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Brain AND childhood and adolescence development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087489/neurite-density-index-is-sensitive-to-age-related-differences-in-the-developing-brain
#1
Sila Genc, Charles B Malpas, Scott K Holland, Richard Beare, Timothy J Silk
PURPOSE: White matter development during childhood and adolescence is characterised by increasing white matter coherence and organisation. Commonly used scalar metrics, such as fractional anisotropy (FA), are sensitive to multiple mechanisms of white matter change and therefore unable to distinguish between mechanisms that change during development. We investigate the relationship between age and neurite density index (NDI) from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), and the age-classification accuracy of NDI compared with FA, in a developmental cohort...
January 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080301/assessing-social-cognition-age-related-changes-in-moral-reasoning-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#2
V Chiasson, E Vera-Estay, G Lalonde, J J Dooley, M H Beauchamp
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing recognition that socio-cognitive skills, such as moral reasoning (MR), are affected in a wide range of developmental and neuropsychological conditions. However, the lack of appropriate measures available to neuropsychologists poses a challenge for the direct assessment of these skills. This study sought to explore age-related changes in MR using an innovative visual tool and examine the developmental sensitivity of the task. METHOD: To address some of the methodological limitations of traditional measures of MR, a novel, visual task, the Socio-Moral Reasoning Aptitude Level (So-Moral), was used to evaluate MR in 216 healthy participants aged 6-20 years...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069028/robot-aided-developmental-assessment-of-wrist-proprioception-in-children
#3
Francesca Marini, Valentina Squeri, Pietro Morasso, Claudio Campus, Jürgen Konczak, Lorenzo Masia
BACKGROUND: Several neurodevelopmental disorders and brain injuries in children have been associated with proprioceptive dysfunction that will negatively affect their movement. Unfortunately, there is lack of reliable and objective clinical examination protocols and our current knowledge of how proprioception evolves in typically developing children is still sparse. METHODS: Using a robotic exoskeleton, we investigated proprioceptive acuity of the wrist in a group of 49 typically developing healthy children (8-15 years), and a group of 40 young adults...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059903/tobacco-e-cigarettes-and-child-health
#4
Lisa A Peterson, Stephen S Hecht
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The availability of the Children's Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. RECENT FINDINGS: Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007528/puberty-and-structural-brain-development-in-humans
#5
REVIEW
Megan M Herting, Elizabeth R Sowell
Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment...
December 19, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978600/social-educational-and-vocational-outcomes-in-patients-with-childhood-onset-and-young-adult-onset-growth-hormone-deficiency
#6
M Tanya Mitra, Peter Jönsson, Ann-Charlotte Åkerblad, Peter Clayton, Maria Kołtowska-Häggström, Márta Korbonits, Andy Toogood, Helena Gleeson
OBJECTIVE: Hypopituitarism diagnosed in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood has the potential to affect growth and somatic development. Less is known about the impact of such a diagnosis on other aspects of development. DESIGN: An analysis of the KIMS Database (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) was performed to explore social, educational and vocational outcomes of adult patients diagnosed in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood compared with adult-onset controls...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976816/boys-early-risk-factors-for-alcohol-problems-and-the-development-of-the-self-an-interconnected-matrix
#7
Leon I Puttler, Hiram E Fitzgerald, Mary M Heitzeg, Robert A Zucker
Alcohol-use disorders are a major public health issue worldwide. Although drinking and problematic alcohol use usually begins during adolescence, developmental origins of the disorder can be traced back to infancy and early childhood. Identification of early risk factors is essential to understanding developmental origins. Using data from the Michigan Longitudinal Study, an ongoing, prospective, high-risk family study, this article summarizes findings of family context and functioning of both children and parents...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936454/white-matter-volumes-in-youth-offspring-of-bipolar-parents
#8
Fabiano G Nery, Matthew Norris, James C Eliassen, Wade A Weber, Thomas J Blom, Jeffrey A Welge, Drew A Barzman, Jeffrey R Strawn, Caleb M Adler, Stephen M Strakowski, Melissa P DelBello
BACKGROUND: Studying youth at high risk of developing bipolar disorder may clarify neurobiological factors associated with vulnerability to this illness. We present here a baseline characterization of brain structure in youth at-risk for bipolar disorder. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 115 child and adolescent offspring of bipolar disorder type I subjects and 57 healthy child and adolescent offspring of healthy parents (healthy control offspring)...
