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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732085/point-of-care-screening-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-at-an-antenatal-clinic-a-south-african-experience
#1
Nafiisah Chotun, Wolfgang Preiser, Christoffel Johannes van Rensburg, Pedro Fernandez, Gerhard Barnard Theron, Dieter Glebe, Monique Ingrid Andersson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elimination of HIV and syphilis mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has received much attention but little consideration has been given to the possibility of elimination of HBV MTCT. In sub-Saharan Africa, HBV vertical transmission continues to be reported and it remains an important public health problem. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of screening pregnant women for HBV using a point-of-care (POC) test and implementing interventions to prevent HBV MTCT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729550/anti-tumor-activity-and-immunotherapeutic-potential-of-a-bisphosphonate-prodrug
#2
Yoshimasa Tanaka, Masashi Iwasaki, Kaoru Murata-Hirai, Kenji Matsumoto, Kosuke Hayashi, Haruki Okamura, Tomoharu Sugie, Nagahiro Minato, Craig T Morita, Masakazu Toi
Bisphosphonates have benefits in breast cancer and multiple myeloma patients and have been used with adoptive immunotherapy with γδ T cells expressing Vγ2 Vδ2 TCRs. Although treatment with γδ T cells is safe, it has shown limited efficacy. Present bisphosphonates stimulate γδ T cells but were designed to inhibit bone resorption rather than treating cancer and have limited oral absorption, tumor cell entry, and cause bone side effects. The development of phosphate and phosphonate nucleotide prodrugs has led to important drugs for hepatitis C and HIV...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726043/injection-drug-use-unemployment-and-severe-food-insecurity-among-hiv-hcv-co-infected-individuals-a-mediation-analysis
#3
Taylor McLinden, Erica E M Moodie, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Sam Harper, Sharon L Walmsley, Gilles Paradis, Wusiman Aibibula, Marina B Klein, Joseph Cox
Severe food insecurity (FI), which indicates reduced food intake, is common among HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected individuals. Given the importance of unemployment as a proximal risk factor for FI, this mediation analysis examines a potential mechanism through which injection drug use (IDU) is associated with severe FI. We used biannual data from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort (N = 429 with 3 study visits, 2012-2015). IDU in the past 6 months (exposure) and current unemployment (mediator) were self-reported...
July 19, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724043/compulsory-notification-at-skilled-nursing-facilities
#4
Milton Luiz Gorzoni, Márcia Regina Valadares Aguado, Sueli Luciano Pires, Lilian de Fátima Costa Faria
Introduction: Notifiable diseases (NDs) encompass conditions of high clinical severity and/or contagious. Being closed communities, long-term care facilities (LTCF) are places that deserve attention on their own, but one might be left wondering: what is the reality of NDs at Brazilian LTCFs? Objective: To determine the prevalence and type of NDs at large LTCF. Method: Active search for NDs conducted by the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) in 459 beds...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723711/epidemiology-of-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-diseases-in-a-french-nationwide-hiv-cohort
#5
D Lebrun, M Hentzien, L Cuzin, D Rey, V Joly, L Cotte, C Allavena, P Dellamonica, A Servettaz, F Bani-Sadr
HIV infection and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (IAD) are both related to immune dysfunction. Epidemiological data on IAD in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) are scarce. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of 26 IAD among PLHIV followed in a large French multicenter cohort in the cART era (from January 2000 to July 2013), and to describe their occurrence according to cART onset, the immuno-virological status of patients and HCV and/or HBV co-infection.During the study period, 33 403 PLHIV were included in the Dat'AIDS cohort; 1381 patients with an IAD were identified...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723710/controlled-attenuation-parameter-and-mr-spectroscopy-measured-liver-steatosis-are-discordant-in-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-body-mass
#6
Jennifer C Price, Jennifer L Dodge, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Natalie Korn, Kyle Tillinghast, Marion G Peters, Susan Noworolski, Phyllis C Tien
OBJECTIVE: Hepatic steatosis (HS) is common in HIV-infected individuals. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is the preferred non-invasive method for HS measurement but is expensive. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) also assesses HS and is conveniently performed concomitantly with transient elastography. We aimed to assess the accuracy of CAP in the setting of HIV infection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: CAP and MRS were performed in 82 subjects (39 HIV-monoinfected;7 HCV-monoinfected;21 HIV/HCV-coinfected; 15 with neither infection)...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722452/-lymphogranuloma-venereum
#7
Michaela Vyšatová
Lymphogranuloma venereum belongs to the sexually transmitted diseases. The disease is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2 and L3. In the beginning of the 21st century there has been observed a large increase in the incidence of this disease in the world. There is a frequent co-occurrence with other sexually transmitted diseases (HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis C). Predominantly this disease affects homosexuals, in which case the first manifestation of the disease may be proctitis or proctocolitis...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722331/hepatitis-c-virus-and-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-a-detrimental-interaction-to-increase-viral-infectivity-and-disrupt-lipid-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Matteo Pirro, Vanessa Bianconi, Daniela Francisci, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Francesco Bagaglia, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Franco Baldelli
