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Psychopharmacology Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#1
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405955/cutaneous-adverse-reaction-during-lithium-treatment-a-case-report-and-updated-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#2
Martina Pinna, Mirko Manchia, Sergio Puddu, Giampaolo Minnai, Leonardo Tondo, Piergiorgio Salis
OBJECTIVES: To present a new case of adverse cutaneous reaction during lithium treatment and to update the systematic review and meta-analysis of the incidence of this adverse reaction. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search (performed in September 2016) for peer-reviewed articles in English indexed in Medline (2011-present). Meta-analytical estimates were obtained using the "Metafor" package. CASE PRESENTATION: Ms. H., a 31-year-old Caucasian woman with BD1, was admitted to the inpatient unit for a full-blown psychotic episode and treated with carbamazepine 400 mg q...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378993/serotonin-dysfunction-aggressive-behavior-and-mental-illness-exploring-the-link-using-a-dimensional-approach
#3
Mirko Manchia, Bernardo Carpiniello, Flavia Valtorta, Stefano Comai
Aggressive individuals have higher rates of mental illness compared to non-aggressive individuals. Multiple factors, including psychosocial, genetic, and neurobiological determinants modulate the liability to both aggressive behavior and mental illness. Concerning the latter factors, multiple lines of evidence have shown a dysfunction in the serotonin (5-HT) system occurring in aggressive and in mentally ill individuals. In particular, reduced 5-HT activity has been associated with depression as well as with aggressive behavior, especially with impulsive aggression...
April 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377723/multiple-psychopharmacological-effects-of-the-traditional-japanese-kampo-medicine-yokukansan-and-the-brain-regions-it-affects
#4
REVIEW
Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi
Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357192/psychopharmacology-of-tobacco-and-alcohol-comorbidity-a-review-of-current-evidence
#5
REVIEW
Sally Adams
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Comorbidity of alcohol and tobacco use is highly prevalent and may exacerbate the health effects of either substance alone. However, the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are not well understood. This review will examine the evidence for shared neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol and nicotine comorbidity and experimental studies of the behavioural consequences of these interactions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examining the shared neurobiology of alcohol and nicotine have identified two main mechanisms of comorbidity: (1) cross-reinforcement via the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and (2) cross-tolerance via shared genetic and nAChR interaction...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321467/-sexual-dysfunction-associated-with-psychotropic-drugs-and-treatment-options
#6
M Berner
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction associated with psychotropic drugs is a threat to patient quality of life and a major reason for non-compliance. Psychotropic agents can impair the sexual response in different ways due to their neurobiological mode of action. OBJECTIVE: Presentation of the frequencies of sexual functional disorders for selected psychopharmacological groups and the available treatment modalities. METHODS: Literature search, selection and review of relevant studies...
March 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315191/non-suicidal-self-injury-in-adolescence
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca C Brown, Paul L Plener
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common mental health threat among adolescents. This review aims to present the current literature on epidemiology, etiology, and therapeutic approaches with a focus on the period of adolescence. RECENT FINDINGS: NSSI is widespread among adolescents both in community as well as in clinical settings with lifetime prevalence rates between 17 and 60% in recent studies. It is influenced by multiple factors including social contagion, interpersonal stressors, neurobiological background, as well as emotional dysregulation and adverse experiences in childhood...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306564/psychopharmacological-treatment-of-schizophrenia-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#8
Alexandra B Whitworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is necessary, in every-day clinical life when treating pregnant women with mental diseases, to reach quick decisions derived from recent comprehensive information. The knowledge of the use of antipsychotics in pregnancy has increased considerably in the last years. This review tries to summarize important considerations and facilitate clinical decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will cover not only the effects of exposure during pregnancy on outcomes, postnatal adaption syndrome and lactation, but also pharmacokinetic considerations on the use of antipsychotics during pregnancy...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289782/neuro-psychopharmacological-perspective-of-orphan-receptors-of-rhodopsin-class-a-family-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Zahid Khan, Ling He
BACKGROUND: In the central nervous system (CNS), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most fruitful targets for neuropsychopharmacological drug development. Rhodopsin (class A) is the most studied class of GPCR and includes orphan receptors for which the endogenous ligand is not known or is unclear. Characterization of orphan GPCRs has proven to be challenging, and the production pace of GPCR-based drugs has been incredibly slow. OBJECTIVE: Determination of the functions of these receptors may provide unexpected insight into physiological and neuropathological processes...
April 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282076/-concepts-applied-to-psychiatry-pharmacogenomics
#10
María A Zorrilla Zubilete
Pharmacogenetics studies the action of a drug in order to predict the response based on the genetic makeup of an individual. The objective of pharmacogenetic studies is to minimize the adverse effects and to ensure therapeutic benefit. Since psychotropic drugs have a high rate of variability in patient response, the aim of this paper is to update the pharmacogenetic concepts in psychopharmacology in a review that provides tools for rigorous analysis when prescribing a psychotropic drug. The purpose of clinical pharmacogenetic testing is to be able to distinguish between patients who are more or less responders to certain drugs, or on contrary, who are at increased risk for adverse events...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243210/the-obesity-impulsivity-axis-potential-metabolic-interventions-in-chronic-psychiatric-patients
#11
REVIEW
Adonis Sfera, Carolina Osorio, Luzmin Acosta Inderias, Victoria Parker, Amy I Price, Michael Cummings
Pathological impulsivity is encountered in a broad range of psychiatric conditions and is thought to be a risk factor for aggression directed against oneself or others. Recently, a strong association was found between impulsivity and obesity which may explain the high prevalence of metabolic disorders in individuals with mental illness even in the absence of exposure to psychotropic drugs. As the overlapping neurobiology of impulsivity and obesity is being unraveled, the question asked louder and louder is whether they should be treated concomitantly...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224459/effect-of-hallucinogens-on-unconditioned-behavior
#12
Adam L Halberstadt, Mark A Geyer
Because of the ethical and regulatory hurdles associated with human studies, much of what is known about the psychopharmacology of hallucinogens has been derived from animal models. However, developing reliable animal models has proven to be a challenging task due to the complexity and variability of hallucinogen effects in humans. This chapter focuses on three animal models that are frequently used to test the effects of hallucinogens on unconditioned behavior: head twitch response (HTR), prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI), and exploratory behavior...