February 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915378/mother-infant-interactions-and-regional-brain-volumes-in-infancy-an-mri-study
#9
Vaheshta Sethna, Inês Pote, Siying Wang, Maria Gudbrandsen, Anna Blasi, Caroline McCusker, Eileen Daly, Emily Perry, Kerrie P H Adams, Maria Kuklisova-Murgasova, Paula Busuulwa, Sarah Lloyd-Fox, Lynne Murray, Mark H Johnson, Steven C R Williams, Declan G M Murphy, Michael C Craig, Grainne M McAlonan
It is generally agreed that the human brain is responsive to environmental influences, and that the male brain may be particularly sensitive to early adversity. However, this is largely based on retrospective studies of older children and adolescents exposed to extreme environments in childhood. Less is understood about how normative variations in parent-child interactions are associated with the development of the infant brain in typical settings. To address this, we used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the relationship between observational measures of mother-infant interactions and regional brain volumes in a community sample of 3- to 6-month-old infants (N = 39)...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872489/experience-driven-differences-in-childhood-cortisol-predict-affect-relevant-brain-function-and-coping-in-adolescent-monozygotic-twins
#10
Cory A Burghy, Michelle E Fox, M Daniela Cornejo, Diane E Stodola, Sasha L Sommerfeldt, Cecilia A Westbrook, Carol Van Hulle, Nicole L Schmidt, H Hill Goldsmith, Richard J Davidson, Rasmus M Birn
Stress and emotion involve diverse developmental and individual differences. Partially attributed to the development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the amygdala, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the precise genetic and experiential contributions remain unknown. In previous work, childhood basal cortisol function predicted adolescent resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) and psychopathology. To parse experience-driven (non-genetic) contributions, we investigated these relations with a monozygotic (MZ) twin design...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847299/an-mrspec-database-query-and-visualization-engine-with-applications-as-a-clinical-diagnostic-and-research-tool
#11
Filip Miscevic, Justin Foong, Benjamin Schmitt, Susan Blaser, Michael Brudno, Andreas Schulze
PURPOSE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRspec), one of the very few techniques for in vivo assessment of neuro-metabolic profiles, is often complicated by lack of standard population norms and paucity of computational tools. METHODS: 7035 scans and clinical information from 4430 pediatric patients were collected from 2008 to 2014. Scans were conducted using a 1.5T (n=3664) or 3T scanner (n=3371), and with either a long (144ms, n=5559) or short echo time (35ms, n=1476)...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843501/visual-memory-profile-in-22q11-2-microdeletion-syndrome-are-there-differences-in-performance-and-neurobiological-substrates-between-tasks-linked-to-ventral-and-dorsal-visual-brain-structures-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-study
#12
Mathilde Bostelmann, Maude Schneider, Maria Carmela Padula, Johanna Maeder, Marie Schaer, Elisa Scariati, Martin Debbané, Bronwyn Glaser, Sarah Menghetti, Stephan Eliez
BACKGROUND: Children affected by the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a specific neuropsychological profile with strengths and weaknesses in several cognitive domains. Specifically, previous evidence has shown that patients with 22q11.2DS have more difficulties memorizing faces and visual-object characteristics of stimuli. In contrast, they have better performance in visuo-spatial memory tasks. The first focus of this study was to replicate these results in a larger sample of patients affected with 22q11...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819440/self-reported-parenting-style-is-associated-with-children-s-inflammation-and-immune-activation
#13
Michelle L Byrne, Paul B Badcock, Julian G Simmons, Sarah Whittle, Adam Pettitt, Craig A Olsson, Lisa K Mundy, George C Patton, Nicholas B Allen
Family environments and parenting have been associated with inflammation and immune activation in children and adolescents; however, it remains unclear which specific aspects of parenting drive this association. In this study, we cross-sectionally examined the association between 5 discrete parenting styles and inflammation and immune activation in late childhood. Data were drawn from 102 families (55 with female children, mean age 9.50 years, SD = 0.34) participating in the Imaging Brain Development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778230/an-iron-deficient-diet-during-development-induces-oxidative-stress-in-relation-to-age-and-gender-in-wistar-rats
#14
Patricia Vieyra-Reyes, Diana Millán-Aldaco, Marcela Palomero-Rivero, Clementina Jiménez-Garcés, Margarita Hernández-González, Javier Caballero-Villarraso
Iron is a trace element and a structural part of antioxidant enzymes, and its requirements vary according to age and gender. We hypothesized that iron deficiency (ID) leads to an increase in free radicals which mainly affect the brain, and the severity of damage would therefore be dependent on age and gender. Two groups of Wistar rats were evaluated evolutionarily: 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with ID diet and 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with standard diet. Both groups were offspring from mothers who were previously under the same dietary intervention...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766459/absolute-power-spectral-density-changes-in-the-magnetoencephalographic-activity-during-the-transition-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#15
