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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148844/circadian-phase-circadian-period-and-chronotype-are-reproducible-over-months
#1
Thomas Kantermann, Charmane I Eastman
The timing of the circadian clock, circadian period and chronotype varies among individuals. To date, not much is known about how these parameters vary over time in an individual. We performed an analysis of the following five common circadian clock and chronotype measures: 1) the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO, a measure of circadian phase), 2) phase angle of entrainment (the phase the circadian clock assumes within the 24-h day, measured here as the interval between DLMO and bedtime/dark onset), 3) free-running circadian period (tau) from an ultradian forced desynchrony protocol (tau influences circadian phase and phase angle of entrainment), 4) mid-sleep on work-free days (MSF from the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire; MCTQ) and 5) the score from the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ)...
November 17, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129176/composite-reliability-of-workplace-based-assessment-of-international-medical-graduates
#2
Balakrishnan Kichu R Nair, Joyce Mw Moonen-van Loon, Mulavana Parvathy, Brian C Jolly, Cees Pm van der Vleuten
OBJECTIVE: The fitness to practise of international medical graduates (IMGs) is usually evaluated with standardised assessment tests. The performance rather than the competency of practising doctors should, however, be assessed, for which reason workplace-based assessment (WBA) has gained increasing attention. Our aim was to assess the composite reliability of WBA instruments for assessing IMGs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Between June 2010 and April 2015, 142 IMGs were assessed by 99 calibrated assessors; each was assessed in the workplace over 6 months...
November 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111033/water-induced-shape-memory-effect-of-nanocellulose-papers-from-sisal-cellulose-nanofibers-with-graphene-oxide
#3
Laifu Song, Yuqi Li, Zhongqiang Xiong, Lulu Pan, Qiyun Luo, Xu Xu, Shaorong Lu
A novel water-induced shape memory nanocomposites were prepared by introducing graphene oxide (GO), which was based on microcrystalline cellulose nanofibers (MSF-g-COOH) extracting from sisal fibers. The results showed that the water-induced shape memory properties of MSF-g-COOH were significantly improved by the strong hydrogen bonding interaction between MSF-g-COOH and GO, It leads to some additional physically cross-linked points in MSF-g-COOH. On the other hand, at 0.5wt% GO loading, tensile strength and Young modulus of the nanocomposite increased from 139 to 184MPa, and from 5...
January 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092825/msf-pushes-down-price-of-generic-hepatitis-c-drugs-to-new-low-level
#4
Jacqui Wise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047693/fiber-based-tools-material-removal-and-mid-spatial-frequency-error-reduction
#5
Hossein Shahinian, Mohammed Hassan, Harish Cherukuri, Brigid A Mullany
This paper details the feasibility of using fiber-based tools in a computer numerical control (CNC) environment to process optical materials and their ability to reduce the amplitude of pre-existing mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) surface errors. The work is motivated by earlier research conducted by the group exploring the ability of polymeric fiber-based tools to remove material from BK7 glass substrates. To evaluate these tools in a CNC environment, three tasks are explored. First, the ability of the tools to maintain their form and material removal profile while operating under translational conditions is explored...
October 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041075/understanding-the-effects-of-groove-structures-on-the-mtf
#6
Kevin Liang, Miguel A Alonso
We develop a theory for understanding and modeling the effects of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) structures on the modulation transfer function (MTF) of an imaging system. We show that the MTF is related through Fourier transformation to what we call the pupil-difference probability density (PDPD) function. This relation is illustrated for several one-dimensional periodic groove patterns. We also consider two-dimensional pupils, particularly those presenting straight and circular concentric periodic surface errors, similar to those resulting from diamond turning and milling processes of freeform optical manufacturing, and develop simple approximations for the MTF based on the PDPD...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035207/novel-quantitative-analytical-approaches-for-rotor-identification-and-associated-implications-for-mapping
#7
Elizabeth M Annoni, Shivaram Poigai Arunachalam, Suraj Kapa, Siva K Mulpuru, Paul A Friedman, Elena G Talkachova
OBJECTIVE: Clinical studies identifying rotors confirming these sites for ablation in treating cardiac arrhythmias have had inconsistent results with the current analysis techniques available. The aim of this study is to evaluate four new signal analysis approaches - multiscale frequency (MSF), Shannon entropy (SE), Kurtosis (Kt), and multiscale entropy (MSE) - in their ability to identify the pivot point of rotors. METHODS: Optical mapping movies of ventricular tachycardia were used to evaluate the performance and robustness of SE, Kt, MSF and MSE techniques with respect to several clinical limitations: decreased time duration, reduced spatial resolution, and the presence of meandering rotors...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968400/a-clinical-severity-scoring-system-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-immunocompetent-patients-in-south-sudan
