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Cytostatics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345296/vitamin%C3%A2-d-derivatives-potentiate-the-anticancer-and-anti-angiogenic-activity-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-combination-with-cytostatic-drugs-in-an-a549-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-model
#1
Ewa Maj, Beata Filip-Psurska, Magdalena Milczarek, Mateusz Psurski, Andrzej Kutner, Joanna Wietrzyk
Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3] and different vitamin D analogs possess antineoplastic activity, regulating proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, as well as angiogenesis. Vitamin D compounds have been shown to exert synergistic effects when used in combination with different agents used in anticancer therapies in different cancer models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of the cooperation of the vitamin D compounds [1,24(OH)2D3 (PRI‑2191) and 1,25(OH)2D3] with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib and sunitinib) together with cytostatics (cisplatin and docetaxel) in an A549 non-small cell lung cancer model...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341030/new-tirucallane-type-triterpenoids-from-guarea-guidonia
#2
Vanessa Hernandez, Marinella De Leo, Roberta Cotugno, Alessandra Braca, Nunziatina De Tommasi, Lorella Severino
The aerial parts of Guarea guidonia afforded three new tirucallane-type triterpenoids: 3,4-seco-tirucalla-4(28),8(9),24(25)-trien-7α,11α-dihydroxy-21,23-epoxy-3,11-olide, named guareolide (1: ), 3,4-seco-tirucalla-4(28),7(8),24(25)-trien-21-hydroxy-21,23-epoxy-3-oic acid, named guareoic acid A (2: ), and 3,4-seco-tirucalla-4(28),7(8),24(25)-trien-21,23-epoxy-3-oic acid, named guareoic acid B (3: ), of which 1: possessed an unusual seven-membered lactone ring. Seven known terpenes were also isolated and characterized as flindissone, 7-acetyldihydronomilin, picroquassin E, boscartol C, and cneorubins A, B, and X...
January 16, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340085/6-methylsulfonyl-hexyl-isothiocyanate-as-potential-chemopreventive-agent-molecular-and-cellular-profile-in-leukaemia-cell-lines
#3
Monia Lenzi, Veronica Cocchi, Marco Malaguti, Maria Cristina Barbalace, Silvia Marchionni, Silvana Hrelia, Patrizia Hrelia
Numerous laboratory and epidemiological studies show that the risk of developing several types of cancer can be reduced with the employment of natural substances that act with multiple mechanisms. In this context, an important role is played by the isothiocyanates. Recently, 6-(methylsulfonyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC), present in the root of Wasabia Japonica, has stimulated the interest of researchers as a chemopreventive agent. In this particular study we have focused on evaluating 6-MITC's in vitro cytotoxic, cytostatic and cytodifferentiating activities, as well as its pro-apoptotic potential...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335393/peritoneal-metastases-of-colorectal-origin-cytoreductive-surgery-and-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-hipec-the-financial-aspect
#4
Tomasz Jastrzębski, Marek Bębenek
The incidence of peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer amounts to 5%-15% for synchronous metastases and as much as 40% in cases of local recurrence. Best results are obtained for cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). This treatment offers much better outcomes, leading to 5-year survival rates of as much as 30%-50%. The procedures require significant experience in abdominal surgery, are time-consuming (mean duration of the procedure ranging from 6 to 8 hours) and are burdened by complications that are due not only to the procedure itself but also to the intraperitoneal administration of the cytostatic drug at elevated temperature (41...
