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Quadriceps inhibition

I Kafantaris, B Kotsampasi, V Christodoulou, E Kokka, P Kouka, Z Terzopoulou, K Gerasopoulos, D Stagos, C Mitsagga, I Giavasis, S Makri, K Petrotos, D Kouretas
Grape pomace is a by-product of winemaking process and rich in bioactive compounds such as plant polyphenols having antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. As known, oxidative stress may cause a number of pathological conditions in farm animals and thus affecting animal welfare and production. Moreover, pathogenic bacteria affect animals' health status. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether lambs' feed supplemented with grape pomace enhances the antioxidant mechanisms and reduces the growth of pathogenic bacteria...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Min Park, Vincent Kaddai, Jianhong Ching, Kevin T Fridianto, Ryan J Sieli, Shigeki Sugii, Scott A Summers
The accumulation of sphingolipids in obesity leads to impairments in insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial metabolism, but the precise species driving these defects is unclear. We have modelled these obesity-induced effects in cultured C2C12 myotubes, using BSA-conjugated palmitate to increase synthesis of endogenous sphingolipids and inhibit insulin signaling and oxidative phosphorylation. Palmitate (a) induced the accumulation of SM precursors such as sphinganine, dihydroceramide, and ceramide, (b) inhibited insulin-stimulation of a central modulator of anabolic metabolism, Akt/PKB, (c) inhibited insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, and (d) decreased oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kyosuke Goto, Takashi Morishita, Satoshi Kamada, Kazuya Saita, Hiroyuki Fukuda, Etsuji Shiota, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Tooru Inoue
We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of robot-assisted rehabilitation in an early postoperative setting to improve knee mobility following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 20 patients were alternatively assigned to robotassisted rehabilitation (n = 10; all women) or a control group (n = 10; 2 men and 8 women). The use of a single-joint hybrid assistive limb (HAL-SJ) in active assistive knee exercise was performed for the robot-assisted rehabilitation group while the control patients underwent conventional active assistive knee exercise...
August 10, 2016: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Stacy Stolzman, Marie Hoeger Bement
PURPOSE: Pain relief after exercise, exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), is established across the lifespan. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM: pain inhibits pain) may be a mechanism for EIH. METHODS: In 55 adolescents, pressure pain thresholds were measured before and after exercise (deltoid, quadriceps, and nail bed) and during CPM at the nail bed and deltoid test stimulus sites. The relationship between EIH and CPM was explored. RESULTS: EIH occurred at deltoid and quadriceps; CPM occurred at nail bed and deltoid...
2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
S Tsitkanou, K Spengos, A-N Stasinaki, N Zaras, G Bogdanis, G Papadimas, G Terzis
Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week)...
September 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Mark Tyler Cavanaugh, Saied Jalal Aboodarda, Daniel Hodgson, David George Behm
Foam rolling has been shown to increase range of motion without subsequent performance impairments of the rolled muscle, however, there are no studies examining rolling effects on antagonist muscles. The objective of this study was to determine whether foam rolling the hamstrings and/or quadriceps would affect hamstrings and quadriceps activation in men and women. Recreationally active men (n=10, 25 ± 4.6 years, 180.1 ± 4.4 cm, 86.5 ± 15.7 kg) and women (n=8, 21.75 ± 3.2 years, 166.4 ± 8.8 cm, 58.9 ± 7...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Abbey C Thomas, Brian G Pietrosimone, Carter J Bayer
CONTEXT: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may provide important information regarding the corticospinal mechanisms that may contribute to the neuromuscular activation impairments. Paired-pulse TMS testing is a reliable method for measuring intracortical facilitation and inhibition; however, little evidence exists regarding agreement of these measures in the quadriceps. OBJECTIVE: To determine the between-session and inter-rater agreement of intracortical excitability (short and long interval intracortical inhibition [SICI; LICI] and intracortical facilitation [ICF]) in the dominant limb quadriceps...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Maria Joana D Caetano, Jasmine C Menant, Daniel Schoene, Paulo H S Pelicioni, Daina L Sturnieks, Stephen R Lord
BACKGROUND: The ability to adapt gait when negotiating unexpected hazards is crucial to maintain stability and avoid falling. This study investigated whether impaired gait adaptability in a task including obstacle and stepping targets is associated with cognitive and sensorimotor capacities in older adults. METHODS: Fifty healthy older adults (74±7 years) were instructed to either (a) avoid an obstacle at usual step distance or (b) step onto a target at either a short or long step distance projected on a walkway two heel strikes ahead and then continue walking...
