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pediatric pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430759/evaluation-of-guidelines-for-injured-children-at-high-risk-for-venous-thromboembolism-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Rachel M Landisch, Sheila J Hanson, Laura D Cassidy, Kristin Braun, Rowena C Punzalan, David M Gourlay
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a widely accepted practice in adult trauma patients to prevent associated morbidity and mortality. However, VTE prophylaxis has not been standardized in injured pediatric patients. Our institution identified factors potentially associated with a high risk of VTE in critically injured children that led to prospective implementation of VTE prophylaxis guidelines. We hypothesize that the guidelines are accurate in predicting children at risk for VTE...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428678/productive-cough-in-children-and-adolescents-view-from-primary-health-care-system
#2
REVIEW
Edin Begic, Zijo Begic, Amra Dobraca, Edo Hasanbegovic
Cough is one of the most common symptoms that doctor faces in working with pediatric population, and according to some characteristics of cough, doctors can often conclude localization, and sometimes even the nature of the disease that causes it. Cough is not only the physiological defense reaction, but a symptom of a disease. According to duration it can be acute, chronic and recidivist, recurrent and persistent, strong or discreet, caused by changes in body position and changes in outside temperature. Pathoanatomically it is divided into lobar, lobular, alveolar and interstitial, pathogenetically to bronchogenic and hematogenous, as well as in immuno competent and immunocompromised, and clinically on the local and inpatient (72 hours after hospital admission)...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423502/acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells-are-sensitive-to-disturbances-in-protein-homeostasis-induced-by-proteasome-deubiquitinase-inhibition
#3
Magdalena Mazurkiewicz, Ellin-Kristina Hillert, Xin Wang, Paola Pellegrini, Maria Hägg Olofsson, Karthik Selvaraju, Padraig D'Arcy, Stig Linder
The non-genotoxic nature of proteasome inhibition makes it an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pediatric malignancies. We recently described the small molecule VLX1570 as an inhibitor of proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB) activity that induces proteotoxic stress and apoptosis in cancer cells. Here we show that acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells are highly sensitive to treatment with VLX1570, resulting in the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteasome substrates and loss of cell viability...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416749/acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells-are-sensitive-to-disturbances-in-protein-homeostasis-induced-by-proteasome-deubiquitinase-inhibition
#4
Magdalena Mazurkiewicz, Ellin-Kristina Hillert, Xin Wang, Paola Pellegrini, Maria Hägg Olofsson, Karthik Selvaraju, Padraig D'Arcy, Stig Linder
The non-genotoxic nature of proteasome inhibition makes it an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pediatric malignancies. We recently described the small molecule VLX1570 as an inhibitor of proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB) activity that induces proteotoxic stress and apoptosis in cancer cells. Here we show that acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells are highly sensitive to treatment with VLX1570, resulting in the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteasome substrates and loss of cell viability...
February 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411317/race-obesity-and-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-treatment-response-in-children-with-primary-hypertension
#5
Andrew M South, Lester Arguelles, Gal Finer, Craig B Langman
BACKGROUND: Pediatric primary hypertension (HTN) is increasingly recognized, but the effect of patient characteristics such as obesity and race on treatment outcomes is not well described. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may also contribute to HTN. We hypothesized patient parameters of these factors, including baseline RAAS, influence blood pressure (BP) response to pharmacological treatment in HTN. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort of 102 consecutive patients with HTN...