December 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333095/cinnamomum-cassia-extracts-suppress-human-lung-cancer-cells-invasion-by-reducing-u-pa-mmp-expression-through-the-fak-to-erk-pathways
#5
Hsing-Chen Wu, Chi-Ting Horng, You-Li Lee, Pei-Ni Chen, Chin-Yin Lin, Chen-Yu Liao, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Shu-Chen Chu
Cinnamomum cassia exhibits antioxidative, apoptotic, and cytostatic properties. These activities have been attributed to the modulation of several biological processes and are beneficial for possible pharmaceutical applications. However, the potential of C. cassia in retarding lung adenocarcinoma cells metastasis remains ambiguous. We determined whether C. cassia extract (CCE) reduces metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The results showed that CCE treatment (up to 60 μg/mL) for 24 h exhibited no cytotoxicity on the A549 and H1299 cell lines but inhibited the motility, invasiveness, and migration of these cells by repressing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322234/-efficacy-of-a-ketogenic-diet-in-urological-cancers-patients-a-systematic-review
#6
P Maisch, J E Gschwend, M Retz
BACKGROUND: Beside the classical anticancer treatment tumor patients try to find proactive alternative therapies to fight their disease. Lifestyle changes such as introducing a ketogenic diet is one of the most popular among them. The German Association of Urological Oncology (AUO, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Urologische Onkologie) presents a systematic review investigating the evidence of ketogenic diet in cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature research was conducted in the databases Medline, Livivo, and the Cochrane Library...
January 10, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321280/analysis-of-mitotic-checkpoint-function-in-xenopus-egg-extracts
#7
Yinghui Mao
Accurate sister chromatid segregation is pivotal in the faithful transmission of genetic information during each cell division. To ensure accurate segregation, eukaryotic organisms have evolved a "mitotic (or spindle assembly) checkpoint" to prevent premature advance to anaphase before successful attachment of every chromosome to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle. An unattached kinetochore generates a diffusible signal that inhibits ubiquitination of substrates such as cyclin B and securins. This protocol presents an in vitro assay for studying the mitotic checkpoint using Xenopus laevis egg extracts...
January 10, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311118/therapeutic-challenge-with-a-cdk-4-6-inhibitor-induces-an-rb-dependent-smac-mediated-apoptotic-response-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Chellappagounder Thangavel, Ettickan Boopathi, Yi Liu, Christopher McNair, Alex Haber, Maryna Perepelyuk, Anshul Bhardwaj, Sankar Addya, Adam Ertel, Sunday Shoyele, Ruth Birbe, Joseph M Salvino, Adam P Dicker, Karen E Knudsen, Robert B Den
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB), a key regulator of cell cycle progression and proliferation, is functionally suppressed in up to 50% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).  RB function is exquisitely controlled by a series of proteins including the CyclinD-CDK4/6 complex. In the current study, we interrogated the capacity of a CDK4/6 inhibitor, palbociclib, to activate RB function.   Experimental Design and Results: We employed multiple isogenic RB proficient and deficient NSCLC lines to interrogate the cytostatic and cytotoxic capacity of CDK 4/6 inhibition in vitro and in vivo  We demonstrate that while short term exposure to palbociclib induces cellular senescence, prolonged exposure results in inhibition of tumor growth...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310623/trastuzumab-without-chemotherapy-in-the-adjuvant-treatment-of-breast-cancer-subgroup-results-from-a-large-observational-study
#9
Peter Dall, Thorsten Koch, Thomas Göhler, Johannes Selbach, Andreas Ammon, Jochen Eggert, Nidal Gazawi, Daniela Rezek, Arthur Wischnik, Carsten Hielscher, Nicolas Schleif, Ursula Cirrincione, Axel Hinke, Gabriele Feisel-Schwickardi
BACKGROUND: The topic of trastuzumab therapy without chemotherapy in early breast cancer (EBC) has been repeatedly discussed at international consensus meetings, but is compromised by the lack of solid evidence from clinical studies. METHODS: An observational study database of patients with EBC receiving trastuzumab-containing (neo)adjuvant therapy was screened to identify those patients who did not receive cytostatic agents. RESULTS: Of 3935 patients, 232 (6%) were identified who received no chemotherapy, being characterized by older age, worse performance status, and/or less aggressive histology...
