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Brain AND childhood and adolescence development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432144/age-related-effects-and-sex-differences-in-gray-matter-density-volume-mass-and-cortical-thickness-from-childhood-to-young-adulthood
#1
Efstathios D Gennatas, Brian B Avants, Daniel H Wolf, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Kosha Ruparel, Rastko Ciric, Hakon Hakonarson, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur
Developmental structural neuroimaging studies in humans have long described decreases in gray matter volume and cortical thickness during adolescence. Gray matter density, a measure often assumed to be highly related to volume, has not been systematically investigated in development. We used T1 imaging data collected on the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort to study age-related effects and sex differences in four regional gray matter measures in 1189 youths aged 8 to 23 years. Custom T1 segmentation and a novel high-resolution gray matter parcellation were used to extract gray matter density (GMD), gray matter volume (GMV), gray matter mass (GMM, defined as GMD * GMV), and cortical thickness (CT) from 1625 brain regions...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397252/is-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-a-developmental-disorder
#2
Thomas Arendt, Jens Stieler, Uwe Ueberham
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of higher age that specifically occurs in human. Its clinical phase, characterized by a decline in physiological, psychological and social functioning, is preceded by a long clinically silent phase of at least several decades that might perhaps even start very early in life. Overall, key functional abilities decline in AD patients in reverse order of the development of these abilities during childhood and adolescence. Early symptoms of AD, thus, typically affect mental functions that have been acquired only during very recent hominid evolution and as such are specific to human...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334875/white-matter-changes-in-paediatric-multiple-sclerosis-and-monophasic-demyelinating-disorders
#3
Giulia Longoni, Robert A Brown, Parya MomayyezSiahkal, Colm Elliott, Sridar Narayanan, Amit Bar-Or, Ruth Ann Marrie, E Ann Yeh, Massimo Filippi, Brenda Banwell, Douglas L Arnold
Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4.4 years, many from first clinical presentation, and 106 scans of 80 healthy paediatric participants...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302576/adolescent-chronic-escalating-morphine-administration-induces-long-lasting-changes-in-tolerance-and-dependence-to-morphine-in-rats
#4
Hamed Salmanzadeh, Hossein Azizi, Saeed Semnanian
Adolescence is a gradual period of transition from childhood to adulthood. It is considered as a sensitive developmental time point that long lasting changes occur in the brain. The present study examined adolescent chronic escalating morphine administration on morphine tolerance and dependence in adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (30days old) were administered increasing doses of morphine (2.5 to 25mg/kg, s.c.) every 12h, for 10days. Control rats received saline according to the same protocol. Thereafter, during adulthood (65-75days old), tolerance to antinociceptive effect of morphine was induced by subcutaneous injection of 3mg/kg morphine, once a day for 7days...
March 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295877/neuroscientific-insights-into-the-development-of-analogical-reasoning
#5
Kirstie J Whitaker, Michael S Vendetti, Carter Wendelken, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning, or the ability to find correspondences between entities based on shared relationships, supports knowledge acquisition. As such, the development of this ability during childhood is thought to promote learning. Here, we sought to better understand the mechanisms by which analogical reasoning about semantic relations improves over childhood and adolescence (e.g. chalk is to chalkboard as pen is to…?). We hypothesized that age-related differences would manifest as differences in the brain regions associated with one or more of the following cognitive functions: (1) controlled semantic retrieval, or the ability to retrieve task-relevant semantic associations; (2) response control, or the ability to override the tendency to respond to a salient distractor; and/or (3) relational integration, or the ability to consider jointly two mental relations...
March 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295339/annual-research-review-childhood-maltreatment-latent-vulnerability-and-the-shift-to-preventative-psychiatry-the-contribution-of-functional-brain-imaging
#6
REVIEW
Eamon J McCrory, Mattia I Gerin, Essi Viding
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is a potent predictor of poor mental health across the life span. We argue that there is a need to improve the understanding of the mechanisms that confer psychiatric vulnerability following maltreatment, if we are to progress from simply treating those with a manifest disorder, to developing effective preventative approaches that can help offset the likelihood that such disorders will emerge in the first place. METHODS: We review extant functional neuroimaging studies of children and adolescents exposed to early neglect and/or maltreatment, including physical, sexual and emotional abuse across four neurocognitive domains: threat processing, reward processing, emotion regulation and executive control...
