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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228122/tennessee-s-in-state-vulnerability-assessment-for-a-rapid-dissemination-of-hiv-or-hcv-infection-event-utilizing-data-about-the-opioid-epidemic
#1
Michael Rickles, Peter F Rebeiro, Lindsey Sizemore, Paul Juarez, Mitchell Mutter, Carolyn Wester, Melissa McPheeters
Background: Knowing which factors contribute to county-level vulnerability to an HIV/Hepatitis C (HCV) outbreak, and which counties are most vulnerable, guide public health and clinical interventions. We therefore examined the impact of locally available indicators related to the opioid epidemic on prior national models of HCV/HIV outbreak vulnerability. Methods: Tennessee's 95 counties were the study sample. Predictors from 2012 and 2013 were used, mirroring prior methodology from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225896/incidence-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-factors-associated-with-its-development-in-hiv-positive-patients-over-the-age-of-50
#2
Faizal Samad, Marianne Harris, Cathy M Puskas, Monica Ye, Jason Chia, Sarah Chacko, Gregory P Bondy, Viviane D Lima, Julio Sg Montaner, Silvia A Guillemi
Objective: We sought to determine the incidence and factors associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in older HIV-infected individuals. Research design and methods: We analyzed data from people living with HIV (PLWH) ≥50 years of age enrolled in a large urban HIV outpatient clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia. Patients were categorized as having DM if they had random blood sugar ≥11.1 mmol/L, fasting blood sugar ≥7 mmol/L, HbA1C ≥6.5%, antidiabetic medication use during the follow-up period, or medical chart review confirming diagnosis of DM...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225131/role-of-tenofovir-alafenamide-taf-in-the-treatment-and-prophylaxis-of-hiv-and-hbv-infections
#3
REVIEW
Erik De Clercq
Tenofovir (TFV) is the cornerstone in the treatment and prophylaxis of HIV infections. It has been routinely used in its prodrug form TDF (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) combined with emtricitabine ((-)FTC) and other antiretroviral agents. TDF has now been replaced by TAF (tenofovir alafenamide) which allows better uptake by the lymphoid tissue. In combination with elvitegravir (E), cobicistat (C), emtricitabine (F), TAF can be advocated as an STR (single tablet regimen, Genvoya®) for the treatment of HIV infections...
December 7, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214737/efficacy-safety-and-patient-reported-outcomes-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-ns3-4a-protease-inhibitor-experienced-individuals-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-and-hiv-coinfection-with-and-without-cirrhosis-anrs-hc31-softrih-study
#4
E Rosenthal, C Fougerou-Leurent, A Renault, M P Carrieri, F Marcellin, R Garraffo, E Teicher, H Aumaitre, K Lacombe, F Bailly, E Billaud, S Chevaliez, S Dominguez, M A Valantin, J Reynes, A Naqvi, L Cotte, S Metivier, V Leroy, M Dupon, T Allegre, P De Truchis, V Jeantils, J Chas, D Salmon-Ceron, P Morlat, D Neau, P Perré, L Piroth, S Pol, M Bourlière, G P Pageaux, L Alric, D Zucman, P M Girard, I Poizot-Martin, Y Yazdanpanah, F Raffi, E Le Pabic, C Tual, A Pailhé, I Amri, E Bellissant, J M Molina
OBJECTIVES: Studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of the fixed-dose combination ledipasvir (LDV)/sofosbuvir (SOF) in patients coinfected with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have mainly included treatment-naïve patients without cirrhosis. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this combination in treatment-experienced patients with and without cirrhosis. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, open-label, double-arm, nonrandomized study in patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HCV genotype 1 with and without cirrhosis, who had good viral suppression on their antiretroviral regimens...
