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Intestinal permeability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818267/is-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-functional-dyspepsia
#1
Georgios Tziatzios, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Ioannis S Papanikolaou, Mark Pimentel, George D Dimitriadis, Konstantinos Triantafyllou
Functional dyspepsia is a highly prevalent disease, with significant impacts on patients' quality of life and economic robustness of health care systems worldwide. It constitutes a constellation of symptoms located in the gastro duodenal region while its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggest that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is associated with the etiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. We herein present the hypothesis that a causal link between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and functional dyspepsia might exist...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812548/bacteroidales-recruit-il-6-producing-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-the-colon-to-promote-barrier-integrity
#2
K A Kuhn, H M Schulz, E H Regner, E L Severs, J D Hendrickson, G Mehta, A K Whitney, D Ir, N Ohri, C E Robertson, D N Frank, E L Campbell, S P Colgan
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are important for the maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier; dysbiosis of intestinal microbial communities has emerged as a likely contributor to diseases that arise at the level of the mucosa. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are positioned within the epithelial barrier, and in the small intestine they function to maintain epithelial homeostasis. We hypothesized that colon IELs promote epithelial barrier function through the expression of cytokines in response to interactions with commensal bacteria...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811708/involvement-of-crf2-signaling-in-enterocyte-differentiation
#3
Benjamin Ducarouge, Marjolaine Pelissier-Rota, Rebecca Powell, Alain Buisson, Bruno Bonaz, Muriel Jacquier-Sarlin
AIM: To determine the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor (CRF2) in epithelial permeability and enterocyte cell differentiation. METHODS: For this purpose, we used rat Sprague Dawley and various colon carcinoma cell lines (SW620, HCT8R, HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines). Expression of CRF2 protein was analyzed by fluorescent immunolabeling in normal rat colon and then by western blot in dissociated colonic epithelial cells and in the lysates of colon carcinoma cell lines or during the early differentiation of HT-29 cells (ten first days)...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811235/sodium-butyrate-ameliorates-s100-fca-induced-autoimmune-hepatitis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-tight-junction-and-toll-like-receptor-signaling-pathway
#4
Jin-Lu Wu, Jia-Yun Zou, En-De Hu, Da-Zhi Chen, Lu Chen, Feng-Bin Lu, Lan-Man Xu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Ming-Fang Zhao, Yong-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent investigation revealed that dysbiosis in the gut flora and disruption of permeability of intestinal barrier are possible causes for the development of autoimmune hepatitis. Supplementation of sodium butyrate has been suggested to protect liver injury from disrupted permeability of small intestine. In current study, we employed S100/Freund's complete adjuvant induced autoimmune hepatitis to investigate therapeutic efficacy of sodium butyrate and its mechanism in the liver and upper small intestine...
August 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806140/adherent-invasive-e-coli-enhances-colonic-hypersensitivity-and-p2x-receptors-expression-during-post-infectious-period
#5
Amandine Lashermes, Ludivine Boudieu, Julie Barbier, Benoit Sion, Agathe Gelot, Nicolas Barnich, Denis Ardid, Frédéric Antonio Carvalho
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are related gastrointestinal disorders characterized by abdominal pain associated with colonic hypersensitivity (CHS). Studies in humans have reported an abnormal colonization of Adherent-Invasive E. coli (AIEC) in the ileum of Crohn's disease (CD) patients associated with overexpression of the bacterial colonizing receptor CEACAM6. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AIEC reference strain LF82 could induce intestinal impairment during infectious and/or post-infectious periods and subsequently the development of CHS...
August 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804910/t-cell-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-prevents-stat1-induction-of-claudin-2-expression-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#6
Moorthy Krishnan, Declan F McCole
T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP) dephosphorylates a number of substrates, including JAK-STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling proteins, which are activated by interferon (IFN)-γ, a major proinflammatory cytokine involved in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. A critical function of the intestinal epithelium is formation of a selective barrier to luminal contents. The structural units of the epithelium that regulate barrier function are the tight junctions (TJs), and the protein composition of the TJ determines the tightness of the barrier...
August 14, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804459/metabolic-variability-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-preparation-impacts-on-the-anti-inflammatory-activity
#7
Michele Biagioli, Luca Laghi, Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Eleonora Distrutti, Silvia Marchianò, Carola Parolin, Paolo Scarpelli, Beatrice Vitali, Stefano Fiorucci
Background: In addition to strain taxonomy, the ability of probiotics to confer beneficial effects on the host rely on a number of additional factors including epigenetic modulation of bacterial genes leading to metabolic variability and might impact on probiotic functionality. Aims: To investigate metabolism and functionality of two different batches of a probiotic blend commercialized under the same name in Europe in models of intestinal inflammation. Methods: Boxes of VSL#3, a probiotic mixture used in the treatment of pouchitis, were obtained from pharmacies in UK subjected to metabolomic analysis and their functionality tested in mice rendered colitis by treatment with DSS or TNBS...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803860/intestinal-permeability-changes-systemic-endotoxemia-inflammatory-serum-markers-and-sepsis-after-whipple-s-operation-for-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas-head
#8
Mario Schietroma, Beatrice Pessia, Francesco Carlei, Gianfranco Amicucci
POURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate the relationship between failure of gut barrier function, inflammatory markers and septic complications after pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODOLOGY: 44 patients were enrolled in this prospective observational clinical study and underwent curative open pancreatoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas. All patients underwent assessment of intestinal permeability using the lactulose/manitol excretions ratios (L/M ratio), endotoxemia, IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, and elastase levels before surgery and on postoperative days 1, 3 and 7...