January 8, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303289/-small-cell-lung-cancer-epidemiology-diagnostics-and-therapy
#10
Miloš Pešek, Jan Mužík
Authors present actual overview of information on diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). This highly aggressive type of lung cancer is diagnosed in 14.8 % of Czech lung cancer patients. Vast majority of those patients (87 %) suffer from advanced and metastatic disease in the time of diagnosis. In this issue are presented prognostic factors, staging diagnostic procedures and therapeutic recommendations. The backbone of actual SCLC treatment is combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy and less frequently, carefully in selected cases, surgical procedures...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303026/risk-factors-for-impaired-pulmonary-function-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-very-long-term-adult-survivors-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-after-treatment-with-chemotherapy-only
#11
Ole Henrik Myrdal, Adriani Kanellopoulos, Jon R Christensen, Ellen Ruud, Elisabeth Edvardsen, Johny Kongerud, Liv Ingunn Sikkeland, May B Lund
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk of late treatment-related side-effects. Data regarding prevalence and risk factors for impairments in pulmonary function and cardiorespiratory fitness are limited, and reported findings are inconsistent and inconclusive. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 116 ALL survivors (median 5 years at diagnosis, 29 years at follow-up, 53% females) were examined, median 23 years after treatment with chemotherapy only...
January 5, 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299944/evaluation-of-genotoxic-potential-of-avarol-avarone-and-its-methoxy-and-methylamino-derivatives-in-prokaryotic-and-eukaryotic-test-models
#12
Stoimir Kolarević, Dragana Milovanović, Margareta Kračun-Kolarević, Jovana Kostić, Karolina Sunjog, Rajko Martinović, Jelena Đorđević, Irena Novaković, Dušan Sladić, Branka Vuković-Gačić
In this study, mutagenic and genotoxic potential of anti-tumor compounds avarol, avarone, and its derivatives 3'-methoxyavarone, 4'-(methylamino)avarone and 3'-(methylamino)avarone was evaluated and compared to cytostatics commonly used in chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, etoposid, and cisplatin). Mutagenic potential of selected hydroquinone and quinones was assessed in prokaryotic model by the SOS/umuC assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. Genotoxic potential was also assessed in eukaryotic models using comet assay in human fetal lung cell line (MRC-5), human adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549), and in human peripheral blood cells (HPBC)...
January 4, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298653/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-triazoles-linked-7-hydroxycoumarin-as-potent-cytotoxic-agents
#13
Aashiq Hussain, Mushtaq A Qurishi, Abid Hamid, S Koul
Cancer is regarded as second leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, there is a high demand for the discovery, development and improvement of novel anti-cancer agents which could efficiently prevent proliferative pathways and clonal expansion of cells. In view of this, a new series of bioactive scaffolds viz triazoles linked 7-hydroxycoumarin (1) were synthesized using click chemistry approach. All the synthesized compounds were screened for cytotoxicity against a panel of seven different human cancer cell lines viz...
December 29, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284782/cytotoxic-activity-of-metformin-in-vitro-does-not-correlate-with-its-antitumor-action-in-vivo
#14
O N Pyaskovskaya, D L Kolesnik, A G Fedorchuk, G V Gorbik, G I Solyanik
It is known that metformin is a hypoglycemic drug used to treat type II diabetes mellitus. Recently active studies of its antitumor activity in relation to different types of malignant cells are conducted. AIM: To determine the relationship between cytotoxic activity of metformin in vitro and its antitumor activity in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rat C6 glioma cell line and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC) were used in this work. The number of living cells in the cytotoxic test was evaluated using sulforhodamine B...
December 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284775/l-arginine-is-an-effective-medication-for-prevention-of-endothelial-dysfunction-a-predictor-of-anthracycline-cardiotoxicity-in-patients-with-acute-leukemia
#15
I Skrypnyk, G Maslova, T Lymanets, I Gusachenko
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of L-arginine in the prevention of endothelial dysfunction, which may be a predictor of anthracycline-induced myocardial injury, in patients with acute leukemia (AL) on the background of anthracycline antibiotics low cumulative doses from 100 to 200 mg/m2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 81 adult AL patients (38 males and 43 females with the age of 16-59 years) were studied. The patients were divided into two groups: group I (n = 34), AL patients treated with chemotherapy (CT) and L-arginine hydrochloride; group II (n = 47) - AL patients treated with CT only...
