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Intestinal permeability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429171/sleeve-gastrectomy-alters-intestinal-permeability-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#1
Claire Blanchard, François Moreau, Julien Chevalier, Audrey Ayer, Damien Garcon, Lucie Arnaud, Jean-Paul Pais de Barros, Thomas Gautier, Michel Neunlist, Bertrand Cariou, Cédric Le May
BACKGROUND: Increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) translocation due to altered intestinal permeability has been suggested as a mechanism for obesity-associated insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on intestinal barrier permeability in diet-induced obese mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four weeks after surgery, the effects of SG on intestinal permeabilities were assessed ex vivo and in vivo in male C57Bl/6J mice fed a high-fat diet...
April 20, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428961/glucose-insulin-potassium-alleviates-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-injuries-involving-decreased-expression-of-uncoupling-protein-2-and-nlr-family-pyrin-domain-containing-3-inflammasome-in-polymicrobial-sepsis
#2
Jun-Liang Zhang, Yi-Ting Chen, Guang-Dao Chen, Tao Wang, Ju-Xin Zhang, Qi-Yi Zeng
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) may be critical for intestinal barrier function which may play a key role in the development of sepsis, and insulin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: control group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, sham surgery group, CLP plus glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) group, and CLP plus glucose and potassium (GK) group. Ileum tissues were collected at 24 h after surgery. Histological and cytokine analyses, intestinal permeability tests, and western blots of intestinal epithelial tight junction component proteins and UCP2 were performed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425012/a-study-of-the-damage-of-the-intestinal-mucosa-barrier-structure-and-function-of-ctenopharyngodon-idella-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#3
Wei-Guang Kong, Si-Si Li, Xiao-Xuan Chen, Yu-Qing Huang, Ying Tang, Zhi-Xin Wu
The aim of this study is to explore the effect of Aeromonas hydrophila on the intestinal mucosal barrier structure and intestinal permeability in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Histopathological examinations showed that A. hydrophila induced severe intestinal lesions, including inflammatory cell infiltration and intestinal villus fusion and swelling. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and MyD88 was significantly increased after infection with A. hydrophila...
April 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423466/zonulin-transgenic-mice-show-altered-gut-permeability-and-increased-morbidity-mortality-in-the-dss-colitis-model
#4
Craig Sturgeon, Jinggang Lan, Alessio Fasano
Increased small intestinal permeability (IP) has been proposed to be an integral element, along with genetic makeup and environmental triggers, in the pathogenies of chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs). We identified zonulin as a master regular of intercellular tight junctions linked to the development of several CIDs. We aim to study the role of zonulin-mediated IP in the pathogenesis of CIDs. Zonulin transgenic Hp2 mice (Ztm) were subjected to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment for 7 days, followed by 4-7 days' recovery and compared to C57Bl/6 (wild-type (WT)) mice...
April 19, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423120/primary-cultures-of-mouse-small-intestinal-epithelial-cells-using-the-dissociating-enzyme-type-i-collagenase-and-hyaluronidase
#5
H J Ren, C L Zhang, R D Liu, N Li, X G Li, H K Xue, Y Guo, Z Q Wang, J Cui, L Ming
The epithelium is a highly dynamic system, which plays a crucial role in the homeostasis of the intestinal tract. However, studies on the physiological and pathophysiological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been hampered due to lack of normal epithelial cell models. In the present study, we established a reproducible method for primary culture of mouse IECs, which were isolated from the viable small intestinal crypts of murine fetuses (on embryonic day 19), using type I collagenase and hyaluronidase in a short span of time (≤20 min)...
