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Psychopharmacology Review

Aaron Pinkhasov, Deepan Singh, Benjamin Kashan, Julie DiGregorio, Theresa M Criscitelli, Scott Gorenstein, Harold Brem
GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide information about the effect of psychiatric comorbidities on wound healing in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Discuss the connection between DM and the development of psychiatric comorbidities...
November 2016: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Toshi A Furukawa, Andrea Cipriani, Lauren Z Atkinson, Stefan Leucht, Yusuke Ogawa, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Anna Chaimani, Georgia Salanti
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that placebo response rates in antidepressant trials have been increasing since the 1970s. However, these studies have been based on outdated or limited datasets and have used inappropriate statistical methods. We did a systematic review of placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials of antidepressants to examine associations between placebo-response rates and study and patient characteristics. METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched for published and unpublished double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trials of first-generation and second-generation antidepressants for acute treatment of major depression in adults (update: Jan 8, 2016)...
October 7, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Lan Chi Vo, Christopher Snyder, Courtney McCracken, Christopher J McDougle, James T McCracken, Michael G Aman, Elaine Tierney, L Eugene Arnold, Daniel Levi, Michael Kelleman, Deirdre Carroll, John Morrissey, Benedetto Vitiello, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVES: Risperidone is approved for the treatment of serious behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of risperidone on cardiac conduction in children with ASD. METHODS: Data were collected from an 8-week, five-site trial conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. Children (age 5-17 years) were randomly assigned to risperidone (n = 49) or placebo (n = 52) under double-blind conditions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Marta Martin-Subero, Crisanto Diez-Quevedo
This paper aims to review the epidemiology and management of mental disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, the need for antiviral therapy in this specific population, and current treatment strategies for HIV/HCV patients with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. This is a narrative review. Data was sourced from electronic databases and was not limited by language or date of publication. HIV infection has become a survivable chronic illness. Prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected patients is high ranging from 50% to 90%...
September 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Melanie E Bennett, Kristin R Bradshaw, Lauren T Catalano
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) represent a great barrier to functional recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. It is important to use research on treatment of SUDs in schizophrenia to guide treatment recommendations and program planning. OBJECTIVES: We review studies of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions to treat SUDs in individuals with schizophrenia. METHODS: The criteria used to select studies for inclusion are (1) the percentage of the sample with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis is at least 25%; (2) participants have a comorbid SUD or problem use of substances; (3) an intervention for SUD is provided; (4) a substance use-related outcome is measured; and (5) the study design enabled examination of pre-post outcome measures including open label trials, nonrandomized evaluations (quasi-experimental designs, nonrandom assignment to groups), or randomized controlled trials...
August 9, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Ying Jiao Zhao, Liang Lin, Monica Teng, Ai Leng Khoo, Lay Beng Soh, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Ross J Baldessarini, Boon Peng Lim, Kang Sim
BACKGROUND: For treatment of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, comparative long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs to reduce relapses when minimising adverse effects is of clinical interest, hence prompting this review. AIMS: To evaluate the comparative long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs. METHOD: We systematically searched electronic databases for reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotic monotherapy aimed at reducing relapse risks in schizophrenia...
January 2016: BJPsych Open
T W Robbins
The significance of investigating effects of deprivation of social experience in rodents is reviewed in the context of the review by Robbins et al. (1996) in the Journal of Psychopharmacology (10: 39-47). The early development of the paradigm by which rats were reared post-weaning in social isolation is described and compared with other early experience manipulations. The specification of the neural and behavioural phenotype of the isolate is brought up-to-date, focusing on changes in motivation and cognitive function, as well as on contrasting changes in the dopamine and serotonin systems, and in cortical (including hippocampal) structure and function...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Jeannie Visootsak, Sharon A Kidd, Tovi Anderson, Julia L Bassell, Stephanie L Sherman, Elizabeth M Berry-Kravis
Advances in human genetics have identified a significant number of genetic disorders associated with intellectual disability. As a result, appropriate clinical management of these affected individuals and their family members have become critical in addressing medical needs to improve quality of life. We examine the importance of a Fragile X Clinic for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and their family members by conducting a retrospective chart review of 123 new patients with FXS evaluated at the Fragile X Clinic at Emory University...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Yuanjia Zhu, Tiwalola Kolawole, Xavier F Jimenez
Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant that is structurally similar to amphetamines. Its primary toxic effects include seizure, sinus tachycardia, hypertension, and agitation; however, at higher amounts of ingestion, paradoxical cardiac effects are seen. We report the case of a 21-year-old woman who ingested 13.5 g of bupropion, a dose higher than any other previously reported. The patient presented with seizure, sinus tachycardia with prolonged QTc and QRS intervals, dilated pupils, and agitation. Four days after overdose, the patient's sinus tachycardia and prolonged QTc and QRS intervals resolved with symptomatic management, but she soon developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, and mild transaminitis...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Irene Bighelli, Carlotta Trespidi, Mariasole Castellazzi, Andrea Cipriani, Toshi A Furukawa, Francesca Girlanda, Giuseppe Guaiana, Markus Koesters, Corrado Barbui
BACKGROUND: A panic attack is a discrete period of fear or anxiety that has a rapid onset, reaches a peak within 10 minutes and in which at least four of 13 characteristic symptoms are experienced, including racing heart, chest pain, sweating, shaking, dizziness, flushing, stomach churning, faintness and breathlessness. Panic disorder is common in the general population with a lifetime prevalence of 1% to 4%. The treatment of panic disorder includes psychological and pharmacological interventions...
