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pediatric pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775757/molecular-characterization-of-physis-tissue-by-rna-sequencing
#1
Christopher R Paradise, Catalina Galeano-Garces, Daniela Galeano-Garces, Amel Dudakovic, Todd A Milbrandt, Daniel B F Saris, Aaron J Krych, Marcel Karperien, Gabriel B Ferguson, Denis Evseenko, Scott M Riester, Andre J van Wijnen, A Noelle Larson
The physis is a well-established and anatomically distinct cartilaginous structure that is crucial for normal long-bone development and growth. Abnormalities in physis function are linked to growth plate disorders and other pediatric musculoskeletal diseases. Understanding the molecular pathways operative in the physis may permit development of regenerative therapies to complement surgically-based procedures that are the current standard of care for growth plate disorders. Here, we performed next generation RNA sequencing on mRNA isolated from human physis and other skeletal tissues (e...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761681/milestones-in-the-development-of-fetal-cardiac-interventions
#2
REVIEW
Edward G Abinader
Cardiac patients of all ages were managed in the past by internists who specialized in cardiology. During the past 50 years, the medical field has witnessed great strides in the management of congenital heart disease, and thus pediatric cardiology has become a subspecialty in many countries. This review article focuses on the advances in fetal cardiac interventions (FCI) since its inception by our group in 1975. Three major modes of FCI have evolved during the past 42 years: pharmacologic, closed FCI, and open FCI...
May 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759275/sleep-related-drug-therapy-in-special-conditions-children
#3
REVIEW
Nicholas-Tiberio Economou, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Paschalis Steiropoulos
Sleep disorders in children may lead to neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive deficits; it is important to diagnose and treat them properly. Apart from the existing challenges in diagnosis, another drawback is that few therapies are currently approved. In this article, a comprehensive summary of the most common pediatric sleep disorders, along with the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches for their management, is presented. Special attention has been paid to the currently available treatment options for pediatric insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, parasomnias, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome, and comparisons are made with the corresponding treatment options for sleep disorders in adults...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748700/myocardial-stress-perfusion-mri-experience-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients-following-arterial-switch-operation-utilizing-regadenoson
#4
Cory V Noel, Ramkumar Krishnamurthy, Prakash Masand, Brady Moffett, Tobiash Schlingmann, Benjamin Y Cheong, Rajesh Krishnamurthy
Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) is one of the most common cyanotic heart lesions. The arterial switch operation (ASO) is the preferred surgical palliation for D-TGA. One of the primary concerns following the ASO is complications arising from the coronary artery transfer. There is a need for myocardial perfusion assessment within ASO patients. There is no report on the utility of regadenoson as a stress agent in children following ASO. Our objective was to observe the safety and feasibility of regadenoson as a pharmacologic stressor for perfusion cardiac MR in a pilot cohort of pediatric and young-adult patients who have undergone ASO...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743936/clarifying-the-origin-of-houzao
#5
Zhongzhen Zhao, Eric Brand, Hiu Yee Kwan, Quanbin Han, Mengjia Zhou
Background: Houzao (bezoar) is a valuable imported Chinese medicine that is commonly used as a pediatric medicine to transform phlegm. There are mainly two types of Houzao, "Southeast Asian Houzao" and "Indian Houzao". "Indian Houzao" is the dominant commercial product accounts for over 95% of the actual utilization in the market. However, its origin, formation, composition, efficacy and pharmacology remain unclear. Therefore, we have conducted on-site investigation to clarify the origin of Indian Houzao...
2018: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741917/a-systematic-review-of-pharmacologic-treatments-for-school-refusal-behavior
#6
Amalia Londono Tobon, Margot O Reed, Jerome H Taylor, Michael H Bloch
OBJECTIVE: School refusal is an important pediatric problem with significant negative short- and long-term outcomes. Specific psychosocial treatments appear effective in reducing school refusal, but many children do not respond to these treatments. Although systematic reviews have examined the efficacy of psychological interventions for school refusal, no systematic reviews on pharmacological interventions exist. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Embase for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental pharmacologic trials in children and adolescents with school refusal reported in English or Spanish until July 1, 2017...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740791/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-not-a-small-matter
#7
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased substantially in the past two decades and NAFLD has now become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. NAFLD is a broad clinicopathologic spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to varying degrees of necroinflammation called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leading to fibrosis and subsequently to cirrhosis. Despite the increasing prevalence and progressive nature of NAFLD even among children, therapy for NAFLD in both adults and children are limited...
