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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918861/to-study-to-party-or-both-assessing-risk-factors-for-non-prescribed-stimulant-use-among-middle-and-high-school-students
#1
Kenneth S León, Daniel E Martínez
This study examines the risk factors predicting non-prescribed stimulant use (NPSU) among adolescents, with an emphasis on whether such factors are reflective of instrumental (e.g., studying) and/or recreational (e.g., partying) drug consumption settings. Using data from Monitoring the Future (2011), we employed a series of logistic regression models to establish predictors of 12-month self-reported Adderall or Ritalin use without a doctor's note among eighth and tenth graders. Whereas studies of college students have found NPSU to correlate with instrumental motives and productivity-related demands, we find no association between NPSU and indicators of academic strain for this younger sample...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690507/prescription-stimulant-medication-misuse-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go-from-here
#2
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579185/adult-adhd-medications-and-their-cardiovascular-implications
#3
A Sinha, O Lewis, R Kumar, S L H Yeruva, B H Curry
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364297/counterfeit-adderall-containing-aceclofenac-from-internet-pharmacies
#4
Maria Cristina Gaudiano, Anna Borioni, Eleonora Antoniella, Luisa Valvo
A nontargeted approach based on liquid chromatography equipped with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass detector (LC-MS Q-TOF) joined to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis allowed rapid identification and quantification of the anti-inflammatory drug aceclofenac in illegal Adderall tablets. The largest chromatographic peak had m/z = 354.030 and m/z = 376.012 matching, respectively, the ionic structures (M + H)(+) and (M + Na)(+) of a molecule M. The accurate mass data generated the molecular formula C16 H13 Cl2 NO4 ...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341690/impact-of-alcohol-and-alcohol-mixed-with-energy-drinks-on-non-medical-prescription-stimulant-use-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-12th-grade-students
#5
Jeff M Housman, Ronald D Williams, Conrad L Woolsey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Approximately 30% of high school students use energy drinks. Alcohol use and alcohol mixed with energy drink use (AmED) is associated with risky behavior, including non-medical prescription stimulant use. We assessed alcohol-only, AmED and non-medical prescription stimulant use among 12th grade students in the U.S. using a nationally representative secondary data from the 2012 Monitoring the Future Study. METHODS: Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression analyses were used to determine differences in non-medical prescription stimulant use by students who used alcohol-only versus AmED and to identify covariates of non-medical prescription stimulant use...
August 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954695/patterns-and-prevalence-of-medication-use-across-the-menstrual-cycle-among-healthy-reproductive-aged-women
#6
Kristen A Johnson, Lindsey A Sjaarda, Sunni L Mumford, Rebecca A Garbose, Karen C Schliep, Donald Mattison, Neil J Perkins, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Enrique F Schisterman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterize the patterns of medication intake in healthy, reproductive-age women not using hormonal contraception. METHODS: Two hundered fifty-nine healthy, premenopausal women (18-44 years of age) enrolled in the BioCycle Study (2005-2007) were followed over two menstrual cycles. Women were excluded if they were currently using oral contraceptives or other chronic medications. Over-the-counter and prescription medication use among participants was evaluated daily throughout the study via a diary assessing type of medication, dosage, units, and frequency...
June 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26748505/social-media-mining-for-toxicovigilance-automatic-monitoring-of-prescription-medication-abuse-from-twitter
#7
Abeed Sarker, Karen O'Connor, Rachel Ginn, Matthew Scotch, Karen Smith, Dan Malone, Graciela Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: Prescription medication overdose is the fastest growing drug-related problem in the USA. The growing nature of this problem necessitates the implementation of improved monitoring strategies for investigating the prevalence and patterns of abuse of specific medications. OBJECTIVES: Our primary aims were to assess the possibility of utilizing social media as a resource for automatic monitoring of prescription medication abuse and to devise an automatic classification technique that can identify potentially abuse-indicating user posts...
