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Clio A Andreae, Richard B Sessions, Mumtaz Virji, Darryl J Hill
Neisseria meningitidis is an antigenically and genetically variable Gram-negative bacterium and a causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. Meningococci encode many outer membrane proteins, including Opa, Opc, Msf, fHbp and NadA, identified as being involved in colonisation of the host and evasion of the immune response. Although vaccines are available for the prevention of some types of meningococcal disease, none currently offer universal protection. We have used sequences within the Neisseria PubMLST database to determine the variability of msf and opc in 6,500 isolates...
2018: PloS One
Alan de Lima Pereira, Rosamund Southgate, Hikmet Ahmed, Penelope O'Connor, Vanessa Cramond, Annick Lenglet
Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Currents
Louise E van Eekeren, Sophia G de Vries, Jiri F P Wagenaar, René Spijker, Martin P Grobusch, Abraham Goorhuis
BACKGROUND: Rickettsial diseases present as acute febrile illnesses, sometimes with inoculation eschars. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of studies published between 1997 and 2017 to assess the underestimation of non-eschar rickettsial disease (NERD) relative to eschar rickettsial disease (ERD), as a cause of acute fever in patients with rickettsial diseases that commonly present with eschar(s): scrub typhus (ST), Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF), and African tick-bite fever...
February 24, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Caroline A M Buis, Marina A W Eckenhausen, Olle Ten Cate
Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate residents' preferences in dealing with personal multi-source feedback (MSF) reports with or without the support of a coach. Methods: Residents employed for at least half a year in the study hospital were eligible to participate. All 43 residents opting to discuss their MSF report with a psychologist-coach before discussing results with the program director were included. Semi-structured interviews were conducted following individual coaching sessions...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Medical Education
Andrei-Emil Briciu
The orthotidal rivers are a new concept referring to inland rivers influenced by gravitational tides through the groundwater tides. "Orthotidal signals" is intended to describe tidal signals found in inland streamwaters (with no oceanic input); these tidal signals were locally generated and then exported into streamwaters. Here, we show that orthotidal signals can be found in proglacial rivers due to the gravitational tides affecting the glaciers and their surrounding areas. The gravitational tides act on glacier through earth and atmospheric tides, while the subglacial water is affected in a manner similar to the groundwater tides...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yanfei Liu, Tonghu Xiao, Chenghuan Bao, Jifei Zhang, Xing Yang
This study proposes using membrane distillation (MD) as an alternative to the conventional multi-stage flushing (MSF) process to concentrate a semi-product of organic fertilizer. By applying a unique asymmetric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, which was specifically designed for MD applications using a nonsolvent thermally induced phase separation (NTIPS) method, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performance was investigated in terms of its sustainability in permeation flux, fouling resistance, and anti-wetting properties...
February 16, 2018: Membranes
Paul Torpiano, David Pace
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) is a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia conorii which is endemic in Malta, an island in the South Mediterranean that is a popular tourist destination. Diagnosis is frequently based on clinical manifestations as laboratory results are often limited to a retrospective diagnosis. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of children <16 years who presented with MSF from 2011 to 2016. METHOD: The demographics, clinical findings, laboratory results, management and outcome of all children hospitalised with suspected MSF based on the presence of fever and an eschar, were retrieved from their case notes...
February 17, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Gabriella Ferlazzo, Erika Mohr, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Catherine Hewison, Jennifer Hughes, Sylvie Jonckheere, Naira Khachatryan, Virginia De Avezedo, Lusine Egazaryan, Amir Shroufi, Stobdan Kalon, Helen Cox, Jennifer Furin, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Bedaquiline and delamanid have been approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in the past 5 years. Because of theoretical safety concerns, patients have been unable to access the two drugs in combination. Médecins Sans Frontières has supported the use of combination bedaquiline and delamanid for people with few treatment options since 2016. We describe early safety and efficacy of regimens containing the bedaquiline and delamanid combination in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis in Yerevan, Armenia; Mumbai, India; and Khayelitsha, South Africa...
February 13, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Ann Danaiya Usher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Daphne Lagrou, Rony Zachariah, Karen Bissell, Catherine Van Overloop, Masood Nasim, Hamsaya Nikyar Wagma, Shafiqa Kakar, Séverine Caluwaerts, Eva De Plecker, Renzo Fricke, Rafael Van den Bergh
Background: Provision of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (EmONC) reduces maternal mortality and should include three components: Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEmONC) offered at primary care level, Comprehensive EmONC (CEmONC) at secondary level and a good referral system in-between. In a conflict-affected province of Afghanistan (Khost), we assessed the performance of an Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) run CEmONC hospital without a primary care and referral system...
2018: Conflict and Health
Eswara Uma, Abdul Hj Ismail Rashid, Adinegara Lutfi Abas, Sowmya Nettem, Sumanth Kumbargere Nagraj, Noorliza Mastura
Context: Of the several methods available for assessment of professionalism, there is still no consensus on an ideal tool for dental undergraduate (UG) students. Aims: The study aims to use a hybrid tool for assessment of professionalism among dental undergraduate students. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional design with purposive sampling. Subjects and Methods: All final year UG dental students participated in this study...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Bin Ouyang, Cheng Chen, Jun Song
Generalized-stacking-fault energy (GSFE) serves as an important metric that prescribes dislocation behaviors in materials. In this paper, utilizing first-principles calculations and chemical bonding analysis, we studied the behaviors of generalized stacking fault in graphene and h-BN. It has been shown that the π bond formation plays a critical role in the existence of metastable stacking fault (MSF) in graphene and h-BN lattice along certain slip directions. Chemical functionalization was then proposed as an effective means to engineer the π bond, and subsequently MSF along dislocation slips within graphene and h-BN...
