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Intestinal permeability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142285/blockade-of-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-alters-gut-microbiota-and-attenuates-inflammation-and-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, E Angela Murphy, Reilly T Enos, Kandy T Velazquez, Jamie McCellan, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade, systemic inflammation, altered gut microbiota, and gut barrier disruption. Additionally, obesity is associated with increased activity of endocannabinoid system (eCB). However, the clear connection between gut microbiota and the eCB system in the regulation of energy homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation and metabolism, remains to be established. We investigated the effect of treatment of mice with a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist on Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), specifically whether such a treatment that blocks endocannabinoid activity can induce changes in gut microbiota and anti-inflammatory state in adipose tissue...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142271/structural-and-functional-differences-in-gut-microbiome-composition-in-patients-undergoing-haemodialysis-or-peritoneal-dialysis
#2
Vanessa Stadlbauer, Angela Horvath, Werner Ribitsch, Bianca Schmerböck, Gernot Schilcher, Sandra Lemesch, Philipp Stiegler, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Peter Fickert, Bettina Leber
Complications of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are critically related to inflammation. The gut microbiome is a key driver of inflammation. Since dialysis modalities may differently influence the gut microbiome, we aimed to compare the effects of haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) on patients' gut microbiome composition and function. We therefore studied faecal microbiome composition and function as well as inflammation and gut permeability in 30 patients with ESRD (15 HD, 15 PD) and compared to 21 healthy controls...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140275/old-fashioned-vs-ultra-processed-based-current-diets-possible-implication-in-the-increased-susceptibility-to-type-1-diabetes-and-celiac-disease-in-childhood
#3
REVIEW
Sandra V Aguayo-Patrón, Ana M Calderón de la Barca
Ultra-processed foods are ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat products created to replace traditional homemade meals and dishes due to convenience and accessibility. Because of their low-fiber and high-fat and sugar composition, these foodstuffs could induce a negative impact on health. They are partially responsible for obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases; additionally, they could impact in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. The rationale is that the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foodstuffs can induce gut dysbiosis, promoting a pro-inflammatory response and consequently, a "leaky gut"...
November 15, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138557/improving-intestinal-absorption-and-oral-bioavailability-of-curcumin-via-taurocholic-acid-modified-nanostructured-lipid-carriers
#4
Cihui Tian, Sajid Asghar, Yifan Wu, Zhipeng Chen, Xin Jin, Lining Yin, Lin Huang, Qineng Ping, Yanyu Xiao
The expression of multiple receptors on intestinal epithelial cells enables an actively targeted carrier to significantly enhance the oral delivery of payloads. Conjugating the receptors' ligands on the surfaces of a particulate-delivery system allows site-specific targeting. Here, we used taurocholic acid (TCA) as a ligand for uptake of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) mediated by a bile-acid transporter to improve oral bioavailability of curcumin (Cur). First, synthesis of TCA-polyethylene glycol 100-monostearate (S100-TCA) was carried out...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136370/ochratoxin-a-induced-apoptosis-of-ipec-j2-cells-through-ros-mediated-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore-opening-pathway
#5
Hong Wang, Ying Chen, Nianhui Zhai, Xingxiang Chen, Fang Gan, Hu Li, Kehe Huang
With the purpose to explore the mechanisms associated with the intestinal toxicity of OTA, an intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) was applied in this study as in vitro models for intestinal epithelium. The results confirmed that OTA induced IPEC-J2 cell toxicity by MTT assay and apoptosis by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometer analysis. And then, we observed that OTA induced the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening by confocal microscopy...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134616/zonulin-inflammation-and-iron-status-in-patients-with-early-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Ewelina Lukaszyk, Mateusz Lukaszyk, Ewa Koc-Zorawska, Anna Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Jolanta Malyszko
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Zonulin is the only known regulator of intestinal permeability. It is also considered as a potential inflammatory marker in several conditions such as diabetes and inflammatory bowel syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate zonulin levels in patients with early stages of CKD and its possible correlation with inflammation, anemia and iron status parameters. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients with early stages of CKD and 23 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study...