April 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422915/enteral-tranexamic-acid-attenuates-vasopressor-resistance-and-changes-in-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptor-expression-in-hemorrhagic-shock
#6
Marco Santamaria, Federico Aletti, Joyce B Li, Aaron Tan, Monica Chang, Jessica Leon, Geert W Schmid-Schönbein, Erik B Kistler
BACKGROUND: Irreversible hemorrhagic shock is characterized by hyporesponsiveness to vasopressor and fluid therapy. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms that contribute to this phenomenon. Previous studies have shown that decreased intestinal perfusion in hemorrhagic shock leads to proteolytically-mediated increases in gut permeability, with subsequent egress of vasoactive substances systemically. Maintenance of blood pressure is achieved in part by α1 receptor modulation, which may be affected by vasoactive factors; we thus hypothesized that decreases in hemodynamic stability and vasopressor response in shock can be prevented by enteral protease inhibition...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417991/esophageal-and-small-intestinal-mucosal-integrity-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis-and-response-to-an-elemental-diet
#7
Marijn J Warners, Berber J Vlieg-Boerstra, Joanne Verheij, Patricia H P van Hamersveld, Bram D van Rhijn, Marleen T J Van Ampting, Lucien F Harthoorn, Wouter J de Jonge, Andreas J P M Smout, Albert J Bredenoord
OBJECTIVES: The esophageal mucosal integrity is impaired in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and it has been suggested that the duodenal permeability is increased. The absence of food allergens may restore the integrity. The aims of this study were to assess duodenal permeability in EoE and to evaluate the effect of an elemental diet on the esophageal and duodenal integrity. METHODS: In this prospective study 17 adult EoE patients and 8 healthy controls (HC) were included...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414465/topical-intestinal-aminoimidazole-agonists-of-g-protein-coupled-bile-acid-receptor-1-promote-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-and-improve-glucose-tolerance
#8
Manuel Lasalle, Vanessa Hoguet, Nathalie Hennuyer, Florence Leroux, Catherine Piveteau, Loic Belloy, Sophie Lestavel, Emmanuelle Vallez, Emilie Dorchies, Isabelle Duplan, Emmanuel Sevin, Maxime Culot, Fabien Gosselet, Rajaa Boulahjar, Adrien Herledan, Bart Staels, Benoit Deprez, Anne Tailleux, Julie Charton
The role of the G-Protein-coupled Bile Acid Receptor TGR5 in various organs, tissues and cell types, specifically in intestinal endocrine L-cells and brown adipose tissue, has made it a promising therapeutical target in several diseases, especially type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, recent studies have shown deleterious on-target effects of systemic TGR5 agonists. To avoid these systemic effects while stimulating Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreting enteroendocrine L-cells, we have designed TGR5 agonists with low intestinal permeability...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413639/calprotectin-in-serum-and-zonulin-in-serum-and-feces-are-elevated-after-introduction-of-a-diet-with-lower-carbohydrate-content-and-higher-fiber-fat-and-protein-contents
#9
Bodil Ohlsson, Bodil Roth, Ewa Larsson, Peter Höglund
Calprotectin is a marker of inflammation and zonulin is a marker of intestinal permeability. Diets with lower carbohydrate content and higher contents of fat, fiber and protein, e.g., Okinawan-based diet, are considered to reduce inflammation and intestinal permeability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate calprotectin and zonulin levels in serum and feces after intervention with an Okinawan-based Nordic diet. Thirty patients (17 women) with type 2 diabetes, mean age 57.5±8.2 years, BMI 29.9±4.1 kg/m(2), were served the diet during 12 weeks, and were followed for another 16 weeks...
April 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413062/assessment-of-mucosal-integrity-by-quantifying-neutrophil-granulocyte-influx-in-murine-models-of-acute-intestinal-injury
#10
Julius Clemens Fischer, Alexander Wintges, Tobias Haas, Hendrik Poeck
Intact epithelial body surfaces represent physical barriers which protect the organism from invading pathogens and loss of nutrients. Barrier malfunction is closely linked to disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. In fact, several pharmacological or radiobiological therapeutic strategies have side effects that affect epithelial surfaces. In this context, assays that accurately assess epithelial barrier integrity in patients and animal models are crucial to create a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to disease or limiting therapeutic approaches due to barrier disruption...
