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Intestinal permeability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333335/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-restores-intestinal-barrier-integrity-by-regulation-of-e-cadherin-recycling
#1
Chloé Terciolo, Aurélie Dobric, Mehdi Ouaissi, Carole Siret, Gilles Breuzard, Françoise Silvy, Bastien Marchiori, Sébastien Germain, Renaté Bonier, Adel Hama, Roisin Owens, Dominique Lombardo, Véronique Rigot, Frédéric André
Background and Aims: Alteration in intestinal permeability is the main factor underlying the pathogenesis of many diseases affecting the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Characterization of molecules targeting the restoration of intestinal barrier integrity is therefore vital for the development of alternative therapies. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (Sb), used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated infectious and functional diarrhea, may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of IBD...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322932/disruption-of-the-epithelial-barrier-during-intestinal-inflammation-quest-for-new-molecules-and-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Susana Lechuga, Andrei I Ivanov
The intestinal epithelium forms a key protective barrier that separates internal organs from the harmful environment of the gut lumen. Increased permeability of the gut barrier is a common manifestation of different inflammatory disorders contributing to the severity of disease. Barrier permeability is controlled by epithelial adherens junctions and tight junctions. Junctional assembly and integrity depend on fundamental homeostatic processes such as cell differentiation, rearrangements of the cytoskeleton, and vesicle trafficking...
March 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319108/evaluation-of-serum-zonulin-for-use-as-an-early-predictor-for-gestational-diabetes
#3
K Mokkala, K Tertti, T Rönnemaa, T Vahlberg, K Laitinen
Diet has an important role in regulating intestinal permeability and subsequently the risk for metabolic disorders. In this observational study, we examined whether serum intestinal permeability marker zonulin, could be used as a predictor for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Serum zonulin concentration was measured in early pregnancy in overweight or obese pregnant women (n=88) at risk for developing GDM. Serum zonulin was associated with higher odds of GDM (adjusted OR for 1 ng ml(-1) increase in zonulin: 1...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316601/the-interplay-between-radioresistant-caco-2-cells-and-the-immune-system-increases-epithelial-layer-permeability-and-alters-signaling-protein-spectrum
#4
Jacopo Morini, Gabriele Babini, Sofia Barbieri, Giorgio Baiocco, Andrea Ottolenghi
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent type of cancer, with a higher incidence in the developed countries. Colorectal cancer is usually managed with both surgeries, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Radiotherapy has the well-known advantage of targeting the tumor, minimizing normal tissue exposure. Nevertheless, during radiation treatment, exposure of healthy tissues is of great concern, in particular because of the effects on the intestinal barrier functions and on cells belonging to the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316376/the-role-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-inflammatory-disorders-of-gastrointestinal-tract
#5
REVIEW
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Dagmara Wojcik, Janina Zahradnik-Bilska, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski, Tomasz Mach, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316232/in-vitro-reduction-of-arsenic-bioavailability-using-dietary-strategies
#6
M J Clemente, V Devesa, D Velez
The main route of human exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) is through consumption of food and water. Continued exposure to inorganic As [As(III) and As(V)] may cause a variety of diseases, including various types of cancer. Removal of As from these sources is complex, especially for food. One way to decrease As exposure could be by reducing intestinal absorption of it. The aim of this study is to seek dietary strategies (pure compounds, extracts, or supplements) that are capable of reducing the amount of As that is absorbed and reaches the systemic circulation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315470/the-nitric-oxide-synthase-2-pathway-is-targeted-by-both-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-treatments-in-the-immature-human-intestine
#7
Emanuela Ferretti, Eric Tremblay, Marie-Pier Thibault, David Grynspan, Karolina M Burghardt, Marcos Bettolli, Corentin Babakissa, Emile Levy, Jean-François Beaulieu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: NO synthase 2 (NOS2) was recently identified as one the most overexpressed genes in intestinal samples of premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NOS2 is widely implicated in the processes of epithelial cell injury/apoptosis and host immune defense but its specific role in inflammation of the immature human intestinal mucosa remains unclear. Interestingly, factors that prevent NEC such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) attenuate the inflammatory response in the mid-gestation human small intestine using serum-free organ culture while drugs that are associated with NEC occurrence such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (INDO), exert multiple detrimental effects on the immature human intestine...
