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Psychopharmacology Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079675/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-dementia
#1
Orestes V Forlenza, Júlia Cunha Loureiro, Marcos Vasconcelos Pais, Florindo Stella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article addresses intriguing questions related to the clinical intervention in distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes of patients with dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 154 articles published between 2015 and 2016 targeting psychopharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, and safety-tolerability concerns. We selected 115 articles addressing the purpose of this study. Of these, 33 were chosen because they were dedicated to subtopics: agitation (42), depression (33), apathy (18), sleep disorders/anxiety (8), and psychosis (4)...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043839/primary-pediatric-care-psychopharmacology-focus-on-medications-for-adhd-depression-and-anxiety
#2
Jeffrey R Strawn, Eric T Dobson, Lisa L Giles
The evidence base for psychopharmacologic interventions in youth with depressive and anxiety disorders as well as attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has dramatically increased over the past two decades. Psychopharmacologic interventions commonly utilized in the pediatric primary care setting-selective serotonin (norepinephrine) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs/SSNRIs), stimulants and α2 agonists-are reviewed. General pharmacologic principles are summarized along with class-related side effects and tolerability concerns (e...
December 30, 2016: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029083/psychopathological-behaviour-and-cognition-in-morbid-obesity
#3
Alba Calderone, Pasquale Fabio Calabrò, Chita Lippi, Roberta Jaccheri, Jacopo Vitti, Ferruccio Santini
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic condition with high prevalence and multifaceted aetiology, accompanied by an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Obesity has several negative effects on the psychological status, and the severity of psychological disorders correlates with the degree of obesity. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning the psychological distress associated with severe obesity, which contributes to deterioration of the quality of life of affected patients...
December 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993112/understanding-the-pathophysiology-of-premature-ejaculation-bridging-the-link-between-pharmacological-and-psychological-interventions
#4
Hatta Sidi, Farid Yusof, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Jaya Kumar, Muhammd Hizri Hatta
Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the commonest male sexual dysfunctions. It is characterized by ejaculation which occurs before or soon after vaginal penetration, which causes significant psychological distress to the individual, and his partner. The exact cause of PE is still unknown but several mechanisms are proposed, and these involve complex interactions of neurophysiological, psychosocial, and cognitive factors. We discuss the role of serotonin, nitric oxide, phosphodiesterase enzymes and other neurotransmitters...
December 15, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940734/addressing-early-childhood-emotional-and-behavioral-problems
#5
Mary Margaret Gleason, Edward Goldson, Michael W Yogman
More than 10% of young children experience clinically significant mental health problems, with rates of impairment and persistence comparable to those seen in older children. For many of these clinical disorders, effective treatments supported by rigorous data are available. On the other hand, rigorous support for psychopharmacologic interventions is limited to 2 large randomized controlled trials. Access to psychotherapeutic interventions is limited. The pediatrician has a critical role as the leader of the medical home to promote well-being that includes emotional, behavioral, and relationship health...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933099/treating-nonsuicidal-self-injury-nssi-in-adolescents-consensus-based-german-guidelines
#6
Paul L Plener, Romuald Brunner, Jörg M Fegert, Rebecca C Groschwitz, Tina In-Albon, Michael Kaess, Nestor D Kapusta, Franz Resch, Katja Becker
BACKGROUND: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a frequent and clinically relevant phenomenon in adolescence. Within Europe, Germany has one of the highest prevalence rates in youth with lifetime prevalence ranging between 25 and 35%. However, treatment guidelines for NSSI are not yet available. METHODS: Consensus based clinical guidelines were created by a working group consisting of members of eleven medical, psychological or psychotherapeutic professional national associations, and two members of patient self-help and prevention groups...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906413/comparison-of-psychodrug-prescription-patterns-in-patients-diagnosed-with-bipolar-disorder-and-addiction
#7
Diego Barral, Fátima Barral, Nuria Cruz, Juan D Molina, Victoria Sánchez, Teresa Rosique
OBJECTIVE: To describe if there are differences in the prescription of psychodrug at discharge between bipolar disorder patients with or without addiction. METHODS: We review all the psychotropic drugs dispensed to inpatients of a brief hospitalization psychiatric unit diagnosed as having bipolar disorder at time of discharge. We recluted 225 patients over 18 years old on their last manic episode, between the year 2000 and 2010. We classify them according to the comorbid presence or not of a substance abuse or dependence disorder...