Carlos M Gómez, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Alberto Fernández, Fernando Maestú, Jesús Poza, Carlos Gómez
The aim of this study was to define the pattern of reduction in absolute power spectral density (PSD) of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals throughout development. Specifically, we wanted to explore whether the human skull's high permeability for electromagnetic fields would allow us to question whether the pattern of absolute PSD reduction observed in the human electroencephalogram is due to an increase in the skull's resistive properties with age. Furthermore, the topography of the MEG signals during maturation was explored, providing additional insights about the areas and brain rhythms related to late maturation in the human brain...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735078/the-effects-of-prenatal-h1n1-infection-at-e16-on-fmrp-glutamate-gaba-and-reelin-signaling-systems-in-developing-murine-cerebellum
#16
S Hossein Fatemi, Timothy D Folsom, Stephanie B Liesch, Rachel E Kneeland, Mahtab Karkhane Yousefi, Paul D Thuras
Prenatal viral infection has been identified as a potential risk factor for the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally, dysfunction in gamma-aminobutyric acid, Reelin, and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)-metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling systems has also been demonstrated in these two disorders. In the current report, we have characterized the developmental profiles of selected markers for these systems in cerebella of mice born to pregnant mice infected with human influenza (H1N1) virus on embryonic day 16 or sham-infected controls using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques and evaluated the presence of abnormalities in the above-mentioned markers during brain development...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696278/why-parametric-measures-are-critical-for-understanding-typical-and-atypical-cognitive-development
#17
Marie Arsalidou, Nancie Im-Bolter
Children's cognitive abilities improve significantly over childhood and adolescence. We know from behavioral research that core cognitive processes such as working memory and mental attention improve significantly across development. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows for investigating the typically developing, living brain in action. In the last twenty years we have learned a great deal about brain correlates associated with how adults hold and manipulate information in mind, however, neurocognitive correlates across development remain inconsistent...
October 1, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676968/validation-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-french-version-of-the-child-and-adolescent-scale-of-participation-casp-in-a-sample-of-children-with-acquired-brain-injury
#18
Marieke Chamberon, Corinne Catale, Bernadette Kerrouche, Hanna Touré, Anne Laurent-Vannier, Dominique Brugel, Emmanuelle Pineau-Chardon, Aude Mariller, Ouarda Benkhaled, Virginie Kieffer, Miriam Beauchamp, Mathilde Chevignard
OBJECTIVE: Childhood acquired brain injury (ABI) is the leading cause of acquired disability in childhood, with significant consequences on independence, academic achievement and participation. The "Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation" (CASP; Bedell 2004) has been specifically developed to assess participation following childhood ABI. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the French version of the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, monocentric study...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676779/academic-outcome-participation-and-health-related-quality-of-life-following-childhood-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-results-of-a-prospective-longitudinal-study-the-seven-year-follow-up-of-the-tge-cohort
#19
Mathilde Chevignard, Leila Francillette, Hanna Toure, Dominique Brugel, Philippe Meyer, Anne Laurent Vannier, Marion Opatowski, Laurence Watier
OBJECTIVE: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the first cause of death and acquired disability and it represents a major public health issue. Childhood severe TBI can lead to motor, cognitive, behavioural and social cognition deficits, which have consequences on academic achievement, social integration, participation and quality of life. Consequences may only appear after a delay, when the skills are supposed to be fully developed. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess academic outcome, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), amount of ongoing care and participation, following childhood severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) over 7-8years post-injury, in comparison with a matched uninjured control group...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647051/childhood-abuse-and-reduced-cortical-thickness-in-brain-regions-involved-in-emotional-processing
#20
Andrea L Gold, Margaret A Sheridan, Matthew Peverill, Daniel S Busso, Hilary K Lambert, Sonia Alves, Daniel S Pine, Katie A McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: Alterations in gray matter development represent a potential pathway through which childhood abuse is associated with psychopathology. Several prior studies find reduced volume and thickness of prefrontal (PFC) and temporal cortex regions in abused compared with nonabused adolescents, although most prior research is based on adults and volume-based measures. This study tests the hypothesis that child abuse, independent of parental education, predicts reduced cortical thickness in prefrontal and temporal cortices as well as reduced gray mater volume (GMV) in subcortical regions during adolescence...
October 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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