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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438397/capacity-of-non-invasive-hepatic-fibrosis-algorithms-to-replace-transient-elastography-to-exclude-cirrhosis-in-people-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-multi-centre-observational-study
#1
Melissa Louise Kelly, Stephen M Riordan, Rohan Bopage, Andrew R Lloyd, Jeffrey John Post
INTRODUCTION: Achievement of the 2030 World Health Organisation (WHO) global hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination targets will be underpinned by scale-up of testing and use of direct-acting antiviral treatments. In Australia, despite publically-funded testing and treatment, less than 15% of patients were treated in the first year of treatment access, highlighting the need for greater efficiency of health service delivery. To this end, non-invasive fibrosis algorithms were examined to reduce reliance on transient elastography (TE) which is currently utilised for the assessment of cirrhosis in most Australian clinical settings...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438195/incidence-of-new-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-is-still-increasing-in-french-msm-living-with-hiv
#2
Pierre Pradat, Thomas Huleux, François Raffi, Pierre Delobel, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Pascal Pugliese, Jacques Reynes, David Rey, Bruno Hoen, André Cabie, Firouzé Bani-Sadr, Antoine Cheret, Claudine Duvivier, Christine Jacomet, Anne Fresard, Laurent Hustache-Mathieu, Laurent Cotte
OBJECTIVE: High hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake combined with effective direct-acting antiviral-based regimens resulted in a dramatic decline of HCV infection in French people living with HIV (PLWH). We assessed the yearly incidence of new HCV infection in PLWH enrolled in the large French Dat'AIDS cohort from 2012 to 2016 with a specific focus on MSM. METHODS: The incidence of new HCV infection was determined yearly in HCV-negative PLWH with serological follow-up during 2012-2016...
February 12, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436977/injection-related-hepatitis-c-serosorting-behaviors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-an-urban-rural-comparison
#3
Ian Duncan, Patrick Habecker, Dane Hautala, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski
Although previous research has focused on injection drug use behaviors in both urban and rural settings, few have drawn direct comparisons between adjacent rural and urban areas. Using data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance study as well as original data collected in a similar fashion, we compare the risk behaviors of people who inject drugs (PWID) in San Juan, Puerto Rico, with those of PWID in nearby rural areas. Specifically, we examine whether one's own hepatitis C (HCV) infection status can be used to predict whether one asked their most recent co-injection partner about their HCV status...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435907/sustained-virological-response-in-special-populations-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-using-interferon-free-treatments-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-cohort-studies
#4
REVIEW
Vinicius Lins Ferreira, Letícia Paula Leonart, Fernanda Stumpf Tonin, Helena Hiemisch Lobo Borba, Roberto Pontarolo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C treatment has changed considerably in recent years, and many interferon (IFN)-free therapies are now available. Considering the high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) presented by clinical trials for these treatments, high rates of effectiveness are also expected in real-world clinical practice. Hence, this study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort studies to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of IFN-free therapies for hepatitis C...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434818/current-characteristics-of-hemophilia-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-hcv-in-japan
#5
Satoshi Miuma, Masaaki Hidaka, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Koji Natsuda, Akihiko Soyama, Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Yasuko Kanda, Yoko Tamada, Hidetaka Shibata, Eisuke Ozawa, Naota Taura, Susumu Eguchi, Kazuhiko Nakao
Over 30 years have passed since co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) was first documented in hemophilia patients in Japan. In such cases, the leading cause of mortality is reportedly HCV-associated end-stage liver disease. However, the current characteristics of hemophilia patients co-infected with HIV/HCV are unknown. The aim of the present study was to reveal the current characteristics, notably HCV geno-prevalence and liver function, among hemophilia patients co-infected with HIV/HCV in Japan...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434477/high-burden-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-in-madagascar-comparison-with-other-sexually-transmitted-infections
#6
Jérôme Bigoni, Rosa Catarino, Caroline Benski, Manuela Viviano, Maria Munoz, Honoré Tilahizandry, Patrick Petignat, Pierre Vassilakos
Background: In Madagascar, human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, as well as syphilis share common risk factors but seem to differ in their prevalence. We measured and compared their prevalence in the country. Methods: The data used in this study came from the Saint Damien Health Centre in Ambanja, Madagascar. The tests used for disease detection were the Alere Determine, Virucheck, rapid plasma reagin, and S-DRY self-HPV samples for HIV infection, HBV infection, syphilis, and HPV infection, respectively...