December 7, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214156/off-target-effects-of-drugs-that-disrupt-human-mitochondrial-dna-maintenance
#5
REVIEW
Matthew J Young
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were the first drugs used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Development of severe mitochondrial toxicity has been well documented in patients infected with HIV and administered NRTIs. In vitro biochemical experiments have demonstrated that the replicative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase gamma, Polg, is a sensitive target for inhibition by metabolically active forms of NRTIs, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213011/the-prevalence-of-occupational-health-related-problems-in-dentistry-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
Rajeshree Moodley, J M Van Wyk, Saloshni Naidoo
The study was conducted to report on the scope and prevalence of occupational health related-problems experienced by dentists, dental therapists, and oral hygienists in their practice of dentistry. BACKGROUND: Professional practice and dental training have many risk factors, and the dental team should be able to recognize these factors to protect themselves. The prevalence of conditions related to the musculoskeletal system, stress, percutaneous injuries, ears, and eyes are of concern...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211835/massive-iatrogenic-outbreak-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-in-rural-cambodia-2014-2015
#7
François Rouet, Janin Nouhin, Du-Ping Zheng, Benjamin Roche, Allison Black, Sophearot Prak, Marie Leoz, Catherine Gaudy-Graffin, Laurent Ferradini, Chandara Mom, Sovatha Mam, Charlotte Gautier, Gérard Lesage, Sreymom Ken, Kerya Phon, Alexandra Kerleguer, Chunfu Yang, William Killam, Masami Fujita, Chhivun Mean, Didier Fontenille, Francis Barin, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Trevor Bedford, Artur Ramos, Vonthanak Saphonn
Background: In 2014-2015, 242 individuals aged 2-89 were newly HIV-1 diagnosed in Roka, a rural commune in Cambodia. A case-control study attributed the outbreak to unsafe injections. We aimed to reconstruct the likely transmission history of the outbreak. Methods: We assessed in 209 (86.4%) HIV-infected cases the presence of hepatitis C and B viruses (HCV, HBV). We identified recent infections using antibody (Ab) avidity testing for HIV and HCV, and HBcIgM Ab for HBV...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211347/long-term-viral-suppression-and-immune-recovery-during-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-a-study-of-an-hiv-infected-adult-cohort-in-hanoi-vietnam
#8
Junko Tanuma, Shoko Matsumoto, Sebastien Haneuse, Do Duy Cuong, Tuong Van Vu, Pham Thi Thanh Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dung, Nguyen Thi Hoai Dung, Nguyen Vu Trung, Nguyen Van Kinh, Shinichi Oka
INTRODUCTION: Achieving viral suppression is key in the global strategy to end the HIV epidemic. However, the levels of viral suppression have yet to be described in many resource-limited settings. METHODS: We investigated the time to virologic failure (VF; defined as a viral load of ≥1000 copies/ml) and changes in CD4 counts since starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a cohort of HIV-infected adults in Hanoi, Vietnam. Factors related to the time to VF and impaired early immune recovery (defined as not attaining an increase in 100 cells/mm3 in CD4 counts at 24 months) were further analysed...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210158/screening-for-human-papillomavirus-cervical-cytological-abnormalities-and-associated-risk-factors-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-women-in-rwanda
#9
M F Mukanyangezi, V Sengpiel, O Manzi, G Tobin, S Rulisa, E Bienvenu, D Giglio
OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer is the major cause of death from cancer in Africa. We wanted to assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and associated risk factors and to determine whether HPV testing could serve as a screening method for squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) in Rwanda. We also wanted to obtain a broader understanding of the underlying risk factors for the establishment of HPV infection in Rwanda. METHODS: A total of 206 HIV-positive women, 172 HIV-negative women and 22 women with unknown HIV status were recruited at the University Teaching Hospitals of Kigali (UTHK) and of Butare (UTHB) in Rwanda...
