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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102743/expression-and-alteration-of-bkca-channels-in-the-sphincter-of-oddi-s-from-rabbits-with-hypercholesterolemia
#1
Dan Feng, Haiyan Nan, Wen Wang, Linfeng Yan, Pang Du, Lin Zuo, Kun Zhang, Minggao Zhao, Guangbin Cui
This study aimed to investigate the expression and function of BKCa channels in the Sphincter of Oddi (SO) in a rabbit model of hypercholesterolemia (HC). New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: the control group was fed standard chow (n = 18) whereas the high-cholesterol group was fed cholesterol-enriched chow containing 1.5% cholesterol (n = 18). The serum cholesterol level was significantly greater in the HC groups than in the control group, but there was no significant difference in body weight between the control and HC groups...
January 19, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102702/immunomodulating-peptides-for-food-allergy-prevention-and-treatment
#2
Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo, Rosina López-Fandiño
Among the most promising strategies currently assayed against IgE-mediated allergic diseases stands the possibility of using immunomodulating peptides to induce oral tolerance towards offending food allergens or even to prevent allergic sensitization. This review focuses on the beneficial effects of food derived immunomodulating peptides on food allergy, which can be directly exerted in the intestinal tract or once being absorbed through the intestinal epithelial barrier to interact with immune cells. Food peptides influence intestinal homeostasis by maintaining and reinforcing barrier function or affecting intestinal cell-signalling to nearby immune cells and mucus secretion...
January 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102435/effects-of-tryptophan-containing-peptides-on-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-activity-and-vessel-tone-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo
#3
Sherif Khedr, Andreas Deussen, Irakli Kopaliani, Birgit Zatschler, Melanie Martin
PURPOSE: Over-activation of the renin-angiotensin axis and worsening of vascular function are critical contributors to the development of hypertension. Therefore, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), a key factor of the renin-angiotensin axis, is a first line treatment of hypertension. Besides pharmaceutical ACE inhibitors, some natural peptides have been shown to exert ACE-inhibiting properties with antihypertensive effects and potentially beneficial effects on vascular function...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102366/aurora-kinase-a-is-a-biomarker-for-bladder-cancer-detection-and-contributes-to-its-aggressive-behavior
#4
Aaron Mobley, Shizhen Zhang, Jolanta Bondaruk, Yan Wang, Tadeusz Majewski, Nancy P Caraway, Li Huang, Einav Shoshan, Guermarie Velazquez-Torres, Giovanni Nitti, Sangkyou Lee, June Goo Lee, Enrique Fuentes-Mattei, Daniel Willis, Li Zhang, Charles C Guo, Hui Yao, Keith Baggerly, Yair Lotan, Seth P Lerner, Colin Dinney, David McConkey, Menashe Bar-Eli, Bogdan Czerniak
The effects of AURKA overexpression associated with poor clinical outcomes have been attributed to increased cell cycle progression and the development of genomic instability with aneuploidy. We used RNA interference to examine the effects of AURKA overexpression in human bladder cancer cells. Knockdown had minimal effects on cell proliferation but blocked tumor cell invasion. Whole genome mRNA expression profiling identified nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) as a downstream target that was repressed by AURKA...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102196/whole-brain-3d-mapping-of-human-neural-transplant-innervation
#5
Jonas Doerr, Martin Karl Schwarz, Dirk Wiedermann, Anke Leinhaas, Alina Jakobs, Florian Schloen, Inna Schwarz, Michael Diedenhofen, Nils Christian Braun, Philipp Koch, Daniel A Peterson, Ulrich Kubitscheck, Mathias Hoehn, Oliver Brüstle
While transplantation represents a key tool for assessing in vivo functionality of neural stem cells and their suitability for neural repair, little is known about the integration of grafted neurons into the host brain circuitry. Rabies virus-based retrograde tracing has developed into a powerful approach for visualizing synaptically connected neurons. Here, we combine this technique with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize transplanted cells and connected host neurons in whole-mouse brain preparations...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101808/construction-of-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strain-to-improve-that-whole-cell-biocatalytic-production-of-melibiose-from-raffinose
#6
Yingbiao Zhou, Yueming Zhu, Yan Men, Caixia Dong, Yuanxia Sun, Juankun Zhang
There are excessive by-products in the biocatalysis process of this whole-cell biocatalytic production of melibiose from raffinose with current Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. To solve this problem, we constructed engineered strains based on a liquor yeast (S. cerevisiae) via gene deletion (mel1 gene), heterologous integration (fsy1 or/and ffzi1 gene from Candida magnoliae), and gene overexpression (gcr1 gene). Functional verification showed that deletion of the mel1 gene led to elimination of the reactions catalyzed by α-galactosidase, as well as elimination of the degradation of melibiose and the formation of galactose by-product...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101779/randomized-controlled-trial-of-topical-emla-and-vapocoolant-spray-for-reducing-pain-during-wdpt-vaccination
#7
Navratan Kumar Gupta, Amit Upadhyay, Ajeet Kumar Dwivedi, Astha Agarwal, Vijay Jaiswal, Abhishek Singh