From viral binding to the hepatocyte surface to extracellular virion release, the replication cycle of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) intersects at various levels with lipid metabolism; this leads to a derangement of the lipid profile and to increased viral infectivity. Accumulating evidence supports the crucial regulatory role of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in lipoprotein metabolism. Notably, a complex interaction between HCV and PCSK9 has been documented. Indeed, either increased or reduced circulating PCSK9 levels have been observed in HCV patients; this discrepancy might be related to several confounders, including HCV genotype, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection and the ambiguous HCV-mediated influence on PCSK9 transcription factors...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722244/risk-of-liver-decompensation-with-cumulative-use-of-mitochondrial-toxic-nucleoside-analogues-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-coinfection
#9
Vincent Lo Re Rd, Bret Zeldow, Michael J Kallan, Janet P Tate, Dena M Carbonari, Sean Hennessy, Jay R Kostman, Joseph K Lim, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Robert Gross, Amy C Justice, Jason A Roy
PURPOSE: Among patients dually infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing mitochondrial toxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (mtNRTIs) might induce chronic hepatic injury, which could accelerate HCV-associated liver fibrosis and increase the risk of hepatic decompensation and death. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study among 1747 HIV/HCV patients initiating NRTI-containing ART within the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (2002-2009) to determine if cumulative mtNRTI use increased the risk of hepatic decompensation and death among HIV-/HCV-coinfected patients...
July 19, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719060/drug-use-and-phylogenetic-clustering-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-latent-class-analysis-approach
#10
Brendan Jacka, Bethany Bray, Tanya L Applegate, Brandon Dl Marshall, Viviane Dias Lima, Kanna Hayashi, Kora DeBeck, Jayna Raghwani, P Richard Harrigan, Mel Krajden, Julio Montaner, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: This study estimated latent classes (i.e., unobserved subgroups in a population) of people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada and examined how these classes relate to phylogenetic clustering of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: HCV antibody positive people who use drugs from two cohorts in Vancouver, Canada (1996-2012) with a Core-E2 sequence were included. Time-stamped phylogenetic trees were inferred and phylogenetic clustering was determined by time to most common recent ancestor...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715086/optimal-use-of-transient-elastography-and-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-to-stage-liver-fibrosis-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients-in-clinical-practice
#11
Juan José López, Núria Pérez-Àlvarez, Raul V Rodríguez, Antoni Jou, Pere Carbonell, José A Jiménez, Laura Soldevila, Montserrat Tenesa, Jordi Tor, Bonaventura Clotet, Jordi Bechini, Cristina Tural
OBJECTIVES: Liver fibrosis (LF) is crucial for the individualized management of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We evaluated the concordance between two noninvasive methods for staging LF, transient elastography (TE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and HCV. We propose an algorithm for optimal use of both techniques in routine clinical practice. METHODS: A total of 89 human immunodeficiency virus/HCV-coinfected patients underwent TE and ARFI on the same day...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714924/cross-sectional-study-to-determine-the-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infection-in-high-risk-groups-in-the-northeast-region-of-brazil
#12
Jakeline Ribeiro Barbosa, Cristianne Sousa Bezerra, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa, Carolina Pimentel de Azevedo, Geane Lopes Flores, Jeová Keny Baima Colares, Danielle Malta Lima, Elisabeth Lampe, Lívia Melo Villar
Background: HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) and HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) infections are more prevalent in vulnerable populations than the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV-positive patients (GI), chronic renal failure (CRF) patients (GII) and coagulation disorder individuals (GIII). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to March 2015. Serum samples were tested for markers of hepatitis B and C by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713277/does-the-strategy-of-risk-group-testing-for-hepatitis-c-hit-the-target
#13
Mirjana R Jovanovic, Aleksandar Miljatovic, Laslo Puskas, Slobodan Kapor, Dijana L Puskas
In the European Union, it is estimated that there are 5.5 million individuals with chronic infection of hepatitis C. Intravenous drug abuse is undoubtedly the key source of the hepatitis C epidemic in Europe and the most efficient mode of transmission of HCV infections (primarily due to short incubation time, but also because the virus is introduced directly into the blood stream with the infected needle). Potentially high-risk and vulnerable populations in Europe (and the world) include immigrants, prisoners, sex workers, men having sex with men, individuals infected with HIV, psychoactive substance users etc...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712659/pre-travel-care-for-immunocompromised-and-chronically-ill-travellers-a-retrospective-study
#14
Mariëlle van Aalst, Roos Verhoeven, Freshta Omar, Cornelis Stijnis, Michèle van Vugt, Godelieve J de Bree, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised and chronically ill travellers (ICCITs) are susceptible to travel related diseases. In ICCITs, pre-travel care regarding vaccinations and prophylactics is complex. We evaluated the protection level by preventive measures in ICCITs by analysing rates of vaccination protection, antibody titres, and the prescription of standby antibiotics. METHODS: We analysed, and reported according to STROBE guidelines, pre-travel care data for ICCITs visiting the medical pre-travel clinic at the Academic Medical Centre, The Netherlands from 2011 to 2016...