April 14, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406083/ambulatory-arterial-stiffness-index-blood-pressure-variability-and-nocturnal-blood-pressure-dip-in-children-with-iga-and-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-nephropathy%C3%A2
#6
Piotr Skrzypczyk, Małgorzata Mizerska-Wasiak, Barbara Jerszow, Paweł Ruszczykowski, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
AIM: Evaluation of mean blood pressure values, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), pulse pressure (PP), blood pressure variability (BPV), and circadian blood pressure rhythm using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in children with IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein nephropathy (IgAN/HSN). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 48 children (29 with IgAN, 19 with HSN) aged 14.04 ± 3.76 years, we evaluated retrospectively 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP (24hSBP, 24hDBP), AASI, PP, systolic and diastolic BPV, and nocturnal BP dip by ABPM, body mass index (BMI) Z-score, medications, and biochemical parameters...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402139/long-term-open-label-safety-study-of-edivoxetine-monotherapy-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Emel Serap Monkul Nery, Mark Bangs, Peng Liu, Jonna Ahl, David Perahia
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of edivoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, which was being developed as monotherapy in pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This was an open-label study of edivoxetine once daily dosing (0.1-0.3 mg/kg) as treatment for ADHD in children (6-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) to assess safety for up to 5 years. The safety assessments included the incidence of adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiograms, laboratory tests, percentile changes in weight, height, and body mass index, and Tanner staging...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401674/placebo-like-response-in-absence-of-treatment-in-children-with-autism
#8
Rebecca M Jones, Caroline Carberry, Amarelle Hamo, Catherine Lord
Caregiver report is the most common measure of change in pediatric psychiatry. Yet, placebo response rates pose significant challenges to reliably detect a treatment response. The present study simulated an eight-week clinical trial protocol for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) for the purpose of testing the feasibility and validity of several outcome measures. Twenty caregivers answered questions about their child's behavior on their smartphone each week and completed a battery of paper questionnaires during weeks one and eight...
April 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401060/therapeutic-targeting-of-histone-modifications-in-adult-and-pediatric-high-grade-glioma
#9
REVIEW
Maria J Williams, Will G B Singleton, Stephen P Lowis, Karim Malik, Kathreena M Kurian
Recent exciting work partly through The Cancer Genome Atlas has implicated epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications in the development of both pediatric and adult high-grade glioma (HGG). Histone lysine methylation has emerged as an important player in regulating gene expression and chromatin function. Lysine (K) 27 (K27) is a critical residue in all seven histone 3 variants and the subject of posttranslational histone modifications, as it can be both methylated and acetylated. In pediatric HGG, two critical single-point mutations occur in the H3F3A gene encoding the regulatory histone variant H3...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400860/multiple-etiologies-of-infectious-diarrhea-and-concurrent-infections-in-a-pediatric-outpatient-based-screening-study-in-odisha-india
#10
Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Mrutyunjay Suar, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu
BACKGROUND: There are multiple etiologies responsible for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea which are often under diagnosed. Also acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years of age. METHODS: In our study, fecal samples (n = 130) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies. Rotavirus and Adenovirus were screened by immunochromatographic tests...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396105/eosinophilic-esophagitis-a-case-study-of-a-12-year-old-boy
#11
Katherine Kiely
Eosinophilic esophagitis is an underrecognized chronic condition in which symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux are accompanied by eosinophilia in the esophagus. This disorder affects both children and adults and is associated with a history of other atopic disorders, particularly food allergies. This case study discusses the epidemiology of eosinophilic esophagitis and the proper procedures for diagnosis, referral, and management using the dietary restrictions and pharmacologic treatment included in the clinical recommendations issued by the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology; and the American College of Gastroenterologists...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389455/dinutuximab-for-maintenance-therapy-in-pediatric-neuroblastoma
#12
REVIEW
Lauren McGinty, Jill Kolesar
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, and role in therapy of dinutuximab for the treatment of high-risk pediatric neuroblastoma are reviewed. SUMMARY: Dinutuximab (Unituxin, United Therapeutics) is a novel monoclonal antibody recently approved for use in combination with granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-2, and isotretinoin for the treatment of pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma...
April 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387160/long-term-treatment-in-pediatric-asthma-an-update-on-chemical-pharmacotherapy
#13
Carolina Vitale, Angelantonio Maglio, Corrado Pelaia, Alessandro Vatrella
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood, affecting approximately 10% of all children, and is the leading cause of hospitalization in developed countries. In this paper we aimed to review the evidence on chemical pharmacotherapy for long-term treatment of pediatric asthma, according to the latest updates. Area covered: Long-term treatment, essential for controlling symptoms and reducing future risks including exacerbations and decline in lung function, includes control agents such as inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists, and leukotriene modifiers...