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891052/from-ethanol-to-salsolinol-role-of-ethanol-metabolites-in-the-effects-of-ethanol
#8
REVIEW
Alessandra T Peana, Michela Rosas, Simona Porru, Elio Acquas
In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872001/psychosocial-approaches-for-sexual-health-and-intimate-relationships-among-patients-with-serious-mental-illness
#9
REVIEW
Paula Helu-Brown, Maria Aranda
INTRODUCTION: The sexual health and behavior and the intimate relationships of patients diagnosed with a serious mental illness (SMI) have been described as ongoing and often ignored concerns in mental health treatment. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions have emerged as effective complimentary approaches to address symptoms of SMI in conjunction with psychopharmacology, yet rarely do they address sexual concerns in a targeted manner. AIM: This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of psychosocial interventions designed to address sexual health and behavior and intimate relationship concerns in patients with SMI...
January 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816941/the-international-college-of-neuro-psychopharmacology-cinp-treatment-guidelines-for-bipolar-disorder-in-adults-cinp-bd-2017-part-2-review-grading-of-the-evidence-and-a-precise-algorithm
#10
REVIEW
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Lakshmi Yatham, Heinz Grunze, Eduard Vieta, Allan Young, Pierre Blier, Siegfried Kasper, Hans Jurgen Moeller
BACKGROUND: The current paper includes a systematic search of the literature, a detailed presentation of the results, and a grading of treatment options in terms of efficacy and tolerability/safety. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PRISMA method was used in the literature search with the combination of the words 'bipolar,' 'manic,' 'mania,' 'manic depression,' and 'manic depressive' with 'randomized,' and 'algorithms' with 'mania,' 'manic,' 'bipolar,' 'manic-depressive,' or 'manic depression...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766371/nicotine-self-administration-research-the-legacy-of-steven-r-goldberg-and-implications-for-regulation-health-policy-and-research
#11
Jack E Henningfield, Tracy T Smith, Bethea A Kleykamp, Reginald V Fant, Eric C Donny
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Steven R. Goldberg was a pioneering behavioral pharmacologist whose intravenous drug self-administration studies advanced the understanding of conditioned stimuli and schedules of reinforcement as determinants of pattern and persistence of drug-seeking behavior, and in particular, the importance of nicotine in tobacco use. His passing in 2014 led to invitations to contribute articles to psychopharmacology dedicated to his work. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to summarize and put into historical perspective Goldberg's contributions to elucidate the reinforcing effects of nicotine and to summarize the implications of his research for medication development, tobacco regulation, and potential tobacco control policy options...
October 21, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755051/protocol-for-psychopharmacologic-management-of-behavioral-health-comorbidity-in-adult-patients-with-diabetes-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-setting
#12
Aaron Pinkhasov, Deepan Singh, Benjamin Kashan, Julie DiGregorio, Theresa M Criscitelli, Scott Gorenstein, Harold Brem
GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide information about the effect of psychiatric comorbidities on wound healing in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Discuss the connection between DM and the development of psychiatric comorbidities...
November 2016: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737474/pharmacotherapy-in-psychiatric-disorders-of-children-current-evidence-and-trends
#13
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726982/placebo-response-rates-in-antidepressant-trials-a-systematic-review-of-published-and-unpublished-double-blind-randomised-controlled-studies
#14
Toshi A Furukawa, Andrea Cipriani, Lauren Z Atkinson, Stefan Leucht, Yusuke Ogawa, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Anna Chaimani, Georgia Salanti
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that placebo response rates in antidepressant trials have been increasing since the 1970s. However, these studies have been based on outdated or limited datasets and have used inappropriate statistical methods. We did a systematic review of placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials of antidepressants to examine associations between placebo-response rates and study and patient characteristics. METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched for published and unpublished double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trials of first-generation and second-generation antidepressants for acute treatment of major depression in adults (update: Jan 8, 2016)...
