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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445800/adjunctive-celecoxib-for-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trials
#1
Wei Zheng, Dong-Bin Cai, Xin-Hu Yang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Norbert Müller, Yu-Ping Ning, Yu-Tao Xiang
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the neurobiological pathways of schizophrenia. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive celecoxib as a noncompetitive anti-inflammation drug in treating schizophrenia. Data were searched, extracted, checked and entered into the RevMan (version 5.3) software by two independent investigators. Standardized/weighted mean differences (SMDs/WMDs), risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, as appropriate. Included were 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a total of 626 patients with schizophrenia including 316 (50...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445632/the-association-of-baseline-suicidality-with-treatment-outcome-in-psychotic-depression
#2
Kathleen S Bingham, Anthony J Rothschild, Benoit H Mulsant, Ellen M Whyte, Barnett S Meyers, Samprit Banerjee, Katalin Szanto, Alastair J Flint
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between baseline suicidality and outcome of major depression in a randomized controlled trial of the pharmacotherapy of psychotic depression and to explore the interaction of suicidality, randomized treatment assignment, and depression outcome. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of data from 258 persons aged 18 years or older with DSM-IV-defined major depressive disorder with psychotic features who participated in a 12-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing olanzapine plus sertraline with olanzapine plus placebo (the Study of the Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression [STOP-PD], which ran from 2002 to 2007)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444556/thalamo-cortical-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#3
Kristina C Skåtun, Tobias Kaufmann, Christine L Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Siren Tønnesen, Guido Biele, Anja Vaskinn, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
The thalamus is a highly connected subcortical structure that relays and integrates sensory and cortical information, which is critical for coherent and accurate perceptual awareness and cognition. Thalamic dysfunction is a classical finding in schizophrenia (SZ), and resting-state functional MRI has implicated somatomotor and frontal lobe thalamic dysconnectivity. However, it remains unclear whether these findings generalize to different psychotic disorders, are confined to specific thalamic sub-regions, and how they relate to structural thalamic alterations...
April 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443534/developing-an-international-scoring-system-for-a-consensus-based-social-cognition-measure-msceit-managing-emotions
#4
G S Hellemann, M F Green, R S Kern, G Sitarenios, K H Nuechterlein
BACKGROUND: Measures of social cognition are increasingly being applied to psychopathology, including studies of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Tests of social cognition present unique challenges for international adaptations. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Managing Emotions Branch (MSCEIT-ME) is a commonly-used social cognition test that involves the evaluation of social scenarios presented in vignettes. METHOD: This paper presents evaluations of translations of this test in six different languages based on representative samples from the relevant countries...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443349/pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia-in-schizophrenia-patients
#5
Daniel P Witter, Richard C Holbert, Uma Suryadevara
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an iatrogenic movement disorder most commonly observed in patients with psychotic disorders who are treated with dopamine blocking antipsychotic medications. Treatment options are limited, and recommendations for treatment are based on a relative scarcity of evidence. Areas covered: After briefly highlighting current mechanistic theories of TD, this review will discuss the evidence for a number of medications of several different classes that have been studied for the treatment of TD since the 1970s with an emphasis on placebo controlled trials when possible...
April 26, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442250/analysis-of-microbiota-in-first-episode-psychosis-identifies-preliminary-associations-with-symptom-severity-and-treatment-response
#6
Emanuel Schwarz, Johanna Maukonen, Tiina Hyytiäinen, Tuula Kieseppä, Matej Orešič, Sarven Sabunciyan, Outi Mantere, Maria Saarela, Robert Yolken, Jaana Suvisaari
The effects of gut microbiota on the central nervous system, along its possible role in mental disorders, have received increasing attention. Here we investigated differences in fecal microbiota between 28 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 16 healthy matched controls and explored whether such differences were associated with response after up to 12months of treatment. Numbers of Lactobacillus group bacteria were elevated in FEP-patients and significantly correlated with severity along different symptom domains...
