cross-sectional survey comprising a number of validated scales and open-ended questions...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933303/cardioprotective-potential-of-iron-chelators-and-prochelators
#20
Hana Jansova, Tomas Simunek
Heart is a particularly sensitive organ to iron overload and cardiomyopathy due to the excessive cardiac iron deposition causes most deaths in disorders such as beta-thalassemia major. Free or loosely bound iron ions readily cycle between ferrous and ferric states and catalyze Haber-Weiss reaction that yields highly reactive and toxic hydroxyl radicals. Treatment with iron chelators (desferrioxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox) substantially improved cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in iron overloaded patients...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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