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Psychopharmacology Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678368/psychopharmacotherapy-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-with-comorbid-conditions
#1
REVIEW
Ahmed Naguy
One or more comorbidities occur in up to 80% of children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is also over-represented in several special populations. Pharmacotherapy can be challenging in these individuals with other conditions due to a suboptimal therapeutic response and an increased likelihood of adverse reactions. This article reviews the evidence supporting the psychopharmacologic management attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder when it occurs in individuals with common comorbidities...
September 27, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676942/pharmacotherapy-for-schizophrenia-in-postmenopausal-women
#2
Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Mary V Seeman
Reduced estrogen levels at menopause mean a loss of the neuroprotection that is conferred, from puberty until menopause, on women with schizophrenia. The postmenopausal stage of schizophrenia requires therapeutic attention because women with this diagnosis almost invariably experience increased symptoms and increased side effects at this time. So far, few targeted therapies have been successfully developed. Areas covered: This non-systematic, narrative review is based on the relevant published literature indexed in PubMed...
April 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667795/psychopharmacology
#3
Sahil Sekhon, George Kroumpouzos, John Koo
Most dermatologists evaluate and treat patients with psychological or psychiatric issues related to their skin disease. These patients often require psychopharmacologic therapies. Therefore, it is important for dermatologists to be familiar about psychopharmacologic treatments for diseases that fit into the overlap between psychiatry and dermatology. This review aims to provide a concise overview of psychopharmacology as it applies to dermatology. Psychotropic medications commonly used in psychodermatology, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics, are reviewed; safety profile and dosing recommendations are discussed...
April 18, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644439/comparative-effects-of-antidepressant-medications-and-untreated-major-depression-on-pregnancy-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Jentina Mitchell, Janice Goodman
Psychopharmacological treatment of pregnant women is an area of continued controversy; extensive observational research on the use of antidepressant medications in pregnancy has found these medications to be associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. However, depression itself has also been associated with increased risk of those same outcomes, and only recently have researchers begun trying to compare treated with untreated depression. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to integrate those comparative studies and compare risks and benefits...
April 11, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625949/optimizing-electronic-consultation-between-primary-care-providers-and-psychiatrists-mixed-methods-study
#5
Jennifer M Hensel, Rebecca Yang, Minnie Rai, Valerie H Taylor
BACKGROUND: The use of electronic consultation (e-consult) between primary care providers (PCPs) and psychiatrists has potential, given the high prevalence of mental health issues in primary care and problematic access to specialist care. Utilization and uptake, however, appears to be lower than would be expected. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine actual utilization of e-consult between PCPs and psychiatrists and investigate the perceptions of PCPs about this form of psychiatric advice to inform how to optimize the utility and thereby the uptake of this service...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620793/antidepressants-versus-placebo-for-panic-disorder-in-adults
#6
REVIEW
Irene Bighelli, Mariasole Castellazzi, Andrea Cipriani, Francesca Girlanda, Giuseppe Guaiana, Markus Koesters, Giulia Turrini, Toshi A Furukawa, Corrado Barbui
BACKGROUND: Panic disorder is characterised by repeated, unexpected panic attacks, which represent a discrete period of fear or anxiety that has a rapid onset, reaches a peak within 10 minutes, and in which at least four of 13 characteristic symptoms are experienced, including racing heart, chest pain, sweating, shaking, dizziness, flushing, stomach churning, faintness and breathlessness. It is common in the general population with a lifetime prevalence of 1% to 4%. The treatment of panic disorder includes psychological and pharmacological interventions...
April 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596715/psychopharmacology-for-borderline-personality-disorder
#7
Barbara J Limandri
Treating individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex and challenging process fraught with clinician stigma and bias. Clinically, polypharmacy is the most common approach, even though it is more likely to produce greater drug-drug adverse effects and interactions than effective improvement in symptoms. Currently, there are no approved medications specific for the treatment of BPD. The current article reviews the extant literature on psychopharmacology and provides treatment recommendations...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539647/mood-components-in-cocoa-and-chocolate-the-mood-pyramid
#8
Emmy Tuenter, Kenn Foubert, Luc Pieters
Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510813/electronic-monitoring-in-bipolar-disorder
#9
Maria Faurholt-Jepsen
Major reasons for the insufficient effects of current treatment options in bipolar disorder include delayed intervention for prodromal depressive and manic symptoms and decreased adherence to psychopharmacological treatment. The reliance on subjective information and clinical evaluations when diagnosing and assessing the severity of depressive and manic symptoms calls for less biased and more objective markers. By using electronic devices, fine-grained data on complex psychopathological aspects of bipolar disorder can be evaluated unobtrusively over the long term...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495298/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Jérôme Brunelin, Marine Mondino, Rémy Bation, Ulrich Palm, Mohamed Saoud, Emmanuel Poulet
Despite the advances in psychopharmacology and established psychotherapeutic interventions, more than 40% of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to conventional treatment approaches. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been recently proposed as a therapeutic tool to alleviate treatment-resistant symptoms in patients with OCD. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art and future clinical applications of tDCS in patients with OCD...
