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Sammy M Njenga, Henry M Kanyi, Faith M Mutungi, Collins Okoyo, Hadley S Matendechero, Rachel L Pullan, Katherine E Halliday, Simon J Brooker, C Njeri Wamae, Joyce K Onsongo, Kimberly Y Won
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating disease associated with extensive disfigurement and is one of a diverse group of diseases referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) which mainly occur among the poorest populations. In line with global recommendations to eliminate LF, Kenya launched its LF elimination programme in 2002 with the aim to implement annual mass drug administration (MDA) in order to interrupt LF transmission. However, the programme faced financial and administrative challenges over the years such that sustained annual MDA was not possible...
February 22, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Angela Balliano, Fanfan Hao, Catherine Njeri, Lata Balakrishnan, Jeffrey J Hayes
The process of base excision repair (BER) recognizes and repairs small lesions or inappropriate bases on DNA through either a short-patch or long-patch pathway. The enzymes involved in BER have been well-characterized on DNA substrates, and, somewhat surprisingly, many of these enzymes, including several DNA glycosylases, AP endonuclease (APE), FEN1 endonuclease, and DNA ligases, have been shown to have activity on DNA substrates within nucleosomes. DNA polymerase β (Pol β), however, exhibits drastically reduced or no activity on nucleosomal DNA...
January 18, 2017: Biochemistry
Francis Wafula, Amy Dolinger, Benjamin Daniels, Njeri Mwaura, Guadalupe Bedoya, Khama Rogo, Ana Goicoechea, Jishnu Das, Bernard Olayo
BACKGROUND: Promoting access to medicines requires concurrent efforts to strengthen quality assurance for sustained impact. Although problems of substandard and falsified medicines have been documented in low- and middle-income countries, reliable information on quality is rarely available. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate an alternative post-market surveillance model to complement existing models. METHODS: The study used standardized patients or mystery clients (people recruited from the local community and trained to pose as real patients) to collect medicine samples after presenting a pre-specified condition...
March 2017: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Kimberly K Vesco, Michael C Leo, Njeri Karanja, Matthew W Gillman, Cindy T McEvoy, Janet C King, Cara L Eckhardt, K Sabina Smith, Nancy Perrin, Victor J Stevens
OBJECTIVE: This analysis was focused on 1-year maternal and infant follow-up of a randomized trial that tested a weight management intervention conducted during pregnancy. METHODS: One hundred fourteen women with obesity (mean BMI 36.7 kg/m(2) ) were randomly assigned at a mean of 15 weeks gestation to a weight management intervention or usual care control condition. The intervention ended at delivery and resulted in less gestational weight gain and a lower proportion of large-for-gestational-age newborns among intervention compared with control participants...
October 2016: Obesity
Njeri Kagotho, Alicia Bunger, Kristen Wagner
BACKGROUND: Problems with misallocation and redirection of critical resources and benefits intended for PLHIV are not uncommon in Kenya. This study explores corruption in Kenya's HIV response system and the implications for health outcomes from the perspective of people living with HIV (PLHIV). Although they might not be directly responsible for health care fund management, PLHIV and their advocacy efforts have been central to the development of HIV system response and they have a vested interest in ensuring proper governance...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Melicia C Whitt-Glover, Ziya Gizlice, Daniel P Heil, Moses V Goldmon, Njeri Karanja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Njeri Wabiri, Matthew Chersich, Olive Shisana, Duane Blaauw, Helen Rees, Ntabozuko Dwane
BACKGROUND: Rates of maternal mortality and morbidity vary markedly, both between and within countries. Documenting these variations, in a very unequal society like South Africa, provides useful information to direct initiatives to improve services. The study describes inequalities over time in access to maternal health services in South Africa, and identifies differences in maternal health outcomes between population groups and across geographical areas. METHODS: Data were analysed from serial population-level household surveys that applied multistage-stratified sampling...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Pinky Jha, Jeremiah Stromich, Mallory Cohen, Jane Njeri Wainaina
Drug induced aseptic meningitis is a rare but challenging diagnosis, most commonly reported with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is a sulfonamide that is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment and prophylaxis of various infections. Drug induced aseptic meningitis, when seen with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, occurs predominantly in patients with some degree of immune compromise and is less commonly seen in immune competent individuals. The patient often exhibits the classic symptoms of meningitis...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Rebecca Njeri Damaris, Ming Li, Yanli Liu, Xi Chen, Hunja Murage, Pingfang Yang
Salt stress is one of the key abiotic stresses threatening future agricultural production and natural ecosystems. This study investigates the salt stress response of two rice seedlings, which were screened from 28 Kenya rice cultivars. A proteomic analysis was carried out and Mapman bin codes employed in protein function categorization. Proteins in the redox, stress, and signaling categories were identified, and whose expression differed between the salt tolerant and the salt sensitive samples employed in the present study...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Erin S LeBlanc, Kimberly K Vesco, Kristine L Funk, Njeri Karanja, Ning Smith, Victor J Stevens
BACKGROUND: Women who are overweight or have obesity at pregnancy onset, and those who gain excessive weight during pregnancy, are at increased risk of pregnancy-related complications and large for gestational age infants. OBJECTIVE: This report describes methodology for the Prepare study, a randomized, controlled clinical trial testing a preconception and pregnancy weight management program for women who are overweight or have obesity (BMI≥27kg/m(2)). OUTCOMES: This trial examines multiple pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, with the primary outcome being gestational weight gain (GWG)...