September 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Charles Laidi, Josselin Houenou
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have contributed to the understanding of bipolar disorder. However the effect of medication on brain activation remains poorly understood. We conducted an extensive literature review on PubMed and ScienceDirect to investigate the influence of medication in fMRI studies, including both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, which aimed at assessing this influence. Although we reported all reviewed studies, we gave greater emphasis to studies with the most robust methodology...
September 8, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jessica Brian, Krissy Doyle-Thomas, Danielle Baribeau, Evdokia Anagnostou
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by marked heterogeneity in biology, expression, and response to treatment. The past decade has yielded considerable progress in understanding the underlying biological mechanisms, in characterizing the earliest behavioral phenotype(s), and in developing and evaluating effective treatments for ASD. This review highlights recent research advances in genetics and neuroimaging, as well as in novel behavioral and psychopharmacological treatment approaches, arguing for the value of trans-disciplinary initiatives to move the field forward exponentially...
August 2016: Discovery Medicine
Vickie Auclair, Philippe-Olivier Harvey, Martin Lepage
Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Neal R Swerdlow, David L Braff, Mark A Geyer
Our 1992 paper, 'The neural substrates of sensorimotor gating of the startle reflex: a review of recent findings and their implications', reviewed a series of (then) new and preliminary findings from cross-species studies of prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex, and commented on their implications. At the time that the report was composed, PubMed listed about 40 citations for studies using the search term 'prepulse inhibition'. In the ensuing 25 years, the field has added about 2700 such reports, reflecting the substantial growth in interest in prepulse inhibition and its utility across a number of different experimental applications...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Rona Jeannie Roberts, Lillian Jan Findlay, Peggy L El-Mallakh, Rif S El-Mallakh
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe psychiatric disorders that are frequently associated with persistent symptoms and significant dysfunction. While there are a multitude of psychopharmacologic agents are available for treatment of these illnesses, suboptimal response and significant adverse consequences limit their utility. Cariprazine is a new, novel antipsychotic medication with dopamine D2 and D3 partial agonist effects. Its safety and efficacy have been investigated in acute psychosis of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, and unipolar depression...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Julie Kreyenbuhl, Elizabeth J Record, Jessica Palmer-Bacon
Nonadherence to psychopharmacological treatments poses a significant challenge to treatment success in individuals with serious mental illness, with upwards of 60% of people not taking their psychiatric medications as prescribed. Nonadherence is associated with adverse outcomes, including exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms, impaired functioning, increased hospitalizations and emergency room use, and increased health care costs. Whereas interventions using psychoeducation or cognitive approaches, such as motivational interviewing, have largely proven ineffective in improving adherence, approaches employing behavioral tailoring that incorporate medication taking into the daily routine and/or use environmental supports have shown promise...
June 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Thomas Fovet, Natasza Orlov, Miriam Dyck, Paul Allen, Klaus Mathiak, Renaud Jardri
Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yakov Shapiro, Nicholas John, Rowan Scott, Nadia Tomy
In the first article in this 2-part series, we outlined a psychobiological model of psychiatric treatment and reviewed the evidence showing psychotherapy to be a form of biological intervention that induces lasting alterations in brain structure and function. In this second article, we focus on the adaptive model of psychopathology, the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions, the synergistic effects of combined psychotherapy and psychopharmacology treatments, and attention to the patient's subjective experience and the doctor-patient alliance to complement an "objective" case formulation...
July 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Ayelet Talmi, Emily F Muther, Kate Margolis, Melissa Buchholz, Ryan Asherin, Maya Bunik
OBJECTIVE: The current study examines the scope of integrated behavioral health services provided by behavioral health clinicians in pediatric primary care. METHODS: A cross-sectional electronic health record review was conducted to characterize integrated behavioral health services including consultation types, recommendations, and medical diagnoses. Services were provided over a 6-year period in an urban, residency-training clinic serving a primarily publicly insured population...
July 17, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
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