March 14, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315445/evaluation-of-pept1-transport-of-food-derived-antihypertensive-peptides-ile-pro-pro-and-leu-lys-pro-using-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-transport-models
#8
John P Gleeson, David J Brayden, Sinéad M Ryan
Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) and Leu-Lys-Pro (LKP) are food-derived antihypertensive peptides which inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and may have potential to attenuate hypertension. There is debate over their mechanism of uptake across small intestinal epithelia, but paracellular and PepT1 carrier-mediated uptake are thought to be important routes. The aim of this study was to determine their routes of intestinal permeability using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo intestinal models. The presence of an apical side pH of 6...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302479/mir-126-impairs-the-intestinal-barrier-function-via-inhibiting-s1pr2-mediated-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#9
Tanzhou Chen, Haibo Xue, Ruoyang Lin, Zhiming Huang
BACKGROUND: Aberrant expression of miRNAs was a critical element in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to explore the involvement and mechanism of miR-126 in IBD. METHODS: In this study, the endogenous expressions of miR-126, S1PR2 and S1P in the pathological tissues of patients with IBD were detected using qRT-PCR and western blot assay, respectively. The luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to confirm the targeting regulatory relation between miR-126 and S1PR2...
March 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300629/insights-into-caco-2-cell-culture-structure-using-coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering-cars-microscopy
#10
Jukka Saarinen, Erkan Sözeri, Sara J Fraser-Miller, Leena Peltonen, Hélder A Santos, Antti Isomäki, Clare J Strachan
We have used coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy as a novel and rapid, label-free and non-destructive imaging method to gain structural insights into live intestinal epithelial cell cultures used for drug permeability testing. Specifically we have imaged live Caco-2 cells in (bio)pharmaceutically relevant conditions grown on membrane inserts. Imaging conditions were optimized, including evaluation of suitable membrane materials and media solutions, as well as tolerable laser powers for non-destructive imaging of the live cells...
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296590/transport-of-a-novel-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-peptide-ala-his-leu-leu-across-human-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cells
#11
Ying Li, Jiangtao Zhao, Xiaoli Liu, Xiudong Xia, Ying Wang, Jianzhong Zhou
The transport behavior and absorption mechanism of Ala-His-Leu-Leu (AHLL) intestinal absorption in Caco-2 cell monolayers were clarified systemically. The safe absorptive concentration of AHLL was 200 μg/mL, which was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The permeation of AHLL was concentration dependent in a bidirectional transfer and reached a plateau at 90 min. The efflux ratio was above 0.5, suggesting that AHLL was absorbed by both active transport and passive diffusion...
March 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292712/mr-imaging-of-intestinal-angioedema-related-to-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-report-of-three-cases-and-review-of-literature
#12
Michael R Savino, Pardeep K Mittal, Frank H Miller
Angioedema is a condition in which an increase in vascular permeability leads to the swelling of body tissues. There are both hereditary and acquired forms of the disease, with the latter often associated with the administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor medication. Involvement of the intestinal tract is a rare manifestation of angioedema, and can present with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. It is critical for radiologists to be aware of this entity, as they may have the only opportunity to make the diagnosis...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290288/using-caco-2-cells-as-novel-identification-tool-for-food-derived-dpp-iv-inhibitors
#13
Juliette Caron, Dorothée Domenger, Pascal Dhulster, Rozenn Ravallec, Benoit Cudennec
Dietary proteins have recently been investigated as a new source of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides with limited side effects and promising applications. Numerous studies have highlighted and identified peptide sequences able to inhibit DPP-IV activity in vitro, mostly from milk proteins. However, the correlation to in vivo studies remains scarce because standard in vitro assays with purified enzyme do not accurately simulate key factors impacting peptide bioactivity such as intestinal and brush border enzymes or cellular permeability...