August 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Danya Bandeira Lima, Paloma Leão Sousa, Alba Fabíola Costa Torres, Klinger Antonio da França Rodrigues, Clarissa Perdigão Mello, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Louise Donadello Tessarolo, Yves Patric Quinet, Márcia Rosa de Oliveira, Alice Maria Costa Martins
Neglected tropical diseases (NTD) are treated with toxic therapy of limited efficacy. Previously, we studied the antimicrobial effect of Dinoponera quadriceps venom (DqV) against bacteria. To continue the study, we report in this short communication the antimicrobial effect of DqV against Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi. DqV inhibits the promastigote forms of L. amazonensis and all T. cruzi developmental forms, with low toxicity in host cells. DqV causes cell death in T. cruzi through necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms observed by staining the cells with annexin V-FITC (AX) and propidium iodide (PI), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry analyses and confocal microscopy and morphological alterations, such as loss of membrane integrity and cell shrinkage by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Diego Z Carvalho, Christopher J Boes
As opposed to finger flexion response upon tapping the styloid process with absent brachioradialis reflex (inverted brachioradialis reflex), toe flexion response upon patellar percussion with absent quadriceps reflex is a quite underrecognized neurological sign, and has been reported only once in the literature. Similar to the inverted brachioradialis reflex, this sign can also be useful for neurological localization. We hereby report a patient presenting with signs and symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of an anterior epidural mass compressing the cauda equina at L2-L4, without evidence of myelopathy...
October 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Matthew S Harkey, Brittney A Luc-Harkey, Adam S Lepley, Terry L Grindstaff, Phillip Gribble, J Troy Blackburn, Jeffrey T Spang, Brian Pietrosimone
PURPOSE: Persistent voluntary quadriceps activation deficits are common following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), but the direct causes are unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether spinal reflex excitability deficits are present in individuals with a history of ACLR, and secondarily to determine if spinal reflex excitability predicts which individuals possess full voluntary quadriceps activation. METHODS: One hundred and forty-seven individuals (74 Healthy and 73 ACLR) participated in this cross-sectional, case-control study...
July 18, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Gabriel J Pavey, Ammar T Qureshi, Allison M Tomasino, Cary L Honnold, Danett K Bishop, Shailesh Agarwal, Shawn Loder, Benjamin Levi, Maurizio Pacifici, Masahiro Iwamoto, Benjamin K Potter, Thomas A Davis, Jonathan A Forsberg
Heterotopic ossification (HO) involves formation of endochondral bone at non-skeletal sites, is prevalent in severely wounded service members, and causes significant complications and delayed rehabilitation. As common prophylactic treatments such as anti-inflammatory drugs and irradiation cannot be used after multi-system combat trauma, there is an urgent need for new remedies. Previously, we showed that the retinoic acid receptor γ agonist Palovarotene inhibited subcutaneous and intramuscular HO in mice, but those models do not mimic complex combat injury...
September 2016: Bone
Brittney Luc, Matthew Harkey, J Troy Blackburn, Rebecca Kim, Troy Royal, Brian Pietrosimone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kelechi R Okoroha, Robert A Keller, Nathan E Marshall, Edward K Jung, Nima Mehran, Eric Owashi, Vasilios Moutzouros
PURPOSE: To compare femoral nerve block (FNB) versus local liposomal bupivacaine (LB) for pain control in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS: Eighty-five patients undergoing primary ACL reconstruction were assessed for participation. We performed a prospective randomized trial in accordance with the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) 2010 statement. The study arms included either intraoperative local infiltration of LB (20 mL of bupivacaine/10 mL of saline solution) or preoperative FNB with a primary outcome of postoperative pain levels (visual analog scale) for 4 days...