May 9, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735115/tremors-essential-tremor-and-beyond
#8
Chandrabhaga Miskin, Karen S Carvalho
Tremor is a fairly common movement disorder presenting to an outpatient pediatric neurology practice. Tremors can be primary or secondary to underlying neurologic or systemic diseases. When assessing a child with tremor, it is paramount to evaluate the phenomenology of the tremor, determine the presence or absence of other neurologic signs and symptoms, and the possible modifying influence of medications. Proper classification is essential for specific diagnosis and prompt adequate management. Treatment considerations should take into account objective assessment of tremor severity and the degree of disability or impairment experienced by the child...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733235/pharmacological-management-of-symptoms-in-children-with-life-limiting-conditions-at-the-end-of-life-in-the-asia-pacific
#9
Lee Ai Chong, Poh Heng Chong, Joyce Chee
BACKGROUND: The provision of pediatric palliative care in Asia Pacific varies between countries and availability of essential medications for symptoms at the end of life in this region is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine medications available and used in the management of six symptoms at the end of life among pediatric palliative care practitioners in Asia Pacific. To identify alternative pharmacological strategies for these six symptoms if the oral route was no longer possible and injections are refused...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732645/procedural-sedation-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-survey-of-current-practice-patterns-of-the-society-for-pediatric-sedation-members
#10
Pradip P Kamat, Leah N Bryan, Courtney E McCracken, Harold K Simon, John W Berkenbosch, Jocelyn R Grunwell
BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum disorder are challenging to sedate because of communication, sensory, and behavioral challenges. AIMS: The aim of this survey was to determine how procedural sedation is provided to children with autism spectrum disorders and whether sedation programs have specialized protocols for procedural sedation of these children. METHODS: We surveyed physician Medical Directors of sedation programs who are members of the Society for Pediatric Sedation, asking about practice characteristics and resource utilization during procedural sedation of children with autism spectrum disorders...
May 6, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729938/slc9a3-nhe3-dysregulation-and-dilated-intercellular-spaces-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#11
Chang Zeng, Simone Vanoni, David Wu, Julie M Caldwell, Justin C Wheeler, Kavisha Arora, Taeko K Noah, Lisa Waggoner, John A Besse, Amnah N Yamani, Jazib Uddin, Mark Rochman, Ting Wen, Mirna Chehade, Margaret Collins, Vincent Mukkada, Philip Putnam, Anjaparavanda P Naren, Marc E Rothenberg, Simon P Hogan
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by histopathologic modifications of esophageal tissue including eosinophil-rich inflammation, basal zone hyperplasia (BZH) and dilated intercellular spaces (DIS). The underlying molecular processes that drive the histopathologic features of EoE remain largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of SLC9A3 in esophageal epithelial [pH]i and DIS formation and the histopathological features of EoE...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729653/pain-management-in-the-pediatric-palliative-care-population
#12
Rene Thomas, Marcia Phillips, Rebekah J Hamilton
PURPOSE: The purpose of this integrative review was to identify, review, synthesize, and analyze the current literature related to pain management in the pediatric palliative care population from infancy through adolescence. METHODS: The literature was searched for the terms palliative, pediatric, and pain in PubMed, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied HeALTH LITERATUre (CINAHL) Complete, and Google Scholar. The search was limited to papers in English that had been published from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2016...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728296/efficacy-of-non-pharmacological-methods-of-pain-management-in-children-undergoing-venipuncture-in-a-pediatric-outpatient-clinic-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-audiovisual-distraction-and-external-cold-and-vibration
#13
Piera Bergomi, Luigia Scudeller, Serena Pintaldi, Alberto Dal Molin
PURPOSE: Venipuncture generates anxiety and pain in children. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate two non-pharmacological techniques, vibration combined with cryotherapeutic topical analgesia by means of the Buzzy® device and animated cartoons, in terms of pain and anxiety relief during venipuncture in children. DESIGNS AND METHODS: 150 children undergoing venipuncture were randomized into four groups: the 'no method' group, the Buzzy® device group, the animated cartoon group and the combination of Buzzy® and an animated cartoon group...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721487/executive-function-deficits-in-seriously-ill-children-emerging-challenges-and-possibilities-for-clinical-care
#14
Annet Bluschke, Maja von der Hagen, Barbara Novotna, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
The past years have seen an incredible increase in the quality and success rates of treatments in pediatric medicine. One of the resulting major challenges refers to the management of primary or secondary residual executive function deficits in affected children. These deficits lead to problems in the ability to acquire, understand, and apply abstract and complex knowledge and to plan, direct, and control actions. Executive functions deficits are important to consider because they are highly predictive of functioning in social and academic aspects of daily life...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708207/ssri-associated-bruxism-a-systematic-review-of-published-case-reports
#15
REVIEW
Andrew R Garrett, Jason S Hawley
Purpose of review: Antidepressant-associated movement disorders are a well-described phenomenon. However, antidepressant-associated bruxism, jaw pain, or jaw spasm, while reported in dental literature, is less commonly recognized among neurologists. We summarize the clinical features and treatment of antidepressant-associated bruxism and associated jaw pain through a systematic review of case reports. Recent findings: Antidepressant-associated bruxism may occur in pediatric and adult patients, most commonly among female patients...