April 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285946/development-of-rostral-inferior-parietal-lobule-area-functional-connectivity-from-late-childhood-to-early-adulthood
#7
Mengxing Wang, Jilei Zhang, Guangheng Dong, Hui Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Xiaoxia Du
Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247416/heavy-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-is-related-to-smaller-corpus-callosum-in-newborn-mri-scans
#8
Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Christopher M R Warton, Pia Wintermark, H Eugene Hoyme, Greetje De Jong, Paul Taylor, Fleur Warton, Nadine M Lindinger, R Colin Carter, Neil C Dodge, Ellen Grant, Simon K Warfield, Lilla Zöllei, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have consistently demonstrated disproportionately smaller corpus callosa in individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but have not previously examined the feasibility of detecting this effect in infants. Tissue segmentation of the newborn brain is challenging because analysis techniques developed for the adult brain are not directly transferable, and segmentation for cerebral morphometry is difficult in neonates, due to the latter's incomplete myelination...
March 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242797/development-of-the-cerebral-cortex-across-adolescence-a-multisample-study-of-inter-related-longitudinal-changes-in-cortical-volume-surface-area-and-thickness
#9
Christian K Tamnes, Megan M Herting, Anne-Lise Goddings, Rosa Meuwese, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Ronald E Dahl, Berna Güroğlu, Armin Raznahan, Elizabeth R Sowell, Eveline A Crone, Kathryn L Mills
Before we can assess and interpret how developmental changes in human brain structure relate to cognition, affect, and motivation, and how these processes are perturbed in clinical or at-risk populations, we must first precisely understand typical brain development and how changes in different structural components relate to each other. We conducted a multisample magnetic resonance imaging study to investigate the development of cortical volume, surface area, and thickness, as well as their inter-relationships, from late childhood to early adulthood (7-29 years) using four separate longitudinal samples including 388 participants and 854 total scans...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240926/the-impact-of-phenylalanine-levels-on-cognitive-outcomes-in-adults-with-phenylketonuria-effects-across-tasks-and-developmental-stages
#10
Cristina Romani, Liana Palermo, Anita MacDonald, Ellie Limback, S Kate Hall, Tarekegn Geberhiwot
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to an inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe), leading to its accumulation in the brain. Phe levels can be controlled following a protein-free diet, but cognitive impairments are still present. A number of questions remain to be answered related to which type of metabolic control is important, the age when it is important, the cognitive functions which are most affected and, the best tests to use to monitor cognitive health. METHOD: We investigated the impact of metabolic control at different ages on cognitive performance in 37 early treated adults with PKU...
March 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239518/childhood-maltreatment-psychopathology-and-the-development-of-hippocampal-subregions-during-adolescence
#11
Sarah Whittle, Julian G Simmons, Sylke Hendriksma, Nandita Vijayakumar, Michelle L Byrne, Meg Dennison, Nicholas B Allen
INTRODUCTION: It is well established that childhood maltreatment has a detrimental impact on the brain, particularly the hippocampus. However, the hippocampus is a functionally and structurally heterogeneous region, and little is known about how maltreatment might affect hippocampal subregion development throughout important periods of plasticity. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from early to late adolescence...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218489/development-of-cortical-motor-circuits-between-childhood-and-adulthood-a-navigated-tms-hdeeg-study
#12
Sara Määttä, Mervi Könönen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Timo Lakka, Niina Lintu, Virpi Lindi, Florinda Ferreri, David Ponzo, Laura Säisänen
Motor functions improve during childhood and adolescence, but little is still known about the development of cortical motor circuits during early life. To elucidate the neurophysiological hallmarks of motor cortex development, we investigated the differences in motor cortical excitability and connectivity between healthy children, adolescents, and adults by means of navigated suprathreshold motor cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with high-density electroencephalography (EEG). We demonstrated that with development, the excitability of the motor system increases, the TMS-evoked EEG waveform increases in complexity, the magnitude of induced activation decreases, and signal spreading increases...
February 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192175/increased-anxiety-like-phenotype-in-female-guinea-pigs-following-reduced-neurosteroid-exposure-in-utero
#13
Angela L Cumberland, Hannah K Palliser, Gabrielle K Crombie, David W Walker, Jonathan J Hirst
Neurosteroids are essential for aiding proper fetal neurodevelopment. Pregnancy compromises such as preterm birth, prenatal stress and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with an increased risk of developing behavioural and mood disorders, particularly during adolescence. These pathologies involve the premature loss or alteration of trophic steroid hormones reaching the fetus leading to impaired neurodevelopment. While the specific programming mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated, in adult life, dysfunctions of allopregnanolone action are prevalent in individuals with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety disorders...
