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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053912/community-based-screening-of-hepatitis-c-with-a-one-step-rna-detection-algorithm-from-dried-blood-spots-analysis-of-key-populations-in-barcelona-spain
#1
V Saludes, C Folch, A Morales-Carmona, L Ferrer, L Fernández, R Muñoz, M Jiménez, E Loureiro, P Fernández-Dávila, E Bascuñana, J Casabona, E Martró
Alternative strategies are required to enhance the diagnosis of silent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hard-to-reach key populations at risk. Among them, HCV prevalence and bio-behavioural data is scarce for HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) and men and trans-women sex workers. We sought to describe and assess the potential benefits of a community-based one-step HCV screening and confirmatory strategy for these populations in Barcelona. The screening strategy based on a real-time RT-PCR assay for HCV-RNA detection in dried-blood spots (DBS) was validated and implemented in addition to an antibody point-of-care test in a community centre...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053737/screening-for-hiv-hepatitis-b-and-syphilis-on-dried-blood-spots-a-promising-method-to-better-reach-hidden-high-risk-populations-with-self-collected-sampling
#2
Inge H M van Loo, Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers, Rosalie Heuts, Marianne A B van der Sande, Christian J P A Hoebe
INTRODUCTION: Many people at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), e.g., men who have sex with men (MSM), are not optimally reached by current sexual health care systems with testing. To facilitate testing by home-based sampling or sampling in outreach setting we evaluated dried blood spots (DBS), a method for self-collected blood sampling for serological screening of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and syphilis. The aims of this study were to assess the acceptability and feasibility of self-collected DBS and to compare the test results for screening of HIV, HBV and syphilis from DBS with blood drawn by venous puncture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047340/occupational-blood-exposures-in-health-care-workers-incidence-characteristics-and-transmission-of-bloodborne-pathogens-in-south-korea
#3
Ju Hyun Lee, Junhyeon Cho, Yung Jung Kim, Sang Hyuk Im, Eun Sun Jang, Jin-Wook Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Sook-Hyang Jeong
BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk for occupational blood exposures (OBEs) and transmission of bloodborne pathogens. This study elucidated the incidence rate and epidemiological characteristics of OBEs among HCWs and investigated the pathogen transmission rate for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Self-reported OBEs from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015 were obtained from the electronic recording system...
October 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045799/opt-out-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-testing-at-the-dallas-county-jail-uptake-prevalence-and-demographic-characteristics-of-testers
#4
Carolina de la Flor, Esmaeil Porsa, Ank E Nijhawan
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are common in the criminal justice system. We offered opt-out HIV/HCV testing at the Dallas County Jail during intake from June 2015 to November 2016, after which testing was integrated into routine phlebotomy processes. The uptake of testing increased from 12.9% (118/915) in June 2015 to 80.5% (269/334) in January 2016. HIV was confirmed in 1.0% (30/3155) of inmates; 6 were new diagnoses and all were linked to care. HCV antibody positivity was found in 16...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045448/interferon-free-therapy-with-direct-acting-antivirals-for-hcv-hiv-1-co-infected-japanese-patients-with-inherited-bleeding-disorders
#5
Haruka Uemura, Kunihisa Tsukada, Daisuke Mizushima, Takahiro Aoki, Koji Watanabe, Ei Kinai, Katsuji Teruya, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Masaya Sugiyama, Masashi Mizokami, Shinichi Oka
INTRODUCTION: Almost 30 years ago, about 30% of Japanese hemophiliacs became infected with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) after receiving contaminated blood products. While several studies have reported the high efficacy and safety of direct acting antivirals (DAA) in HIV-1 co-infected patients, such data are limited in hemophiliacs. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, open-label study involving 27 Japanese patients (median age; 45 years) with inherited bleeding disorders who were co-infected with HCV/HIV-1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042644/hiv-1-viral-protein-r-vpr-induces-fatty-liver-in-mice-via-lxr%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE-dysregulation-implications-for-hiv-specific-pathogenesis-of-nafld
#6
Neeti Agarwal, Dinakar Iyer, Chiara Gabbi, Pradip Saha, Sanjeet G Patel, Qianxing Mo, Benny Chang, Biman Goswami, Ulrich Schubert, Jeffrey B Kopp, Dorothy E Lewis, Ashok Balasubramanyam
