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pediatric pharmacology

Miriam Krischke, Georg Hempel, Swantje Völler, Nicolas André, Maurizio D'Incalci, Gianni Bisogno, Wolfgang Köpcke, Matthias Borowski, Ralf Herold, Alan V Boddy, Joachim Boos
PURPOSE: Doxorubicin is a key component in many pediatric oncology treatment regimens; still pharmacology data on which current dosing regimens are based are very limited. METHODS: We conducted a multinational pharmacokinetic study investigating age dependency of doxorubicin metabolism and elimination in children with cancer. One hundred and one patients treated with doxorubicin according to a cancer-specific national or European therapeutic trial were recruited...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Nicolás M Vázquez, Graciela Fiorilli, Paulo A Cáceres Guido, Silvia Moreno
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to different commonly used antibiotics, stressing the need for further strategies to treat this human pathogen with worldwide prevalence. The use of phytochemicals within the current pharmacology is a promising approach to enhance the antimicrobial activity of common antibiotics in the battle against these bacteria. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of carnosic acid, the major constituent of Rosmarinus officinalis L...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Constanze Hantel, Igor Shapiro, Giada Poli, Costanza Chiapponi, Martin Bidlingmaier, Martin Reincke, Michaela Luconi, Sara Jung, Felix Beuschlein
In recent years it has been recognized that clinical translation of novel therapeutic strategies for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) often fails. These disappointing results indicate that the currently utilized tumor models only poorly reflect relevant pathophysiology and, thereby, do not predict clinical applicability of novel pharmacological approaches. However, also the development of new preclinical ACC models has remained a challenge with only one human cell line (NCI-H295R) and one recently established human pediatric xenograft model (SJ-ACC3) being available for this highly heterogeneous malignancy...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Eda Cengiz, Peiyao Cheng, Katrina J Ruedy, Craig Kollman, William V Tamborlane, Georgeanna J Klingensmith, Robin L Gal, Janet Silverstein, Joyce Lee, Maria J Redondo, Roy W Beck
OBJECTIVE: Current data are limited on the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children and adolescents through the first few years of diabetes. The Pediatric Diabetes Consortium T1D new onset (NeOn) Study was undertaken to prospectively assess natural history and clinical outcomes in children treated at 7 US diabetes centers from the time of diagnosis. This paper describes clinical outcomes in the T1D NeOn cohort during the first 3 years postdiagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 1048 participants (mean age 9...
October 19, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
Kayi Eliacik, Nurullah Bolat, Cemil Koçyiğit, Ali Kanik, Ellen Selkie, Huseyin Yilmaz, Gonul Catli, Nihal Olgac Dundar, Bumin Nuri Dundar
BACKGROUND: The rapid rise in the global prevalence of obesity suggests that environmental factors may be responsible. The increased use of technology is associated with increased rates of obesity due to declines in physical activity and significant sedentary life style. Internet addiction is also a growing health issue associated with diminished physical activity and poor sleep quality as well as various health problems. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between Internet addiction and adolescent obesity-related problems...
October 18, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Maxime Luu, Marc Bardou, Philippe Bonniaud, Françoise Goirand
Omalizumab is a subcutaneously administrated monoclonal anti-IgE antibody indicated in adults, adolescents and children 6 years of age and older with moderate to severe allergic asthma uncontrolled by conventional pharmacological treatments and sensitization to at least one perennial allergen. Area covered: This drug evaluation summarizes published data on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of omalizumab, on clinical efficacy and safety, including real-world evidence, and provides a medico-economic evaluation of the drug...
October 17, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Adrienne Wang, Jacob Mouser, Jason Pitt, Daniel Promislow, Matt Kaeberlein
Pediatric mitochondrial disorders are a devastating category of diseases caused by deficiencies in mitochondrial function. Leigh Syndrome (LS) is the most common of these diseases with symptoms typically appearing within the first year of birth and progressing rapidly until death, usually by 6-7 years of age. Our lab has recently shown that genetic inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (TOR) rescues the short lifespan of yeast mutants with defective mitochondrial function, and that pharmacological inhibition of TOR by administration of rapamycin significantly rescues the shortened lifespan, neurological symptoms, and neurodegeneration in a mouse model of LS...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
M Lambert, V Niehaus, C Correll
This review aims to describe the importance of i) detecting individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis (schizophrenia) or bipolar disorder, especially in children and adolescents, in order to enable early intervention, and ii) evaluating different intervention strategies, especially pharmacotherapy, during the subsyndromal or "prodromal" stages of these severe and often debilitating disorders. The different approaches regarding the psychotic and bipolar clinical high-risk state are discussed, including reasons and evidence for early (pharmacological) intervention and risks of treatment vs...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
(no author information available yet)
Howard Jacob is best known for pioneering genomic sequencing of a patient to solve a mysterious pediatric case in 2010. With roots in pharmacology and cardiovascular disease, however, his career has largely been dedicated to dissecting the physiology and genetics of the rat to help understand complex human diseases. Howard was Director of the Human and Molecular Genetics Center at the Medical College of Wisconsin for 16 years, during which time he applied a combination of approaches, including quantitative genetics, integrative physiology and next-generation sequencing, in rat models to shed light on cardiovascular, metabolic and renal disorders...
