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Linlin Wang, Fang Zhang, Jian-Ying Cui, Liang Chen, Yue-Ting Chen, Bo-Wen Liu
Carcinoma‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the major components of mesenchymal cells in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. They are involved in epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemotherapy resistance by directly contacting with cancer cells or secretory cytokines. In the present study, we examined the role of CAFs in the induction of EMT in ovarian cancer. Primary ovarian cancer cells, CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were isolated from fresh cancer tissue and cultured for immunohistochemistry studies...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Octavia Ramayanti, Mitch Brinkkemper, Sandra A W M Verkuijlen, Leni Ritmaleni, Mei Lin Go, Jaap M Middeldorp
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists in nasopharyngeal (NPC) and gastric carcinomas (EBVaGC) in a tightly latent form. Cytolytic virus activation (CLVA) therapy employs gemcitabine and valproic acid (GCb+VPA) to reactivate latent EBV into the lytic phase and antiviral valganciclovir to enhance cell death and prevent virus production. CLVA treatment has proven safe in phase-I/II trials with promising clinical responses in patients with recurrent NPC. However, a major challenge is to maximize EBV lytic reactivation by CLVA...
March 22, 2018: Cancers
Takafumi Ito, Jun Kurita, Koh-Ichiro Mori, Helle Frank Skall, Niels Lorenzen, Niccolò Vendramin, Nikolaj Gedsted Andersen, Katja Einer-Jensen, Niels Jørgen Olesen
Four major genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), which have been isolated from many marine and freshwater fish species, are known to differ in virulence. While fast and low-cost genotyping systems based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been developed for typing of VHSV virulence, there is a need for supplementing the knowledge. In particular, 2 field isolates from viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) outbreaks in sea-reared rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Sweden, SE-SVA-14 and SE-SVA-1033 (both genotype Ib), have yielded contradictory reactions...
March 22, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Geoffrey Foster, Ingebjørg H Nymo, Kit M Kovacs, Kimberlee B Beckmen, Andrew C Brownlow, Johanna L Baily, Mark P Dagleish, Jakub Muchowski, Lorraine L Perrett, Morten Tryland, Christian Lydersen, Jacques Godfroid, Barry McGovern, Adrian M Whatmore
Brucella species infecting marine mammals was first reported in 1994 and in the years since has been documented in various species of pinnipeds and cetaceans. While these reports have included species that inhabit Arctic waters, the few available studies on bearded seals Erignathus barbatus have failed to detect Brucella infection to date. We report the first isolation of Brucella pinnipedialis from a bearded seal. The isolate was recovered from the mesenteric lymph node of a bearded seal that stranded in Scotland and typed as ST24, a sequence type associated typically with pinnipeds...
March 22, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Na Huang, Fanpu Ji, Shu Zhang, Yansong Pu, An Jiang, Rui Zhou, Yuanyuan Ji, Wei Wei, Jun Yang, Zongfang Li
Emerging evidences showed the promoting role of spleen in the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, in the context of portal hypertension and hypersplenism due to hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. In this study, we tried to explore the precise mechanism of how spleen regulates this process from the serum cytokines profile level. Compared with the 16 healthy subjects, the RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array identified 136 cytokines differentially expressed in 36 cirrhotic patients. Splenectomy resulted in significant changes in 28 cytokines...
March 22, 2018: Viral Immunology
María Fabiana Pirán Arce, Laura Rosana Aballay, Jorge Leandro Leporati, Alicia Navarro, Myriam Forneris
INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease (CD) causes intestinal damage, inability to absorb nutrients, and progressive malnutrition. Iron deficiency is one of the predominant nutritional problems. A strict gluten-free diet (GF) allows for an optimal quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional situation of iron in school-aged celiac children by determining biochemical parameters, their relation to the consumption of the mineral and adherence to gluten-free diets in San Luis...