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular vaccination is among the most common source of iatrogenic pain in infants. Vapocoolant sprays are rapid-acting alternative to topical anesthetics. They provide transient anesthesia via evaporation induced skin cooling, and reduce pain due to vaccine injection in children and adults. The objective was to compare the synergistic analgesic effect of eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) with breastfeeding (EB group) and vapocoolant spay with breastfeeding (VB group) to that of only breastfeeding (BO group) during whole cell diptheria, pertussis and tetanus (wDPT) vaccination...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101532/overexpression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-protects-large-retinal-ganglion-cells-after-optic-nerve-crush-in-mice
#8
Liang Feng, Zhen Puyang, Hui Chen, Peiji Liang, John B Troy, Xiaorong Liu
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin essential for neuron survival and function, plays an important role in neuroprotection during neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined whether a modest increase of retinal BDNF promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival after acute injury of the optic nerve in mice. We adopted an inducible Cre-recombinase transgenic system to up-regulate BDNF in the mouse retina and then examined RGC survival after optic nerve crush by in vivo imaging...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101186/comparative-analysis-of-signaling-pathways-in-peripheral-blood-from-patients-with-kashin-beck-disease-and-osteoarthritis
#9
Yujie Ning, Xi Wang, Sen Wang, Xiong Guo
The aim of the present study was to investigate the early diagnostic biomarkers of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), and to compare the common signaling pathways of peripheral mononuclear cells between patients with KBD and those with osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 20 and 12 peripheral blood samples were separately collected from KBD patients and normal control subjects, respectively, in an endemic area according to the diagnosis criteria. Total RNAs were extracted and gene expression levels were determined using an Agilent whole genome expression microarrays...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100859/-cotton-dam-wash-cytology-a-technique-for-diagnosis-and-prevention-of-dissemination-during-resection-of-metastatic-brain-tumors
#10
Koichi Mitsuya, Yoko Nakasu, Sachiyo Ono, Nakamasa Hayashi, Reiko Watanabe, Ichiro Ito
The management of brain metastases has been important in neurosurgical oncology. Resection of a brain metastasis carries an increased risk of leptomeningeal dissemination than other treatment modalities such as irradiation or pharmacotherapy. We have utilized intraoperative wash cytology of cotton patties covering the brain surface. The cytology information contributes to making a decision of postoperative whole brain radiation. We named the method as "cotton dam", that serves as a check and catch of neoplastic cells on the brain surface during resection surgery...
January 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100741/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#11
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole-cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an IPSP at low stimulation frequency (0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100567/mecp2-regulated-glycogenes-contribute-to-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#12
Yannan Qin, Lingyu Zhao, Xiaofei Wang, Dongdong Tong, Christopher Hoover, Fei Wu, Yingxun Liu, Lumin Wang, Liying Liu, Lei Ni, Tusheng Song, Chen Huang
Aberrant glycogene and glycan expression is intimately associated with carcinogenesis, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer (GC); however the regulatory mechanisms for glycogenes in GC cells remain unclear. Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) regulates genes by binding to methylated promoters, and in our previous work we found that it is overexpressed in GC cell lines and tissues, functioning as an oncogene. In this study we detected the expression of 212 glycogenes in MeCP2 silenced GC cells versus control using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Microarray and mining the data through bioinformatic analysis...
January 18, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100478/adropin-acts-in-the-rat-paraventricular-nucleus-to-influence-neuronal-excitability
#13
Spencer P Loewen, Alastair V Ferguson
Adropin is a peptide hormone with cardiovascular and metabolic roles in the periphery, including effects on glucose and lipid homeostasis. Central administration of adropin has been shown to inhibit water intake in rats, however, the site at which central adropin acts has yet to be elucidated. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a critical autonomic control center, plays essential roles in the control of fluid balance, energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation, and is therefore a potential target for centrally acting adropin...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100420/osteoarthritis-year-in-review-2016-mechanics
#14
REVIEW
D J Saxby, D G Lloyd
Inappropriate biomechanics, namely wear-and-tear, has been long believed to be a main cause of osteoarthritis (OA). However, this view is now being re-evaluated, especially when examined alongside mechanobiology and new biomechanical studies. These are multiscale experimental and computational studies focussing on cell- and tissue-level mechanobiology through to organ- and whole-body-level biomechanics, which focuses on the biomechanical and biochemical environment of the joint tissues. This review examined papers from April 2015 to April 2016, with a focus on multiscale experimental and computational biomechanical studies of OA...