July 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Veronicah Njeri Kimani, Lin Chen, Yunpeng Liu, Waseem Raza, Nan Zhang, Lewis Kamau Mungai, Qirong Shen, Ruifu Zhang
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPRs) that forms biofilm on the roots of plants and protects them from a variety of pathogens. In this study, we reported the effect of root exudates produced by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) at different developmental stages on the biochemical composition of the biofilm matrix of SQR9. The results showed that the amino acids present in the root exudates of cucumber were responsible for triggering biofilm formation of SQR9. In addition, when root exudates harvested at different growth phases of cucumber were used as carbon sources for biofilm formation, the resulting biofilm matrixes differed both quantitatively and qualitatively...
November 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Michael A Irvine, Sammy M Njenga, Shamini Gunawardena, Claire Njeri Wamae, Jorge Cano, Simon J Brooker, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Florence Njeri Wamwiri, Robert Emojong Changasi
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) transmitted by the tsetse fly continues to be a public health issue, despite more than a century of research. There are two types of the disease, the chronic gambiense and the acute rhodesiense-HAT. Fly abundance and distribution have been affected by changes in land-use patterns and climate. However, disease transmission still continues. Here, we review some aspects of HAT ecoepidemiology in the context of altered infestation patterns and maintenance of the transmission cycle as well as emerging options in disease and vector control...
2016: BioMed Research International
Anne Njeri Maina, Joshua Kimani, Omu Anzala
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. The complications of untreated STIs in the female genital tract and their role in adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes have been well documented. The prevalence of STIs in Kenya among women in the general population has not been extensively studied and there is a lack of guidelines for screening of non-pregnant women. Knowledge of the prevalence of curable STIs among this population can provide a basis for integrating STI screening in family planning clinics...
March 29, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Lin Chen, Yunpeng Liu, Gengwei Wu, Kimani Veronican Njeri, Qirong Shen, Nan Zhang, Ruifu Zhang
Salt stress reduces plant growth and is now becoming one of the most important factors restricting agricultural productivity. Inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been shown to confer plant tolerance against abiotic stress, but the detailed mechanisms of how this occurs remain unclear. In this study, hydroponic experiments indicated that the PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 could help maize plants tolerate salt stress. After exposure to salt stress for 20 days, SQR9 significantly promoted the growth of maize seedlings and enhanced the chlorophyll content compared with the control...
September 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Njeri Wabiri, Olive Shisana, Khangelani Zuma, Jeffrey Freeman
Beyond the structural drivers such as distance from the road, rural/urban divide or demographic profiles, not much is known about the spatial relationship between HIV and social covariates. Spatial relations between social covariates and HIV infection of persons above 15 years were explored and mapped using geographically weighted regression model using data from a national HIV household survey conducted in 2008 and comprising 23 369 individuals from approximately 1000 enumeration areas that were randomly selected from the national census...
February 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Michael A Irvine, Sammy M Njenga, Shamini Gunawardena, Claire Njeri Wamae, Jorge Cano, Simon J Brooker, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease that affects impoverished communities. Rapid diagnostic tests of antigenaemia are a practical alternative to parasitological tests of microfilaraemia for mapping and surveillance. However the relationship between these two methods of measuring burden has previously been difficult to interpret. METHODS: A statistical model of the distribution of worm burden and microfilariae (mf) and resulting antigenaemic and mf prevalence was developed and fitted to surveys of two contrasting sentinel sites undergoing interventions...
February 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Hui Zhang, Dongli He, Jianlan Yu, Ming Li, Rebecca Njeri Damaris, Ravi Gupta, Sun Tae Kim, Pingfang Yang
Seed germination is an important aspect of the plant life cycle, during which, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulate. The accumulation of ROS results in an increase in protein oxidation of which carbonylation is the most canonical one. However, there is insufficient information concerning protein oxidation, especially carbonylation and its contribution to seed germination. In this study, biotin hydrazide labeled chromatography combined with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH) method was used to analyze the dynamic pattern of protein carbonylation in rice embryos during germination...
March 2016: Proteomics
Nicola A Wardrop, Lian F Thomas, Peter M Atkinson, William A de Glanville, Elizabeth A J Cook, C Njeri Wamae, Sarah Gabriël, Pierre Dorny, Leslie J S Harrison, Eric M Fèvre
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004223.].
January 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nicola A Wardrop, Lian F Thomas, Peter M Atkinson, William A de Glanville, Elizabeth A J Cook, C Njeri Wamae, Sarah Gabriël, Pierre Dorny, Leslie J S Harrison, Eric M Fèvre
UNLABELLED: Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity) in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp. EPIDEMIOLOGY: In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis...
December 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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