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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938600/application-of-dual-targeting-drug-delivery-system-for-the-improvement-of-anti-glioma-efficacy-of-doxorubicin
#1
Zhenliang Sun, Xuebing Yan, YiBo Liu, Linsheng Huang, Cheng Kong, Xiao Qu, Man Wang, Renyuan Gao, Huanlong Qin
Chemotherapy of glioma is always hampered by the unsatisfactory tumor accumulation of drugs, of which the most noticeable obstacle is the limited drug permeability from vessels into tumor inner. In the present study, we developed a novel nanocarrier for the delivery of doxorubicin to brain tumor. Such novel drug delivery system was mainly composed of a tumor homing peptide and DOX-loaded PLA nanoparticles (AP1-NP-DOX). CRKRLDRNC peptide, named as AP1, was a newly glioma affinity peptide which could specifically binds to interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R), highly expressing on both glioma cells and angiogenesis...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938470/genetic-disruption-of-21-hydroxylase-in-zebrafish-causes-interrenal-hyperplasia
#2
Helen Eachus, Andreas Zaucker, James A Oakes, Aliesha Griffin, Meltem Weger, Tülay Güran, Angela Taylor, Abigail Harris, Andy Greenfield, Jonathan L Quanson, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Vincent T Cunliffe, Ferenc Müller, Nils Krone
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of common inherited disorders leading to glucocorticoid deficiency. Most cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). The systemic consequences of imbalanced steroid hormone biosynthesis due to severe 21OHD remains poorly understood. Therefore, we have developed a zebrafish model for 21OHD, which focuses on the impairment of glucocorticoid biosynthesis. A single 21-hydroxylase gene (cyp21a2) is annotated in the zebrafish genome based on sequence homology. Our in silico analysis of the Cyp21a2 protein sequence suggests a sufficient degree of similarity for the usage of zebrafish cyp21a2 to model aspects of human 21OHD in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938422/prepubertal-development-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neuron-activity-is-altered-by-sex-age-and-prenatal-androgen-exposure
#3
Eden A Dulka, Suzanne M Moenter
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate reproduction though pulsatile hormone release. Disruption of GnRH release as measured via LH pulses occurs in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in young hyperandrogenemic girls. In adult prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice, which exhibit many aspects of PCOS, increased LH is associated with increased GnRH neuron action potential firing. How GnRH neuron activity develops over the prepubertal period and whether or not this is altered by sex or prenatal androgen treatment are unknown...
September 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938340/paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-prognostic-insights-and-outlooks
#4
Alicia K Au, Robert S B Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Prognostication of outcome following TBI is challenging in this population and likely requires complex, multimodal models to achieve clinically relevant accuracy. This review highlights injury characteristics, physiological indicators, biomarkers and neuromonitoring modalities predictive of outcome that may be integrated for future development of sensitive and specific prognostic models...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938337/pulse-pressure-is-associated-with-plasma-amyloid-%C3%AE-transport-dysfunction
#5
Yu Jiang, Suhang Shang, Pei Li, Chen Chen, Liangjun Dang, Jin Wang, Kang Huo, Meiying Deng, Jingyi Wang, Qiumin Qu
OBJECTIVE: Increased pulse pressure (PP) has been implicated in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease in middle-aged and elderly adults. Considering the close relationship between peripheral amyloid-β clearance and brain amyloid-β deposition, we investigated the potential association between PP and plasma amyloid-β transport function. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1118 participants underwent a health assessment and quantification of plasma amyloid-β and amyloid-β transporter expression...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938161/the-diverse-actions-of-astrocytes-during-synaptic-development
#6
REVIEW
Alexandra P Bosworth, Nicola J Allen
In the developing brain, cortical circuits are established through a complex process of synaptogenesis, maturation, and synaptic pruning. Astrocytes carry out diverse functions during each of these stages to facilitate the formation of complex networks. Recent work has begun to demonstrate that these heterogeneous roles during excitatory synaptic development are determined by the astrocyte population, brain region, and neuron type. This review will focus on current findings which highlight cell type specific mechanisms of excitatory synaptogenesis, as well as multiple mechanisms engaged by astrocytes to facilitate synaptic maturation and pruning...
