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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095663/morphology-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-raillietina-spp-cestoda-cyclophyllidea-davaineidae-from-domestic-chickens-in-thailand
#1
Preeyaporn Butboonchoo, Chalobol Wongsawad, Amnat Rojanapaibul, Jong-Yil Chai
Raillietina species are prevalent in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand. Their infection may cause disease and death, which affects the public health and economic situation in chicken farms. The identification of Raillietina has been based on morphology and molecular analysis. In this study, morphological observations using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) coupled with molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene were employed for precise identification and phylogenetic relationship studies of Raillietina spp...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079669/the-irish-helicobacter-pylori-working-group-consensus-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-h-pylori-infection-in-adult-patients-in-ireland
#2
Sinead Smith, Breida Boyle, Denise Brennan, Martin Buckley, Paul Crotty, Maeve Doyle, Richard Farrell, Mary Hussey, David Kevans, Peter Malfertheiner, Francis Megraud, Sean Nugent, Anthony O'Connor, Colm O'Morain, Shiobhan Weston, Deirdre McNamara
BACKGROUND: Irish eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori are decreasing and there is an increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These trends call into question current management strategies. OBJECTIVE: To establish an Irish Helicobacter pylori Working Group (IHPWG) to assess, revise and tailor current available recommendations. METHODS: Experts in the areas of gastroenterology and microbiology were invited to join the IHPWG...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073394/gregarine-infection-accelerates-larval-development-of-the-cat-flea-ctenocephalides-felis-bouch%C3%A3
#3
M E Alarcón, A Jara-F, R C Briones, A K Dubey, C H Slamovits
A high degree of specialization between host and parasite is a well-known outcome of a long history of coevolution, and it is strikingly illustrated in a coordination of their life cycles. In some cases, the arms race ensued at the establishment of a symbiotic relationship results in the adoption of manipulative strategies by the parasite. We have already learned that Steinina ctenocephali, a gregarine living in the alimentary canal of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis follows its phenology and metamorphosis...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063871/new-trends-in-human-and-animal-leptospirosis-in-croatia-2009-2014
#4
Josipa Habus, Zdenka Persic, Silvio Spicic, Silvijo Vince, Zrinka Stritof, Zoran Milas, Zeljko Cvetnic, Matko Perharic, Nenad Turk
Leptospirosis is a geographically widespread and globally underestimated zoonosis that affects humans and variety of animals. To identify trends and possible risk factors, joined medical and veterinary teams investigated epidemiology and epizootiology of leptospirosis in Croatia. Retrospective analysis of data obtained from referent diagnostic laboratories included a total of 1917 human and 123964 animal sera tested in the period from 2009 to 2014. We found high human leptospirosis average incidence rate of 1...
January 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049516/genetic-clustering-and-polymorphism-of-the-merozoite-surface-protein-3-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-clinical-isolates-from-peninsular-malaysia
#5
Jeremy Ryan De Silva, Yee Ling Lau, Mun Yik Fong
BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has been reported to cause significant numbers of human infection in South East Asia. Its merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP3) is a protein that belongs to a multi-gene family of proteins first found in Plasmodium falciparum. Several studies have evaluated the potential of P. falciparum MSP3 as a potential vaccine candidate. However, to date no detailed studies have been carried out on P. knowlesi MSP3 gene (pkmsp3). The present study investigates the genetic diversity, and haplotypes groups of pkmsp3 in P...
January 3, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024238/forensic-application-of-phylogenetic-analyses-exploration-of-suspected-hiv-1-transmission-case
#6
Marina Siljic, Dubravka Salemovic, Valentina Cirkovic, Ivana Pesic-Pavlovic, Jovan Ranin, Marija Todorovic, Slobodan Nikolic, Djordje Jevtovic, Maja Stanojevic
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) between individuals may have important legal implications and therefore may come to require forensic investigation based upon phylogenetic analysis. In criminal trials results of phylogenetic analyses have been used as evidence of responsibility for HIV transmission. In Serbia, as in many countries worldwide, exposure and deliberate transmission of HIV are criminalized. We present the results of applying state of the art phylogenetic analyses, based on pol and env genetic sequences, in exploration of suspected HIV transmission among three subjects: a man and two women, with presumed assumption of transmission direction from one woman to a man...
December 19, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998286/ultrasensitive-single-genome-sequencing-accurate-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-hiv-1-rna
#7
Valerie F Boltz, Jason Rausch, Wei Shao, Junko Hattori, Brian Luke, Frank Maldarelli, John W Mellors, Mary F Kearney, John M Coffin
BACKGROUND: Although next generation sequencing (NGS) offers the potential for studying virus populations in unprecedented depth, PCR error, amplification bias and recombination during library construction have limited its use to population sequencing and measurements of unlinked allele frequencies. Here we report a method, termed ultrasensitive Single-Genome Sequencing (uSGS), for NGS library construction and analysis that eliminates PCR errors and recombinants, and generates single-genome sequences of the same quality as the "gold-standard" of HIV-1 single-genome sequencing assay but with more than 100-fold greater depth...