February 22, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217372/psychotropic-drugs-and-liver-disease-a-critical-review-of-pharmacokinetics-and-liver-toxicity
#13
REVIEW
Diogo Telles-Correia, António Barbosa, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Carlos Campos, Nuno B F Rocha, Sérgio Machado
The liver is the organ by which the majority of substances are metabolized, including psychotropic drugs. There are several pharmacokinetic changes in end-stage liver disease that can interfere with the metabolization of psychotropic drugs. This fact is particularly true in drugs with extensive first-pass metabolism, highly protein bound drugs and drugs depending on phase I hepatic metabolic reactions. Psychopharmacological agents are also associated with a risk of hepatotoxicity. The evidence is insufficient for definite conclusions regarding the prevalence and severity of psychiatric drug-induced liver injury...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199430/-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-conceptualization-and-psychopharmacological-treatment-update
#14
Leandro N Grendas
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by four symptom complexes: the reexperience/intrusion of the traumatic event, a state of hyperarousal when exposed to traumatic events, emotional block and emotional/affective deregulation with negative cognitive and mood alterations. Its evolution tends to be chronic and its related with a significative morbidity, affecting the functionality of the individual in his interpresonal, social and employment areas. In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association includes PTSD in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), and thereafter several research studies are developed to evaluate the effectiveness of drugs on its treatment...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179816/sex-differences-in-the-psychopharmacological-treatment-of-depression
#15
John J Sramek, Michael F Murphy, Neal R Cutler
Although a number of studies have observed that females respond better to serotonergic antidepressants than males and that postmenopausal females have a diminished response to antidepressants compared with younger females, there are also studies that conflict with both of these findings, making any generalizations regarding sex differences difficult to make. Sex variance in antidepressant efficacy and pharmacokinetics profiles have been attributed to sex-based physiological differences, behavioral differences, related disorders, and sex-specific conditions, including pregnancy and menopause...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168943/the-following-abstracts-were-presented-as-posters-at-the-2016-nei-psychopharmacology-congress
#16
(no author information available yet)
Congratulations to the scientific poster winners of the 2016 NEI Psychopharmacology Congress! 1 st Place: A Case Report and Literature Review of Clozapine Re-challenge Titration Schedules (page 26) 2 nd Place: Mental Health Statistics and Suicide Prevention at St. Tammany Parish Jail-2015 (page 41) 3 rd Place: Lithium-Induced Neurotoxicity at Therapeutic Range: Illustrative Cases and Literature Review (page 43).
February 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144744/food-matters-how-the-microbiome-and-gut-brain-interaction-might-impact-the-development-and-course-of-anorexia-nervosa
#17
REVIEW
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Jochen Seitz, John Baines
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in female adolescents and exhibits the highest mortality risk of all psychiatric disorders. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacological interventions is weak. Mounting data indicate that the gut microbiome interacts with the central nervous system and the immune system by neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory afferent and efferent pathways. There is growing evidence that the gut microbiota influences weight regulation and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression...
January 31, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138200/a-review-of-psychopharmacological-interventions-post-disaster-to-prevent-psychiatric-sequelae
#18
REVIEW
Badari Birur, Suresh Bada Math, Rachel E Fargason
BACKGROUND: Disasters are mega-scale catastrophic events which cause trauma and mental health sequelae. A review of early pharmacological interventions for the prevention of psychiatric disorders following disasters is sorely needed. METHODS: A literature search of "Psychiatric Sequelae AND Disasters", "Disaster mental health/Disaster psychiatry", "Psychotropics AND Disasters", and "Drug therapy AND Disasters" yielded 213 articles, 38 of which were included in the review...
January 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129502/likelihood-of-being-helped-or-harmed-as-a-measure-of-clinical-outcomes-in-psychopharmacology
#19
Chittaranjan Andrade
The likelihood of being helped or harmed (LHH) ratio is an indirect measure of effect size. It tells the reader how much as likely a patient is to benefit from a treatment as to suffer from an adverse outcome with that treatment; larger values for LHH indicate more favorable treatment outcomes. The numerator for LHH is usually a measure of response or remission with a treatment, and the denominator is usually a measure of all-cause discontinuation or discontinuation due to adverse events; so, there can be more than 1 LHH statistic for a study...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127962/hitchhiker-s-guide-to-voltammetry-acute-and-chronic-electrodes-for-in-vivo-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry
#20
Nathan T Rodeberg, Stefan G Sandberg, Justin A Johnson, Paul E M Phillips, R Mark Wightman
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has been used for over 20 years to study rapid neurotransmission in awake and behaving animals. These experiments were first carried out with carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMs) encased in borosilicate glass, which can be inserted into the brain through micromanipulators and guide cannulas. More recently, chronically implantable CFMs constructed with small diameter fused-silica have been introduced. These electrodes can be affixed in the brain with minimal tissue response, which permits longitudinal measurements of neurotransmission in single recording locations during behavior...
February 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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