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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#1
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087336/oleate-induces-katp-channel-dependent-hyperpolarisation-in-mouse-hypothalamic-glucose-excited-neurones-without-altering-cellular-energy-charge
#2
Selma Dadak, Craig Beall, Julia M Vlachaki Walker, Marc Pm Soutar, Rory J McCrimmon, Michael L J Ashford
The unsaturated fatty acid, oleate exhibits anorexigenic properties reducing food intake and hepatic glucose output. However, its mechanism of action in the hypothalamus has not been fully determined. This study investigated the effects of oleate and glucose on GT1-7 mouse hypothalamic cells (a model of glucose-excited (GE) neurones) and mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones. Whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings, immunoblotting and cell energy status measures were used to investigate oleate and glucose sensing properties of mouse hypothalamic neurones...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079757/pathogenesis-of-abdominal-pain-in-bowel-obstruction-role-of-mechanical-stress-induced-upregulation-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-gut-smooth-muscle-cells
#3
You-Min Lin, Yu Fu, John Winston, Ravi Radhakrishnan, Sushil K Sarna, Li-Yen M Huang, Xuan-Zheng Shi
Abdominal pain is one of the major symptoms in bowel obstruction (BO); its cellular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical stress in obstruction upregulates expression of nociception mediator nerve growth factor (NGF) in gut smooth muscle cells (SMC), and NGF sensitizes primary sensory nerve to contribute to pain in BO. Partial colon obstruction was induced with a silicon band implanted in the distal bowel of Sprague-Dawley rats. Colon-projecting sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, T13 to L2) were identified for patch clamp and gene expression studies...
January 6, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078759/bufalin-a-bufanolide-steroid-from-the-parotoid-glands-of-the-chinese-toad-inhibits-l-type-ca-2-channels-and-contractility-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes
#4
Tao Song, Xi Chu, Xuan Zhang, Qiong Tao Song, Ying Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xue Han, Jianping Zhang, Li Chu
Bufalin is a bufanolide steroid compound in Chan Su. Chan Su is a traditional Chinese medicine prepared from the dried white secretion of the auricular and skin glands of toads, and has been used as an Oriental drug. However, the effect of bufalin on cardiac function and its underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we explore the cellular mechanisms of bufalin on myocardial protection via the whole-cell patch-clamp recording and video-based edge detection system. Exposure to bufalin resulted in a concentrated-dependent blockade of ICa-L , with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 60 μM and the maximal inhibitory effect of 71...
January 11, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077540/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-lif-potentiates-antinociception-activity-and-inhibits-tolerance-induction-of-opioids
#5
H J Tu, K H Kang, S Y Ho, H C Liou, H H Liou, C P Lin, W M Fu
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of opioids typically decreases after long-term use owing to the development of tolerance. Glial activation and the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines are related to the induction of tolerance. We investigated the effect of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on morphine analgesia and tolerance. METHODS: LIF concentrations in rat spinal cords were measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after morphine administration...
October 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077437/sensitized-signalling-between-l-type-ca2-channels-and-ryanodine-receptors-in-the-absence-or-inhibition-of-fkbp12-6-in-cardiomyocytes
#6
Yan-Ting Zhao, Yun-Bo Guo, Lei Gu, Xue-Xin Fan, Hua-Qian Yang, Zheng Chen, Peng Zhou, Qi Yuan, Guang-Ju Ji, Shi-Qiang Wang
AIMS: The heart contraction is controlled by the Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+ )release (CICR) between L-type Ca(2+ )channels and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). The FK506-binding protein FKBP12.6 binds to RyR subunits, but its role in stabilizing RyR function has been debated for long. Recent reports of high-resolution RyR structure show that the HD2 domain that binds to the SPRY2 domain of neighbouring subunit in FKBP-bound RyR1 is detached and invisible in FKBP-null RyR2. The present study was to test the consequence of FKBP12...