December 16, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100263/benzene-poisoning-clinical-and-blood-abnormalities-in-two-brazilian-female-gas-station-attendants-two-case-reports
#15
Fábio Santiago, Simone Lima, Tayná Pinheiro, Rafaele Tavares Silvestre, Ubirani Barros Otero, Marianne Medeiros Tabalipa, Nadezda Kosyakova, Maria Helena Ornellas, Thomas Liehr, Gilda Alves
BACKGROUND: Brazilian gas station workers are chronically exposed to benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) during their working time. Describe below two cases of latin female gas station workers with benzene poisoning symptoms and miscarriage history. CASE PRESENTATION: In both cases were identified complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) with fluorescence in situ hybridization, applied to whole chromosome paints by chromosomes 1, 2 and 4. The lower natural killer cell (NK) cells have also been observed in cases correspondents, especially the rare type of NK (NKbright) in their peripheral blood cells...
January 18, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099903/talin-1-interaction-network-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression
#16
Peng Chen, Xiaohu Zheng, Yonggang Zhou, Yechuan Xu, Lixin Zhu, Yeben Qian
Talin-1 is a known oncogene-associated protein. In this study, we set out to determine its role and mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. We found Talin-1 to be highly expressed in HCC cells relative to non-cancer liver epithelial cells and to promote tumor growth and metastasis. We used Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray analysis with HCC cells and HCC cells in which Talin-1 was knocked down using shRNA to identify transcripts regulated by Talin-1. Of the 40,000 tested genes, 3099 were differentially expressed after Talin-1 knockdown; expression of 1924 genes was increased, while expression of 2175 was decreased...
January 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099880/modifications-of-inhibitory-transmission-onto-pyramidal-neurons-by-postnatal-exposure-to-mk-801-effects-of-enriched-environment
#17
Amir Shojaei, Afsaneh Kamali Anaraki, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Nafiseh Atapour
Early enriched environment (EE) prevents several deficits associated with postnatal MK-801 [N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] treatment such as cognitive and locomotor deficits. We sought physiological correlates to such changes by looking at inhibitory synaptic inputs onto pyramidal cells in a prefrontal cortex slice preparation. Pharmacologically isolated γ-amino-butyric acid A (GABAA) receptor-mediated currents were measured using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Wistar rats were raised in standard or EE from birth up to the time of experiments and were injected with saline or MK-801 (1mg/kg) on postnatal days (P) 6-10...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099825/transmission-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa
#18
N Sarita Shah, Sara C Auld, James C M Brust, Barun Mathema, Nazir Ismail, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Salim Allana, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Natashia Morris, Primrose Mpangase, Hermina van der Meulen, Shaheed V Omar, Tyler S Brown, Apurva Narechania, Elena Shaskina, Thandi Kapwata, Barry Kreiswirth, Neel R Gandhi
Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens recent gains in the treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide. A widespread epidemic of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is occurring in South Africa, where cases have increased substantially since 2002. The factors driving this rapid increase have not been fully elucidated, but such knowledge is needed to guide public health interventions. Methods We conducted a prospective study involving 404 participants in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with a diagnosis of XDR tuberculosis between 2011 and 2014...
19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099809/a-gemcitabine-based-peptide-conjugate-with-improved-metabolic-properties-and-dual-mode-of-efficacy
#19
Theodoros Karampelas, Eleni Skavatsou, Orestis Argyros, Demosthenes Fokas, Constantin Tamvakopoulos
Gemcitabine is a clinically established anticancer agent potent in various solid tumors but limited by its rapid metabolic inactivation and off-target toxicity. We have previously generated a metabolically superior to gemcitabine molecule (GSG) by conjugating gemcitabine to a gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) ligand peptide, and showed that GSG was efficacious in a castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) animal model. The current manuscript provides an in-depth metabolic and mechanistic study of GSG, coupled with toxicity assays that strengthen the potential role of GSG in the clinic...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099582/a-simple-and-efficient-method-for-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-quantification-in-diazotrophic-bacteria-within-5-minutes-using-flow-cytometry
#20
L P S Alves, A T Almeida, L M Cruz, F O Pedrosa, E M de Souza, L S Chubatsu, M Müller-Santos, G Valdameri
The conventional method for quantification of polyhydroxyalkanoates based on whole-cell methanolysis and gas chromatography (GC) is laborious and time-consuming. In this work, a method based on flow cytometry of Nile red stained bacterial cells was established to quantify poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by the diazotrophic and plant-associated bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense. The method consists of three steps: i) cell permeabilization, ii) Nile red staining, and iii) analysis by flow cytometry...
January 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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