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Kimberly Giraud, Megan Pontin, Linda D Sharples, Paul Fletcher, Tim Dalgleish, Allaina Eden, David P Jenkins, Alain Vuylsteke
Introduction: Post-operative delirium remains a significant problem, particularly in the older surgical patient. Previous evidence suggests that the provision of supplementary visual feedback about ones environment via the use of a mirror may positively impact on mental status and attention (core delirium diagnostic domains). We aimed to explore whether use of an evidence-based mirrors intervention could be effective in reducing delirium and improving post-operative outcomes such as factual memory encoding of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environment in older cardiac surgical patients...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jacqui Jauncey-Cooke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Delfabbro, Steffen Moritz
INTRODUCTION: An 'overconfidence in errors' bias has been consistently observed in people with schizophrenia relative to healthy controls, however, the bias is seldom found to be associated with delusional ideation. Using a more precise confidence-accuracy calibration measure of overconfidence, the present study aimed to explore whether the overconfidence bias is greater in people with higher delusional ideation. METHODS: A sample of 25 participants with schizophrenia and 50 non-clinical controls (25 high- and 25 low-delusion-prone) completed 30 difficult trivia questions (accuracy <75%); 15 'half-scale' items required participants to indicate their level of confidence for accuracy, and the remaining 'confidence-range' items asked participants to provide lower/upper bounds in which they were 80% confident the true answer lay within...
October 6, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
B Etain, M Lajnef, F Bellivier, C Henry, K M'bailara, J P Kahn, M Leboyer, H L Fisher
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma has been associated with a more severe clinical expression of bipolar disorder (BD). However, the results that specifically associated traumatic events and psychotic features in BD have been inconsistent, possibly due to the low resolution of the phenotypes being used. METHODS: 270 normothymic patients with BD completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Peters Delusion Inventory (PDI) that assessed 21 delusional beliefs...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Robert M Ross, Bjoern Hartig, Ryan McKay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that delusional beliefs are attempts to explain anomalous experiences. Why, then, do anomalous experiences induce delusions in some people but not in others? One possibility is that people with delusions have reasoning biases that result in them failing to reject implausible candidate explanations for anomalous experiences. We examine this hypothesis by studying paranormal interpretations of anomalous experiences. METHODS: We examined whether analytic cognitive style (i...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
Dementia is known to be an illness which brings forth marked disability amongst the elderly individuals. At times, patients living with dementia do also experience non-cognitive symptoms, and these symptoms include that of hallucinations, delusional beliefs as well as emotional liability, sexualized behaviours and aggression. According to the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines, non-pharmacological techniques are typically the first-line option prior to the consideration of adjuvant pharmacological options...
October 22, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Yingfeng Zhang, Hongxia Ma, Yanbin Wang
Few reports exist about the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in patients who are suicidal. This case report describes a 19-year-old male with BDD who had delusional-intensity beliefs about facial disfigurement that had gradually intensified over a 2-year period. However, he was initially misdiagnosed with depression partly because he was admitted immediately after a suicide attempt that was associated with depressive symptoms and social withdrawal, symptoms that subsequently proved to be secondary to his BDD...
February 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
Anna L MacKinnon, Mariam Naguib, Helena J Barr, Anna Levinsson, Stephanie Robins, Nancy Feeley, Barbara Hayton, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Ian Gold
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of mental health problems during the perinatal period, little research has examined psychotic symptoms in a community sample across pregnancy and the postpartum. Exposure to environmental risk factors, and immigration in particular, are associated with increased risk for psychotic disorders. The current investigation examined whether psychosocial risk and immigrant status would predict levels of delusional ideation across the perinatal period when controlling for depression, anxiety, and demographic factors...
September 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Christopher S Peckins, Leila Khorashadi, Edward R Wolpow
We present the case of a high-functioning 88-year-old woman who suddenly developed the persistent and disturbing belief that her home of 40 years was not genuine, but rather an accurate replica. Her episode was probably caused by a small stroke that left her with this single extremely specific deficit. We describe the patient in detail and link to a video interview of her 3 months after the onset of the delusion, eloquently describing her experience. We summarize some of the many reports and discussions of our patient's delusion, reduplicative paramnesia, as well as other delusional misidentification syndromes...