January 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
Vito Fiore, Fabiola Mancini, Alessandra Ciervo, Paola Bagella, Francesca Peruzzu, Giuseppe Nunnari, Giovanni Andrea Deiana, Giovanni Rezza, Sergio Babudieri, Giordano Madeddu
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare case of acute Q fever with tache noire. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 51 year-old man experienced an acute Q fever showing a tache noire, generally considered a pathognomonic sign of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) and MSF-like illness, but not a clinical feature of Q fever. The patient was treated with doxycycline 100 mg every 12 hours. <br><br>Conclusion: In the Mediterranean area, tache noire should be considered pathognomonic of MSF but it should not rule out Q fever...
January 3, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Laura M Nic Lochlainn, Ivan Gayton, Georgios Theocharopoulos, Robin Edwards, Kostas Danis, Ronald Kremer, Karline Kleijer, Sumaila M Tejan, Mohamed Sankoh, Augustin Jimissa, Jane Greig, Grazia Caleo
BACKGROUND: During the 2014-16 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, the Magburaka Ebola Management Centre (EMC) operated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, identified that available district maps lacked up-to-date village information to facilitate timely implementation of EVD control strategies. In January 2015, we undertook a survey in chiefdoms within the MSF EMC catchment area to collect mapping and village data. We explore the feasibility and cost to mobilise a local community for this survey, describe validation against existing mapping sources and use of the data to prioritise areas for interventions, and lessons learned...
2018: PloS One
Séverine Caluwaerts
During the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treated Ebola-positive pregnant women in its Ebola Treatment Centers (ETCs). For pregnant women with confirmed Ebola virus disease, inclusion in clinical vaccine/drug/therapeutic trials was complicated. Despite their extremely high Ebola-related mortality in previous epidemics (89-93%) and a neonatal mortality of 100%, theoretical concerns about safety of vaccines and therapeutics in pregnancy were invoked, limiting pregnant women's access to an experimental live attenuated vaccine and brincidofovir, an experimental antiviral...
December 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
Cavin Epie Bekolo, Abdourahimi Diallo, Mit Philips, Joseph-Desire Yuma, Letizia Di Stefano, Stéphanie Drèze, Jerome Mouton, Youssouf Koita, Ousseni W Tiomtore
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in 2014 led to massive dropouts in HIV care in Guinea. Meanwhile, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) was implementing a six-monthly appointment spacing approach adapted locally as Rendez-vous de Six Mois (R6M) with an objective to improve retention in care. We sought to evaluate this innovative model of ART delivery in circumstances where access to healthcare is restricted. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study in 2014 of the outcome of a group of stable patients (viral load ≤1000 copies/μl) enrolled voluntarily in R6M compared with a group of stable patients continuing standard one to three monthly visits in Conakry...
December 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ilario Mennella, Rossella Di Monaco, Adriana Balazy, Rosalia Ferracane, Nicoletta A Miele, Silvana Cavella, Paola Vitaglione
This study aimed to evaluate whether salivary endocannabinoid (EC) and N-acylethanolamine (NAE) concentrations upon mastication of a semisolid food were involved in the sensory perception of fat taste, food liking and appetite in humans. A fat-enriched (FEP) and a low-fat control (CP) pudding were developed and used in a randomized cross-over study with 19 healthy volunteers. The study protocol combined a Modified Sham-Feeding (MSF) with a multiple-spoon Temporal Dominance of Sensations method. Subjects masticated and expectorated 10 spoons of the pudding and selected the dominant sensations among a list of attributes...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
Richard Hurley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Yingshan Zhou, Kaili Liang, Shuyan Zhao, Can Zhang, Jun Li, Hongjun Yang, Xin Liu, Xianze Yin, Dongzhi Chen, Weilin Xu, Pu Xiao
Hydrogels composed of natural materials exhibit great application potential in artificial scaffolds for cartilage repair as they can resemble the extracellular matrices of cartilage tissues comprised of various glycosaminoglycan and collagen. Herein, the natural polymers with vinyl groups, i.e. maleilated chitosan (MCS) and methacrylated silk fibroin (MSF) micro/nanoparticles, were firstly synthesized. The chemical structures of MCS and MSF micro/nanoparticles were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
March 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Miao Wang, Qing Hu, Qingshui Shi, Gongjun Yang, Fang Feng
1. Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD) has been widely used for the treatment of alcoholic jaundice, alcoholic liver disease, and acute hepatitis in China for thousands of years. Conventionally decoctions are administered orally, after which the metabolism caused by the enzymes in intestinal bacteria may influence significantly on the curative effects or toxicity. 2. In this work, the comprehensive metabolic process of ZZDHD in intestinal bacteria was investigated reliably using high-resolution HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS...
December 22, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
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