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Carolyn Sikes, Jeffrey G Stark, Russ McMahen, Dorothy Engelking
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of a new extended-release amphetamine oral suspension (AMP XR-OS) with a standard extended-release mixed amphetamine salts product, Adderall XR®. METHOD: In this single-dose, open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment crossover study, 42 healthy adult volunteers received 15 mL of AMP XR-OS in one period and a 30 mg Adderall XR capsule in another period (both containing 18.8 mg of amphetamine base) under fasted conditions...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Joseph J Palamar, Austin Le
BACKGROUND: Amphetamine is the most prevalent prescription stimulant in the United States, both medically and nonmedically. Reliable data on nonmedical use is needed to continue to inform prevention. To determine whether adolescents accurately self-report nonmedical amphetamine use, we compared self-reports of nonmedical amphetamine use and nonmedical Adderall use in a national sample. METHODS: We examined self-reported nonmedical Adderall and amphetamine use in a nationally representative sample of 24,740 high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (2010-2015)...
December 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Dor David Abelman
As postsecondary students' use of "study drugs" becomes more popular with increasingly reported negative effects on health and academic performance, failing prohibitionist policies to reduce consumption, and ambiguity in literature towards best practices to address this population, we present a literature review that seeks effective solutions educational institutions can apply to improve outcomes for students who use drugs. Motivations for use, effects of the substances, an analysis of efforts to control use from educational institutions, and suggestions on promoting most effective outcomes based on harm reduction, are described...
October 6, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Karen L Cropsey, Samantha Schiavon, Peter S Hendricks, Morgan Froelich, Iga Lentowicz, Rachel Fargason
INTRODUCTION: Non-medical use of prescription stimulants for cognitive enhancement in college students is increasing, despite evidence showing little benefit in non-clinical populations. The balanced placebo design (BPD) was used to independently evaluate the pharmacologic versus expectancy effects of mixed amphetamine salts on cognitive performance among a non-clinical sample of college-aged students. METHOD: Participants were screened and excluded for ADHD and other psychopathologies...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Austin Castillo, J Drew Payne, Kenneth Nugent
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome has been associated with hypertension, preeclampsia, cancer chemotherapy, and drugs of abuse, such as amphetamine and methamphetamine. We report a young man who suddenly developed severe headache, disorientation, and aphasia following ingestion of kratom and Adderall. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of his head revealed foci of vasogenic edema in the posterior occipital lobes, frontal lobes, and brainstem. In addition, he had a small area of hemorrhage in the left posterior occipital lobe...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Kris Tunac De Pedro, Tamika D Gilreath, Christopher Jackson, Monica Christina Esqueda
BACKGROUND: Transgender adolescents face tremendous social stress in families and schools, which often leads to behavioral health disparities. This study assessed whether rates of substance use were higher among transgender adolescents when compared to nontransgender adolescents. METHODS: This study is a secondary data analysis of the 2013-2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) that examines whether rates of substance use are higher among transgender youth when compared to nontransgender youth...
May 2017: Journal of School Health
Brittany A Kinman, Kevin J Armstrong, Kristina B Hood
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined perceptions of legal and health risks along with the perceived benefits of nonprescription stimulant (NPS) use in college students (e.g., using stimulants such as Ritalin, Vvyanse, Concerta, or Adderall without a prescription). OBJECTIVE: This study sought to better understand how college students perceived legal and health risks, as well as motivations associated with NPS use. The perceived risks and benefits were examined between those involved and those uninvolved...
August 24, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Leah Kern, Penn Edmonds, Ellen C Perrin, Martin T Stein
An 8-year 8-month-old biological female who self-identifies as a boy, Ricardo is brought by his mother for a well-child check to his new pediatrician. Ricardo and his mother report that he is doing well, but have concerns about the upcoming changes associated with puberty. Ricardo states that he is particularly afraid of developing breasts. His mother asks about obtaining a referral to a specialist who can provide "hormone therapy" to delay puberty.Ricardo was adopted from Costa Rica at the age of 2 as a healthy girl named "Angela...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Kenneth S León, Daniel E Martínez
This study examines the risk factors predicting non-prescribed stimulant use (NPSU) among adolescents, with an emphasis on whether such factors are reflective of instrumental (e.g., studying) and/or recreational (e.g., partying) drug consumption settings. Using data from Monitoring the Future (2011), we employed a series of logistic regression models to establish predictors of 12-month self-reported Adderall or Ritalin use without a doctor's note among eighth and tenth graders. Whereas studies of college students have found NPSU to correlate with instrumental motives and productivity-related demands, we find no association between NPSU and indicators of academic strain for this younger sample...