HIV patients develop hepatic steatosis. We investigated hepatic steatosis in transgenic mice expressing the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr (Vpr-Tg) in liver and adipose tissues, and WT mice infused with synthetic Vpr. Vpr-Tg mice developed increased liver triglyceride content and elevated ALT, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase due to three hepatic defects: 1.6-fold accelerated de novo lipogenesis (DNL), 45% slower fatty acid ß-oxidation, and 40% decreased VLDL-triglyceride export. Accelerated hepatic DNL was due to coactivation by Vpr of liver X receptor-α (LXRα) with increased expression of its lipogenic targets Srebp1c, Chrebp, Lpk, Dgat, Fasn and Scd1, and intranuclear SREBP1c and ChREBP...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039614/substitutions-of-rtl228-and-or-l229-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-replication-and-hbsag-secretion-in-hepatitis-b-virus-and-do-not-affect-susceptibility-to-nucleos-t-ide-analogs
#7
Bo Qin, Yechao Zhou, Guozhong Zhou, Xiuping Xu, Yanan Wang, Jinkun Chen
Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) are widely used in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The mutation L210W of HIV‑1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is one of the six principal mutations which confer in vivo resistance to zidovudine. Due to the similar 3D‑structure and high conservation between HIV‑RT and HBV‑RT, the present study aimed to clarify whether corresponding mutations in HBV may decrease its susceptibility to relevant NAs. Mutations including rtL228C/W, rtL229W and rtL228W/L229W were introduced into a HBV replication competent plasmid by fusion polymerase chain reaction...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038352/differential-relationships-of-hepatic-and-epicardial-fat-to-body-composition-in-hiv
#8
Lindsay T Fourman, Michael T Lu, Hang Lee, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Jakob Park, Natalia Czerwonka, Julian Weiss, Takara L Stanley, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
HIV-infected patients commonly experience changes in central and peripheral fat content as well as ectopic fat accumulation. However, whether hepatic and epicardial fat stores relate differentially to body composition or how these associations are modified by HIV status has not been well explored. A previously recruited sample of 124 HIV-infected patients and 58 healthy controls had undergone dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and computed tomography (CT) from which body composition measures, liver-spleen ratio, and epicardial fat volume were obtained...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036415/transfusion-transmissible-infections-among-walk-in-blood-donors-at-kisumu-regional-blood-transfusion-centre-kisumu-county-kenya-2015
#9
Dominic Wamamba, Dickens Onyango, Elvis Oyugi, Evalyne Kanyina, Mark Obonyo, Jane Githuku, James Ransom
Background: Transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) are threats to blood safety. This study investigated TTIs among volunteer blood donors at the Kisumu Regional Blood Transfusion Centre (KRBTC) in Kenya. Methods: We performed a retrospective record review of blood donor registers at KRBTC, 2015. Walk-in donors accepted for donation were analyzed to determine prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and syphilis...
September 23, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036227/evolution-of-hepatitis-a-virus-seroprevalence-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-taiwan
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yu-Lin Lee, Kuan-Yin Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Chia-Wen Li, Chia-Jui Yang, Mao-Song Tsai, Hung-Jen Tang, Te-Yu Lin, Ning-Chi Wang, Yi-Chien Lee, Shih-Ping Lin, Yu-Shan Huang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Jun-Yu Zhang, Wen-Chien Ko, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Yuan-Ti Lee, Chun-Eng Liu, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to describe the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in HIV-positive adult patients in Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 and to examine the evolution of HAV seroprevalence between 2004-2007 and 2012-2016. METHODS: Clinical information and data of anti-HAV antibody results were collected from 2,860 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive Taiwanese aged 18 years or older who initiated combination antiretroviral therapy at 11 hospitals around Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 (2012-2016 cohort)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035325/advanced-prodrug-strategies-in-nucleoside-and-non-nucleoside-antiviral-agents-a-review-of-the-recent-five-years
#11
REVIEW
Hanadi Sinokrot, Tasneem Smerat, Anas Najjar, Rafik Karaman
Background: Poor pharmacokinetic profiles and resistance are the main two drawbacks from which currently used antiviral agents suffer, thus make them excellent targets for research, especially in the presence of viral pandemics such as HIV and hepatitis C. Methods: The strategies employed in the studies covered in this review were sorted by the type of drug synthesized into ester prodrugs, targeted delivery prodrugs, macromolecular prodrugs, other nucleoside conjugates, and non-nucleoside drugs. Results: Utilizing the ester prodrug approach a novel isopropyl ester prodrug was found to be potent HIV integrase inhibitor...
