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Intestinal permeability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#1
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204967/advantageous-solubility-permeability-interplay-when-using-amorphous-solid-dispersion-asd-formulation-for-the-bcs-class-iv-p-gp-substrate-rifaximin-simultaneous-increase-of-both-the-solubility-and-the-permeability
#2
Avital Beig, Noa Fine-Shamir, David Lindley, Jonathan M Miller, Arik Dahan
Rifaximin is a BCS class IV (low-solubility, low-permeability) drug and also a P-gp substrate. The aims of this work were to assess the efficiency of different rifaximin amorphous solid dispersion (ASDs) formulations in achieving and maintaining supersaturation and to investigate the consequent solubility-permeability interplay. Spray-dried rifaximin ASDs were prepared with different hydrophilic polymers and their ability to achieve and maintain supersaturation was assessed. Then, rifaximin's apparent intestinal permeability was investigated as a function of increasing supersaturation both in vitro using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and in vivo using the single-pass rat intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model...
February 15, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204823/incretins-amplify-tnf-%C3%AE-stimulated-il-6-synthesis-in-osteoblasts-suppression-of-the-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#3
Kazuhiko Fujita, Haruhiko Tokuda, Naohiro Yamamoto, Shingo Kainuma, Tetsu Kawabata, Go Sakai, Gen Kuroyanagi, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Atsushi Harada, Osamu Kozawa, Takanobu Otsuka
Incretins including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose‑dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secreted from the small intestine after oral food ingestion are currently recognized to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. We previously reported that p70 S6 kinase limits the tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α)‑stimulated interleukin-6 (IL‑6) synthesis in osteoblast‑like MC3T3‑E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of incretins on the TNF‑α‑induced IL‑6 synthesis and the underlying mechanism in MC3T3‑E1 cells...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195032/ph-responsive-carriers-for-oral-drug-delivery-challenges-and-opportunities-of-current-platforms
#4
Lin Liu, WenDong Yao, YueFeng Rao, XiaoYang Lu, JianQing Gao
Oral administration is a desirable alternative of parenteral administration due to the convenience and increased compliance to patients, especially for chronic diseases that require frequent administration. The oral drug delivery is a dynamic research field despite the numerous challenges limiting their effective delivery, such as enzyme degradation, hydrolysis and low permeability of intestinal epithelium in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. pH-Responsive carriers offer excellent potential as oral therapeutic systems due to enhancing the stability of drug delivery in stomach and achieving controlled release in intestines...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194099/gut-to-brain-dysbiosis-mechanisms-linking-western-diet-consumption-the-microbiome-and-cognitive-impairment
#5
REVIEW
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Scott E Kanoski
Consumption of a Western Diet (WD) that is high in saturated fat and added sugars negatively impacts cognitive function, particularly mnemonic processes that rely on the integrity of the hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome influences cognitive function via the gut-brain axis, and that WD factors significantly alter the proportions of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we review mechanisms through which consuming a WD negatively impacts neurocognitive function, with a particular focus on recent evidence linking the gut microbiome with dietary- and metabolic-associated hippocampal impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193579/zinc-enhances-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-through-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-caco-2-cells
#6
Yuxin Shao, Patricia G Wolf, Shuangshuang Guo, Yuming Guo, H Rex Gaskins, Bingkun Zhang
Zinc plays an important role in maintaining intestinal barrier function as well as modulating cellular signaling recognition and protein kinase activities. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) cascade has been demonstrated to affect intercellular integrity and tight junction (TJ) proteins. The current study investigated the hypothesis that zinc regulates intestinal intercellular junction integrity through the PI3K/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. A transwell model of Caco-2 cell was incubated with 0, 50 and 100 μM of zinc at various time points...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193514/microrna-301a-promotes-intestinal-inflammation-and-colitis-associated-cancer-development-by-inhibiting-btg1
#7
Chong He, Tianming Yu, Yan Shi, Caiyun Ma, Wenjing Yang, Leilei Fang, Mingming Sun, Wei Wu, Fei Xiao, Feifan Guo, Minhu Chen, Hong Yang, Jiaming Qian, Yingzi Cong, Zhanju Liu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal tissues from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer have increased expression of microRNA-301a (MIR301A), compared to tissues from patients without IBD. We studied the mechanisms of MIR301A in progression of IBD in human tissues and mice. METHODS: We isolated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from colon biopsy samples of 153 patients with different stages of IBD activity, 6 patients with colitis-associated cancer (CAC), and 35 healthy individuals (controls), enrolled in the study in Shanghai, China...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192813/passive-intestinal-absorption-of-representative-plant-secondary-metabolites-a-physicochemical-study
#8
Charlotte Petit, Martina Ceccarelli, Sylvian Cretton, Joëlle Houriet, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Philippe Christen, Pierre-Alain Carrupt, Laura Goracci, Jean-Luc Wolfender
Natural products are generally ingested as part of traditional herbal decoctions or in the current diet. However, in natural product research, the bioavailability of secondary metabolites is often poorly investigated. In this work, a systematic study was carried out in order to highlight the physicochemical parameters that mainly influence the passive intestinal absorption of natural products. For this, a representative set of natural products including alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoid aglycones and glycosides, and carboxylic acids was selected and their physicochemical properties were predicted using relevant Volsurf+ descriptors...
