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Psychopharmacology Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224459/effect-of-hallucinogens-on-unconditioned-behavior
#1
Adam L Halberstadt, Mark A Geyer
Because of the ethical and regulatory hurdles associated with human studies, much of what is known about the psychopharmacology of hallucinogens has been derived from animal models. However, developing reliable animal models has proven to be a challenging task due to the complexity and variability of hallucinogen effects in humans. This chapter focuses on three animal models that are frequently used to test the effects of hallucinogens on unconditioned behavior: head twitch response (HTR), prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI), and exploratory behavior...
February 22, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217372/psychotropic-drugs-and-liver-disease-a-critical-review-of-pharmacokinetics-and-liver-toxicity
#2
REVIEW
Diogo Telles-Correia, António Barbosa, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Carlos Campos, Nuno B F Rocha, Sérgio Machado
The liver is the organ by which the majority of substances are metabolized, including psychotropic drugs. There are several pharmacokinetic changes in end-stage liver disease that can interfere with the metabolization of psychotropic drugs. This fact is particularly true in drugs with extensive first-pass metabolism, highly protein bound drugs and drugs depending on phase I hepatic metabolic reactions. Psychopharmacological agents are also associated with a risk of hepatotoxicity. The evidence is insufficient for definite conclusions regarding the prevalence and severity of psychiatric drug-induced liver injury...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199430/-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-conceptualization-and-psychopharmacological-treatment-update
#3
Leandro N Grendas
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by four symptom complexes: the reexperience/intrusion of the traumatic event, a state of hyperarousal when exposed to traumatic events, emotional block and emotional/affective deregulation with negative cognitive and mood alterations. Its evolution tends to be chronic and its related with a significative morbidity, affecting the functionality of the individual in his interpresonal, social and employment areas. In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association includes PTSD in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), and thereafter several research studies are developed to evaluate the effectiveness of drugs on its treatment...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179816/sex-differences-in-the-psychopharmacological-treatment-of-depression
#4
John J Sramek, Michael F Murphy, Neal R Cutler
Although a number of studies have observed that females respond better to serotonergic antidepressants than males and that postmenopausal females have a diminished response to antidepressants compared with younger females, there are also studies that conflict with both of these findings, making any generalizations regarding sex differences difficult to make. Sex variance in antidepressant efficacy and pharmacokinetics profiles have been attributed to sex-based physiological differences, behavioral differences, related disorders, and sex-specific conditions, including pregnancy and menopause...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168943/the-following-abstracts-were-presented-as-posters-at-the-2016-nei-psychopharmacology-congress
#5
(no author information available yet)
Congratulations to the scientific poster winners of the 2016 NEI Psychopharmacology Congress! 1 st Place: A Case Report and Literature Review of Clozapine Re-challenge Titration Schedules (page 26) 2 nd Place: Mental Health Statistics and Suicide Prevention at St. Tammany Parish Jail-2015 (page 41) 3 rd Place: Lithium-Induced Neurotoxicity at Therapeutic Range: Illustrative Cases and Literature Review (page 43).
February 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144744/food-matters-how-the-microbiome-and-gut-brain-interaction-might-impact-the-development-and-course-of-anorexia-nervosa
#6
REVIEW
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Jochen Seitz, John Baines
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in female adolescents and exhibits the highest mortality risk of all psychiatric disorders. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacological interventions is weak. Mounting data indicate that the gut microbiome interacts with the central nervous system and the immune system by neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory afferent and efferent pathways. There is growing evidence that the gut microbiota influences weight regulation and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression...
January 31, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138200/a-review-of-psychopharmacological-interventions-post-disaster-to-prevent-psychiatric-sequelae
#7
REVIEW
Badari Birur, Suresh Bada Math, Rachel E Fargason
BACKGROUND: Disasters are mega-scale catastrophic events which cause trauma and mental health sequelae. A review of early pharmacological interventions for the prevention of psychiatric disorders following disasters is sorely needed. METHODS: A literature search of "Psychiatric Sequelae AND Disasters", "Disaster mental health/Disaster psychiatry", "Psychotropics AND Disasters", and "Drug therapy AND Disasters" yielded 213 articles, 38 of which were included in the review...
January 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129502/likelihood-of-being-helped-or-harmed-as-a-measure-of-clinical-outcomes-in-psychopharmacology
#8
Chittaranjan Andrade
The likelihood of being helped or harmed (LHH) ratio is an indirect measure of effect size. It tells the reader how much as likely a patient is to benefit from a treatment as to suffer from an adverse outcome with that treatment; larger values for LHH indicate more favorable treatment outcomes. The numerator for LHH is usually a measure of response or remission with a treatment, and the denominator is usually a measure of all-cause discontinuation or discontinuation due to adverse events; so, there can be more than 1 LHH statistic for a study...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127962/hitchhiker-s-guide-to-voltammetry-acute-and-chronic-electrodes-for-in-vivo-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry
#9
Nathan T Rodeberg, Stefan G Sandberg, Justin A Johnson, Paul E M Phillips, R Mark Wightman
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has been used for over 20 years to study rapid neurotransmission in awake and behaving animals. These experiments were first carried out with carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMs) encased in borosilicate glass, which can be inserted into the brain through micromanipulators and guide cannulas. More recently, chronically implantable CFMs constructed with small diameter fused-silica have been introduced. These electrodes can be affixed in the brain with minimal tissue response, which permits longitudinal measurements of neurotransmission in single recording locations during behavior...