January 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076424/sensitization-of-trpa1-by-protein-kinase-a
#7
Jannis E Meents, Michael J M Fischer, Peter A McNaughton
The TRPA1 ion channel is expressed in nociceptive (pain-sensitive) somatosensory neurons and is activated by a wide variety of chemical irritants, such as acrolein in smoke or isothiocyanates in mustard. Here, we investigate the enhancement of TRPA1 function caused by inflammatory mediators, which is thought to be important in lung conditions such as asthma and COPD. Protein kinase A is an important kinase acting downstream of inflammatory mediators to cause sensitization of TRPA1. By using site-directed mutagenesis, patch-clamp electrophysiology and calcium imaging we identify four amino acid residues, S86, S317, S428, and S972, as the principal targets of PKA-mediated phosphorylation and sensitization of TRPA1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075010/stimulatory-actions-of-a-novel-thiourea-derivative-on-large-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#8
Sheng-Nan Wu, Jyh-Haur Chern, Santai Shen, Hwei-Hisen Chen, Ying-Ting Hsu, Chih-Chin Lee, Ming-Huan Chan, Ming-Chi Lai, Feng-Shiun Shie
AIM: In this study, we examine whether an anti-inflammatory thiourea derivative, compound #326, actions on ion channels. METHODS: The effects of compound #326 on Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels were evaluated by patch-clamp recordings obtained in cell-attached, inside-out or whole-cell configuration. RESULTS: In pituitary GH3 cells, compound #326 increased the amplitude of Ca(2+) -activated K(+) currents (IK(Ca) ) with an EC50 value of 11...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072605/oxytocin-alleviates-orofacial-mechanical-hypersensitivity-associated-with-infraorbital-nerve-injury-via-vasopressin-1a-receptors-of-the-rat-trigeminal-ganglia
#9
Asako Kubo, Masamichi Shinoda, Ayano Katagiri, Mamoru Takeda, Tatsuro Suzuki, Junichi Asaka, David C Yeomans, Koichi Iwata
Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide hormone synthesized and secreted by hypothalamic neurons, and has been reported to play a significant role in pain modulation. However, the mechanisms underlying OXT's antinociceptive effect on neuropathic pain are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the peripheral effect of OXT on mechanical hypersensitivity induced by partial ligation of the infraorbital nerve (PNL) in rats. Mechanical hypersensitivity in the whisker pad skin following PNL was attenuated by the direct administration of OXT into the trigeminal ganglion (TG)...
January 7, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070896/tiny-protein-detection-using-pressure-through-solid-state-nanopores
#10
Ji Li, Rui Hu, Xiaoqing Li, Xin Tong, Dapeng Yu, Qing Zhao
Solid-state nanopore is a promising tool to detect proteins and its complexes. Small proteins (sub-35 kDa) translocate very fast which could not be detected by normal patch-clamp recording instrument due to low temporal resolution. We firstly introduce pressure into protein study and detection. The pressure-derived force, combined with the voltage bias, makes very tiny protein (MW<6.5 kDa) detection possible. Capture rate for Aprotinin is enhanced five times more than that in traditional voltage-driven method by fine tuning of pressure and voltage...
January 9, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070036/-hypoxic-condition-promotes-olfactory-mucosa-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-differentiate-into-neurons-and-%C3%A2-underlying-mechanisms
#11
Yi Zhuo, Ting Yuan, Da Duan, Lei Wang, Lite Ge, Pei Wu, Hao Wang, Ming Lu
To explore whether hypoxic condition could promote the olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) to differentiate into neurons with the olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) supernatant and the potential mechanisms.
 Methods: The OM-MSCs and OECs were isolated and cultured, and they were identified by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The OM-MSCs were divided into three groups: a 3%O2+ HIF-1α inhibitors (lificiguat: YC-1) + OECs supernatant group (Group A) , a 3%O2 + OECs supernatant group (Group B) and a 21%O2 + OECs supernatant group (Control group)...