#8
Suzette S Kämink, Simon M Collin, Tim Harrison, Francis Gatluak, Abdul Wasay Mullahzada, Koert Ritmeijer
BACKGROUND: South Sudan is one of the most endemic countries for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and is frequently affected by large epidemics. In resource-limited settings, clinicians require a simple clinical tool to identify VL patients who are at increased risk of dying, and who need specialised treatment with liposomal amphotericin B and other supportive care. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a clinical severity scoring system based on risk factors for death in VL patients in South Sudan...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912964/is-the-south-african-triage-scale-valid-for-use-in-afghanistan-haiti-and-sierra-leone
#9
Mohammed Dalwai, Pola Valles, Michele Twomey, Yvonne Nzomukunda, Prince Jonjo, Manoj Sasikumar, Masood Nasim, Abdul Razaaq, Olivia Gayraud, Pierre Ronald Jecrois, Lee Wallis, Katie Tayler-Smith
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) in four Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-supported emergency departments (ED, two trauma-only sites, one mixed site (both medical and trauma cases) and one paediatric-only site) in Afghanistan, Haiti and Sierra Leone. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted between June 2013 and June 2014. Validity was assessed by comparing patients' SATS ratings with their final ED outcome (ie, hospital admission, death or discharge)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902158/controlled-shrinkage-of-expanded-glass-particles-in-metal-syntactic-foams
#10
Kadhim Al-Sahlani, Mehdi Taherishargh, Erich Kisi, Thomas Fiedler
Metal matrix syntactic foams have been fabricated via counter-gravity infiltration of a packed bed of recycled expanded glass particles (EG) with A356 aluminum alloy. Particle shrinkage was studied and has been utilized to increase the particles' strength and tailor the mechanical properties of the expanded glass/metal syntactic foam (EG-MSF). The crushing strength of particles could be doubled by shrinking them for 20 min at 700 °C. Owing to the low density of EG (0.20-0.26 g/cm³), the resulting foam exhibits a low density (1...
September 13, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889650/correlation-of-recommendations-of-treatment-guidelines-and-frequently-prescribed-antibiotics-evaluation-of-their-pharmaceutical-pack-size
#11
Shoma Mukherjee, Nilanjan Saha
There are various factors that contribute to development of antimicrobial resistance. Overuse, inappropriate prescribing and extensive agricultural use of antibiotics are some of the factors which have been identified. Antibiotics are almost always universally packaged by manufacturers in packs that are heavily driven by cost of economies and convenience rather than by any scientific basis or duration of therapy. So, in the present study, the correlation of the treatment guidelines with the choice of antibiotics and whether packing size contributes to left-over dosing units when used according to guideline recommendations were assessed...
September 10, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881037/comparison-of-vessel-enhancement-algorithms-applied-to-time-of-flight-mra-images-for-cerebrovascular-segmentation
#12
Renzo Phellan, Nils D Forkert
PURPOSE: Vessel enhancement algorithms are often used as a preprocessing step for vessel segmentation in medical images to improve the overall segmentation accuracy. Each algorithm uses different characteristics to enhance vessels, such that the most suitable algorithm may vary for different applications. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the accuracy gains in vessel segmentation generated by the use of nine vessel enhancement algorithms: Multiscale vesselness using the formulas described by Erdt (MSE), Frangi (MSF), and Sato (MSS), optimally oriented flux (OOF), ranking orientations responses path operator (RORPO), the regularized Perona-Malik approach (RPM), vessel enhanced diffusion (VED), hybrid diffusion with continuous switch (HDCS), and the white top hat algorithm (WTH)...
September 7, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860305/msf-criticises-india-s-decision-to-grant-pneumococcal-vaccine-patent-to-pfizer
#13
Sumi S Dutta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852784/-orthopedic-surgery-with-limited-resources-after-mass-disasters-and-during-armed-conflicts-first-international-guidelines-for-the-management-of-limb-injuries-and-the-experience-of-doctors-without-borders
#14
REVIEW
Inga Osmers
Disasters and armed conflicts are often the unfortunate basis for aid projects run by Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). The nature of war and disasters means that surgery is an integral part of this medical emergency aid. In these situations, resources are usually limited. As a result, surgical work in these contexts differs significantly from the daily routine of a surgeon working in a highly resourced hospital. The principles of surgery do not change but surgeons must adapt their tactical approach to the changed context otherwise there is a high risk of failing to improve the health of patients and potentially jeopardizing their prospects for recovery...