February 13, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185989/enhanced-oral-bioavailability-of-docetaxel-in-rats-combined-with-myricetin-in-situ-and-in-vivo-evidences
#9
Tianyun Hao, Yunni Ling, Meijuan Wu, Yajing Shen, Yu Gao, Shujun Liang, Yuan Gao, Shuai Qian
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of myricetin on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in rats. In comparison to oral docetaxel alone (40mg/kg), the bioavailability of docetaxel could be significantly enhanced by 1.6-2.4-fold via oral co-administration with various flavonoids (apigenin, naringenin, baicalein, quercetin and myricetin) at a dosage of 10mg/kg, and myricetin showed the highest bioavailability improvement. Further pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the presence of myricetin (5-20mg/kg) enhanced both Cmax and AUC of docetaxel with the highest Cmax (162ng/mL, 2...
February 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185248/mastering-gut-permeability-new-roles-for-old-friends
#10
Michael Bramhall, Colby Zaph
Mast cells are innate immune cells that respond rapidly to infection in barrier tissues such as the skin and intestinal mucosa. Expulsion of parasitic worms in the gut involves a robust type 2 host response, and an acute mastocytosis is often generated at the site of infection. However, the role of mast cells in resistance to worm infections appears to be parasite specific. Mast cells are also involved in tissue repair, but the long-term contribution of mast cell activation after worm expulsion has not been definitively studied...
February 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176790/architectural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-small-intestinal-mucosa-in-classical-whipple-s-disease
#11
H-J Epple, J Friebel, V Moos, H Troeger, S M Krug, K Allers, K Schinnerling, A Fromm, B Siegmund, M Fromm, J D Schulzke, T Schneider
Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) affects the gastrointestinal tract and rather elicits regulatory than inflammatory immune reactions. Mechanisms of malabsorption, diarrhea, and systemic immune activation are unknown. We here analyzed mucosal architecture, barrier function, and immune activation as potential diarrheal trigger in specimens from 52 CWD patients. Our data demonstrate villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia associated with epithelial apoptosis and reduced alkaline phosphatase expression in the duodenum of CWD patients...
February 8, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174756/mechanisms-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-by%C3%A2-adherent-invasive-escherichia-coli
#12
REVIEW
Ali Shawki, Declan F McCole
Pathobiont expansion, such as that of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), is an emerging factor associated with inflammatory bowel disease. The intestinal epithelial barrier is the first line of defense against these pathogens. Inflammation plays a critical role in altering the epithelial barrier and is a major factor involved in promoting the expansion and pathogenesis of AIEC. AIEC in turn can exacerbate intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction by targeting multiple elements of the barrier. One critical element of the epithelial barrier is the tight junction...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174119/potential-transfer-of-neurotoxic-amino-acid-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-alanine-bmaa-from-mother-to-infant-during-breast-feeding-predictions-from-human-cell-lines
#13
Marie Andersson, Lisa Ersson, Ingvar Brandt, Ulrika Bergström
β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) is a non-protein amino acid produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates. BMAA has potential to biomagnify in a terrestrial food chain, and to bioaccumulate in fish and shellfish. We have reported that administration of [(14)C]l-BMAA to lactating mice and rats results in a mother to off-spring transfer via the milk. A preferential enantiomer-specific uptake of [(14)C]l-BMAA has also been demonstrated in differentiated murine mammary epithelium HC11 cells. These findings, together with neurotoxic effects of BMAA demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, highlight the need to determine whether such transfer could also occur in humans...