February 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124100/-treatment-with-psychotropic-agents-in-patients-with-dementia-and-delirium-gap-between-guideline-recommendations-and-treatment-practice
#10
Walter Hewer, Christine Thomas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychiatric symptoms in dementia and delirium are associated with a substantially reduced quality of life of patients and their families and often challenging for professionals. Pharmacoepidemiological surveys have shown that, in particular, patients living in nursing homes receive prescriptions of psychotropic agents in significant higher frequency than recommended by current guidelines. This article focuses on a critical appraisal of this gap from the point of view of German healthcare services...
February 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#11
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099602/psychotropics-in-different-causes-of-itch-systematic-review-with-controlled-studies
#12
Lízie Emanuelle Eulalio Brasileiro, Dayanna Patrícia de Carvalho Barreto, Emerson Arcoverde Nunes
Among the wide range of symptoms neglected or resistant to conventional treatments in clinical practice, itch is emerging gradually as a theme to be studied. Itch complaints and the negative effects in the quality of life are observed in several medical fields. Although the partially obscure pathophysiology, some researchers decided to check and test the use of psychotropic drugs in resistant itch to conventional topical treatments and antihistamines. The objective of this study was to evaluate scientific evidence in psychotropic use in the treatment of itch of various causes...
November 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079675/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-dementia
#13
Orestes V Forlenza, Júlia Cunha Loureiro, Marcos Vasconcelos Pais, Florindo Stella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article addresses intriguing questions related to the clinical intervention in distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes of patients with dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 154 articles published between 2015 and 2016 targeting psychopharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, and safety-tolerability concerns. We selected 115 articles addressing the purpose of this study. Of these, 33 were chosen because they were dedicated to subtopics: agitation (42), depression (33), apathy (18), sleep disorders/anxiety (8), and psychosis (4)...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043839/primary-pediatric-care-psychopharmacology-focus-on-medications-for-adhd-depression-and-anxiety
#14
Jeffrey R Strawn, Eric T Dobson, Lisa L Giles
The evidence base for psychopharmacologic interventions in youth with depressive and anxiety disorders as well as attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has dramatically increased over the past two decades. Psychopharmacologic interventions commonly utilized in the pediatric primary care setting-selective serotonin (norepinephrine) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs/SSNRIs), stimulants and α2 agonists-are reviewed. General pharmacologic principles are summarized along with class-related side effects and tolerability concerns (e...
December 30, 2016: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029083/psychopathological-behaviour-and-cognition-in-morbid-obesity
#15
Alba Calderone, Pasquale Fabio Calabrò, Chita Lippi, Roberta Jaccheri, Jacopo Vitti, Ferruccio Santini
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic condition with high prevalence and multifaceted aetiology, accompanied by an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Obesity has several negative effects on the psychological status, and the severity of psychological disorders correlates with the degree of obesity. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning the psychological distress associated with severe obesity, which contributes to deterioration of the quality of life of affected patients...
December 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993112/understanding-the-pathophysiology-of-premature-ejaculation-bridging-the-link-between-pharmacological-and-psychological-interventions
#16
Hatta Sidi, Farid Yusof, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Jaya Kumar, Muhammd Hizri Hatta
Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the commonest male sexual dysfunctions. It is characterized by ejaculation which occurs before or soon after vaginal penetration, which causes significant psychological distress to the individual, and his partner. The exact cause of PE is still unknown but several mechanisms are proposed, and these involve complex interactions of neurophysiological, psychosocial, and cognitive factors. We discuss the role of serotonin, nitric oxide, phosphodiesterase enzymes and other neurotransmitters...
December 15, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940734/addressing-early-childhood-emotional-and-behavioral-problems
#17
Mary Margaret Gleason, Edward Goldson, Michael W Yogman
More than 10% of young children experience clinically significant mental health problems, with rates of impairment and persistence comparable to those seen in older children. For many of these clinical disorders, effective treatments supported by rigorous data are available. On the other hand, rigorous support for psychopharmacologic interventions is limited to 2 large randomized controlled trials. Access to psychotherapeutic interventions is limited. The pediatrician has a critical role as the leader of the medical home to promote well-being that includes emotional, behavioral, and relationship health...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933099/treating-nonsuicidal-self-injury-nssi-in-adolescents-consensus-based-german-guidelines
#18
Paul L Plener, Romuald Brunner, Jörg M Fegert, Rebecca C Groschwitz, Tina In-Albon, Michael Kaess, Nestor D Kapusta, Franz Resch, Katja Becker
BACKGROUND: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a frequent and clinically relevant phenomenon in adolescence. Within Europe, Germany has one of the highest prevalence rates in youth with lifetime prevalence ranging between 25 and 35%. However, treatment guidelines for NSSI are not yet available. METHODS: Consensus based clinical guidelines were created by a working group consisting of members of eleven medical, psychological or psychotherapeutic professional national associations, and two members of patient self-help and prevention groups...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906413/comparison-of-psychodrug-prescription-patterns-in-patients-diagnosed-with-bipolar-disorder-and-addiction
#19
Diego Barral, Fátima Barral, Nuria Cruz, Juan D Molina, Victoria Sánchez, Teresa Rosique
OBJECTIVE: To describe if there are differences in the prescription of psychodrug at discharge between bipolar disorder patients with or without addiction. METHODS: We review all the psychotropic drugs dispensed to inpatients of a brief hospitalization psychiatric unit diagnosed as having bipolar disorder at time of discharge. We recluted 225 patients over 18 years old on their last manic episode, between the year 2000 and 2010. We classify them according to the comorbid presence or not of a substance abuse or dependence disorder...
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891052/from-ethanol-to-salsolinol-role-of-ethanol-metabolites-in-the-effects-of-ethanol
#20
REVIEW
Alessandra T Peana, Michela Rosas, Simona Porru, Elio Acquas
In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
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