October 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835247/the-modified-south-african-triage-scale-system-for-mortality-prediction-in-resource-constrained-emergency-surgical-centers-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Jacques Massaut, Pola Valles, Arnold Ghismonde, Claudinette Jn Jacques, Liseberth Pierre Louis, Abdulmutalib Zakir, Rafael Van den Bergh, Lunick Santiague, Rose Berly Massenat, Nathalie Edema
BACKGROUND: The South African Triage Scale (SATS) was developed to facilitate patient triage in emergency departments (EDs) and is used by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in low-resource environments. The aim was to determine if SATS data, reason for admission, and patient age can be used to develop and validate a model predicting the in-hospital risk of death in emergency surgical centers and to compare the model's discriminative power with that of the four SATS categories alone. METHODS: We used data from a cohort hospitalized at the Nap Kenbe Surgical Hospital in Haiti from January 2013 to June 2015...
August 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770590/delivering-hiv-care-in-challenging-operating-environments-the-msf-experience-towards-differentiated-models-of-care-for-settings-with-multiple-basic-health-care-needs
#16
REVIEW
Charles Ssonko, Lucia Gonzalez, Anita Mesic, Marcio Silveira da Fonseca, Jay Achar, Nadia Safar, Beatriz Martin, Sidney Wong, Esther C Casas
INTRODUCTION: Countries in the West and Central African regions struggle to offer quality HIV care at scale, despite HIV prevalence being relatively low. In these challenging operating environments, basic health care needs are multiple, systems are highly fragile and conflict disrupts health care. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been working to integrate HIV care in basic health services in such settings since 2000. We review the implementation of differentiated HIV care and treatment approaches in MSF-supported programmes in South Sudan (RoSS), Central African Republic (CAR) and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770589/implications-of-differentiated-care-for-successful-art-scale-up-in-a-concentrated-hiv-epidemic-in-yangon-myanmar
#17
REVIEW
Anita Mesic, Julie Fontaine, Theingy Aye, Jane Greig, Thin Thin Thwe, Laura Moretó-Planas, Jarmila Kliesckova, Khin Khin, Nana Zarkua, Lucia Gonzalez, Erwin Lloyd Guillergan, Daniel P O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: National AIDS Programme in Myanmar has made significant progress in scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART) services and recognizes the importance of differentiated care for people living with HIV. Indeed, long centred around the hospital and reliant on physicians, the country's HIV response is undergoing a process of successful decentralization with HIV care increasingly being integrated into other health services as part of a systematic effort to expand access to HIV treatment...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750691/the-use-of-interpreters-in-medical-triage-during-a-refugee-mass-gathering-incident-in-europe
#18
Lykourgos Christos Alexakis, Anastasia Papachristou, Chiara Baruzzi, Angeliki Konstantinou
Introduction During a refugees' mass-gathering incident in Kos Island, Greece, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; Brussels, Belgium) teams provided emergency medical care. A case report of the event focusing on difficulties encountered by the interpreters during triage and emergency response was prepared. METHODS: Data collected during the event were reviewed from the patient's register and qualitative interviews were obtained from the MSF interpreters involved in the response. In addition, a description of the event and a literature review were included...
July 28, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725259/cardiovascular-disease-risk-and-prevention-amongst-syrian-refugees-mixed-methods-study-of-m%C3%A3-decins-sans-fronti%C3%A3-res-programme-in-jordan
#19
Dylan R J Collins, Kiran Jobanputra, Thomas Frost, Shoaib Muhammed, Alison Ward, Abed Alrazzaq Shafei, Taissir Fardous, Sadeq Gabashneh, Carl Heneghan
BACKGROUND: The growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) presented new challenges for medical humanitarian aid and little was known about primary health care approaches for these diseases in humanitarian response. We aimed to evaluate Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF's) use of total CVD risk based prevention strategies amongst Syrian refugees in northern Jordan to identify opportunities to improve total CVD risk based guidance for humanitarian settings. METHODS: We evaluated CVD risk assessment and management in two outpatient NCD clinics in the Irbid governorate of Jordan using a mixed methods design with qualitative and quantitative strands of equal priority, integrated during data collection and interpretation...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645279/diabetes-care-in-a-complex-humanitarian-emergency-setting-a-qualitative-evaluation
#20
Adrianna Murphy, Michel Biringanine, Bayard Roberts, Beverley Stringer, Pablo Perel, Kiran Jobanputra
BACKGROUND: Evidence is urgently needed from complex emergency settings to support efforts to respond to the increasing burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). We conducted a qualitative study of a new model of DM health care (Integrated Diabetic Clinic within an Outpatient Department [IDC-OPD]) implemented by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Mweso Hospital in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We aimed to explore patient and provider perspectives on the model in order to identify factors that may support or impede it...
June 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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