October 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034998/the-albumin-bilirubin-grade-uncovers-the-prognostic-relationship-between-hepatic-reserve-and-immune-dysfunction-in-hiv-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
D J Pinato, R Sharma, C Citti, H Platt, M Ventura-Cots, E Allara, T-Y Chen, A Dalla Pria, M Jain, B Mínguez, L Kikuchi, E Kaufman West, M Merli, D E Kaplan, H Hasson, K Marks, M Nelson, M Núñez, A Aytaman, M Bower, N Bräu
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of liver-related mortality in people living with HIV, where co-infection with hepatotropic viruses accelerates the course of chronic liver disease. AIM: To evaluate whether the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, a more accurate marker of liver dysfunction in HCC, might identify patients with progressive liver dysfunction in the context of HIV/hepatitis co-infection. METHODS: Using uni- and multi-variable analyses, we studied the albumin-bilirubin grade as a predictor of overall survival (OS) in a large, multi-center cohort of patients with HIV-associated HCC recruited from 44 centres in 9 countries within the Liver Cancer in HIV study group...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034669/-the-seintinelles-an-innovative-approach-to-promoting-community-based-research-and-sustaining-health-democracy-in-oncology
#13
Charlotte Bauquier, Myriam Pannard, Marie Préau
Community-based research drives innovation in major fields of public health, HIV/AIDS being the most emblematic example (Demange, Henry & Préau, 2012), and hepatitis. However, this type of research appears to be more difficult to develop in certain specific diseases, such as cancer (Shankand, Saïas & Friboulet, 2009). This article proposes various approaches concerning current citizen mobilization in relation to cancer research, including potential new levers to the development of participative and community-based research based on the recent creation of the Seintinelles platform, designed to federate researchers and citizens concerned by the problem of cancer...
October 2, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033936/coinhibitory-receptor-expression-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-maintaining-a-balance-in-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-chronic-viral-infections-and-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Isobel S Okoye, Michael Houghton, Lorne Tyrrell, Khaled Barakat, Shokrollah Elahi
In cancer and chronic viral infections, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This results in expression of multiple inhibitory receptors also called "immune checkpoints" by T cells. Although these inhibitory receptors under normal conditions maintain self-tolerance and prevent immunopathology, their sustained expression deteriorates T cell function: a phenomenon called exhaustion. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy involve blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death 1 in order to reverse T cell exhaustion and reinvigorate immunity, which has translated to dramatic clinical remission in many cases of metastatic melanoma and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032478/total-knee-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-a-history-of-illicit-intravenous-drug-abuse
#15
David E Bauer, Andreas Hingsammer, Lukas Ernstbrunner, Alexander Aichmair, Andrea B Rosskopf, Franziska Eckers, Karl Wieser, Sandro F Fucentese
PURPOSE: Injection drug users are at high risk for both infection with blood-borne pathogens, namely, human immune deficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis-B, -C virus, various bacterial infections, as well as early primary and secondary joint degeneration. When total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is anticipated the risk of septic complications is a major concern. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiographic outcome of patients with a history of intravenous drug use after total knee arthroplasty...