September 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Thomas O Krag, Tomàs Pinós, Tue L Nielsen, Jordi Duran, Mar García-Rocha, Antoni L Andreu, John Vissing
McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is a disease caused by myophosphorylase deficiency leading to "blocked" glycogen breakdown. A significant but varying glycogen accumulation in especially distal hind limb muscles of mice affected by McArdle disease has recently been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects glucose metabolism in hind limb muscle of 20-wk-old McArdle mice and vastus lateralis muscles from patients with McArdle disease. Western blot analysis and activity assay demonstrated that glycogen synthase was inhibited in glycolytic muscle from McArdle mice...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Han-Tan Chai, Hon-Kan Yip, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Shu-Yuan Hsu, Steve Leu
BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to enhance recovery in ischemic organs through enhancing angiogenesis. In this study, we used an experimental critical limb ischemia (CLI) rat model to reveal the underlying mechanisms and directly examine the benefits of the anti-apoptotic capacity of EPO in the acute phase of limb ischemia and following blood flow recovery. METHODS: To determine the role of the JAK2/STAT pathway in EPO-enhanced recovery after CLI, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 for each group) were divided into group 1 (normal control), group 2 (CLI treated with normal saline), group 3 (CLI treated with EPO), group 4 (CLI treated with AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor), and group 5 (CLI treated with EPO and AG490)...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Katrina J Curtis, Victoria M Meyrick, Bhavin Mehta, Gulam S Haji, Kawah Li, Hugh Montgomery, William D-C Man, Michael I Polkey, Nicholas S Hopkinson
RATIONALE: Epidemiological studies in older individuals have found an association between use of ACE-inhibition (ACE-I) therapy and preserved locomotor muscle mass, strength and walking speed. ACE-I therapy might therefore have a role in the context of pulmonary rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the hypothesis that enalapril, an ACE-inhibitor, would augment the improvement in exercise capacity seen during pulmonary rehabilitation. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomised controlled trial...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Amy Lewis, Jen Y Lee, Anna V Donaldson, S Amanda Natanek, Srividya Vaidyanathan, William D-C Man, Nicholas S Hopkinson, Avan A Sayer, Harnish P Patel, Cyrus Cooper, Holly Syddall, Michael I Polkey, Paul R Kemp
BACKGROUND: Loss of muscle mass and strength is a significant comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that limits their quality of life and has prognostic implications but does not affect everyone equally. To identify mechanisms that may contribute to the susceptibility to a low muscle mass, we investigated microRNA (miRNA) expression, methylation status, and regeneration in quadriceps muscle from COPD patients and the effect of miRNAs on myoblast proliferation in vitro...
June 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Sarah H Ward, Alan Pearce, Kim L Bennell, Brian Peitrosimone, Adam L Bryant
BACKGROUND: Altered quadriceps corticomotor excitability has been demonstrated following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction, however only the single joint vasti muscles have been assessed. There is no current data on rectus femoris corticomotor excitability following ACL injury, the biarticular quadriceps muscle also critical for force attenuation and locomotion. The purpose of this study was to examine rectus femoris corticomotor excitability, intracortical inhibition and cortical motor representation in individuals with and without an ACL injury...
August 2016: Knee
Joe N Kornegay, Daniel J Bogan, Janet R Bogan, Jennifer L Dow, Jiahui Wang, Zheng Fan, Naili Liu, Leigh C Warsing, Robert W Grange, Mihye Ahn, Cynthia J Balog-Alvarez, Steven W Cotten, Monte S Willis, Candice Brinkmeyer-Langford, Hongtu Zhu, Joe Palandra, Carl A Morris, Martin A Styner, Kathryn R Wagner
BACKGROUND: Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose inhibition promotes muscle growth and regeneration. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in which myostatin is knocked out or inhibited postnatally have a less severe phenotype with greater total mass and strength and less fibrosis and fatty replacement of muscles than mdx mice with wild-type myostatin expression. Dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have previously been noted to have increased muscle mass and reduced fibrosis after systemic postnatal myostatin inhibition...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
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