October 27, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Diego Luigi Cortinovis
In recent years immunotherapy has become a fundamental part of the treatment of many solid tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). With the results of trials investigating the role of monoclonal antibodies against immuno-checkpoints in particular, today these drugs have become part of everyday clinical practice, even though many questions still remain unresolved (optimal duration of treatment, prognostic and predictive role of biomarkers, management of immuno-related toxicity). Here we report the case of our patient with diagnosis of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma "non oncogene driven" successfully treated in second line with nivolumab, analyzing the problems and the questions most frequently evidenced during treatment with these new molecules...
March 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Richard Oluyinka Akintayo, Olufemi Oladipo Adelowo, Ochuko Egajifo, Rukayyah Abisoye Popoola, Gbenga Joshua Odunlami, Airenakho Emorinken, Babatunde Hakeem Olaosebikan
Objectives To determine the patterns, predictors and overall impact of ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the health-related quality of life and disability index. METHODS: A total of 50 Nigerian patients with RA were studied. Full ocular evaluation was done to determine the presence of each defined ocular manifestation of RA. All patients completed the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) questionnaires...
March 21, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Anna R Roy, Paul Delgado-Olguin
Whole mount immunofluorescence is a valuable technique that can be used to visualize vascular networks in early developing embryonic tissues. This technique involves the permeabilization of fixed mouse embryos and yolk sacs, and primary antibody tagging of the endothelial cell marker platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (Pecam-1). A secondary antibody tagged with a fluorophore targets the primary antibody, fluorescently labeling endothelial cells and revealing vascular networks.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Stephen T Keir, Vidyalakshmi Chandramohan, Carlee D Hemphill, Michael M Grandal, Maria Carlsen Melander, Mikkel W Pedersen, Ivan D Horak, Michael Kragh, Annick Desjardins, Henry S Friedman, Darell D Bigner
BACKGROUND: Sym004 is a mixture of two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), futuximab and modotuximab, targeting non-overlapping epitopes on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Previous studies have shown that Sym004 is more efficient at inducing internalization and degradation of EGFR than individual components, which translates into superior cancer cell inhibition. We investigated whether Sym004 induces removal of EGFRvIII and if this removal translates into tumor growth inhibition in hard-to-treat glioblastomas (GBMs) harboring the mutated, constitutively active EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Hanny Al-Samkari, Rachael F Grace, Jean M Connors
Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is an autoimmune disorder resulting in potentially life-threating systemic thrombotic microangiopathy due to production of antibodies directed against the von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease ADAMTS13. Typically managed with plasma exchange, glucocorticoids, and the first-generation anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, patients with multiple relapses or refractory disease present unique management challenges. We describe a case of a young woman with multiple relapses of TTP despite standard therapy who was treated with ofatumumab, a second-generation anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, after developing a severe hypersensitivity reaction to rituximab precluding its use...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Rikke B Holmstrøm, Ditte V Mogensen, Jørn Brynskov, Mark A Ainsworth, Jacob Nersting, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Casper Steenholdt
BACKGROUND: Interactions between thiopurines and infliximab presumably contribute to superior effect of infliximab-thiopurine combination therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We examined whether principal cytotoxic thiopurine metabolites influence adalimumab (ADL) and anti-ADL antibodies (Abs). METHODS: Ninety-eight IBD patients previously treated with infliximab (96%) in whom trough ADL and anti-ADL Abs had been assessed as part of their clinical care were included...
March 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Victoria Martínez-Sernández, María J Perteguer, Ana Hernández-González, Mercedes Mezo, Marta González-Warleta, Ricardo A Orbegozo-Medina, Fernanda Romarís, Esperanza Paniagua, Teresa Gárate, Florencio M Ubeira
Infections caused by Fasciola hepatica are of great importance in the veterinary field, as they cause important economic losses to livestock producers. Serodiagnostic methods, typically ELISA (with either native or recombinant antigens), are often used for early diagnosis. The use of native antigens, as in the MM3-SERO ELISA (commercialized as BIO K 211, BIO-X Diagnostics), continues to be beneficial in terms of sensitivity and specificity; however, there is interest in developing ELISA tests based on recombinant antigens to avoid the need to culture parasites...