July 13, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712183/association-of-abo-and-rh-blood-group-types-to-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-hiv-and-syphilis-infection-a-five-year-experience-in-healthy-blood-donors-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#15
Zufishan Batool, Saadia Haroon Durrani, Shazia Tariq
BACKGROUND: Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to find out the frequency of Hepatitis B Hepatitis C, Syphilis, HIV and malaria in apparently healthy blood donors and to find out any association between ABO and Rh blood groups. METHODS: It was a descriptive study carried out at Rehman Medical Institute laboratory. All blood donors who volunteered for blood donation from Jan 2008 to Dec 2014 were reviewed for blood groups and screening tests. Those who were eligible were then screened for Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, syphilis and malaria on Architect 8200i through chemiluminescent immunoassay whereas malaria was screened by a thin film...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710853/real-world-effectiveness-of-sofosbuvir-based-treatment-regimens-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-3-infection-results-from-the-multicenter-german-hepatitis-c-cohort-gecco-03
#16
Malte H Wehmeyer, Patrick Ingiliz, Stefan Christensen, Dietrich Hueppe, Thomas Lutz, Karl Georg Simon, Knud Schewe, Christoph Boesecke, Axel Baumgarten, Heiner Busch, Juergen Rockstroh, Guenther Schmutz, Torben Kimhofer, Florian Berger, Stefan Mauss, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch
There are limited data regarding the real world effectiveness of direct acting antivirals (DAA) for the therapy of chronic genotype 3 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. All HCV genotype 3 infected patients from the German hepatitis C cohort (GECCO), which is a prospective database of nine German hepatitis C treatment centers, were included in the study. 342 chronically infected HCV genotype 3 patients were analyzed (253 males [74.0%], mean age 47.3 years, 127 cirrhotic patients [37.1%] mostly with Child A cirrhosis, 113 treatment experienced patients [37...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710214/trends-and-factors-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-or-hepatitis-c-virus-testing-and-infection-among-injection-drug-users-newly-entering-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-guangdong-province-china-2006-2013-a-consecutive-cross-sectional-study
#17
Yin Liu, Yu Liu, Xia Zou, Wen Chen, Li Ling
OBJECTIVES: To assess trends and related factors in HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody testing and infection among injection drug users (IDUs) newly entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Guangdong Province, China. METHOD: Consecutive cross sectional surveys were conducted in 14 MMT clinics from July 2006 to December 2013 in Guangdong Province, China. IDUs were excluded if they were re-enrolled or referred from other MMT clinics. Trend tests were used to examine HIV and/or HCV testing and infection, sociodemographic characteristics, drug use related behaviours and the past 3 month sexual behaviours on enrolment...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710196/disseminated-histoplasmosis-presenting-as-multiple-oral-ulcers
#18
Nicholas Hendren, Christina Yek, Jason Mull, James B Cutrell
A 61-year-old female with a history of advanced HIV disease and chronic hepatitis B was presented with an 8-week history of painful oral ulcers. She appeared systemically well but examination revealed multiple well-demarcated clean-based ulcers on the tongue and hard palate. Biopsy of one of the lesions showed numerous histiocytes containing intracellular yeast forms consistent with Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum Fungal blood cultures subsequently grew H. capsulatum var. capsulatum, confirming a diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis...
July 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707319/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-significantly-decreases-serum-lipoprotein-levels-compared-with-entecavir-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-therapy-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers
#19
A A Shaheen, M AlMattooq, S Yazdanfar, K W Burak, M G Swain, S E Congly, M A Borman, S S Lee, R P Myers, C S Coffin
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are first-line treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Studies suggest lipid lowering effect of TDF in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals, but the effect on lipids and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in CHB is unknown. AIM: To compare TDF vs ETV effects on lipid levels in CHB. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data on serum lipids and CVD risk factors at baseline and ~1 year on TDF or ETV were collected from CHB carriers...
July 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705716/occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-greek-patients-with-congenital-bleeding-disorders
#20
Agoritsa Varaklioti, Anna Kouramba, Panagiota Ioannidou, Olga Katsarou
Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is a form of chronic HBV infection characterized by low level HBV DNA, without detectable HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). OBI is frequently associated with the presence of anti-HBc and in some cases also with anti-HBs. Patients, who formerly received non-inactivated factor concentrates, can potentially be considered at high risk for OBI, especially since these patients usually are HIV or HCV co-infected. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection in Greek patients with hereditary bleeding disorders...
July 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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