February 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483339/opinion-on-monoaminergic-contributions-to-traits-and-temperament
#11
REVIEW
T W Robbins
This article critically reviews evidence relating temperamental traits and personality factors to the monoamine neurotransmitters, especially dopamine and serotonin. The genetic evidence is not yet considered to be conclusive and it is argued that basic neuroscience research on the neural basis of behaviour in experimental animals should be taken more into account. While questionnaire and lexical methodology including the 'Five Factor' theory has been informative (mostly for the traits relevant to social functioning, i...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480575/not-all-smokers-appear-to-seek-nicotine-for-the-same-reasons-implications-for-preclinical-research-in-nicotine-dependence
#12
REVIEW
Vernon Garcia-Rivas, Véronique Deroche-Gamonet
Tobacco use leads to 6 million deaths every year due to severe long-lasting diseases. The main component of tobacco, nicotine, is recognized as one of the most addictive drugs, making smoking cessation difficult, even when 70 percent of smokers wish to do so. Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated consistently that nicotine seeking is a complex behavior involving various psychopharmacological mechanisms. Evidence supports that the population of smokers is heterogeneous, particularly as regards the breadth of motives that determine the urge to smoke...
February 26, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477056/the-chemistry-and-pharmacology-of-cleome-genus-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Harpreet Singh, Amrita Mishra, Arun Kumar Mishra
BACKGROUND: Since ancient times, species of Cleome genus are used to cure various ailments in human beings and same is stated in traditional treatises. Each part of the plant has its own significance, therefore, in background of its significance, upto date information in systematic manner is required. PURPOSE: The present review embarks on variety of naturally occurring compounds that have been isolated from various species of Cleome genus. The present study furnishes an overview of all naturally isolated compounds diterpenes, triterpenoids, trinorterpenoids, flavonol glycoside, coumarinolignoids, dipyridodiazepinone, essential oils, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, carboxylic acid derivatives, lactone derivatives, sterols and pharmacological activities of various species of Cleome genus...
February 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460163/noradrenergic-targets-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Carolina L Haass-Koffler, Robert M Swift, Lorenzo Leggio
The role of norepinephrine (NE) in the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been studied over the past several decades. However, the NE system has been largely ignored for many years as a potential target for medication development for AUD. More recently, preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the potential value of targeting NE signaling for developing new pharmacological treatments for AUD. This review contributes to a special issue of Psychopharmacology focused on promising targets for alcohol addiction...
February 20, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447060/treatment-of-selective-mutism-based-on-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-psychopharmacology-and-combination-therapy-a-systematic-review
#15
Kasper Rud Østergaard
BACKGROUND: Selective mutism (SM) is a debilitating childhood anxiety disorder characterized by a persistent lack of speech in certain social settings and is considered hard to treat. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments are the best described treatments in the literature. AIM: To test whether there is evidence on treatment based on CBT, medication or a combination of these. METHODS: Systematic and critical review of the literature on CBT and/or pharmacological treatments of SM...
February 15, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432246/evaluation-and-management-of-the-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Nicole Baumer, Sarah J Spence
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests. This article provides the tools to diagnose and manage patients with autism spectrum disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous condition with varying presentations, multiple etiologies, and a number of comorbidities that impact the course and management of the disorder...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429599/behavioral-nutraceuticals-and-diets
#17
REVIEW
Jillian M Orlando
Behavioral problems of companion animals are becoming more widely recognized. As a result, there are a growing number of behavioral nutraceuticals and diets on the market. These products may be useful for the treatment of mild conditions, for clients who are hesitant to give their pet a psychopharmacologic agent, or sometimes in conjunction with psychopharmacologic agents. Veterinarians should critically review the research associated with nutraceuticals and diets, and have an understanding of the functional ingredients and their mechanisms of action before prescribing treatment...
February 8, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415813/advances-in-behavioral-psychopharmacology
#18
REVIEW
Leslie Sinn
Recent studies have led to some groundbreaking findings regarding the use of medications for the support of behavioral health in dogs and cats. Despite tantalizing results, these studies should be viewed in light of their limitations. Consequently, the results of these studies should be applied in the clinical setting with caution and with a full understanding of the potential pros and cons of using these medications. A review of the research available on trazodone, clonidine, detomidine, dexmedetomidine, propranolol, pindolol, maropitant, memantine, venlafaxine, and gabapentin discusses these pros and cons and highlights key points regarding their clinical use and application...
February 5, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403383/how-realistic-are-the-scientific-assumptions-of-the-neuroenhancement-debate-assessing-the-pharmacological-optimism-and-neuroenhancement-prevalence-hypotheses
#19
Stephan Schleim, Boris B Quednow
Since two decades, neuroenhancement is a major topic in neuroethics and still receives much attention in the scholarly literature as well as in public media. In contrast to high hopes at the beginning of the "Decade of the Brain" in the United States and Europe that we subsume under the "pharmacological optimism hypothesis," recent evidence from clinical neuroscience suggests that developing drugs that make healthy people smarter is even more difficult than finding new treatments for patients with mental disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397661/the-present-and-future-of-precision-medicine-in-psychiatry-focus-on-clinical-psychopharmacology-of-antidepressants
#20
REVIEW
Alessandro Serretti
Precision medicine is a concept which is recently gaining momentum in all branches of medicine. In particular in psychiatry it is greatly needed given the huge societal costs of psychiatric disorders and given the long time needed to observe benefit from treatments and the response variability. The future will be based on biological determinants, however until such an interesting but still futuristic aim will be reached, at present we may only rely on clinical features to guide our individualized prescription which is currently still frequently based on personal opinion and subjective previous experiences...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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