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HIV, hepatitis,

Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Athanasios Tsiouris, Lynn Wilson, Rajesh B Sekar, Abeel A Mangi, James J Yun
BACKGROUND: A lack of donor hearts remains a major limitation of heart transplantation. Hearts from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) high-risk donors can be utilized with specific recipient consent. However, outcomes of heart transplantation with CDC high-risk donors are not well known. We sought to define outcomes, including posttransplant hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in recipients of CDC high-risk donor hearts at our institution. METHODS: All heart transplant recipients from August 2010 to December 2014 (n = 74) were reviewed...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Chiara Vendramin, Siobhan McGuckin, Ferras Alwan, John-Paul Westwood, Mari Thomas, Marie Scully
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with acute episodes of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) require urgent access to plasma exchange (PEX). OctaplasLG, a solvent/detergent fresh-frozen plasma product that has undergone viral inactivation and prion reduction step, has been used in our institution since 2013, replacing Octaplas. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively reviewed 981 PEX procedures where OctaplasLG was the replacement fluid in 90 patients admitted acutely with a TMA presentation within our institution from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015...
October 23, 2016: Transfusion
Daisuke Ikeda, Makiko Sugawa, Kazuo Kawahara
Nucleic acid amplification test (NAT), which was introduced by the Japanese Red Cross Society in October 1999, began to be performed for screening of blood transfusion formulations in Japan in August 2014. In this study, the precision of immunological screenings of hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBcAb, and HBsAb), hepatitis C (HCVAb), and human immunodeficiency (HIVAb) virus antigens in donated blood were evaluated. In addition, the sensitivity of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test for detection of the hepatitis B and C viruses was re-evaluated...
2016: Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences
Kathleen O Degnan, Emily A Blumberg
Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer, healthier lives on highly active antiretroviral therapy and, as a result, interest in kidney transplantation for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal disease has increased. HIV is no longer considered a contraindication to solid-organ transplantation and the number of kidney transplants performed in HIV-infected patients each year is increasing steadily. HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients have had excellent outcomes overall, but there are still significant challenges, including high rates of acute rejection, drug-drug interactions, and poor outcomes in patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Tshifhiwa Magoro, George Gachara, Lufuno Mavhandu, Emmaculate Lum, Helen K Kimbi, Roland N Ndip, Pascal Bessong
BACKGROUND: HBV and HIV share similar transmission routes. Concurrent infection with the two viruses usually results in more severe and progressive liver disease, and a higher incidence of cirrhosis, liver cancer and mortality. Further, this co-infection may lead to cross-resistance between HIV and HBV drugs and increased liver injury, either due to direct hepatotoxicity or drug-related immune-reconstitution hepatitis. These challenges necessitate continuous surveillance for HBV among HIV infected individuals to guide patient management...
October 21, 2016: Virology Journal
Jayme E Locke, Sally Gustafson, Shikha Mehta, Rhiannon D Reed, Brittany Shelton, Paul A MacLennan, Christine Durand, Jon Snyder, Nicholas Salkowski, Allan Massie, Deirdre Sawinski, Dorry L Segev
OBJECTIVE: To determine the survival benefit of kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although kidney transplantation (KT) has emerged as a viable option for select HIV-infected patients, concerns have been raised that risks of KT in HIV-infected patients are higher than those in their HIV-negative counterparts. Despite these increased risks, KT may provide survival benefit for the HIV-infected patient with ESRD, yet this important clinical question remains unanswered...
April 26, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Manan Jhaveri, Nicholas Procaccini, Kris V Kowdley
Chronic Hepatitis C is a major public health problem. The chronicity of the Hepatitis C can lead to advanced liver disease, cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic hepatitis C is the leading indication of for liver transplantation in the United States. Since the introduction of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs), there have been there have been dramatic advances in treatment of hepatitis C in terms of tolerability, duration of therapy with significant increases in the rates of sustained virology response (SVR)...
October 21, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Noboru Hirashima, Hiroaki Iwase, Masaaki Shimada, Nobumitsu Ryuge, Junji Imamura, Hiroki Ikeda, Yasuhito Tanaka, Nobuyuki Matsumoto, Chiaki Okuse, Fumio Itoh, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Tsunamasa Watanabe
Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) often accelerates the course of HCV-associated liver disease. Daclatasvir (DCV) plus asunaprevir (ASV) have been shown to be highly effective for HCV-infected patients with genotype 1b. Three patients co-infected with HIV/HCV genotype 1b were enrolled in this study. Prior to initiation of HCV treatment, the variants associated with L31 and Y93 in the non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) region of the HCV genome were confirmed to be absent using a direct sequencing method...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Jennifer H MacLachlan, Benjamin C Cowie
Background: The Department of Health and Human Services in Victoria provides funded hepatitis B vaccine to many priority groups at risk of acquiring infection. We aimed to determine the uptake of vaccine ordering for at-risk groups over time, to assess any trends and identify any gaps in prevention of hepatitis B for those at risk. Methods: Routinely collected administrative data regarding the indication for vaccine ordered by practitioners were analysed for the period June 2013 to December 2014. Number of doses and courses distributed was determined and compared with the estimated size of the priority populations...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
Michelle M Van Handel, Charles E Rose, Elaine J Hallisey, Jessica L Kolling, Jon E Zibbell, Brian Lewis, Michele K Bohm, Christopher M Jones, Barry E Flanagan, Azfar-E-Alam Siddiqi, Kashif Iqbal, Andrew L Dent, Jonathan H Mermin, Eugene McCray, John W Ward, John T Brooks
OBJECTIVE: A recent HIV outbreak in a rural network of persons who inject drugs (PWID) underscored the intersection of the expanding epidemics of opioid abuse, unsterile injection drug use (IDU), and associated increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We sought to identify US communities potentially vulnerable to rapid spread of HIV, if introduced, and new or continuing high rates of HCV infections among PWID. DESIGN: We conducted a multistep analysis to identify indicator variables highly associated with IDU...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
U Sixdorf, E Märker-Hermann
Viral arthritis and vasculitis are important differential diagnoses primarily in patients with acute polyarticular arthritis in association with fever and rash, in populations specially at risk and in returning travellers. Parvovirus B19 is the most frequent cause of viral arthritis in Europe, whereas rubella, hepatitis B and C viruses have become less common. Due to worldwide tourism arthritogenic alphaviruses, which are transmitted by mosquito vectors have come into the focus of tropical medicine and rheumatology...