2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434450/incidence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease-due-to-hepatitis-b-or-c-and-coinfected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Patrícia Dos Santos Marcon, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Dimas Alexandre Kliemann, Patrícia Fisch, Angelo Alves de Mattos
AIM: To assess the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed, including patients with chronic liver disease due to HBV or HCV, with and without HIV coinfection. Patients were selected in the largest tertiary public hospital complex in southern Brazil between January 2007 and June 2014...
February 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433454/hepatitis-b-c-in-the-countries-of-the-eu-eea-a-systematic-review-of-the-prevalence-among-at-risk-groups
#8
Abby May Falla, Sanne Henrietta Ina Hofstraat, Erika Duffell, Susan Josien Maria Hahné, Lara Tavoschi, Irene Karen Veldhuijzen
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organisation set a goal to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. Robust epidemiological information underpins all efforts to achieve elimination and this systematic review provides estimates of HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) among three at-risk populations: people in prison, men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Estimates of the prevalence among the three risk groups included in our study were derived from multiple sources...
February 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432974/similarities-and-changes-between-15-and-24-year-survival-and-retention-rates-of-patients-in-a-large-medical-affiliated-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-center
#9
Einat Peles, Shaul Schreiber, Anat Sason, Miriam Adelson
BACKGROUND: Environmental and social trends and patients' characteristics may affect predictors for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) outcome. METHODS: We have expanded our previous study of predictors for MMT outcome (from 619 to 890 patients) and the study period (from 15 to 24 years). Survival and retention in MMT since admission to the MMT clinic (6/1993-6/2016) and until death or study closure (6/2017) were compiled and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 890 patients ever admitted (10,146...
February 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427485/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-the-use-of-the-new-pangenotypic-direct-acting-antivirals-in-special-populations
#10
REVIEW
Stanislas Pol, Lucia Parlati
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The recommended combination of pangenotypic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) associates the co-formulation of 2 or 3 second-generation DAAs. In the so-called "special populations" defined as patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), HCV/HIV co-infection, HCV/HBV co-infection and an unsuccessful previous DAA regimen, these combinations have a high antiviral potency (sustained virologic response (SVR) > 95%), fair tolerance and a reduced pill burden...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427481/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-results-in-real-life
#11
REVIEW
Christophe Hézode
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have transformed traditional treatment options for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. DAA combinations have been shown to be highly effective in reducing the burden of chronic HCV infection in clinical trials and have been recommended by the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) treatment guidelines. This review examines the results of second-generation DAA combinations in real-life clinical practice in patients with genotypes 1-3 and in those co-infected with HIV (real-world data in genotypes 4-6 are rare)...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427444/antibody-response-to-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-malawi-and-correlation-with-hbv-infection-acquisition
#12
Sandro Mancinelli, Maria Franca Pirillo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Robert Mphwere, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Leonardo Palombi, Marina Giuliano
The aim of this study was to assess the immune response to HBV vaccine in HIV-exposed infants and to correlate it to HBV infection acquisition. Protective anti-HBs levels (> 10 mIU/ml) were found in 54/58 (93.2%) infants at 6 months, 126/144 (87.5%) at 12 months and 141/176 (80.1%) children at 24 months. HBV infection (7 children were HBsAg+ at Month 24) occurred also in the presence of levels above 10 mIU/ml. Our findings indicate limited impact of HIV exposure on anti-HBV immune response, but suggest that levels > 10 mIU/ml may be required to confer protection in this context...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424780/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-inversely-relates-to-monocyte-macrophage-activation-markers-in-hiv
#13
Lindsay T Fourman, Natalia Czerwonka, Sofia D Shaikh, Takara L Stanley, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Kathleen V Fitch, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
OBJECTIVE: Monocyte/macrophage activation is increased among people with HIV, and may contribute to the heightened risk of atherosclerosis and neurocognitive dysfunction in this population. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to attenuate the innate immune response in animal models of atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated for the first time, relationships of circulating IGF-1 with monocyte/macrophage-specific indices among HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422056/turning-the-tables-on-cytomegalovirus-targeting-viral-fc-receptors-by-cars-containing-mutated-ch2-ch3-igg-spacer-domains
#14
Julia Proff, Charlotte U Brey, Armin Ensser, Wolfgang Holter, Manfred Lehner
BACKGROUND: During infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) several viral proteins occur on cell surfaces in high quantity. We thus pursue an HLA-independent approach for immunotherapy of HCMV using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and bispecific BiTE® antibody constructs. In this context, HCMV-encoded proteins that mediate viral immune evasion and bind human IgG might represent particularly attractive target antigens. Unlike in observations of similar approaches for HIV and hepatitis B and C viruses, however, HCMV-infected cells develop a striking resistance to cytotoxic effector functions at later stages of the replication cycle...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421321/2017-international-meeting-of-the-global-virus-network
#15
REVIEW
Mike Catton, Glenda Gray, Diane Griffin, Hideki Hasegawa, Stephen Kent, Jason Mackenzie, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Linfa Wang
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 to strengthen research and responses to emerging viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemics. There are now 40 GVN Centers of Excellence and 6 Affiliate laboratories in 24 countries. The 2017 meeting was held from September 25-27 in Melbourne, Australia, and was hosted by the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity and the Institut Pasteur. This report highlights the recent accomplishments of GVN researchers in several important areas of medical virology, including the recent Zika epidemic, infections by human papillomavirus, influenza, HIV, hepatitis C, HTLV-1, and chikungunya viruses, and new and emerging viruses in the Australasia region...