April 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412473/nanoformulations-for-dimethyl-fumarate-physicochemical-characterization-and-in-vitro-in-vivo-behavior
#11
Elisabetta Esposito, Rita Cortesi, Markus Drechsler, Jie Fan, Bingmei M Fu, Laura Calderan, Silvia Mannucci, Federico Boschi, Claudio Nastruzzi
Dimethyl fumarate has been demonstrated useful in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis treatment (Tecfidera®). Nevertheless, since Tecfidera® capsules induce flushing, gastro-intestinal events and other more serious drawbacks, in this investigation a nanoparticle based system to be administered by an alternative way is proposed. In particular this study describes the preparation and characterization of dimethyl fumarate-containing solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Namely SLN based on tristearin, tristearin SLN treated with polysorbate 80 and cationic SLN constituted of tristearin in mixture with dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride were investigated...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412402/flavonoid-composition-of-orange-peel-extract-ameliorates-alcohol-induced-tight-junction-dysfunction-in-caco-2-monolayer
#12
Xiu-Min Chen, David D Kitts
Dry citrus peels, also known as "chenpi", have been traditionally used to treat and relieve intestinal inflammation. Recently we have reported that orange peel extracts (OPE) which contain relatively greater polymethoxylated flavone (PMF) content exhibit superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. Moreover, these bioactivities were notably greater than an equivalent flavonoid mixture (FM). The present study compares the effects of different OPE sources with distinct PMF composition on tight junction (TJ) dysfunction induced by ethanol...
April 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411859/cd14-plays-a-protective-role-in-experimental-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-enhancing-intestinal-barrier-function
#13
Stephanie Buchheister, Manuela Buettner, Marijana Basic, Andreas Noack, Gerhard Breves, Barbara Buchen, Lydia M Keubler, Christoph Becker, André Bleich
Intestinal homeostasis disturbance through intestinal barrier disruption presumably plays a key role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) development. Genetic and candidate gene analyses in an Il10-deficient IBD mouse model system identified Cd14 as a potentially protective candidate gene. The role of Cd14 in colitis development was determined using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute and an Il10-deficiency-induced chronic model of intestinal inflammation. Intestinal permeability was investigated by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran uptake assay, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of tight junction proteins, myosin light chain kinase, and proinflammatory cytokine expression...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411279/characterization-and-interspecies-scaling-of-rhtnf-%C3%AE-pharmacokinetics-with-minimal-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-mpbpk-models
#14
Xi Chen, Debra C DuBois, Richard R Almon, William J Jusko
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a soluble cytokine and target of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other biological agents used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. These biologics exert their pharmacological effects through binding and neutralizing TNF-α, and thus prevent TNF-α from interacting with its cell surface receptors. The magnitude of pharmacological effects is governed not only by the pharmacokinetics of mAbs, but also the kinetic fate of TNF-α. We have examined the pharmacokinetics of rhTNF-α in rats at low doses and quantitatively characterized its pharmacokinetic features with a minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) model...