December 20, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992877/in-situ-structures-of-the-genome-and-genome-delivery-apparatus-in-a-single-stranded-rna-virus
#8
Xinghong Dai, Zhihai Li, Mason Lai, Sara Shu, Yushen Du, Z Hong Zhou, Ren Sun
Packaging of the genome into a protein capsid and its subsequent delivery into a host cell are two fundamental processes in the life cycle of a virus. Unlike double-stranded DNA viruses, which pump their genome into a preformed capsid, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, such as bacteriophage MS2, co-assemble their capsid with the genome; however, the structural basis of this co-assembly is poorly understood. MS2 infects Escherichia coli via the host 'sex pilus' (F-pilus); it was the first fully sequenced organism and is a model system for studies of translational gene regulation, RNA-protein interactions, and RNA virus assembly...
December 19, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988311/first-detection-and-molecular-identification-of-babesia-microti-in-rattus-losea-captured-from-the-offshore-kinmen-island-of-taiwan
#9
Li-Lian Chao, Wen-Ching Yu, Chien-Ming Shih
Babesia microti was firstly detected and identified in brown country rats (Rattus losea, Swinhoe) captured from the offshore Kinmen Island of Taiwan. The prevalence of Babesia infection in 283 rodents was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using a piroplasma-conserved primer set (Piro A/B) and the thirty-seven PCR-positive rodents were further examined by PCR using a species-specific primer set (Bab 1/4) targeting the gene encoding the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) of Babesia species...
December 12, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975310/a-t7-endonuclease-i-assay-to-detect-talen-mediated-targeted-mutation-of-hbv-cccdna
#10
Kristie Bloom, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot
Gene editing using designer nucleases is now widely used in many fields of molecular biology. The technology is being developed for the treatment of viral infections such as persistant hepatitis B virus (HBV). The replication intermediate of HBV comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is stable and resistant to available licensed antiviral agents. Advancing gene editing as a means of introducing targeted mutations into cccDNA thus potentially offers the means to cure infection by the virus. Essentially, targeted mutations are initiated by intracellular DNA cleavage, then error-prone nonhomologous end joining results in insertions and deletions (indels) at intended sites...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959380/sequencing-and-bioinformatics-analysis-of-the-differentially-expressed-genes-in-herniated-discs-with-or-without-calcification
#11
Jia Shao, Miao Yu, Liang Jiang, Fengliang Wu, Xiaoguang Liu
The purpose of this study was to detect the differentially expressed genes between ossified herniated discs and herniated discs without ossification. In addition, we sought to identify a few candidate genes and pathways by using bioinformatics analysis. We analyzed 6 samples each of ossified herniated discs (experimental group) and herniated discs without ossification (control group). Purified mRNA and cDNA extracted from the samples were subjected to sequencing. The NOISeq method was used to statistically identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the 2 groups...
January 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929354/differences-in-mrsa-prevalence-and-resistance-patterns-in-a-tertiary-center-before-and-after-joining-an-international-program-for-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#12
Olivera Djuric, Snezana Jovanovic, Branka Stosovic, Tanja Tosic, Milica Jovanovic, Naomi Nartey, Jovana Todorovic, Ljiljana Markovic-Denic
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged as one of the most important causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs), especially the multidrug resistant clones. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence and resistance patterns of MRSA bacteremia in the major tertiary-care academic and referral center in Serbia before and after implementing an active antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. Laboratory-based before-after study was conducted during a two-year period (January 2012 to December 2013) in Clinical Centre of Serbia...
December 8, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911718/attacking-hiv-1-rna-versus-dna-by-sequence-specific-approaches-rnai-versus-crispr-cas
#13
REVIEW
Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can be effectively controlled by potent antiviral drugs, but this never results in a cure. The patient should therefore take these drugs for the rest of his/her life, which can cause drug-resistance and adverse effects. Therefore, more durable therapeutic strategies should be considered, such as a stable gene therapy to protect the target T cells against HIV-1 infection. The development of potent therapeutic regimens based on the RNA interference (RNAi) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas) mechanisms will be described, which can be delivered by lentiviral vectors...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904467/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-bacteriophage-preying-an-antifungal-bacterium
#14
Aryan Rahimi-Midani, Kyoung-Ho Kim, Seon-Woo Lee, Sang Bong Jung, Tae-Jin Choi
Several Bacillus species were isolated from rice field soils, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that Bacillus cereus was the most abundant. A strain named BC1 showed antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Bacteriophages infecting strain BC1 were isolated from the same soil sample. The isolated phage PK16 had an icosahedral head of 100 ± 5 nm and tail of 200 ± 5 nm, indicating that it belonged to the family Myoviridae. Analysis of the complete linear dsDNA genome revealed a 158,127-bp genome with G + C content of 39...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898181/endovenous-ablation-therapy-laser-or-radiofrequency-or-foam-sclerotherapy-versus-conventional-surgical-repair-for-short-saphenous-varicose-veins
#15
REVIEW
Sharath Chandra Vikram Paravastu, Margaret Horne, P Dominic F Dodd
BACKGROUND: Short (or small) saphenous vein (SSV) varices occur as a result of an incompetent sapheno-popliteal junction, where the SSV joins the popliteal vein, resulting in reflux in the SSV; they account for about 15% of varicose veins. Untreated varicose veins may sometimes lead to ulceration of the leg, which is difficult to manage. Traditionally, treatment was restricted to surgery or conservative management. Since the 1990s, however, a number of minimally invasive techniques have been developed; these do not normally require a general anaesthetic, are day-case procedures with a quicker return to normal activities and avoid the risk of wound infection which may occur following surgery...