February 5, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420652/long-term-clinical-immunological-and-virological-outcomes-of-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-southern-myanmar
#16
Elkin Hernán Bermúdez-Aza, Sharmila Shetty, Janet Ousley, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Theint Thida Soe, Kyipyar Soe, Phyu Ei Mon, Kyaw Tin Tun, Iza Ciglenecki, Susanna Cristofani, Marcelo Fernandez
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term clinical, immunological and virological outcomes among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Myanmar. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of people on ART for >9 years followed by a cross-sectional survey among the patients in this group who remained on ART at the time of the survey. Routinely collected medical data established the baseline clinical and demographic characteristics for adult patients initiating ART between 2004 and 2006...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419568/recent-abacavir-use-increases-risk-for-types-1-and-2-myocardial-infarctions-among-adults-with-hiv
#17
Richard A Elion, Keri N Althoff, Jinbing Zhang, Richard D Moore, Stephen J Gange, Mari M Kitahata, Heidi M Crane, Daniel R Drozd, James H Stein, Marina B Klein, Joseph J Eron, Michael J Silverberg, William C Mathews, Amy C Justice, Timothy R Sterling, Charles S Rabkin, Angel M Mayor, Daniel B Klein, Michael A Horberg, Ronald J Bosch, Oghenowede Eyawo, Frank J Palella
BACKGROUND: There is persistent confusion as to whether abacavir (ABC) increases the risk for myocardial infarction (MI), and whether such risk differs by Type 1 (T1MI) or 2 (T2MI) MI in adults with HIV. METHODS: Incident MIs in NA-ACCORD participants were identified from 2001 to 2013. Discrete time marginal structural models addressed channeling biases and time-dependent confounding to estimate crude (HR) and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals; analyses were performed for T1MI and T2MI separately...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416571/a-systematic-review-regarding-tonometry-and-the-transmission-of-infectious-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Nicole Atkins, William Hodge, Bruce Li
Tonometry has been identified as a common method for measuring the intraocular pressure in patients. The direct contact between the tonometer and the eye may contribute to the risk of cross infection, especially of viral particles, from one patient to another. A systematic review was undertaken to address the likelihood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and prion diseases transmission through the use of tonometers. Additionally, a comparison of the current tonometer disinfection methods is provided to assist with identifying which technique effectively reduces the risk of disease transmission...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413883/the-role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-immunopathogenesis-and-immunotherapy-of-viral-infections
#19
REVIEW
Ahmad Karkhah, Mostafa Javanian, Soheil Ebrahimpour
Two hepatotropic viruses hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been considered as the main cause of chronic viral infections. In addition, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system by eradication of some white blood cell (T-helper cell). The role of Tregs in HCV, HBV and HIV infections ranges from suppressing antiviral T cell responses to protecting tissues as liver and immune cells from immune mediated injury. In this review, we discuss the influence of regulatory T cells in immunopathology of specific viral infections including HCV, HBV and HIV by focusing on targeting Tregs as novel approach in vaccinology against viral infections...
January 29, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411271/molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-x-gene-in-hiv-positive-south-africans
#20
Maemu P Gededzha, Tsakani H Sondlane, Lesibana A Malinga, Rosemary J Burnett, Ramokone L Lebelo, Jason T Blackard, M Jeffrey Mphahlele, Selokela G Selabe
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide and the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in South Africa. The role of HBV in HCC is not well understood, although the HBV X gene has been implicated as a critical factor. Data on the HBV X gene in HIV-positive South Africans are limited; thus, we investigated X gene variability in 24 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital. Quantitative and qualitative HBV DNA tests were conducted using real-time and in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, respectively, targeting the complete HBV X gene...
February 6, 2018: Virus Genes
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