April 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442249/the-relationship-between-cognitive-insight-and-cognitive-performance-among-individuals-with-at-risk-mental-state-for-developing-psychosis
#7
Noriyuki Ohmuro, Masahiro Katsura, Chika Obara, Tatsuo Kikuchi, Yumiko Hamaie, Atsushi Sakuma, Kunio Iizuka, Fumiaki Ito, Hiroo Matsuoka, Kazunori Matsumoto
Impairments in cognitive insight-the capacity to appraise and modify one's own distorted beliefs-are believed to be associated with the formation of psychosis. Nevertheless, the association between cognitive insight and cognitive function among people with at-risk mental state (ARMS) for developing psychotic illness has not been made clear. In this study, we used the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) to assess cognitive insight and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) to assess cognitive functions...
April 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442248/social-environments-and-interpersonal-distance-regulation-in-psychosis-a-virtual-reality-study
#8
Chris N W Geraets, Marije van Beilen, Roos Pot-Kolder, Jacqueline Counotte, Mark van der Gaag, Wim Veling
BACKGROUND: Experimentally studying the influence of social environments on mental health and behavior is challenging, as social context is difficult to standardize in laboratory settings. Virtual Reality (VR) enables studying social interaction in terms of interpersonal distance in a more ecologically valid manner. Regulation of interpersonal distance may be abnormal in patients with psychotic disorders and influenced by environmental stress, symptoms or distress. AIMS: To investigate interpersonal distance in people with a psychotic disorder and at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR) compared to siblings and controls in virtual social environments, and explore the relationship between clinical characteristics and interpersonal distance...
April 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441335/systematic-review-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-in-psychosis
#9
REVIEW
Maria Michail, Max Birchwood, Lynda Tait
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety is highly prevalent among people with psychosis and linked with significant social disability and poorer prognosis. Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has shown to be effective for the treatment of social anxiety in non-psychotic populations, there is a lack of evidence on the clinical effectiveness of CBT for the treatment of social anxiety when this is co-morbid in psychosis. METHODS: A systematic review to summarise and critically appraise the literature on the effectiveness of CBT interventions for the treatment of social anxiety in psychosis...
April 25, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441173/religiosity-in-acute-psychiatric-inpatients-relationship-with-demographics-clinical-features-and-length-of-stay
#10
Noha AbdelGawad, Jigar Chotalia, Ajay Parsaik, Teresa Pigott, Melissa Allen
This study examined the relationship between religiosity in 175 psychiatric inpatients as measured by the subscales of the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) and sociodemographic (age, sex, and race), clinical (primary diagnosis, suicidality, and psychotic symptoms), and outcome (length of stay [LOS] and readmission rates) measures. Psychosis was assessed by Clinician-Rated Dimensions of Psychosis Symptom Severity (CRDPSS) scale. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association between the DUREL subscales and the outcome measures...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438925/identification-of-mycobacterial-genes-involved-in-antibiotic-sensitivity-implications-in-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis-with-%C3%AE-lactam-containing-regimens
#11
Gopinath Viswanathan, Sangya Yadav, Tirumalai R Raghunand
In a Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant library screen, transposon mutants with insertions in fhaA, dprE2, rpsT and parA, displayed hypersusceptibility to antibiotics including the β-lactams meropenem, ampicillin, amoxicillin and cefotaxime. Sub MIC levels of octoclothepin, a psychotic drug inhibiting ParA, phenocopied the parA insertion and enhanced the bactericidal activity of meropenem against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis in combination with clavulanate. Our study identifies novel factors associated with antibiotic resistance, with implications in repurposing β-lactams for tuberculosis treatment...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437818/-towards-a-rehabilitation-and-participation-oriented-psychotherapy
#12
Beate Muschalla, Jürgen Bengel, Matthias Morfeld, Ulrike Worringen
Mental disorders (such as recurrent mood disorders, personality disorders, or psychotic disorders) come along with enduring impairment in daily life activities. Therefore psychotherapeutic actions in inpatient or outpatient settings require a life-span and participation-oriented treatment perspective. Participation-oriented treatment aims at social and vocational integration in general life despite enduringly recurring or resting symptoms. According to the model of health problems offered by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, ICF (WHO, 2001), disability can be defined as context-dependent activity impairment due to illness...