July 29, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801574/intestinal-transepithelial-permeability-of-oxytocin-into-the-blood-is-dependent-on-the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-mice
#9
Haruhiro Higashida, Kazumi Furuhara, Agnes-Mikiko Yamauchi, Kisaburo Deguchi, Ai Harashima, Seiichi Munesue, Olga Lopatina, Maria Gerasimenko, Alla B Salmina, Jia-Sheng Zhang, Hikari Kodama, Hironori Kuroda, Chiharu Tsuji, Satoshi Suto, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Yamamoto
Plasma oxytocin (OT) originates from secretion from the pituitary gland into the circulation and from absorption of OT in mother's milk into the blood via intestinal permeability. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the absorption of OT remains unclear. Here, we report that plasma OT concentrations increased within 10 min after oral delivery in postnatal day 1-7 mice. However, in Receptors for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) knockout mice after postnatal day 3, an identical OT increase was not observed...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795659/role-of-mycotoxins-in-the-pathobiology-of-autism-a-first-evidence
#10
Barbara De Santis, Carlo Brera, Alessandra Mezzelani, Sabina Soricelli, Francesca Ciceri, Giorgio Moretti, Francesca Debegnach, Maria Clara Bonaglia, Laura Villa, Massimo Molteni, Maria Elisabetta Raggi
OBJECTIVES: Gene-environment interaction is an emerging hypothesis to expound not only the autism pathogenesis but also the increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder). Among xenobiotics, mycotoxins are worldwide contaminants of food that provoke toxicological effects, crucially resembling several symptoms associated with autism such as oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, and inflammation. Here, we focused on a group of mycotoxins to test their role in the manifestation of autism, try to explain their mechanism of action, and discuss possible preventive and therapeutic interventions...
August 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795125/the-microbiome-activates-cd4-t-cell-mediated-immunity-to%C3%A2-compensate-for-increased-intestinal-permeability
#11
Karen L Edelblum, Gil Sharon, Gurminder Singh, Matthew A Odenwald, Anne Sailer, Severine Cao, Sarina Ravens, Irene Thomsen, Kamal El Bissati, Rima McLeod, Chen Dong, Sandeep Gurbuxani, Immo Prinz, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Jerrold R Turner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite a prominent association, chronic intestinal barrier loss is insufficient to induce disease in human subjects or experimental animals. We hypothesized that compensatory mucosal immune activation might protect individuals with increased intestinal permeability from disease. We used a model in which intestinal barrier loss is triggered by intestinal epithelial-specific expression of constitutively active myosin light chain kinase (CA-MLCK). Here we asked whether constitutive tight junction barrier loss impacts susceptibility to enteric pathogens...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791364/identification-of-the-active-compounds-and-significant-pathways-of-yinchenhao-decoction-based-on-network-pharmacology
#12
Jihan Huang, Fan Cheung, Hor-Yue Tan, Ming Hong, Ning Wang, Juan Yang, Yibin Feng, Qingshan Zheng
Yinchenhao decoction (YCHD) is a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, which has been widely used for the treatment of jaundice for 2,000 years. Currently, YCHD is used to treat various liver disorders and metabolic diseases, however its chemical/pharmacologic profiles remain to be elucidated. The present study identified the active compounds and significant pathways of YCHD based on network pharmacology. All of the chemical ingredients of YCHD were retrieved from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology database...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789861/anti-inflammatory-properties-of-an-extract-of-m-ilicifolia-in-the-human-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cell-line
#13
Ruth Wonfor, Manuela Natoli, Ifat Parveen, Manfred Beckman, Robert Nash, Deborah Nash
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Maytenus ilicifolia is a Celastracea plant used in traditional medicine to alleviate digestive tract inflammatory disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated anti-inflammatory properties of M. ilicifolia crude extract towards Caco-2 cell line, as a model of Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR-2) inflammatory pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Toxicity was assessed following culture of Caco-2 with M. ilicifolia, using apparent cell permeability and trans-epithelial electric resistance...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782723/investigation-of-cationized-triblock-and-diblock-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-co-poly-ethylene-glycol-copolymers-for-oral-delivery-of-enoxaparin-in-vitro-approach
#14
Pimchanok Charoongchit, Jiraphong Suksiriworapong, Shirui Mao, Anne Sapin-Minet, Philippe Maincent, Varaporn Buraphacheep Junyaprasert
In this study, poly(ε-caprolactone)-co-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers grafted with a cationic ligand, propargyltrimethyl ammonium iodide (PTA), to fabricate the cationized triblock (P(CatCLCL)2-PEG) and diblock (P(CatCLCL)-mPEG) copolymers were investigated their potential use for oral delivery of enoxaparin (ENX). Influences of various PTA contents and different structures of the copolymers on molecular characteristics, ENX encapsulation, particle characteristics, and capability of drug transport across Caco-2 cells were elucidated...