November 13, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130962/trimethylamine-n-oxide-instigates-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#7
Krishna M Boini, Tahir Hussain, Pin-Lan Li, Sai S Koka
BACKGROUND/AIM: Plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a product of intestinal microbial metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine has been recently associated with atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in rodents and humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of how TMAO induces atherosclerosis and CVD progression are still unclear. The present study tested whether TMAO induces NLRP3 inflammasome formation and activation and thereby contributes to endothelial injury initiating atherogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128569/lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-1-is-important-for-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-and-susceptibility-to-colitis
#8
Songbai Lin, Yiran Han, Kayte Jenkin, Sei-Jung Lee, Maiko Sasaki, Jan-Michael Klapproth, Peijian He, C Chris Yun
Intestinal epithelial cells form a barrier that is critical in protecting the host from the hostile luminal environment. Previously, we showed that lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1) regulates proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells such that the absence of LPA1 mitigates epithelial wound healing process. This study provides evidence that LPA1 is important for the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. The epithelial permeability, determined by fluorescently labeled dextran flux and transepithelial resistance, is increased in Lpar1(-/-) (Lpa1(-/-)) mouse intestine...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122712/development-of-plga-nanoparticles-loaded-with-clofazimine-for-oral-delivery-assessment-of-formulation-variables-and-intestinal-permeability
#9
Luíse L Chaves, Sofia A Costa Lima, Alexandre C C Vieira, Luísa Barreiros, Marcela A Segundo, Domingos Ferreira, Bruno Sarmento, Salette Reis
The use of polymeric nanoparticles as delivery systems is a promising tool to overcome drawbacks related to low aqueous solubility of drugs, which limit their in vivo bioavailability. The aim of this study was to decrease clofazimine (CLZ) toxicity using experimental design to formulate CLZ loaded in PLGA nanoparticles (NPs-CLZ) through a Plackett-Burman design (PBD). A screening PBD was constructed with twelve formulations involving six variables among process and formulation parameters and the selected responses were particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), association efficiency (AE) and drug loading (DL)...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121796/absorption-properties-of-luteolin-and-apigenin-in-genkwa-flos-using-in-situ-single-pass-intestinal-perfusion-system-in-the-rat
#10
Xin He, Zi-Jing Song, Cui-Ping Jiang, Chun-Feng Zhang
The flower bud of Daphne genkwa (Genkwa Flos) is a commonly used herbal medicine in Asian countries. Luteolin and apigenin are two recognized active flavonoids in Genkwa Flos. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorption mechanisms of Genkwa Flos flavonoids using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion rat model. Using HPLC, we determined its major effective flavonoids luteolin, apigenin, as well as, hydroxygenkwanin and genkwanin in biological samples. The intestinal absorption mechanisms of the total flavonoids in Genkwa Flos (TFG) were investigated using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion rat model...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119385/intestinal-permeabiliy-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#11
REVIEW
M C Buscarinu, S Romano, R Mechelli, R Pizzolato Umeton, M Ferraldeschi, A Fornasiero, R Reniè, B Cerasoli, E Morena, C Romano, N D Loizzo, R Umeton, M Salvetti, G Ristori
Changes of intestinal permeability (IP) have been extensively investigated in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease (CD), underpinned by a known unbalance between microbiota, IP and immune responses in the gut. Recently the influence of IP on brain function has greatly been appreciated. Previous works showed an increased IP that preceded experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development and worsened during disease with disruption of TJ. Moreover, studying co-morbidity between Crohn's disease and MS, a report described increased IP in a minority of cases with MS...
November 8, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118977/mycotoxin-binder-improves-growth-rate-in-piglets-associated-with-reduction-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-increase-of-tight-junction-protein-gene-expression-in-gut-mucosa
#12
Linghong Jin, Wei Wang, Jeroen Degroote, Noémie Van Noten, Honglin Yan, Maryam Majdeddin, Mario Van Poucke, Luc Peelman, Anne Goderis, Kurt Van De Mierop, Ronny Mombaerts, Stefaan De Smet, Joris Michiels
Background: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species in the field, commonly found in cereal grains, which negatively affects performances and health of animals. Mycotoxin binders are supposed to reduce the toxicity of mycotoxins. Method: The effect of a mycotoxin binder (containing acid-activated bentonite, clinoptilolite, yeast cell walls and organic acids) on growth performance and gut health was studied. Hundred and twenty weaning piglets were allocated to 4 treatments, with 5 pens of 6 piglets each, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design: control diet; control diet with 1 kg/t binder; control diet with DON; and control diet with DON and 1 kg/t binder...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115466/recombinant-tsp53-modulates-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-integrity-via-upregulation-of-zo%C3%A2-1-in-lps%C3%A2-induced-septic-mice
#13
Jia Xu, Zhihao Liu, Wei Zhan, Ren Jiang, Chunhua Yang, Hong Zhan, Yan Xiong
Tight junctions (TJs) are a critical component in maintaining the intestinal mucosal barrier function and gastrointestinal health of animals. Gut barrier dysfunction contributes to the initiation and development of sepsis which induces an uncontrollable systemic inflammatory response and gives rise to life‑threatening clinical conditions. Excretory‑secretary antigens from Trichimella spiralis (T. spiralis) have been reported to protect from sepsis in a mouse model, however the mechanism remains to be elucidated...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115372/inhibition-of-rho-kinase-protects-against-colitis-in-mice-by-attenuating-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-via-mlc-and-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#14
Yanting Zou, Lili Ma, Yuan Zhao, Shuncai Zhang, Chaohui Zhou, Yu Cai
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Rho kinase (also known as ROCK) inhibitor in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induced mouse colitis; and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of ROCK1/ROCK2 inhibition in enhancing intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) function. A specific inhibitor of ROCK, Y-27632, was used to examine the role of ROCK in mouse colitis models. ROCK1 and ROCK2 were silenced respectively using RNA interference in Caco-2 cells. The expression of tight junction proteins and the downstream molecules of ROCK were assessed...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111469/an-in-silico-approach-to-determine-challenges-in-the-bioavailability-of-ciprofloxacin-a-poorly-soluble-weak-base-with-borderline-solubility-and-permeability-characteristics
#15
Simone Hansmann, Yoshihiro Miyaji, Jennifer Dressman
Ciprofloxacin is administered as the hydrochloride salt in immediate release formulations for the treatment of various infectious diseases in different patient populations. Due to its weakly basic properties and poor solubility, the in vivo behaviour of this compound could be influenced by both physicochemical and physiological factors. The first aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of ciprofloxacin (Ciprobay® 500 mg tablets) in the human gastro-intestinal tract with in vitro dissolution, transfer and two-stage experiments...