February 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290057/intestinal-fatty-acid-binding-protein-and-gut-permeability-responses-to-exercise
#14
Daniel S March, Tania Marchbank, Raymond J Playford, Arwel W Jones, Rhys Thatcher, Glen Davison
PURPOSE: Intestinal cell damage due to physiological stressors (e.g. heat, oxidative, hypoperfusion/ischaemic) may contribute to increased intestinal permeability. The aim of this study was to assess changes in plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) in response to exercise (with bovine colostrum supplementation, Col, positive control) and compare this to intestinal barrier integrity/permeability (5 h urinary lactulose/rhamnose ratio, L/R). METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 18 males completed two experimental arms (14 days of 20 g/day supplementation with Col or placebo, Plac)...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289440/role-of-tlr1-tlr2-and-tlr6-in-the-modulation-of-intestinal-inflammation-and-candida-albicans-elimination
#15
Laura Choteau, Hélène Vancraeyneste, Didier Le Roy, Laurent Dubuquoy, Luiginia Romani, Thierry Jouault, Daniel Poulain, Boualem Sendid, Thierry Calandra, Thierry Roger, Samir Jawhara
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the major pattern recognition receptors that mediate sensing of a wide range of microorganisms. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, broadening its ligand diversity against pathogens. TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6 have been implicated in the recognition of Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen that colonizes the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we explored whether the deficiency in TLR1, TLR2 or TLR6 impacts C. albicans colonization and inflammation-associated colonic injury in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286191/increased-intestinal-permeability-in-relatives-of-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-is-not-associated-with-small-bowel-ulcerations
#16
Christopher W Teshima, Karen J Goodman, Mohamed El-Kalla, Samina Turk, Wael El-Matary, Rosica Valcheva, Ronda Danchak, Marilyn Gordon, Peter Ho, Amanda Mullins, Daniel Wong, Dina Kao, Jonathan Meddings, Hien Huynh, Levinus A Dieleman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many first-degree relatives of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have increased intestinal permeability. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is the most sensitive imaging test to identify small bowel mucosal lesions that indicate subclinical CD. We aimed to estimate the association of increased intestinal permeability with small bowel ulcerations detectable by VCE in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with CD. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 223 healthy, asymptomatic first-degree relatives of patients with CD (parents, siblings, and children; 9-45 years old) enrolled at the University of Alberta between 2009 and 2012...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286112/the-gut-microbiome-and-microbial-translocation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Ali Mirza, Yang Mao-Draayer
Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have a distinct intestinal microbial community (microbiota) and increased low-grade translocation of bacteria from the intestines into the circulation. Immunopathologies shared with MS are regulated by bacteria reduced in individuals with MS. These bacteria regulate systemic and central nervous system (CNS) immunity including regulatory T cell function, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, CNS-resident cells. This review discusses the MS intestinal microbiota structure implication on MS systemic- and CNS-immunopathology...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285651/increased-intestinal-permeability-measured-by-serum-zonulin-is-associated-with-metabolic-risk-markers-in-overweight-pregnant-women
#18
Kati Mokkala, Outi Pellonperä, Henna Röytiö, Pirkko Pussinen, Tapani Rönnemaa, Kirsi Laitinen
BACKGROUND: Increased intestinal permeability with subsequent metabolic endotoxemia, i.e., elevated circulating levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS, has been introduced as a novel initiator of obesity related metabolic disturbances in non-pregnant individuals. The objective was to investigate the extent to which intestinal permeability, measured by serum zonulin concentration, is related to metabolic endotoxemia and metabolic risk markers in overweight pregnant women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 100 pregnant overweight women in early pregnancy...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283000/characterization-and-evaluation-of-a-self-microemulsifying-drug-delivery-system-containing-tectorigenin-an-isoflavone-with-low-aqueous-solubility-and-poor-permeability
#19
Yunrong Zhang, Li He, Shanlan Yue, Qingting Huang, Yuhong Zhang, Junyi Yang
The purpose of this study was to characterize and evaluate tectorigenin-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (TG-SMEDDS), a previously studied preparation, and further confirm the improvement of TG in solubility and bioavailability. The appearance of TG-SMEDDS was clear and transparent, with good mobility. The microemulsion formed by TG-SMEDDS was globular, edge smooth, clear-cut, and distribution homogeneous under transmission electron microscope. The stability studies revealed that TG-SMEDDS remained stable at room temperature for at least 3 months...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282855/higher-levels-of-serum-zonulin-may-rather-be-associated-with-increased-risk-of-obesity-and-hyperlipidemia-than-with-gastrointestinal-symptoms-or-disease-manifestations
#20
Bodil Ohlsson, Marju Orho-Melander, Peter M Nilsson
Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363) of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV) were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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