August 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782205/microbiota-derived-tryptophan-indoles-increase-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-and-reduce-intestinal-permeability-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
M Jennis, C R Cavanaugh, G C Leo, J R Mabus, J Lenhard, P J Hornby
BACKGROUND: The diet and microbiome contribute to metabolic disease in part due to increased intestinal inflammation and permeability. Dietary tryptophan is metabolized by both mammalian and bacterial enzymes. Using in vitro, in vivo models, and clinical data, we tested whether bacterial tryptophan indole derivatives underlie the positive benefits of microbiota on inflammation that is associated with metabolic disease. METHODS: In high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice intestinal permeability and plasma endotoxin levels were measured after indole-3-propionic acid (IPA; 20 mg kg(-1) p...
August 7, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780155/oxyresveratrol-improves-tight-junction-integrity-through-the-pkc-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-caco-2%C3%A2-cells
#16
HyunA Jo, Dahyun Hwang, Jeong-Keun Kim, Young-Hee Lim
Strengthening intestinal tight junctions (TJ) provides an effective barrier from the external environment and is important for recovery from inflammatory bowel disease. Oxyresveratrol (OXY), an isomer of hydroxylated resveratrol, is isolated from many plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of OXY on intestinal TJ and to elucidate the mechanism underlying the OXY-mediated increase in TJ integrity in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. OXY-treated Caco-2 cell monolayers showed decreased monolayer permeability as evaluated by paracellular transport assay...
August 2, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777927/carbohydrate-and-protein-intake-during-exertional-heat-stress-ameliorates-intestinal-epithelial-injury-and-small-intestine-permeability
#17
Rhiannon M J Snipe, Anthony Khoo, Cecilia M Kitic, Peter Gibson, Ricardo J S Costa
BACKGROUND: Exertional-heat stress (EHS) disturbs the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract leading to endotoxaemia and cytokinaemia, which have symptomatic and health implications. This study aimed to determine the effects of carbohydrate and protein intake during EHS on gastrointestinal integrity, symptoms and systemic responses. METHODS: Eleven (male n=6, female n=5) endurance runners completed 2h running at 60% V̇O2max in 35°C ambient temperature on three occasions in randomised order, consuming water (WATER) or 15g glucose (GLUC) or energy-matched whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) before and every 20min during EHS...
August 4, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776393/superiority-of-amino-modified-chiral-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-in-delivering-indometacin
#18
Jing Li, Yingyu Guo, Heran Li, Lei Shang, Sanming Li
The present study established indometacin (IMC) delivery system with chiral mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMSNs) and amino-modified chiral mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Amino-CMSNs) that previously reported as pharmaceutical excipients, and their systemic biological effects, mainly consisting of in vitro drug intestinal permeability, haemolysis assay, in vivo pharmacokinetics, anti-inflammation pharmacodynamics and gastric irritation, were addressed. It turned out that the two IMC delivery systems established by CMSN and Amino-CMSN significantly improved drug intestinal permeability due to the improved drug dissolution caused by conversion of drug crystalline state to amorphous phase...
August 4, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774842/bioinspired-butyrate-functionalized-nanovehicles-for-targeted-oral-delivery-of-biomacromolecular-drugs
#19
Lei Wu, Min Liu, Wei Shan, Xi Zhu, Lijia Li, Zhirong Zhang, Yuan Huang
Ligand-functionalization can increase the affinity of nanoparticles (NPs) with targeted cells. However, one major defect of ligands still exists in oral administration: limited receptor recognition. The hindrance of mucus network and deactivation of enzymes severely challenge the targeting efficiency of macromolecular ligands. Inspired by "molecular exchange" between intestinal microbiota and host cells, we anchored microbiota metabolite butyrate on classical "mucus-inert" polyethylene glycol (PEG) NPs. Butyrate has unique advantages of low molecule weight, high hydrophilicity and chemical stability...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771910/fecal-markers-of-inflammation-protein-loss-and-microbial-changes-in-dogs-with-the-acute-hemorrhagic-diarrhea-syndrome-ahds
#20
Romy M Heilmann, Melissa M Guard, Jörg M Steiner, Jan S Suchodolski, Stefan Unterer
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS) is characterized by acute onset of bloody diarrhea, severe dehydration, and increased vascular and intestinal mucosal permeability. Markers of gastrointestinal inflammation, protein loss, and changes in the intestinal microbiota have not been studied extensively in dogs with AHDS. KEY FINDINGS: For 3 consecutive days, feces were collected from dogs with AHDS, and assayed for calprotectin and S100A12 (both markers of inflammation), α1 -proteinase inhibitor (a marker of gastrointestinal protein loss), and the presence of selected species of bacteria...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
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