October 27, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109767/dexamethasone-loaded-polymeric-nanoconstructs-for-monitoring-and-treating-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Aeju Lee, Claudia De Mei, Miguel Fereira, Roberto Marotta, Hong Yeol Yoon, Kwangmeyung Kim, Ick Chan Kwon, Paolo Decuzzi
Corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone (DEX), are the mainstays for the treatment of moderate to severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, their relatively poor bioavailability and lack of specificity is often the origin of short and long-term adverse effects. Here, spherical polymeric nanoconstructs (SPNs) encapsulating dexamethasone are proposed for the systemic treatment of IBD. In a mouse model of colitis, the accumulation of SPNs within the inflamed intestine is firstly assessed using near infra-red fluorescent (NIRF) imaging at different stages of the disease - 5, 7 and 10 days of Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) administration...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109448/identification-of-claudin-4-binder-that-attenuates-tight-junction-barrier-function-by-tr-fret-based-screening-assay
#17
Akihiro Watari, Miki Kodaka, Koji Matsuhisa, Yuta Sakamoto, Kota Hisaie, Norihito Kawashita, Tatsuya Takagi, Yoshiaki Yamagishi, Hidehiko Suzuki, Hirofumi Tsujino, Kiyohito Yagi, Masuo Kondoh
Claudins are key functional and structural components of tight junctions (TJs) in epithelial cell sheets. The C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) binds to claudin-4 and reversibly modulates intestinal TJ seals, thereby enhancing paracellular transport of solutes. However, the use of C-CPE as an absorption enhancer is limited by the molecule's immunogenicity and manufacturing cost. Here, we developed a high-throughput screening system based on the Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (TR-FRET) method to identify claudin-4 binders in a library collection of 32,560 compounds...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108655/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-distribution-and-expression-in-equine-small-intestine-tracts-following-herniation-through-the-epiploic-foramen
#18
Noemi Romagnoli, Augusta Zannoni, Chiara Bernardini, Thomas Gobbetti, Cristiano Bombardi, Anna Maria Rambaldi, Maria Morini, Francesco Dondi, Riccardo Rinnovati, Carlotta Lambertini, Alessandro Spadari
Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for trypsin and mast cell tryptase; it is highly expressed at the intestinal level with multiple functions, such as epithelial permeability and intestinal motility. The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution and expression of proteinase-activated receptor 2 in the small intestine during herniation through epiploic foramen. In this prospective clinical study, eight horses admitted for colic and which underwent exploratory laparotomy were considered...
October 31, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108563/the-effect-of-heat-stress-on-intestinal-integrity-and-salmonella-invasion-in-broiler-birds
#19
Alhanof Alhenaky, Anas Abdelqader, Mohannad Abuajamieh, Abdur-Rahman Al-Fataftah
The intestinal mucosa works as a barrier to protect the internal environment of the animal from bacteria and bacterial toxins found in the gut lumen. Heat stress may harm this function. Therefore, we designed the current experiment to investigate the effect of heat stress on intestinal integrity, physiological and immunological responses and Salmonella invasion in broiler chickens. At 26 days of age, 72 birds were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 3 birds per replicate...
December 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107964/obesogenic-diet-induced-gut-barrier-dysfunction-and-pathobiont-expansion-aggravate-experimental-colitis
#20
June-Chul Lee, Hae-Youn Lee, Tae Kang Kim, Min-Soo Kim, Young Mi Park, Jinyoung Kim, Kihyoun Park, Mi-Na Kweon, Seok-Hyung Kim, Jin-Woo Bae, Kyu Yeon Hur, Myung-Shik Lee
Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We examined the morphological and functional changes of the intestine, the first site contacting dietary fat, in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) inducing obesity. Paneth cell area and production of antimicrobial peptides by Paneth cells were decreased in HFD-fed mice...
2017: PloS One
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