October 14, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031512/current-antiviral-drugs-and-their-analysis-in-biological-materials-part-ii-antivirals-against-hepatitis-and-hiv-viruses
#16
REVIEW
Lucie Nováková, Jakub Pavlík, Lucia Chrenková, Ondřej Martinec, Lukáš Červený
This review is a Part II of the series aiming to provide comprehensive overview of currently used antiviral drugs and to show modern approaches to their analysis. While in the Part I antivirals against herpes viruses and antivirals against respiratory viruses were addressed, this part concerns antivirals against hepatitis viruses (B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many novel antivirals against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV have been introduced into the clinical practice over the last decade...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028966/high-rates-of-subsequent-asymptomatic-stis-and-risky-sexual-behavior-in-patients-initially-presenting-with-primary-hiv-1-infection
#17
Dominique L Braun, Alex Marzel, Daniela Steffens, Peter W Schreiber, Christina Grube, Alexandra U Scherrer, Roger D Kouyos, Huldrych F Günthard
Introduction: Knowledge of the characteristics and risk factors of individuals with an asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection (STI) is essential for implementation of targeted STI screening strategies. Methods: Between June 2015 and January 2017 an STI screening was offered to all participants in the Zurich Primary HIV-1 Infection Study. Patients were tested for gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus. Determinants of STI prevalence and incidence were assessed using mixed-model logistic regression and survival analysis...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027728/hepatitis-in-aids-patients
#18
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran Qadir
The individuals with HIV infection are more susceptible to develop coinfections with infectious pathogens such as HCV and HBV. The routes of transmission of these pathogens are the same including sexual contact, injection drug use, or at birth from mother to an infant. The main reason of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals is a liver disease in the context of antiretroviral therapy, and coinfection such as HCV and HBV complicates this condition. Nucleos(t)ide analogues are used for HBV infection management, and treatment of HCV infection is done by PegIFN and ribavirin combination and protease inhibitors...
October 13, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025631/effect-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-on-risk-of-death-in-west-african-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-cd4-cell-counts-long-term-follow-up-of-the-temprano-anrs-12136-trial
#19
Anani Badje, Raoul Moh, Delphine Gabillard, Calixte Guéhi, Mathieu Kabran, Jean-Baptiste Ntakpé, Jérôme Le Carrou, Gérard M Kouame, Eric Ouattara, Eugène Messou, Amani Anzian, Albert Minga, Joachim Gnokoro, Patrice Gouesse, Arlette Emieme, Thomas-d'Aquin Toni, Cyprien Rabe, Baba Sidibé, Gustave Nzunetu, Lambert Dohoun, Abo Yao, Synali Kamagate, Solange Amon, Amadou-Barenson Kouame, Aboli Koua, Emmanuel Kouamé, Marcelle Daligou, Denise Hawerlander, Simplice Ackoundzé, Serge Koule, Jonas Séri, Alex Ani, Fassery Dembélé, Fatoumata Koné, Mykayila Oyebi, Nathalie Mbakop, Oyewole Makaila, Carolle Babatunde, Nathaniel Babatunde, Gisèle Bleoué, Mireille Tchoutedjem, Alain-Claude Kouadio, Ghislaine Sena, Sahinou-Yediga Yededji, Sophie Karcher, Christine Rouzioux, Abo Kouame, Rodrigue Assi, Alima Bakayoko, Serge K Domoua, Nina Deschamps, Kakou Aka, Thérèse N'Dri-Yoman, Roger Salamon, Valérie Journot, Hughes Ahibo, Timothée Ouassa, Hervé Menan, André Inwoley, Christine Danel, Serge P Eholié, Xavier Anglaret
BACKGROUND: Temprano ANRS 12136 was a factorial 2 × 2 trial that assessed the benefits of early antiretroviral therapy (ART; ie, in patients who had not reached the CD4 cell count threshold used to recommend starting ART, as per the WHO guidelines that were the standard during the study period) and 6-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in HIV-infected adults in Côte d'Ivoire. Early ART and IPT were shown to independently reduce the risk of severe morbidity at 30 months. Here, we present the efficacy of IPT in reducing mortality from the long-term follow-up of Temprano...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022881/primary-hiv-infection-in-patients-with-acute-hepatitis-b-a-report-of-two-cases
#20
Francesca Binda, Elisa Monge, Francesco R Simonetti, Nadia Zanchetta, Massimo Galli, Laura Milazzo, Mario Corbellino, Spinello Antinori
We describe 2 patients admitted to our Institution with a diagnosis of sexually acquired acute hepatitis B who also had underlying hyper acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Both individuals reported high rates of condomless sex. Antiviral therapy active against Hepatitis B virus and HIV was started within days after diagnosis. Treatment was well tolerated and led to a rapid control of both infections and HBsAb seroconversion. The efficacy and safety of contemporary antiretroviral drug combinations suggest that treatment of acute HIV infection is feasible in patients with acute hepatitis B...
October 12, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
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