April 14, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410406/lubiprostone-improves-intestinal-permeability-in-humans-a-novel-therapy-for-the-leaky-gut-a-prospective-randomized-pilot-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#15
Takayuki Kato, Yasushi Honda, Yusuke Kurita, Akito Iwasaki, Takamitsu Sato, Takaomi Kessoku, Shiori Uchiyama, Yuji Ogawa, Hidenori Ohkubo, Takuma Higurashi, Takeharu Yamanaka, Haruki Usuda, Koichiro Wada, Atsushi Nakajima
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The barrier function of the small intestinal mucosa prevents the introduction of undesired pathogens into the body. Breakdown of this barrier function increases intestinal permeability. This has been proposed to induce not only gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, but also various other diseases, including allergies, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, and collagen diseases, which are associated with this so called "leaky gut syndrome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408924/investigation-of-small-bowel-abnormalities-in-hiv-infected-patients-using-capsule-endoscopy
#16
Eiji Sakai, Takuma Higurashi, Hidenori Ohkubo, Kuhihiro Hosono, Atsuhisa Ueda, Nobuyuki Matsuhashi, Atsushi Nakajima
HIV infection is reportedly associated with an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium and can cause HIV enteropathy, which occurs independently of opportunistic infections. However, the characteristics of small bowel abnormalities attributable to HIV infection are rarely investigated. In the present study, we assessed the intestinal mucosal changes found in HIV-infected patients and compared them with the mucosa of healthy control subjects using capsule endoscopy (CE). Three of the 27 HIV-infected patients harbored gastrointestinal opportunistic infections and were thus excluded from subsequent analyses...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407483/age-associated-microbial-dysbiosis-promotes-intestinal-permeability-systemic-inflammation-and-macrophage-dysfunction
#17
Netusha Thevaranjan, Alicja Puchta, Christian Schulz, Avee Naidoo, J C Szamosi, Chris P Verschoor, Dessi Loukov, Louis P Schenck, Jennifer Jury, Kevin P Foley, Jonathan D Schertzer, Maggie J Larché, Donald J Davidson, Elena F Verdú, Michael G Surette, Dawn M E Bowdish
Levels of inflammatory mediators in circulation are known to increase with age, but the underlying cause of this age-associated inflammation is debated. We find that, when maintained under germ-free conditions, mice do not display an age-related increase in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. A higher proportion of germ-free mice live to 600 days than their conventional counterparts, and macrophages derived from aged germ-free mice maintain anti-microbial activity. Co-housing germ-free mice with old, but not young, conventionally raised mice increases pro-inflammatory cytokines in the blood...
April 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407087/rp-hplc-separation-of-isomeric-withanolides-method-development-validation-and-application-to-in-situ-rat-permeability-determination
#18
Mohd Yaseen Malik, Isha Taneja, Kanumuri Siva Rama Raju, Jiaur Rahaman Gayen, Sheelendra Pratap Singh, Neelam S Sangwand, Muhammad Wahajuddin
Withanolides are the group of active chemical constituents of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Withaferin A, withanolide A and withanone presents three of the biologically most active constituents of this herb. These steroidal lactones are isomers of each other and thus, pose significant difficulty in their separation. In present study, a simple, specific and reliable RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for their separation and simultaneous quantification. Separation was carried out on Lichrocart Purospher STAR RP-18e column (250 × 4...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405720/ceramide-synthase-2-deficiency-aggravates-aom-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice-role-of-colon-barrier-integrity
#19
Stephanie Oertel, Klaus Scholich, Andreas Weigert, Dominique Thomas, Julia Schmetzer, Sandra Trautmann, Marthe-Susanna Wegner, Heinfried H Radeke, Natalie Filmann, Bernhard Brüne, Gerd Geisslinger, Irmgard Tegeder, Sabine Grösch
Loss of intestinal barrier functions is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis. The molecular mechanisms are not well understood, but likely involve dysregulation of membrane composition, fluidity, and permeability, which are all essentially regulated by sphingolipids, including ceramides of different chain length and saturation. Here, we used a loss-of-function model (CerS2(+/+) and CerS2(-/-) mice) to investigate the impact of ceramide synthase 2, a key enzyme in the generation of very long-chain ceramides, in the dextran sodium salt (DSS) evoked model of UC...
April 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405313/artificial-rearing-influences-the-morphology-permeability-and-redox-state-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-low-and-normal-birth-weight-piglets
#20
Hans Vergauwen, Jeroen Degroote, Sara Prims, Wei Wang, Erik Fransen, Stefaan De Smet, Christophe Casteleyn, Steven Van Cruchten, Joris Michiels, Chris Van Ginneken
BACKGROUND: In this study the physiological implications of artificial rearing were investigated. Low (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were compared as they might react differently to stressors caused by artificial rearing. In total, 42 pairs of LBW and NBW piglets from 16 litters suckled the sow until d19 of age or were artificially reared starting at d3 until d19 of age. Blood and tissue samples that were collected after euthanasia at 0, 3, 5, 8 and 19 d of age. Histology, ELISA, and Ussing chamber analysis were used to study proximal and distal small intestine histo-morphology, proliferation, apoptosis, tight junction protein expression, and permeability...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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