March 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
Zhen-Guo Ma, Jia Dai, Yu-Pei Yuan, Zhou-Yan Bian, Si-Chi Xu, Ya-Ge Jin, Xin Zhang, Qi-Zhu Tang
Previous studies have suggested the involvement of CD4 + T lymphocytes in cardiac remodelling. T-bet can direct Th1 lineage commitment. This study aimed to investigate the functional significance of T-bet in cardiac remodelling induced by pressure overload using T-bet global knockout rats. Increased T-bet levels were observed in rodent and human hypertrophied hearts. T-bet deficiency resulted in a less severe hypertrophic phenotype in rats. CD4 + T-lymphocyte reconstitution in T-bet-/- rats resulted in aggravated cardiac remodelling...
March 21, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
Tatiana V Beketova, Mikhail Y Volkov, Evgeniy A Naryshkin, Tatiana M Novoselova, Evgeniy L Nasonov
Recent advances in pharmacology have greatly expanded the drug repertoire for treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare multisystemic disorder, a type of the ANCA-associated vasculitis. Important features of this disease are eosinophilia and anti-myeloperoxidase ANCA presence in around 30-70% of patients. Primary therapy of EGPA includes steroids and cytotoxic drugs, e.g., cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, or methotrexate...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Michael Willis, Irmgard Leitner, Klaus Seppi, Maria Trieb, Georg Wietzorrek, Josef Marksteiner, Hans-Günther Knaus
In this study, we investigated the tissue expression levels, alpha subunit composition and distribution of Shaker-related voltage-dependent potassium Kv1 channels in human hippocampus by combining western blotting experiments, toxin autoradiography, in vivo radioligand binding studies, immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. Tissue expression of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 α-subunits in human post-mortem brain tissue was confirmed in immunoblot analysis using a panel of specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies...
March 21, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Chuan Loo Wong, Chean Yeah Yong, Azira Muhamad, Amir Syahir, Abdul Rahman Omar, Chin Chin Sieo, Wen Siang Tan
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Despite constant surveillance and effective vaccination, the perpetual mutations of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) pose a huge challenge to FMD diagnosis. The immunodominant region of the FMDV VP1 protein (residues 131-170) displayed on phage T7 has been used to detect anti-FMDV in bovine sera. In the present study, the functional epitope was further delineated using amino acid sequence alignment, homology modelling and phage display...
March 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
P Martijn den Reijer, Mehri Tavakol, Nicole Lemmens-den Toom, Dikra Allouch, Sheila Thomas, Vannakambadi K Ganesh, Ya-Ping Ko, Henri A Verbrugh, Willem J B van Wamel
The fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) is a cell surface-associated protein of Staphylococcus aureus which mediates adherence to the host extracellular matrix and is important for bacterial virulence. Previously, substantial sequence diversity was found among strains in the fibrinogen-binding A domain of this protein, and 7 different isotypes were described. The effect of this sequence diversity on the human antibody response, in terms of both antibody production and antibody function, remains unclear. In this study, we identify five different FnBPA A domain isotypes based on the sequence results of 22 clinical S...
March 2018: MSphere
Adrian J Giovannone, Elena Reales, Pallavi Bhattaram, Alberto Fraile-Ramos, Thomas Weimbs
The uptake and trafficking of cell surface receptors can be monitored by a technique called 'antibody-feeding' which uses an externally applied antibody to label the receptor on the surface of cultured, live cells. Here, we adapt the traditional antibody-feeding experiment to polarized epithelial cells (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney) grown on permeable Transwell supports. By adding two tandem extracellular Myc epitope tags to the C-terminus of the SNARE protein syntaxin 3 (Stx3), we provided a site where an antibody could bind, allowing us to perform antibody-feeding experiments on cells with distinct apical and basolateral membranes...
February 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
Weihsu C Chen, Christopher M Murawsky
Therapeutic molecules derived from antibodies have become a dominant class of drugs used to treat human disease. Increasingly, therapeutic antibodies are discovered using transgenic animal systems that have been engineered to express human antibodies. While the engineering details differ, these platforms share the ability to raise an immune response that is comprised of antibodies with fully human idiotypes. Although the predominant transgenic host species has been mouse, the genomes of rats, rabbits, chickens, and cows have also been modified to express human antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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