November 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726426/no-apparent-cardiac-conduction-effects-of-acute-treatment-with-risperidone-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Lan Chi Vo, Christopher Snyder, Courtney McCracken, Christopher J McDougle, James T McCracken, Michael G Aman, Elaine Tierney, L Eugene Arnold, Daniel Levi, Michael Kelleman, Deirdre Carroll, John Morrissey, Benedetto Vitiello, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVES: Risperidone is approved for the treatment of serious behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of risperidone on cardiac conduction in children with ASD. METHODS: Data were collected from an 8-week, five-site trial conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. Children (age 5-17 years) were randomly assigned to risperidone (n = 49) or placebo (n = 52) under double-blind conditions...
December 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718466/mental-disorders-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients-under-antiviral-treatment-for-hepatitis-c
#16
REVIEW
Marta Martin-Subero, Crisanto Diez-Quevedo
This paper aims to review the epidemiology and management of mental disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, the need for antiviral therapy in this specific population, and current treatment strategies for HIV/HCV patients with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. This is a narrative review. Data was sourced from electronic databases and was not limited by language or date of publication. HIV infection has become a survivable chronic illness. Prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected patients is high ranging from 50% to 90%...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715317/treatment-of-substance-use-disorders-in-schizophrenia
#17
Melanie E Bennett, Kristin R Bradshaw, Lauren T Catalano
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) represent a great barrier to functional recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. It is important to use research on treatment of SUDs in schizophrenia to guide treatment recommendations and program planning. OBJECTIVES: We review studies of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions to treat SUDs in individuals with schizophrenia. METHODS: The criteria used to select studies for inclusion are (1) the percentage of the sample with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis is at least 25%; (2) participants have a comorbid SUD or problem use of substances; (3) an intervention for SUD is provided; (4) a substance use-related outcome is measured; and (5) the study design enabled examination of pre-post outcome measures including open label trials, nonrandomized evaluations (quasi-experimental designs, nonrandom assignment to groups), or randomized controlled trials...
August 9, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703755/long-term-antipsychotic-treatment-in-schizophrenia-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#18
Ying Jiao Zhao, Liang Lin, Monica Teng, Ai Leng Khoo, Lay Beng Soh, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Ross J Baldessarini, Boon Peng Lim, Kang Sim
BACKGROUND: For treatment of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, comparative long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs to reduce relapses when minimising adverse effects is of clinical interest, hence prompting this review. AIMS: To evaluate the comparative long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs. METHOD: We systematically searched electronic databases for reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotic monotherapy aimed at reducing relapse risks in schizophrenia...
January 2016: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678088/neurobehavioural-sequelae-of-social-deprivation-in-rodents-revisited-modelling-social-adversity-for-developmental-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#19
T W Robbins
The significance of investigating effects of deprivation of social experience in rodents is reviewed in the context of the review by Robbins et al. (1996) in the Journal of Psychopharmacology (10: 39-47). The early development of the paradigm by which rats were reared post-weaning in social isolation is described and compared with other early experience manipulations. The specification of the neural and behavioural phenotype of the isolate is brought up-to-date, focusing on changes in motivation and cognitive function, as well as on contrasting changes in the dopamine and serotonin systems, and in cortical (including hippocampal) structure and function...
November 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649377/importance-of-a-specialty-clinic-for-individuals-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#20
Jeannie Visootsak, Sharon A Kidd, Tovi Anderson, Julia L Bassell, Stephanie L Sherman, Elizabeth M Berry-Kravis
Advances in human genetics have identified a significant number of genetic disorders associated with intellectual disability. As a result, appropriate clinical management of these affected individuals and their family members have become critical in addressing medical needs to improve quality of life. We examine the importance of a Fragile X Clinic for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and their family members by conducting a retrospective chart review of 123 new patients with FXS evaluated at the Fragile X Clinic at Emory University...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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