December 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069705/multilevel-analyses-of-scn5a-mutations-in-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-dysplasia-cardiomyopathy-suggest-non-canonical-mechanisms-for-disease-pathogenesis
#12
Anneline S J M Te Riele, Esperanza Agullo-Pascual, Cynthia A James, Alejandra Leo-Macias, Marina Cerrone, Mingliang Zhang, Xianming Lin, Bin Lin, Nara L Sobreira, Nuria Amat-Alarcon, Roos F Marsman, Brittney Murray, Crystal Tichnell, Jeroen F van der Heijden, Dennis Dooijes, Toon A B van Veen, Harikrishna Tandri, Steven J Fowler, Richard N W Hauer, Gordon Tomaselli, Maarten P van den Berg, Matthew R G Taylor, Francesca Brun, Gianfranco Sinagra, Arthur A M Wilde, Luisa Mestroni, Connie R Bezzina, Hugh Calkins, J Peter van Tintelen, Lei Bu, Mario Delmar, Daniel P Judge
AIMS: Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is often associated with desmosomal mutations. Recent studies suggest an interaction between the desmosome and sodium channel protein Nav1.5. We aimed to determine the prevalence and biophysical properties of mutations in SCN5A (the gene encoding Nav1.5) in ARVD/C. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in six ARVD/C patients (33% male, 38.2 ± 12.1 years) without a desmosomal mutation...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065753/the-roles-of-conserved-aromatic-residues-tyr5-and-tyr42-in-interaction-of-scorpion-toxin-bmk-agp-sypu1-with-human-nav1-7
#13
Xiangxue Meng, Yijia Xu, Fangyang Wang, Mingyi Zhao, Xue Hou, Yuanyuan Ma, Yao Jin, Yanfeng Liu, Yongbo Song, Jinghai Zhang
Scorpion toxins are invaluable source of therapeutic leads and pharmacological tools which produce influence on the voltage gated sodium channels. In the previous study, our group has reported BmK AGP-SYPU1 (64 amino acids), one scorpion toxin with both potential α-type and β-type scorpion characteristics and analgesic activity in vivo, act as an activator to hNav1.4 and hNav1.5. Additionally, conserved aromatic amino acids Tyr5 and Tyr42 played important roles in bioactivity of BmK AGP-SYPU1 on hNav1.4 and hNav1...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064014/gpr55-agonist-lysophosphatidylinositol-and-lysophosphatidylcholine-inhibit-endothelial-cell-hyperpolarization-via-gpr-independent-suppression-of-na-ca-2-exchanger-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-refilling
#14
Alexander I Bondarenko, Fabrizio Montecucco, Olga Panasiuk, Vadim Sagach, Nataliya Sidoryak, Karim J Brandt, François Mach
Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) are lipid signaling molecules that induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In addition, LPC suppresses acetylcholine (Ach)-induced responses. We aimed to determine the influence of LPC and LPI on hyperpolarizing responses in vitro and in situ endothelial cells (EC) and identify the underlying mechanisms. Using patch-clamp method, we show that LPI and LPC inhibit EC hyperpolarization to histamine and suppress Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanged (NCX) currents in a concentration-dependent manner...