October 19, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Kenichi Morikawa, Tomoe Shimazaki, Rei Takeda, Takaaki Izumi, Machiko Umumura, Naoya Sakamoto
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health threat around the world. Despite the availability of an effective hepatitis B vaccine, the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be as high as 240 million worldwide. Global mortality due to HBV-related liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be as high as 1 million deaths per year. HBV is transmitted via blood and body fluids, and is much more infectious than both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Giselle Souza Pinto, Anelise Fernanda Zanolla, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Catarina Bertaso Andreatta Gottschall, Caroline Buss
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection may cause nutrient deficiency and affect the nutritional status.Objetive: To assess nutritional status, and energy and macronutrient intake in HCV/HIV coinfected patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated in a public hospital. Nutritional status was assessed by measurements of weight, height, waist circumference (WC), arm circumference (AC), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), non-dominant hand gripltrength (NDHGS), body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)...
October 18, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Ines Dourado, Luís Augusto V da Silva, Laio Magno, Maycon Lopes, Caio Cerqueira, Adriana Prates, Sandra Brignol, Sarah MacCarthy
Trans persons, including transvestites and transsexual women, show disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates when compared to the rest of the population. However, few quantitative/qualitative studies have addressed trans persons in Brazil. Thus, a team of researchers from different fields is developing an interdisciplinary research project with the objective of shedding light on living conditions and ways of life among transvestites and transsexual women, while investigating determinant factors for HIV infection, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Milton Luiz Gorzoni, Sueli Luciano Pires, Lilian de Fátima Costa Faria, Márcia Regina Valadares Aguado, Miriam Carmen Santana
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: A search in the SciELO and PubMed databases showed few studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals in long-term care institutions (LTCIs), thus prompting the present study. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there were any HIV-positive individuals in LTCIs for the elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in which the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) of a 405-bed LTCI was consulted. METHODS: The medical records of 405 individuals interned in the LTCI who had been tested for HIV infection were requested for analysis of the following variables: [1] age and gender; [2] length of stay at LTCI (months); [3] causes and diagnoses on admission to LTCI according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; [4] date of HIV diagnosis; [5] seropositivity for syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses; [6] medications used at last prescription in medical file; and [7] mean CD4 lymphocyte count based on: total lymphocyte count/6 and total lymphocyte count x 0...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Zhonglan Wu, Lijia Cui, Weiming Zhao, Dongzhi Yang, Hui Chen, Ruiqing Wang, Xuemin Wang, Linqi Zhang, Tianhua He
BACKGROUND: Current prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain unknown in Ningxia, northwest China. METHODS: From June to December 2013, 13,022 individuals were screened in Ningxia HIV/AIDS Sentinel Surveillance System, with their demographic features collected and serum samples tested for HCV antibody. Sero-positive drug users were further subjected to sequencing of NS5B and Core regions of HCV. RESULTS: The anti-HCV prevalence was 0...
October 18, 2016: Virology Journal
Imane El Dika, James J Harding, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is becoming an important cause of mortality in patients with HIV, attributed to coinfection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and the longer survival advantage these patients are achieving after introducing the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to hepatitis infection, immunosuppression secondary to HIV infection, direct impact of the virus on liver parenchyma, and the use of hepatotoxic antiretroviral drugs, all contribute to HCC pathogenesis...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Heather Bailey, Anna Turkova, Claire Thorne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) has experienced large-scale epidemics of syphilis, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV over the past few decades. Here, we review recent evidence on the epidemiology of and the response to these intersecting epidemics. RECENT FINDINGS: The HIV epidemic in EECA continues to expand, with new infections increasing by more than 50% between 2010 and 2015. HCV is now in the top 10 causes of death in EECA, with Russia accounting for more than half of the global burden of HCV infections, but access to direct-acting antivirals remains a major obstacle for control of the epidemic...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Nora T Oliver, Christine M Hartman, Jennifer R Kramer, Elizabeth Y Chiao
INTRODUCTION: Chronic HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection carries increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Due to anti-inflammatory properties, 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) inhibitors (statins) may be useful adjunctive therapy to reduce liver disease progression. METHODS: Clinical information was extracted from the Veterans Affairs HIV and HCV Clinical Case Registries (1999-2010). HIV-related variables included combination antiretroviral therapy era of diagnosis, CD4 cell count, and percentage time with undetectable HIV viral load...
October 23, 2016: AIDS
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