April 24, 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437059/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-bipolar-disorder
#13
Sarah D Holder
Bipolar disorder is a severe chronic mental illness that affects a large number of individuals. This disorder is separated into two major types, bipolar I disorder, with mania and typically recurrent depression, and bipolar II disorder, with recurrent major depression and hypomania. Patients with bipolar disorder spend the majority of time experiencing depression, and this typically is the presenting symptom. Because outcomes are improved with earlier diagnosis and treatment, physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for bipolar disorder...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437058/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-antipsychotic-drugs
#14
Sarah D Holder, Alaina L Edmunds, Sherri Morgan
Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors and are used to manage psychosis as well as other mental illnesses that may or may not have psychotic features, such as bipolar disorders and major depressive disorder. First-generation antipsychotic drugs are more likely to cause adverse effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia. Adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotic drugs typically are related to metabolic abnormalities such as weight gain, abnormal blood glucose levels, and elevated lipid levels...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437057/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-behavioral-disorders-in-dementia
#15
Sherri Morgan
Psychosis is one of the most common conditions in later life, with dementia being a main contributing factor. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), now categorizes the various types of dementia as neurocognitive disorders. Alzheimer disease is a common cause of dementia and psychosis. Psychosis also is seen in patients with vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Psychosis can be primary, caused by a psychiatric disorder listed in the DSM-5, or secondary, due to a medical or neurologic condition...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437056/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-schizophrenia
#16
Alaina L Edmunds
Schizophrenia is the most common psychotic illness, typically appearing between the late teenage years and the mid-30s. The first episode of psychosis may be preceded by a prodromal period. Schizophrenia symptoms fall into six common symptom clusters: delusions and hallucinations, disorganization of speech, cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and motor system abnormalities. The diagnosis is based on criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, including exclusion of other possible medical or psychiatric etiologies of psychosis...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437055/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-foreword
#17
Karl T Rew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436349/distress-psychotic-symptom-exacerbation-and-relief-in-reaction-to-talking-about-trauma-in-the-context-of-beneficial-trauma-therapy-perspectives-from-young-people-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-first-episode-psychosis
#18
Janet Tong, Katrina Simpson, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez, Sarah Bendall
BACKGROUND: Of young people with first episode psychosis (FEP), over half report exposure to childhood trauma and consequent co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or symptoms. Currently no evidence-based interventions exist for PTSD in FEP. Clinicians report concerns that trauma-focused interventions with young people with FEP could result in distress and symptom exacerbation. Scant research suggests that talking about trauma in therapy can be distressing for some people. AIMS: To explore young people's reactions to a trauma-focused treatment for PTSD in FEP...
April 24, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436345/evidence-that-polygenic-risk-for-psychotic-disorder-is-expressed-in-the-domain-of-neurodevelopment-emotion-regulation-and-attribution-of-salience
#19
J van Os, Y van der Steen, Md A Islam, S Gülöksüz, B P Rutten, C J Simons
BACKGROUND: The liability-threshold model of psychosis risk predicts stronger phenotypic manifestation of the polygenic risk score (PRS) in the healthy relatives of patients, as compared with healthy comparison subjects. METHODS: First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder (871 siblings and 812 parents) and healthy comparison subjects (n = 523) were interviewed three times in 6 years. Repeated measures of two psychosis phenotypes, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE; self-report - subscales of positive, negative and depressive symptoms) and the Structured Interview for Schizotypy - Revised (SIS-R; clinical interview - subscales of positive and negative schizotypy), were examined for association with PRS...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436192/predictors-of-non-pharmacological-intervention-effect-on-cognitive-function-and-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-older-people-with-dementia
#20
Ting-Jung Hsu, Hui-Te Tsai, An-Chun Hwang, Liang-Yu Chen, Liang-Kung Chen
AIM: Our previous work showed that non-pharmacological interventions could effectively reduce the severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), while the factors influencing the effect of intervention were less explored. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictors of the non-pharmacological intervention effect for old veterans with dementia and BPSD. METHODS: A total of 141 old veterans with dementia living in two veterans' homes in northern Taiwan were recruited...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
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