December 6, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208530/analytical-performances-of-simultaneous-detection-of-hiv-1-hiv-2-and-hepatitis-c-specific-antibodies-and-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-by-multiplex-immunochromatographic-rapid-test-with-serum-samples-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Leman Robin, Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Zita Ayelo, Laura Charmant, Mathieu Matta, Sylvie Simon, Mounir Filali, Souleymane Mboup, Laurent Bélec
BACKGROUND: The HIV/HCV/HBsAg Triplex [OEM: Biotest Biotech Inc, Hangzhou, China] consists in manually performed, visually interpreted, lateral flow, immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test simultaneously detecting in 15minutes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2 and hepatitis C virus (HCV)- specific antibodies (Ab) (IgG and IgM) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum, plasma and whole blood. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a prospective panel of serum samples from adult inpatients included from routine analysis irrespectively of age and sex, including 250 sera positive for HIV-1-specific Ab, 250 for HCV-specific Ab, 250 for HBsAg and 250 sera negative for HIV- and HCV- Ab and HBsAg, and from 110 HIV-2-infected patients living in Ivory Coast, according to the results obtained by the reference chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) Abbott Architect i2000SR analyzer (Abbott Diagnostic, Chicago, IL, USA)...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208161/hepatitis-a-outbreak-in-hiv-infected-msm-and-in-prep-using-msm-despite-a-high-level-of-immunity-lyon-france-january-to-june-2017
#11
Caroline Charre, Christophe Ramière, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso, Christian Chidiac, Fabien Zoulim, Matthieu Godinot, Joseph Koffi, Caroline Scholtès, Jean-Michel Livrozet, Hav Lyon Study Group, Laurent Cotte
Since 2016, an increase in the number of hepatitis A cases affecting mainly men who have sex with men (MSM) has been reported in low endemic countries in Europe. We calculated the attack rate in Lyon, France, in populations considered at high-risk: HIV-infected MSM and HIV-negative MSM receiving HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). In these populations, high level of immunity did not prevent the outbreak, indicating that vaccination should be reinforced, particularly in younger individuals.
November 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202789/paracetamol-clinical-dosing-routine-leads-to-paracetamol-underexposure-in-an-adult-severely-ill-sub-saharan-african-hospital-population-a-drug-concentration-measurement-study
#12
Jeannet C Bos, Mabor C Mistício, Ginto Nunguiane, Ron A A Mathôt, Reinier M van Hest, Jan M Prins
BACKGROUND: Hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to receive high numbers of severely ill (HIV-infected) patients with physical pain that may suffer from hepatic and renal dysfunction. Paracetamol is widely used for pain relief in this setting but it is unknown whether therapeutic drug concentrations are attained. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of therapeutic, sub-therapeutic and toxic paracetamol concentrations in SSA adult hospital population. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, plasma paracetamol concentrations were measured in patients with an oral prescription in a referral hospital in Mozambique...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199597/hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-possible-chemical-and-biological-causes-a-review
#13
Pinar Erkekoglu, Didem Oral, Ming-Wei Chao, Belmar Kocer-Gumusel
The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process. In HCC, progressive and morphologically distinct preneoplastic lesions/alterations associated with chronic liver injury, inflammation, hepatocellular degeneration/regeneration, necrosis, and small-cell dysplasia can be observed. The incidence of HCC exhibits regional and ethnic differences. Several cytotoxic and DNA-damaging chemicals are suggested to be the underlying causes of HCC-for example, acrylamide, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and dietary contaminants (aflatoxins, ochratoxins)...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198873/short-and-long-term-postoperative-complications-following-total-joint-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hepatitis-b-or-hepatitis-c
#14
Beau J Kildow, Cary S Politzer, Marcus DiLallo, Michael P Bolognesi, Thorsten M Seyler
INTRODUCTION: Due to advancement in treatment against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), the prevalence of this patient population electing to undergo total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is increasing. Current literature is scarce and conflicting especially when evaluating long-term surgical complications. The purpose of this study is to assess the postoperative medical and surgical complications following TJA in these patient populations...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197988/impact-of-circulating-bacterial-dna-in-long-term-glucose-homeostasis-in-non-diabetic-patients-with-hiv-infection-cohort-study
#15
Ó Moreno-Pérez, L Giner, S Reus, V Boix, R Alfayate, R Frances, E Merino, A Pico, J Portilla
In HIV-infected patients, the damage in the gut mucosal immune system is not completely restored after antiretroviral therapy (ART). It results in microbial translocation, which could influence the immune and inflammatory response. We aimed at investigating the long-term impact of bacterial-DNA translocation (bactDNA) on glucose homeostasis in an HIV population. This was a cohort study in HIV-infected patients whereby inclusion criteria were: patients with age >18 years, ART-naïve or on effective ART (<50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) and without diabetes or chronic hepatitis C...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194939/management-of-drug-interactions-with-direct-acting-antivirals-in-dutch-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-coinfected-patients-adequate-but-not-perfect
#16
E J Smolders, C Smit, Ctmm de Kanter, Asm Dofferhoff, J E Arends, K Brinkman, B Rijnders, M van der Valk, P Reiss, D M Burger
OBJECTIVES: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can cause drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and non-cART co-medication. We mapped how physicians manage DDIs between DAAs and co-medication and analysed treatment outcomes. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected as part of the ATHENA HIV observational cohort and retrospectively analysed. Dutch patients with HIV/HCV coinfection who initiated treatment with DAAs between January 2015 and May 2016 were included...