March 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26734452/improving-viable-low-cost-generic-medication-prescription-rate-in-primary-care-pediatric-practice
#8
Sathyanarayan Sudhanthar, Jane Turner, Kripa Thakur, Yakov Sigal
The pediatric clinics of the Michigan State University College of Human Medicine (MSU-CHM) consist of academic pediatricians serving two clinics with a patient population of 5200. The internal quality measures published by the MSU health team had consistently indicated our generic medications prescription rate to be very low, with an average of about 21% for the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. There was an earnest need to increase our generic medication prescription rates, which is considered an indicator of good practice...
2015: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26597624/stimulant-use-following-the-publicity-of-cardiovascular-safety-and-the-introduction-of-patient-medication-guides
#9
Chih-Ying Chen, Regina Bussing, Abraham G Hartzema, Jonathan J Shuster, Richard Segal, Almut G Winterstein
PURPOSE: To explore changes in stimulant utilization and pre-treatment electrocardiography (ECG) screening in response to cardiovascular (CV) safety concerns. METHODS: Two source populations were established from Florida Medicaid Fee-for-service beneficiaries between 2001 and 2008: approximately 44 571 newly diagnosed attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and 33 000 new stimulant users. Time-series design and Joinpoint analysis were used to describe monthly trend changes in stimulant initiation, persistence, dosing, and pre-treatment ECG screening...
June 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26518254/differentiating-patterns-of-prescription-stimulant-medical-and-nonmedical-use-among-youth-10-18-years-of-age
#10
Yanning Wang, Linda B Cottler, Catherine W Striley
OBJECTIVE: To assess the past 30-day prevalence of prescription stimulant use, report different forms of nonmedical use, and investigate different characteristics associated with Medical Users Only, Nonmedical Users Only, and youth who reported both medical and nonmedical use (MU+NMU youth). METHODS: The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study recruited 11,048 youth aged 10-18 years from entertainment venues in 10 US cities. RESULTS: In this study, 6...
December 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26132915/putative-dopamine-agonist-kb220z-attenuates-lucid-nightmares-in-ptsd-patients-role-of-enhanced-brain-reward-functional-connectivity-and-homeostasis-redeeming-joy
#11
Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Marcelo Febo, Gozde Agan, James L Fratantonio, Thomas Simpatico, Mark S Gold
BACKGROUND: Lucid dreams are frequently pleasant and training techniques have been developed to teach dreamers to induce them. In addition, the induction of lucid dreams has also been used as a way to ameliorate nightmares. On the other hand, lucid dreams may be associated with psychiatric conditions, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Reward Deficiency Syndrome-associated diagnoses. In the latter conditions, lucid dreams can assume an unpleasant and frequently terrifying character...
June 2015: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25816421/procedure-for-the-disposal-of-controlled-medication-in-the-school-setting
#12
Karen A Kleinschmidt
The disposal of controlled medication left in the school nurse office is problematic for school nurses. Medications are left for a variety of reasons: students transfer out of the district, state, or country; parents and guardians lack transportation to pick up their child's medication; and some families simply forget. The medications of concern are controlled substances, primarily Schedule II medications including Adderall, Concerta, and methylphenidate. Over time, these medications begin to accumulate in a school nurse's office...
September 2015: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25389939/central-serous-chorioretinopathy-associated-with-the-use-of-spironolactone-aldosterone-receptor-antagonist
#13
Anna Gabrielian, Mathew W MacCumber
PURPOSE: To report a case of central serous chorioretinopathy caused by the use of spironolactone, a competitive antagonist of aldosterone. METHODS: Case report and review of the literature. RESULTS: A 26-year-old white woman on Aldactone (spironolactone) for the treatment of acne and Adderall (dextroamphetamine/amphetamine) for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, developed central serous chorioretinopathy, which resolved upon discontinuation of spironolactone and remitted after restarting it...