29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897967/an-observational-study-of-donor-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-in-uk-lung-transplantation-develop-uk
#16
Andrew Fisher, Anders Andreasson, Alexandros Chrysos, Joanne Lally, Chrysovalanto Mamasoula, Catherine Exley, Jennifer Wilkinson, Jessica Qian, Gillian Watson, Oli Lewington, Thomas Chadwick, Elaine McColl, Mark Pearce, Kay Mann, Nicola McMeekin, Luke Vale, Steven Tsui, Nizar Yonan, Andre Simon, Nandor Marczin, Jorge Mascaro, John Dark
BACKGROUND: Many patients awaiting lung transplantation die before a donor organ becomes available. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) allows initially unusable donor lungs to be assessed and reconditioned for clinical use. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the Donor Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in UK lung transplantation study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVLP in increasing UK lung transplant activity. DESIGN: A multicentre, unblinded, non-randomised, non-inferiority observational study to compare transplant outcomes between EVLP-assessed and standard donor lungs...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894990/microevolutionary-analyses-of-pythium-insidiosum-isolates-of-brazil-and-thailand-based-on-exo-1-3-%C3%AE-glucanase-gene
#17
Tatiana Corrêa Ribeiro, Carla Weiblen, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Sônia de Avila Botton, Lizandra Jaqueline Robe, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira, Danieli Urach Monteiro, Douglas Miotto Lorensetti, Janio Morais Santurio
Pythium insidiosum is an important oomycete due to its ability to infect humans and animals. It causes pythiosis, a disease of difficult treatment that occurs more frequently in humans in Thailand and in horses in Brazil. Since cell-wall components are frequently related to host shifts, we decided here to use sequences from the exo-1,3-β-glucanase gene (exo1), which encodes an immunodominant protein putatively involved in cell wall remodeling, to investigate the microevolutionary relationships of Brazilian and Thai isolates of P...
November 25, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887624/detection-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-central-china-based-on-the-orf3-gene-and-the-s1-gene
#18
Yunfang Su, Yunchao Liu, Yumei Chen, Baolei Zhao, Pengchao Ji, Guangxu Xing, Dawei Jiang, Chang Liu, Yapeng Song, Guoqiang Wang, Dongliang Li, Ruiguang Deng, Gaiping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has increased in severity in China since 2010. To investigate further the infectivity, genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of its causative agent, the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), we assessed 129 clinical samples, which were the intestinal tissue of piglets with severe diarrhea, from 17 cities in central China. Both the spike (S) glycoprotein (S1, 1-789 amino acids (aa)) and the full-length ORF3 gene of 21 representative field strains from 21 farms in 11 cities were sequenced and analysed...
November 25, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886229/expanding-and-exploring-the-diversity-of-phytoplasmas-from-lucerne-medicago-sativa
#19
David Gopurenko, Murray J Fletcher, Jian Liu, Geoff M Gurr
Phytoplasmas are a group of insect-vectored bacteria responsible for disease in many plant species worldwide. Among the crop species affected is the economically valuable forage species lucerne. Here we provide comprehensive molecular evidence for infection in multiple lucerne plants by a phytoplasma not previously known from this plant species. This phytoplasma had a >99% genetic similarity to an unclassified 16S rRNA subgroup previously reported as Stylosanthes little leaf from Stylosanthes spp. and was genetically and symptomatically distinct from a co-occurring but less common 16SrIIA group phytoplasma...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885463/molecular-and-morphological-descriptions-of-ceratomyxa-collarae-n-sp-and-ceratomyxa-leucosternoni-n-sp-from-marine-ornamental-fishes-of-indian-waters
#20
N K Sanil, Archana Chandran, P Shamal, C P Binesh
Two novel species of Ceratomyxa infecting marine ornamental fishes from Indian waters are described. Marine ornamentals, Chaetodon collare and Chaetodon decussatus, collected from Vizhinjam, along the southwest coast of India and Acanthurus leucosternon collected from Lakshadweep islands of Arabian Sea revealed Ceratomyxa infections in their gall bladders. Mature spores of Ceratomyxa from Chaetodon collare and Chaetodon decussatus were elongate and slightly crescentic, with rounded ends, and measured 5.20 ± 0...
November 24, 2016: Parasitology Research
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