October 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Erin N Schoenfelder, Tyler Sasser
Although side effects and family concerns are common and long-term medication adherence is low, stimulant medications are a front-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychosocial treatments include classroom, family, and child-focused interventions that teach caregivers and teachers how to implement contingencies to shape behavior and provide children with skills to compensate for ADHD deficits. Such programs have a growing evidence-base and can be implemented alone or in conjunction with pharmacological treatments...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Maria Claudia Rodríguez, Perla Villamor, Tatiana Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Pain is a disease by itself and it's a public health concern of major implication in children, not just because of the emotional component of the child and his family, but also due to the potential morbidity and mortality involving it. A proper assessment of pain it's a challenge in the pediatric population, due to their lack of understanding and verbalization of hurt. Additionally, a satisfactory treatment of pediatric pain can be arduous due to a lack of clinical knowledge, insufficient pediatric research, and the fear to opioid side effects and addiction...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Saro H Armenian, Melissa M Hudson, Ming Hui Chen, Steven D Colan, Lanie Lindenfeld, George Mills, Aida Siyahian, Sarah Gelehrter, Ha Dang, Wendy Hein, Daniel M Green, Leslie L Robison, F Lennie Wong, Pamela S Douglas, Smita Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines are widely used in the treatment of childhood cancer. One of the well-recognized side-effects of anthracycline therapy is dose-dependent cardiomyopathy that may progress to heart failure (HF) years after completion of cancer-directed therapy. This study will evaluate the efficacy of low-dose beta-blocker (carvedilol) for HF risk reduction in childhood cancer survivors at highest risk for HF. The proposed intervention has the potential to significantly reduce chronic cardiac injury via interruption of neurohormonal systems responsible for left ventricular (LV) remodeling, resulting in improved cardiac function and decreased risk of HF...
October 4, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Maria Grazia Clemente, Claudia Mandato, Marco Poeta, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Nicole Coles, Catherine Birken, Jill Hamilton
Severe obesity in childhood is increasing in prevalence and is associated with considerable morbidity. Studies into pediatric obesity have focused largely on interventions that do not necessarily target the unique biologic or psychological underpinnings for the weight gain in the individual child or adolescent. Outcomes show modest improvement and are of questionable benefit for patients with severe obesity. Although weight is a commonly used outcome, other psychological and metabolic parameters including normalization of physical activity and eating behaviors should be primary outcome goals...
September 29, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Anjali L Varigonda, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Michael H Bloch
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the following: the time course of response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and clomipramine in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); whether higher doses of SSRIs are associated with an improved response in pediatric OCD; differences in efficacy among SSRI agents; differences in efficacy between SSRIs and clomipramine; and whether the time course and magnitude of response to SSRIs are different in pediatric and adult patients with OCD...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Cameron L Jordan, Terry L Noah, Marianna M Henry
This review seeks to re-introduce cystic fibrosis (CF) clinicians to the pharmacology of drug-drug interactions among medications commonly used in CF and provide a framework for understanding these interactions among medications outside the scope of this discussion. We here focus on drugs impacted by the cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system and on interactions involving antimicrobials, psychotropic medications, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators. Particular attention is needed when prescribing rifampin, azole antifungals and the CFTR modulators, ivacaftor, and lumacaftor/ivacaftor, in combination with other medications...
October 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Farah S Hussain, Eric T Dobson, Jeffrey R Strawn
The last decade has seen considerable advances in the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents and a considerable expansion of the evidence base for psychopharmacologic in this population. The extant data suggest that, for fear-based anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia/social anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are well tolerated and offer considerable benefit...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
Joseph D Tobias, Thomas P Green, Charles J Coté
Codeine has been prescribed to pediatric patients for many decades as both an analgesic and an antitussive agent. Codeine is a prodrug with little inherent pharmacologic activity and must be metabolized in the liver into morphine, which is responsible for codeine's analgesic effects. However, there is substantial genetic variability in the activity of the responsible hepatic enzyme, CYP2D6, and, as a consequence, individual patient response to codeine varies from no effect to high sensitivity. Drug surveillance has documented the occurrence of unanticipated respiratory depression and death after receiving codeine in children, many of whom have been shown to be ultrarapid metabolizers...
September 19, 2016: Pediatrics
Pierre Frange, Naïm Bouazza, Patricia Fassinou, Josiane Warszawski, Stéphane Blanche
INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapy is extremely effective in both children and adults infected with HIV. Treatment indications have rapidly expanded; ideally, with rare exceptions, all infected children should now be treated. AREAS COVERED: The use of antiretroviral drugs in children is based largely on extrapolations from experience with adult patients. Pharmacokinetic studies are required in addition to formal studies, which are difficult to conduct in pediatric situations, extending from birth to adolescence...
September 22, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Swantje Völler, Georg Hempel, Gudrun Würthwein, Alan V Boddy, Miriam Krischke, Nicolas André, Maurizio D'Incalci, Gianni Bisogno, Joachim Boos
Following the publication of our paper regarding a population-based model of doxorubicin pharmacokinetics in children in Clinical Pharmacokinetics last year (Voller et al. 54:1139-1149, 2015), we have received many inquiries on the practical clinical consequences of this model; however, a population-based model is only one of the aspects to be taken into account when developing dosing algorithms. In addition, any new method of dose calculation would need clinical validation and, subsequently, a new clinical trial...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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