May 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176655/epigenetics-in-clinical-management-of-children-and-adolescents-with-brain-tumors
#14
Andres Morales La Madrid, Mark W Kieran
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors represent the second most prevalent group of cancers in children and adolescents, yet account for the majority of childhood cancer-related deaths and considerable morbidity among survivors, due to high-intensity non-selective standard therapies delivered to immature nervous system structures undergoing development. These tumors arise at different ages -not infrequently very early in life-, in different locations and cellular contexts, have varied cell types of origin, and have heterogeneous responses to the "classic" current therapeutic approaches...
February 3, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159210/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-fed-human-milk-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Beatrice E Lechner, Betty R Vohr
The neurodevelopmental benefits of breast milk feedings for preterm infants have been controversial. However, the effect on preterm infant neurodevelopment is sustained into childhood. The effects of breast milk feeding during the neonatal period and the duration of breastfeeding display effects on cognition into adolescence. The volume of breast milk received is a key factor in these effects. Additionally, emerging studies support the effects of human milk on structural brain development, such as increased white matter development and increased cortical thickness...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150698/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Mary M Robertson, Valsamma Eapen, Harvey S Singer, Davide Martino, Jeremiah M Scharf, Peristera Paschou, Veit Roessner, Douglas W Woods, Marwan Hariz, Carol A Mathews, Rudi Črnčec, James F Leckman
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by several motor and phonic tics. Tics usually develop before 10 years of age, exhibit a waxing and waning course and typically improve with increasing age. A prevalence of approximately 1% is estimated in children and adolescents. The condition can result in considerable social stigma and poor quality of life, especially when tics are severe (for example, with coprolalia (swearing tics) and self-injurious behaviours) or when GTS is accompanied by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder or another neuropsychiatric disorder...
February 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101530/integrative-analysis-of-disease-signatures-shows-inflammation-disrupts-juvenile-experience-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#17
Milo R Smith, Poromendro Burman, Masato Sadahiro, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Hirofumi Morishita
Throughout childhood and adolescence, periods of heightened neuroplasticity are critical for the development of healthy brain function and behavior. Given the high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, identifying disruptors of developmental plasticity represents an essential step for developing strategies for prevention and intervention. Applying a novel computational approach that systematically assessed connections between 436 transcriptional signatures of disease and multiple signatures of neuroplasticity, we identified inflammation as a common pathological process central to a diverse set of diseases predicted to dysregulate plasticity signatures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087489/neurite-density-index-is-sensitive-to-age-related-differences-in-the-developing-brain
#18
Sila Genc, Charles B Malpas, Scott K Holland, Richard Beare, Timothy J Silk
PURPOSE: White matter development during childhood and adolescence is characterised by increasing white matter coherence and organisation. Commonly used scalar metrics, such as fractional anisotropy (FA), are sensitive to multiple mechanisms of white matter change and therefore unable to distinguish between mechanisms that change during development. We investigate the relationship between age and neurite density index (NDI) from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), and the age-classification accuracy of NDI compared with FA, in a developmental cohort...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080301/assessing-social-cognition-age-related-changes-in-moral-reasoning-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#19
V Chiasson, E Vera-Estay, G Lalonde, J J Dooley, M H Beauchamp
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing recognition that socio-cognitive skills, such as moral reasoning (MR), are affected in a wide range of developmental and neuropsychological conditions. However, the lack of appropriate measures available to neuropsychologists poses a challenge for the direct assessment of these skills. This study sought to explore age-related changes in MR using an innovative visual tool and examine the developmental sensitivity of the task. METHOD: To address some of the methodological limitations of traditional measures of MR, a novel, visual task, the Socio-Moral Reasoning Aptitude Level (So-Moral), was used to evaluate MR in 216 healthy participants aged 6-20 years...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069028/robot-aided-developmental-assessment-of-wrist-proprioception-in-children
#20
Francesca Marini, Valentina Squeri, Pietro Morasso, Claudio Campus, Jürgen Konczak, Lorenzo Masia
BACKGROUND: Several neurodevelopmental disorders and brain injuries in children have been associated with proprioceptive dysfunction that will negatively affect their movement. Unfortunately, there is lack of reliable and objective clinical examination protocols and our current knowledge of how proprioception evolves in typically developing children is still sparse. METHODS: Using a robotic exoskeleton, we investigated proprioceptive acuity of the wrist in a group of 49 typically developing healthy children (8-15 years), and a group of 40 young adults...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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