January 4, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062485/activation-of-bitter-taste-receptors-in-pulmonary-nociceptors-sensitizes-trpv1-channels-through-plc-and-pkc-signaling-pathway
#15
Qihai Gu, Deanna S Joe, Carolyn A Gilbert
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs), a G-protein-coupled receptor family capable of detecting numerous bitter-tasting compounds, have recently been shown to be expressed and play diverse roles in many extraoral tissues. Here we report the functional expression of T2Rs in rat pulmonary sensory neurons. In anesthetized spontaneously breathing rats, intratracheal instillation of T2Rs agonist chloroquine (10 mM, 0.1 ml) significantly augmented chemoreflexes evoked by right-atrial injection of capsaicin, a specific activator for transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1); whereas intravenous infusion of chloroquine failed to significantly affect capsaicin-evoked reflexes...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062192/direct-effects-of-glucose-insulin-glp-1-and-gip-on-bulbospinal-neurons-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-in-neonatal-wistar-rats
#16
Naoki Oshima, Hiroshi Onimaru, Hidehito Matsubara, Takahiro Uchida, Atsushi Watanabe, Toshihiko Imakiire, Yasuhiro Nishida, Hiroo Kumagai
Although patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often exhibit hypertension, the mechanisms responsible for this correlation are not well known. We hypothesized that the bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are affected by the levels of glucose, insulin, or incretins (glucagon like peptide-1 [GLP-1] or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP]) in patients with DM. To investigate whether RVLM neurons are activated by glucose, insulin, GLP-1, or GIP, we examined changes in the membrane potentials of bulbospinal RVLM neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp technique during superfusion with various levels of glucose or these hormones in neonatal Wistar rats...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061441/activation-of-trpm7-by-naltriben-enhances-migration-and-invasion-of-glioblastoma-cells
#17
Raymond Wong, Ekaterina Turlova, Zhong-Ping Feng, James T Rutka, Hong-Shuo Sun
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive brain tumor in the central nervous system, remains a lethal diagnosis with a median survival of < 15 months. Aberrant expression of the TRPM7 channel has been linked to GBM functions. In this study, using the human GBM cell line U87, we evaluated the TRPM7 activator naltriben on GBM viability, migration, and invasiveness. First, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we showed that naltriben enhanced the endogenous TRPM7-like current in U87 cells. In addition, with Fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, we observed robust Ca2+ influx following naltriben application...
January 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058990/restoration-of-the-response-of-the-middle-cerebral-artery-of-the-rat-to-acidosis-in-hyposmotic-hyponatremia-by-the-opener-of-large-conductance-calcium-sensitive-potassium-channels-bkca
#18
Marta Aleksandrowicz, Beata Dworakowska, Krzysztof Dolowy, Ewa Kozniewska
Hyposmotic hyponatremia (the decrease of extracellular concentration of sodium ions from 145 to 121 mM and the decrease of hyposmolality from 300 to 250 mOsm/kg H2O) impairs response of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) to acetylcholine and NO donor (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine). Since acidosis activates a similar intracellular signaling pathway, the present study was designed to verify the hypothesis that the response of the MCA to acidosis is impaired during acute hyposmotic hyponatremia due to abnormal NO-related signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057773/inverse-remodelling-of-k2p3-1-k-channel-expression-and-action-potential-duration-in-left-ventricular-dysfunction-and-atrial-fibrillation-implications-for-patient-specific-antiarrhythmic-drug-therapy
#19
Constanze Schmidt, Felix Wiedmann, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Jordi Heijman, Niels Voigt, Antonius Ratte, Siegfried Lang, Stefan M Kallenberger, Chiara Campana, Alexander Weymann, Raffaele De Simone, Gabor Szabo, Arjang Ruhparwar, Klaus Kallenbach, Matthias Karck, Joachim R Ehrlich, István Baczkó, Martin Borggrefe, Ursula Ravens, Dobromir Dobrev, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) prevalence increases with advanced stages of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Remote proarrhythmic effects of ventricular dysfunction on atrial electrophysiology remain incompletely understood. We hypothesized that repolarizing K2P3.1 K(+ )channels, previously implicated in AF pathophysiology, may contribute to shaping the atrial action potential (AP), forming a specific electrical substrate with LV dysfunction that might represent a target for personalized antiarrhythmic therapy...
January 4, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052704/conflicting-effects-by-antibodies-against-connexin36-during-the-action-of-intracellular-cyclic-amp-onto-electrical-synapses-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#20
Soh Hidaka
Alpha-type retinal ganglion cells (alpha cells) of the same class in mammalian retina are connected by gap junctions. Electrical synapses between alpha cells were examined using combined techniques of dual patch-clamp recordings, intracellular labeling and electron microscopy in the albino rat retina. In simultaneous dual whole-cell recordings from pairs of neighboring alpha cells, bidirectional electrical synapses with symmetrical junction conductance were observed in pairs with cells of the same morphological type...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
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