April 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373409/activation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-activated-kinase-1-promotes-colon-mucosal-pathogenesis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Zhiwei Liu, Fansheng Kong, Jefferson E Vallance, Eleana Harmel-Laws, Surya Amarachintha, Kris A Steinbrecher, Michael J Rosen, Sandip Bhattacharyya
The etiology and mechanisms for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are incompletely known. Determination of new, clinically important mechanisms for intestinal inflammation is imperative for developing effective therapies to treat IBD We sought to define a widespread mechanism for colon mucosal inflammation via the activation of TGF-β activated Kinase 1 (TAK1), a central regulator of cellular inflammatory actions. Activation of TAK1 and the downstream inflammatory signaling mediators was determined in pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) as well as in DSS-induced and spontaneous IBD in mice...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359101/treatment-of-pediatric-obesity-an-umbrella-systematic-review
#15
Tamim Rajjo, Khaled Mohammed, Mouaz Alsawas, Ahmed T Ahmed, Wigdan Farah, Noor Asi, Jehad Almasri, Larry J Prokop, Mohammad Hassan Murad
Objective: Multiple interventions are available to reduce excess body weight in children. We appraised the quality of evidence supporting each intervention and assessed the effectiveness on different obesity-related outcomes. Methods: We conducted a systematic search for systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating pediatric obesity interventions applied for ≥6 months. We assessed the quality of evidence for each intervention using GRADE (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353057/levetiracetam-clinical-pharmacokinetic-monitoring-in-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Jason Tan, Vanessa Paquette, Marc Levine, Mary H H Ensom
Levetiracetam is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED) with a unique mechanism of action. Older AEDs can cause serious short- and long-term adverse drug reactions and complications, rendering them undesirable to use in pediatric patients. Characteristics that make levetiracetam a near-ideal AED include its broad spectrum of activity, good tolerability profile, and minimal drug-drug interactions. Clinical pharmacokinetic monitoring (CPM) is often recommended in pediatric patients for certain AEDs due to large interindividual pharmacokinetic differences and unpredictable drug disposition...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349046/venous-thromboembolism-in-critical-illness-and-trauma-pediatric-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Ranjit S Chima, Sheila J Hanson
Critically ill children and those sustaining severe traumatic injuries are at higher risk for developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) than other hospitalized children. Multiple factors including the need for central venous catheters, immobility, surgical procedures, malignancy, and dysregulated inflammatory state confer this increased risk. As well as being at higher risk of VTE, this population is frequently at an increased risk of bleeding, making the decision of prophylactic anticoagulation even more nuanced...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336302/-vasopressors-and-inotropes-use-in-pediatrics
#18
Adrián García-Canales, Rocío Alejandra Peña-Juárez, Luz de María Sandoval-Franco
The cardiovascular system is a dynamic system whose function is to ensure adequate delivery of oxygen, nutrients and hormones to the tissues, necessary for cell metabolism, also synthesizes and modifies vasoactive components to regulate vascular tone and myocardial function. These components have become critical in the management of pediatric patients in critical condition with heart failure and shock which has proven its beneficial effects, however its use and abuse brings harmful effects, increase mortality, associated with arrhythmias and increase myocardial oxygen consumption favoring the presence of ischemia, therefore is necessary to know the mechanism of action and indications of these drugs to minimize the harmful effects...
March 20, 2017: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333115/modeling-and-targeting-myc-genes-in-childhood-brain-tumors
#19
REVIEW
Sonja Hutter, Sara Bolin, Holger Weishaupt, Fredrik J Swartling
Brain tumors are the second most common group of childhood cancers, accounting for about 20%-25% of all pediatric tumors. Deregulated expression of the MYC family of transcription factors, particularly c-MYC and MYCN genes, has been found in many of these neoplasms, and their expression levels are often correlated with poor prognosis. Elevated c-MYC/MYCN initiates and drives tumorigenesis in many in vivo model systems of pediatric brain tumors. Therefore, inhibition of their oncogenic function is an attractive therapeutic target...
March 23, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330689/evaluation-of-methohexital-as-an-alternative-to-propofol-in-a-high-volume-outpatient-pediatric-sedation-service
#20
Nicholas E Jones, Michael S Kelleman, Harold K Simon, Jana A Stockwell, Courtney McCracken, Michael D Mallory, Pradip P Kamat
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a preferred agent for many pediatric sedation providers because of its rapid onset and short duration of action. It allows for quick turn around times and enhanced throughput. Occasionally, intravenous (IV) methohexital (MHX), an ultra-short acting barbiturate is utilized instead of propofol. OBJECTIVE: Describe the experience with MHX in a primarily propofol driven outpatient sedation program and to see if it serves as an acceptable alternative when propofol is not the preferred pharmacologic option...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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