September 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938009/altering-neuronal-excitability-to-preserve-network-connectivity-in-a-computational-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Willem de Haan, Elisabeth C W van Straaten, Alida A Gouw, Cornelis J Stam
Neuronal hyperactivity and hyperexcitability of the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region is an increasingly observed phenomenon in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). In later stages, oscillatory slowing and loss of functional connectivity are ubiquitous. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal dynamics have a prominent role in AD pathophysiology, making it a potentially interesting therapeutic target. However, although neuronal activity can be manipulated by various (non-)pharmacological means, intervening in a highly integrated system that depends on complex dynamics can produce counterintuitive and adverse effects...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937952/modeling-the-long-term-consequences-of-repeated-blast-induced-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries
#8
Denes V Agoston
Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) caused by playing collision sports or by exposure to blasts during military operations can lead to late onset, chronic diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative condition that manifests in increasingly severe neuropsychiatric abnormalities years after the last injury. Currently, because of the heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, confirmation of a CTE diagnosis requires post-mortem examination of the brain. The hallmarks of CTE are abnormal accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein, TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, and astroglial abnormalities, but the pathomechanism leading to these terminal findings remains unknown...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937951/effect-of-stress-level-on-different-forms-of-self-touch-in-pre-and-postadolescent-girls
#9
Kyra Densing, Hippokrates Konstantinidis, Melanie Seiler
Self-touch serves for regulation of both hyper- and hypoarousal. It remains unclear if different forms of self-touch occur in different contexts, and if the regulatory mechanisms are learned or innate. The authors describe forms and context of self-touch, and explore age differences in stress processing. They analyzed hand movements of 10 pre- and 10 postadolescent girls in low-stress and high-stress settings and found 3 forms of self-touch. In postadolescent participants, self-touch 2 (irregular structure, rhythmical, medium intensity) and 3 (phasic structure, single accent, medium intensity) were used for self-regulation, whereas self-touch 1 (irregular structure, single accent, low intensity) had conversational reasons...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937691/toward-a-conceptual-framework-for-early-brain-and-behavior-development-in-autism
#10
J Piven, J T Elison, M J Zylka
Studies of infant siblings of older autistic probands, who are at elevated risk for autism, have demonstrated that the defining features of autism are not present in the first year of life but emerge late in the first and into the second year. A recent longitudinal neuroimaging study of high-risk siblings revealed a specific pattern of brain development in infants later diagnosed with autism, characterized by cortical surface area hyper-expansion in the first year followed by brain volume overgrowth in the second year that is associated with the emergence of autistic social deficits...
October 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937620/dysbindin-1-involvement-in-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
Haitao Wang, Jiangping Xu, Philip Lazarovici, Wenhua Zheng
Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that afflicts about 1% of the world's population, falling into the top 10 medical disorders causing disability. Existing therapeutic strategies have had limited success on cognitive impairment and long-term disability and are burdened by side effects. Although new antipsychotic medications have been launched in the past decades, there has been a general lack of significant innovation. This lack of significant progress in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia is a reflection of the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937609/job-satisfaction-among-health-care-staff-in-township-health-centers-in-rural-china-results-from-a-latent-class-analysis
#12
Haipeng Wang, Chengxiang Tang, Shichao Zhao, Qingyue Meng, Xiaoyun Liu
Background: The lower job satisfaction of health-care staff will lead to more brain drain, worse work performance, and poorer health-care outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of job satisfaction among health-care staff in rural China, and to investigate the association between the latent clusters and health-care staff's personal and professional features; Methods: We selected 12 items of five-point Likert scale questions to measure job satisfaction. A latent-class analysis was performed to identify subgroups based on the items of job satisfaction; Results: Four latent classes of job satisfaction were identified: 8...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937346/deep-brain-stimulation-authenticity-and-value
#13
Jonathan Pugh, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
Deep brain stimulation has been of considerable interest to bioethicists, in large part because of the effects that the intervention can occasionally have on central features of the recipient's personality. These effects raise questions regarding the philosophical concept of authenticity. In this article, we expand on our earlier work on the concept of authenticity in the context of deep brain stimulation by developing a diachronic, value-based account of authenticity. Our account draws on both existentialist and essentialist approaches to authenticity, and Laura Waddell Ekstrom's coherentist approach to personal autonomy...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937342/do-chimeras-have-minds
#14
Benjamin Capps
Suppose that a colleague proposed a fantastic experiment: to introduce human stem cells into a neonatal mouse so that its entire brain developed into "human-like" neuronal structures. The colleague claimed it would still be a mouse, and that its chimeric brain would be nothing like a "human" one. It would not, as a result, have a moral status beyond its nonhuman animal origins. Thus, the "human neuron mouse" would allow scientists to tinker with human-like neurology in ways that would be precluded if it were a human being, and that would promise to lead to substantial understanding of the destructive and incurable brain diseases that befall humanity...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937300/infants-processing-of-prosodic-cues-electrophysiological-evidence-for-boundary-perception-beyond-pause-detection
#15
Julia Holzgrefe-Lang, Caroline Wellmann, Barbara Höhle, Isabell Wartenburger
Infants as young as six months are sensitive to prosodic phrase boundaries marked by three acoustic cues: pitch change, final lengthening, and pause. Behavioral studies suggest that a language-specific weighting of these cues develops during the first year of life; recent work on German revealed that eight-month-olds, unlike six-month-olds, are capable of perceiving a prosodic boundary on the basis of pitch change and final lengthening only. The present study uses Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neuro-cognitive development of prosodic cue perception in German-learning infants...