December 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274324/apoptosis-induction-and-inhibition-of-hela-cell-proliferation-by-alpha-naphthoflavone-and-resveratrol-are-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-independent
#16
Alegre Flores-Pérez, Guillermo Elizondo
Human papilloma viruses 16 and 18 express E6 and E7 oncoproteins. E6 activates and redirects E6-associated protein (E6AP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase. E6AP interacts with Ube2l3, an E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme protein (also known as UbcH7), to promote p53 ubiquitination and degradation by the 26S proteasome. Therefore, blocking E6-mediated p53 degradation might be an alternative treatment for cervical cancer. In addition, activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) induces Ube2l3 expression, resulting in p53 ubiquitination and degradation...
December 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261702/combination-of-palbociclib-with-enzalutamide-shows-in-vitro-activity-in-rb-proficient-and-androgen-receptor-positive-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#17
Chun-Yu Liu, Ka-Yi Lau, Chia-Chi Hsu, Ji-Lin Chen, Chia-Han Lee, Tzu-Ting Huang, Yi-Ting Chen, Chun-Teng Huang, Po-Han Lin, Ling-Ming Tseng
OBJECTIVES: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks specific drug targets and remains challenging. Palbociclib, a cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor is approved for metastatic estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and human epithermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. The nature of cell cycle inhibition by palbociclib suggests its potential in TNBC cells. Retinoblastoma (RB, a known substrate of CDK4/6) pathway deregulation is a frequent occurrence in TNBC and studies have revealed that pharmacological CDK4/6 inhibition induces a cooperative cytostatic effect with doxorubicin in RB-proficient TNBC models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258856/emerging-biomarkers-for-the-combination-of-radiotherapy-and-immune-checkpoint-blockers
#18
REVIEW
Claire Lhuillier, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Silvia Chiara Formenti, Sandra Demaria
Over the past few years, multiple immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) have achieved unprecedented clinical success and have been approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of an increasing number of malignancies. However, only a limited fraction of patients responds to ICBs employed as a standalone intervention, calling for the development of combinatorial regimens. Radiation therapy (RT) stands out as a very promising candidate for this purpose. Indeed, RT mediates antineoplastic effects not only by cytotoxic and cytostatic mechanisms, but also by modulating immunological functions, both locally (within the irradiated field) and systemically...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247826/cytostatic-hydroxycoumarin-ot52-induces-er-golgi-stress-and-stat3-inhibition-triggering-non-canonical-cell-death-and-synergy-with-bh3-mimetics-in-lung-cancer
#19
Jin-Young Lee, Oualid Talhi, Dongman Jang, Claudia Cerella, Anthoula Gaigneaux, Kyu-Won Kim, Jung Weon Lee, Mario Dicato, Khaldoun Bachari, Byung Woo Han, Artur M S Silva, Barbora Orlikova, Marc Diederich
Coumarins are natural compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer potential known to modulate inflammatory pathways. Here, non-toxic biscoumarin OT52 strongly inhibited proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells with KRAS mutations, inhibited stem-like characteristics by reducing aldehyde dehydrogenase expression and abrogated spheroid formation capacity. This cytostatic effect was characterized by cell cycle arrest and onset of senescence concomitant with endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stress, leading to metabolic alterations...
December 13, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242018/current-practice-in-cytoreductive-surgery-and-hipec-for-metastatic-peritoneal-disease-spanish-multicentric-survey
#20
Rafael Morales-Soriano, Neus Esteve-Pérez, Juan José Segura-Sampedro, Pedro Cascales-Campos, Pedro Barrios
INTRODUCTION: Radical Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC), has been proposed as the current standard of treatment for metastatic peritoneal disease by several tumors. Despite its widely utilization, there seems to be a great variability in their organization, clinical practice, and safety among centers. AIM OF THE STUDY: To obtain updated information on clinical practice in different perioperative areas of the CRS-HIPEC...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
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