April 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706198/evaluation-of-pain-in-pediatric-upper-extremity-conditions
#16
Emily S Ho, Anne Ayling Campos, Karen Klar, Kristen Davidge
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative Review. INTRODUCTION: Hand surgeons and therapists play an important role in the early identification of children at risk of developing chronic or recurrent pain after an upper extremity injury. Early identification of children at risk of developing a pain syndrome is critical because their physical, psychological, and/or social functioning may decline quickly without proper management due to the multidimensional nature of pain. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This article outlines one approach to evaluating upper extremity pain in children to help identify those with, or at risk of, chronic pain...
April 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703801/successful-management-of-chylothorax-with-etilefrine-case-report-in-2-pediatric-patients
#17
Gysella Muniz, Jennifer Hidalgo-Campos, Maria Del Carmen Valdivia-Tapia, Nader Shaikh, Nilton Yhuri Carreazo
Chylothorax is defined as the accumulation of chyle within the pleural space. Originally described in 1917 by Pisek, it is the most common cause of pleural effusion in the neonatal period. The leading cause of chylothorax is laceration of the thoracic duct during surgery, which occurs in 0.85% to 6.6% of children undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. Few authors of reports in the literature have looked at etilefrine, a relatively unknown sympathomimetic, as an option for the medical treatment of chylothorax. In this case report, we review the clinical course of 2 infants with type III esophageal atresia who developed chylothorax after thoracic surgery and were successfully treated with intravenous etilefrine after failing initial dietary and pharmacological management...
April 27, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702195/hedgehog-signaling-negatively-co-regulates-bh3-only-protein-noxa-and-tap73-in-tp53-mutated-cells
#18
Michael Torsten Meister, Cathinka Boedicker, Thomas Klingebiel, Simone Fulda
In the present study, we show that pharmacological repression by the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitor (HPI) GANT61 induces expression of the proapoptotic protein Noxa in TP53-mutated embryonal pediatric tumor cells driven by Hh signaling (i.e. rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and medulloblastoma (MB)). Similarly, genetic silencing of Gli1 by siRNA causes increased Noxa mRNA and protein levels, while overexpression of Gli1 results in decreased Noxa expression. Furthermore, TAp73 mRNA and protein levels are increased upon Gli1 knockdown, while Gli1 overexpression reduces TAp73 mRNA and protein levels...
April 24, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698135/the-prevalence-of-adhd-patients-among-pediatric-dentists-in-israel-and-knowledge-of-dental-and-behavioral-aspects-of-treating-them
#19
Sigalit Blumer, Rula Shehadi Khoury, Benjamin Peretz
OBJECTIVE: There are no clear guidelines for managing the dental treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The use of sedation in combination with chronic ADHD medication use is also not well defined. This study surveyed the prevalence of ADHD children, management techniques and knowledge of pharmacologic therapies of these children among Israeli dentists. STUDY DESIGN: A specially designed questionnaire was distributed to all Israeli dentists attending a national conference in 2016...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697859/the-effects-of-vitamin-k1-and-vitamin-k2-on-the-proliferation-cytokine-production-and-regulatory-t-cell-frequency-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-pediatric-atopic-dermatitis-patients
#20
Kehan Meng, Wencheng Xu, Taro Miura, Shunsuke Suzuki, Masako Chiyotanda, Sachiko Tanaka, Kentaro Sugiyama, Hisashi Kawashima, Toshihiko Hirano
We estimated the pharmacological efficacy of vitamin K1 (VK1 ) and VK2 on the mitogen-activated peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of pediatric atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. VK2 suppressed the in vitro proliferation of T cell-mitogen-activated PBMCs of AD patients. In contrast, VK1 had little effect on the PBMC proliferation. The IL-2 production from the activated PBMCs of AD patients significantly increased (P<0.05), while the production significantly decreased by 100 μM VK2 (P<0.01). In addition, 100 μM VK2 reduced the percentage of CD4+ and CD4+CD25+cells in PBMCs...
April 26, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
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