December 1, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194114/hiv-1-and-hepatitis-c-virus-selection-bottleneck-in-chinese-people-who-inject-drugs
#17
Fan Li, Liying Ma, Yi Feng, Yuhua Ruan, Jing Hu, Hongshuo Song, Pengtao Liu, Jun Ma, Baolin Rui, Kate Kerpen, Benjamin Scheinfeld, Tuhina Srivastava, Metzger David, Hui Li, Katharine J Bar, Yiming Shao
OBJECTIVES: For both HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV), assessing the stringency of the transmission process is a scientific priority. Enumerations of transmitted/founder (TF) viruses have shown a strict transmission bottleneck in sexual transmission of HIV-1 and a wide range in the multiplicity of infection in HCV. Here, we aim to determine the stringency of parenteral transmission for HIV -1 and HCV in people who inject drugs (PWID). DESIGN: We used molecular sequencing and several complementary analyses to enumerate the TF HIV-1 and HCV variants in a well-described cohort of PWID in Xinjiang, China...
November 30, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193564/ifn-free-therapy-is-associated-with-restoration-of-type-i-ifn-response-in-hiv-1-patients-with-acute-hcv-infection-who-achieve-svr
#18
Charles Carlton-Smith, Jacinta A Holmes, Susanna Naggie, Anna Lidofsky, Georg M Lauer, Arthur Y Kim, Raymond T Chung
Interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have revolutionized chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment; early studies suggest excellent efficacy in acute HCV. However, changes in innate immune responses during DAA therapy for acute HCV are unknown. We studied interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression and related cytokines/chemokines in HIV-infected patients with acute HCV receiving sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (SOF+RBV) as part of the A5327 clinical trial. ISG expression was determined from PBMCs and circulating cytokines/chemokines were quantified from serum from study participants...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193128/pathogen-reduction-and-blood-transfusion-safety-in-africa-strengths-limitations-and-challenges-of-implementation-in-low-resource-settings
#19
REVIEW
A D Ware, C Jacquot, A A R Tobian, E A Gehrie, P M Ness, E M Bloch
Transfusion-transmitted infection risk remains an enduring challenge to blood safety in Africa. A high background incidence and prevalence of the major transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs), dependence on high-risk donors to meet demand, suboptimal testing and quality assurance collectively contribute to the increased risk. With few exceptions, donor testing is confined to serological evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and syphilis. Barriers to implementation of broader molecular methods include cost, limited infrastructure and lack of technical expertise...
November 30, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191154/hepatitis-c-testing-and-re-testing-among-people-attending-sexual-health-services-in-australia-and-hepatitis-c-incidence-among-people-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-analysis-of-national-sentinel-surveillance-data
#20
David C Boettiger, Matthew G Law, Gregory J Dore, Rebecca Guy, Denton Callander, Basil Donovan, Catherine C O'Connor, Christopher K Fairley, Margaret Hellard, Gail Matthews
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antivirals are expected to drastically reduce the burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). However, rates of HCV testing, re-testing and incident infection in this group remain uncertain in Australia. We assessed trends in HCV testing, re-testing and incident infection among HIV-positive individuals, and evaluated factors associated with HCV re-testing and incident infection. METHODS: The study population consisted of HIV-positive individuals who visited a sexual health service involved in the Australian Collaboration for Coordinated Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance (ACCESS) between 2007 and 2015...
December 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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