January 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
A Sinha, O Lewis, R Kumar, S L H Yeruva, B H Curry
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
Maria Cristina Gaudiano, Anna Borioni, Eleonora Antoniella, Luisa Valvo
A nontargeted approach based on liquid chromatography equipped with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass detector (LC-MS Q-TOF) joined to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis allowed rapid identification and quantification of the anti-inflammatory drug aceclofenac in illegal Adderall tablets. The largest chromatographic peak had m/z = 354.030 and m/z = 376.012 matching, respectively, the ionic structures (M + H)+ and (M + Na)+ of a molecule M. The accurate mass data generated the molecular formula C16 H13 Cl2 NO4 ...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Jeff M Housman, Ronald D Williams, Conrad L Woolsey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Approximately 30% of high school students use energy drinks. Alcohol use and alcohol mixed with energy drink use (AmED) is associated with risky behavior, including non-medical prescription stimulant use. We assessed alcohol-only, AmED and non-medical prescription stimulant use among 12th grade students in the U.S. using a nationally representative secondary data from the 2012 Monitoring the Future Study. METHODS: Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression analyses were used to determine differences in non-medical prescription stimulant use by students who used alcohol-only versus AmED and to identify covariates of non-medical prescription stimulant use...
August 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Kristen A Johnson, Lindsey A Sjaarda, Sunni L Mumford, Rebecca A Garbose, Karen C Schliep, Donald Mattison, Neil J Perkins, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Enrique F Schisterman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterize the patterns of medication intake in healthy, reproductive-age women not using hormonal contraception. METHODS: Two hundered fifty-nine healthy, premenopausal women (18-44 years of age) enrolled in the BioCycle Study (2005-2007) were followed over two menstrual cycles. Women were excluded if they were currently using oral contraceptives or other chronic medications. Over-the-counter and prescription medication use among participants was evaluated daily throughout the study via a diary assessing type of medication, dosage, units, and frequency...
June 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Abeed Sarker, Karen O'Connor, Rachel Ginn, Matthew Scotch, Karen Smith, Dan Malone, Graciela Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: Prescription medication overdose is the fastest growing drug-related problem in the USA. The growing nature of this problem necessitates the implementation of improved monitoring strategies for investigating the prevalence and patterns of abuse of specific medications. OBJECTIVES: Our primary aims were to assess the possibility of utilizing social media as a resource for automatic monitoring of prescription medication abuse and to devise an automatic classification technique that can identify potentially abuse-indicating user posts...
March 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Sathyanarayan Sudhanthar, Jane Turner, Kripa Thakur, Yakov Sigal
The pediatric clinics of the Michigan State University College of Human Medicine (MSU-CHM) consist of academic pediatricians serving two clinics with a patient population of 5200. The internal quality measures published by the MSU health team had consistently indicated our generic medications prescription rate to be very low, with an average of about 21% for the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. There was an earnest need to increase our generic medication prescription rates, which is considered an indicator of good practice...
2015: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Chih-Ying Chen, Regina Bussing, Abraham G Hartzema, Jonathan J Shuster, Richard Segal, Almut G Winterstein
PURPOSE: To explore changes in stimulant utilization and pre-treatment electrocardiography (ECG) screening in response to cardiovascular (CV) safety concerns. METHODS: Two source populations were established from Florida Medicaid Fee-for-service beneficiaries between 2001 and 2008: approximately 44 571 newly diagnosed attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and 33 000 new stimulant users. Time-series design and Joinpoint analysis were used to describe monthly trend changes in stimulant initiation, persistence, dosing, and pre-treatment ECG screening...
June 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Yanning Wang, Linda B Cottler, Catherine W Striley
OBJECTIVE: To assess the past 30-day prevalence of prescription stimulant use, report different forms of nonmedical use, and investigate different characteristics associated with Medical Users Only, Nonmedical Users Only, and youth who reported both medical and nonmedical use (MU+NMU youth). METHODS: The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study recruited 11,048 youth aged 10-18 years from entertainment venues in 10 US cities. RESULTS: In this study, 6...
December 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Marcelo Febo, Gozde Agan, James L Fratantonio, Thomas Simpatico, Mark S Gold
BACKGROUND: Lucid dreams are frequently pleasant and training techniques have been developed to teach dreamers to induce them. In addition, the induction of lucid dreams has also been used as a way to ameliorate nightmares. On the other hand, lucid dreams may be associated with psychiatric conditions, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Reward Deficiency Syndrome-associated diagnoses. In the latter conditions, lucid dreams can assume an unpleasant and frequently terrifying character...
June 2015: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Karen A Kleinschmidt
The disposal of controlled medication left in the school nurse office is problematic for school nurses. Medications are left for a variety of reasons: students transfer out of the district, state, or country; parents and guardians lack transportation to pick up their child's medication; and some families simply forget. The medications of concern are controlled substances, primarily Schedule II medications including Adderall, Concerta, and methylphenidate. Over time, these medications begin to accumulate in a school nurse's office...
September 2015: NASN School Nurse
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