February 4, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165811/nanoemulsion-for-improving-solubility-and-permeability-of-vitex-agnus-castus-extract-formulation-and-in-vitro-evaluation-using-pampa-and-caco-2-approaches
#14
Vieri Piazzini, Elena Monteforte, Cristina Luceri, Elisabetta Bigagli, Anna Rita Bilia, Maria Camilla Bergonzi
The purpose of this study was to develop new formulation for an improved oral delivery of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) extract. After the optimization and validation of analytical method for quali-quantitative characterization of extract, nanoemulsion (NE) was selected as lipid-based nanocarrier. The composition of extract-loaded NE resulted in triacetin as oil phase, labrasol as surfactant, cremophor EL as co-surfactant and water. NE contains until 60 mg/mL of extract. It was characterized by DLS and TEM analyses and its droplets appear dark with an average diameter of 11...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165806/enhancing-both-oral-bioavailability-and-brain-penetration-of-puerarin-using-borneol-in-combination-with-preparation-technologies
#15
Tao Yi, Dandan Tang, Fan Wang, Jiqiong Zhang, Jiao Zhang, Jirui Wang, Xiaoyu Xu, Jifen Zhang
Now there are few good oral preparations of puerarin used in cerebrovascular diseases because of its poor oral absorption caused by the low water solubility and the poor penetration into brain. In this study, three oral formulations of puerarin, nanocrystals suspension (NCS), inclusion compounds solution (ICS) and self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) were prepared with borneol as an oral brain-targeting enhancer. A rat syngeneic in vitro model of the brain-blood barrier (BBB) was established to investigate effects of borneol on the permeability of puerarin across the BBB...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165803/tanshinol-sustained-release-pellets-with-absorption-enhancer-optimization-characterization-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics
#16
Panpan Yu, Shuangshuang Zhang, Wenli Zhang, Jikun Yang, Jing Lu, Jianping Liu
The objective of this study was to develop tanshinol sustained-release pellets (TS-SRPs) for the treatment of angina. Considering the poor intestinal absorption of TS, sodium caprate (SC) was used as an absorption enhancer for bioavailability improvement. Single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats demonstrated that the permeability of TS was remarkably enhanced, when the weight ratio of TS to SC was 1:3. Then, the cores were prepared with TS, SC and MCC at a weight ratio of 1:3:16 via extrusion-spheronization, followed by coating with Eudragit® RS30D/RL30D dispersion (9:1, w/w)...
February 6, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161538/chloride-channel-clc-2-enhances-intestinal-epithelial-tight-junction-barrier-function-via-regulation-of-caveolin-1-and-caveolar-trafficking-of-occludin
#17
Prashant K Nighot, Lana Leung, Thomas Y Ma
Previous studies have demonstrated that the chloride channel ClC-2 plays a critical role in intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) barrier function via intracellular trafficking of TJ protein occludin. To study the mechanism of ClC-2-mediated TJ barrier function and intracellular trafficking of occludin, we established ClC-2 over-expressing Caco-2 cell line (Caco-2(CLCN2)) by full length ClC-2 ORF transfection. ClC-2 over-expression (Caco-2(CLCN2)) significantly enhanced TJ barrier (increased TER by ≥2 times and reduced inulin flux by 50%) compared to control Caco-2(pEZ) cells...
February 2, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159311/intestinal-barrier-maturation-in-very-low-birthweight-infants-relationship-to-feeding-and-antibiotic-exposure
#18
Bushra Saleem, Adora C Okogbule-Wonodi, Alessio Fasano, Laurence S Magder, Jacques Ravel, Shiv Kapoor, Rose M Viscardi
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that feeding and antibiotic exposures affect intestinal barrier maturation in preterm infants, we serially measured intestinal permeability (IP) biomarkers in infants <33 weeks gestation (gestational age [GA]) during the first 2 weeks of life. STUDY DESIGN: Eligible infants <33 weeks GA were enrolled within 4 days of birth in a prospective study of IP biomarkers (NCT01756040). Study participants received the nonmetabolized sugars lactulose/rhamnose enterally on study days 1, 8, and 15 and lactulose/rhamnose were measured in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158162/potential-beneficial-effects-of-probiotics-on-human-migraine-headache-a-literature-review
#19
Yu-Jie Dai, Hai-Yan Wang, Xi-Jian Wang, Alan D Kaye, Yong-Hai Sun
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that migraine headache is often associated with concomitant gastrointestinal diseases. There is a higher prevalence of headaches in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. These associations between migraine and gastrointestinal disorders suggest a potential link to a bidirectional modulation of gut microbiota and brain function. The underlying working mechanistic links between migraine and gastrointestinal diseases may include increased intestinal epithelial permeability and inflammation...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157295/vitamin-derived-nanolipoidal-carriers-for-brain-delivery-of-dimethyl-fumarate-a-novel-approach-with-preclinical-evidences
#20
Pramod Kumar, Gajanand Sharma, Rajendra Kumar, Ruchi Malik, Bhupinder Singh, O P Katare, Kaisar Raza
Various oral treatment options have been reported for relapsing multiple sclerosis. Recently, dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has been approved for the management of the same. Though effective, DMF is associated with concerns like multiple dosing, patient incompliance, gastrointestinal flushing, lower brain permeation and economic hurdles. Henceforth, the objective of the present study was to develop vitamin-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for effective brain delivery of DMF with a promise of once-a-day dosing...
February 3, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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