September 2016: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Tian Hao Zhu, Mio Nakamura, Benjamin Farahnik, Michael Abrouk, Jason Reichenberg, Tina Bhutani, John Koo
Individuals with obsessive-compulsive features frequently visit dermatologists for complaints of the skin, hair, or nails, and often progress towards a chronic relapsing course due to the challenge associated with accurate diagnosis and management of their psychiatric symptoms. The current DSM-5 formally recognizes body dysmorphic disorder, trichotillomania, neurotic excoriation, and body focused repetitive behavior disorder as psychodermatological disorders belonging to the category of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Nabil Berhili, Amine Bout, Hayat Hlal, Chadya Aarab, Rachid Aalouane, Ismail Rammouz
Ekbom syndrome or delusional parasitosis is a rare disease characterized by the unwavering conviction of having cutaneous infestation of insects or parasites. This is a monothematic delusion of hallucinatory origin that typically affects older women. We report the case of three patients with delusional parasitosis in different clinical settings. The first patient suffered from isolated delusional parasitosis corresponding to the condition described by Karl Ekbom. The second case suffered from secondary delusional parasitosis, occurring in the setting of leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Mio Nakamura, John Koo
In monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis (MHP), such as delusional infestation (DI), the patient has a fixed, false, encapsulated belief associated with tactile hallucinations (TH), most commonly formication, which is defined as cutaneous sensations of crawling, stinging, biting, etc., without evidence of infestation. Drug-induced TH should be considered in patients with suspected MHP. Although recreational drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines, and narcotics are well known to induce TH, many busy practicing dermatologists may not be familiar with other types of medications that can induce TH...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Zhenjie Wang, Ning Li, Chao Guo, Lei Zhang, Gong Chen, Xiaoying Zheng
The world will be facing huge population aged 65 and older, accounting for 13% of the total population in the future. Significant disabilities rates reflect an accumulation of health risks. Psychiatry disability is one of the most significant disabilities, because it manifests in cognitive, affective, and behavior disorders that limit one's daily life and restrict their participations. Very few studies have explored the 20 years associations between demographic factors and psychiatry disability among older people in China...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tobias E Hillmann, Leonie Ascone, Jürgen Kempkensteffen, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A promising candidate for a vulnerability indicator for psychosis is the restricted scanpath. Restricted scanning of social stimuli, such as faces, might also contribute to misinterpretations of facial expressions and thus increase the likelihood of delusional interpretations. Moreover, similar to other vulnerability indicators of psychosis, scanpaths may be susceptible to stress. Thus, we hypothesized that scanpath restriction would increase as a function of delusion-proneness, stress and their interaction...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Michele T Pathé, Timothy J Lowry, Debbie J Haworth, Paul Winterbourne, Leanne Day
Research in western nations has found that pathologically fixated individuals pose a risk of serious harm to public figures, and that many of these fixated persons are mentally ill and require treatment. Over the past decade, integrated fixated threat assessment agencies have been established in western Europe and Australia to specifically assess and manage this group. The current study examines 400 consecutive referrals to a fixated threat assessment center in Queensland, Australia, with a particular focus on the mental health and risk profile of those who engage in inappropriate contact with public office holders...
September 5, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Kristen A Schmidt, Brian A Palmer, Mark A Frye
BACKGROUND: This case chronicles the unique presentation of psychotic mixed mania in a female 5 months after parturition and 1 week following breastfeeding discontinuation, highlighting a rarely recognized mania risk factor that is temporally delayed from parturition: breastfeeding discontinuation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old G1P1 female with a past psychiatric history of a depressive episode in adolescence presented to the Emergency Department with her 5-month-old daughter, fiancée, and family 1 week after breastfeeding cessation...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Chantal Michel, Benno G Schimmelmann, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
AIM: Retrospective studies of first-episode psychosis patients have reported that psychosis often remains untreated for some time. Yet, from clinical samples, the characteristics and number of non-diagnosed untreated psychosis patients in a community can only be estimated. Thus, this short report compares socio-demographic and clinical features of diagnosed and non-diagnosed psychotic individuals assessed in the community. METHODS: Using telephone interviews, we clinically assessed 2682 community participants (aged 16-40 years) in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, to examine the characteristics of non-diagnosed psychosis...
August 24, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Bethany L Leonhardt, Marina Kukla, Elizabeth Belanger, Kelly A Chaudoin-Patzoldt, Kelly D Buck, Kyle S Minor, Jenifer L Vohs, Jay A Hamm, Paul H Lysaker
OBJECTIVE: Emerging integrative metacognitive therapies for schizophrenia seek to promote subjective aspects of recovery. Beyond symptom remission, they are concerned with shared meaning-making and intersubjective processes. It is unclear, however, how such therapies should understand and respond to psychotic content that threatens meaning-making in therapeutic contexts. Accordingly, we sought to understand what factors precede and potentially trigger psychotic content within psychotherapy and what aids in resolution and return to meaning-making...
August 24, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Todd E Feinberg, David Roane
In some instances the ostensibly false narratives produced by patients with delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS) or confabulation may - unbeknownst to the patient - contain some authentic self-referential information. In this review, extracted from a video library or verbatim transcripts of approximately 50 clinical cases with either delusional misidentification or some variety of confabulation, we identified four cases (Feinberg, 2001, 2009, 2010; Feinberg & Shapiro, 1989) with either DMS for persons or confabulations about "phantom" persons, who showed prominent "self-referential" (SR) narratives...
July 27, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Łukasz Gawęda, Marta Staszkiewicz, Ryan P Balzan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive biases play a role in the development and maintenance of delusions. However, delusions are multidimensional (i.e., emotional and cognitive facets) and often co-occur with auditory hallucinations. Therefore, further refinement of the precise relationship between cognitive biases, delusions, and hallucinatory experiences is warranted. METHODS: A total sample of 167 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders was split into two groups consisting of patients with active delusions (n = 127) and active hallucinations (n = 92)...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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