2012: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25356917/robust-resilience-and-substantial-interest-a-survey-of-pharmacological-cognitive-enhancement-among-university-students-in-the-uk-and-ireland
#14
Ilina Singh, Imre Bard, Jonathan Jackson
Use of 'smart drugs' among UK students is described in frequent media reports as a rapidly increasing phenomenon. This article reports findings from the first large-scale survey of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) among students in the UK and Ireland. Conducted from February to September 2012, a survey of a convenience sample of 877 students measured PCE prevalence, attitudes, sources, purposes and ethics. Descriptive and logistic regression statistical methods were used to analyse the data. Lifetime prevalence of PCE using modafinil, methylphenidate or Adderall was under 10%, while past regular and current PCE users of these substances made up between 0...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25214391/substances-used-and-prevalence-rates-of-pharmacological-cognitive-enhancement-among-healthy-subjects
#15
REVIEW
Andreas G Franke, Christiana Bagusat, Sebastian Rust, Alice Engel, Klaus Lieb
Pharmacological "cognitive enhancement" (CE) is defined as the use of any psychoactive drug with the purpose of enhancing cognition, e.g. regarding attention, concentration or memory by healthy subjects. Substances commonly used as CE drugs can be categorized into three groups of drugs: (1) over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as coffee, caffeinated drinks/energy drinks, caffeine tablets or Ginkgo biloba; (2) drugs being approved for the treatment of certain disorders and being misused for CE: drugs to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the stimulants methylphenidate (MPH, e...
November 2014: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25156423/prescribing-some-criminological-theory-an-examination-of-the-illicit-use-of-prescription-stimulants-among-college-students
#16
Jeffrey R Maahs, Robert R Weidner, Ryan Smith
Recent evidence indicates that the illicit use of prescription stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin is common across college campuses and in professions (e.g., trucking) where staying awake and focused is valued. Existing research has established use patterns and explored respondents' reasons for using these stimulants. Less is known, however, about whether or how well mainstream criminological theory explains this type of illegal activity. This article reports results from a survey (N = 484) of college students from a Midwestern university, examining whether measures of strain, self-control, and social learning predict the illicit use of prescription stimulants...
February 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25150402/a-survey-of-nonmedical-use-of-tranquilizers-stimulants-and-pain-relievers-among-college-students-patterns-of-use-among-users-and-factors-related-to-abstinence-in-non-users
#17
Sara A Brandt, Elise C Taverna, Robert M Hallock
BACKGROUND: This study examined lifetime non-medical prescription drug use among college students at a small liberal arts college in the Northeast. We assessed the motives, frequency of use, sources, and perceived emotional/physical risks of nonmedical prescription drugs. Specifically, we examined the non-medical use of prescription pain relievers, stimulants, and anti-anxiety medication. METHODS: We sent an internet-based survey to 1/3 of the student body and 303 students completed the survey...
October 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25064292/non-medical-use-of-prescription-stimulants-for-weight-loss-disordered-eating-and-body-image
#18
Amy J Jeffers, Eric G Benotsch
OBJECTIVE: There has been minimal research on the non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS), such as Adderall and Ritalin, normally used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) for the purpose of weight loss. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of this use in a young adult sample. METHOD: College students (N=707) completed an online survey assessing NMUPS, in general and for weight loss, disordered eating behaviors and attitudes, body image, and recreational drug use...
August 2014: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24748011/an-8-year-old-biological-female-who-identifies-herself-as-a-boy-perspectives-in-primary-care-and-from-a-parent
#19
Leah Kern, Penn Edmonds, Ellen C Perrin, Martin T Stein
An 8-year 8-month-old biological female who self-identifies as a boy, Ricardo is brought by his mother for a well-child check to his new pediatrician. Ricardo and his mother report that he is doing well, but have concerns about the upcoming changes associated with puberty. Ricardo states that he is particularly afraid of developing breasts. His mother asks about obtaining a referral to a specialist who can provide "hormone therapy" to delay puberty.Ricardo was adopted from Costa Rica at the age of 2 as a healthy girl named "Angela...
May 2014: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24610676/trends-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-drugs-consumption-israel-2005-2012
#20
Alexander M Ponizovsky, Eli Marom, Israel Fitoussi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe trends in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs consumption in Israel (Ritalin, Concerta, Daytrana, Vyvanse, Focalin, and Adderall) over the 8 years, 2005-2012, and to explore explanations for changes in amounts and patterns of the utilization. METHODS: Data for the period from 2005 to 2012 were extracted from the database maintained by the Israel Ministry of Health's Pharmaceutical Administration...
May 2014: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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