September 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936928/-i-m-trying-to-be-the-safety-net-family-protection-of-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-tbi-during-the-hospital-stay
#16
Tolu O Oyesanya, Barbara Bowers
Research has shown that during hospital stay, family caregivers of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) perceive that their role is to protect the patient; however, research on this topic is limited. The purpose of this article is to describe family caregivers' experience of protecting patients with TBI during the hospital stay. Grounded theory was used to conduct 24 interviews with 16 family caregivers. Findings showed family caregivers worked to protect the patient's physical and emotional safety, using the following strategies: (a) influencing the selection of staff, (b) breaking the patient's bad habits, (c) anticipating how to orchestrate the home environment; (d) connecting on an emotional level, (e) managing visitors, and (f) connecting on an emtoional level...
October 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936429/clinical-pet-mri-in-neurooncology-opportunities-and-challenges-from-a-single-institution-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Lisbeth Marner, Otto M Henriksen, Michael Lundemann, Vibeke Andrée Larsen, Ian Law
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in neurooncology, i.e., for diagnosis, treatment evaluation and detection of recurrence. However, standard MRI cannot always separate malignant tissue from other pathologies or treatment-induced changes. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, perfusion imaging and spectroscopy show promising results in discriminating malignant from benign lesions. Further, supplemental imaging with amino acid positron emission tomography (PET) has been shown to increase accuracy significantly and is used routinely at an increasing number of sites...
2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936162/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-a-regulatory-role-for-transcription-factor-fezf2-in-the-mature-motor-cortex
#18
Alison J Clare, Hollie E Wicky, Ruth M Empson, Stephanie M Hughes
Forebrain embryonic zinc finger (Fezf2) encodes a transcription factor essential for the specification of layer 5 projection neurons (PNs) in the developing cerebral cortex. As with many developmental transcription factors, Fezf2 continues to be expressed into adulthood, suggesting it remains crucial to the maintenance of neuronal phenotypes. Despite the continued expression, a function has yet to be explored for Fezf2 in the PNs of the developed cortex. Here, we investigated the role of Fezf2 in mature neurons, using lentiviral-mediated delivery of a shRNA to conditionally knockdown the expression of Fezf2 in the mouse primary motor cortex (M1)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936067/external-validation-of-the-rotterdam-computed-tomography-score-in-the-prediction-of-mortality-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Jose D Charry, Jesus D Falla, Juan D Ochoa, Miguel A Pinzón, Jorman H Tejada, Maria J Henriquez, Juan Pablo Solano, Camilo Calvache
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem. It is a pathology that causes significant mortality and disability in Colombia. Different calculators and prognostic models have been developed to predict the neurological outcomes of these patients. The Rotterdam computed tomography (CT) score was developed for prognostic purposes in TBI. We aimed to examine the accuracy of the prognostic discrimination and prediction of mortality of the Rotterdam CT score in a cohort of trauma patients with severe TBI in a university hospital in Colombia...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935933/exploring-genetic-influences-underlying-acute-aerobic-exercise-effects-on-motor-learning
#20
Cameron S Mang, Lisa M McEwen, Julia L MacIsaac, Nicholas J Snow, Kristin L Campbell, Michael S Kobor, Colin J D Ross, Lara A Boyd
The objective of the current work was to evaluate whether the effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor learning were dependent on genetic variants impacting brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF val66met polymorphism) and the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2/ANKK1 glu713lys polymorphism) in humans. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine whether these polymorphisms influence data from our two previous studies, which both demonstrated that a single bout of aerobic exercise prior to motor practice enhanced implicit motor learning...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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