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Join infection

Devina Sharma, Nirbhay K Singh, Harkirat Singh, Anja Joachim, Shitanshu S Rath, Damer P Blake
Infections with Eimeria spp. are common in pigs worldwide, occasionally affecting animals clinically after weaning or during the fattening period when diarrhoea and weight loss can be observed upon infection with the more pathogenic species. Molecular characterization of pathogens is valuable to accurately delimit species and development novel diagnostics, although sequences which define Eimeria species that infect pigs are scarce. Only three of the eight common species are currently represented in GenBank...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
A W Rushing, K Hoang, N Polakowski, I Lemasson
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a fatal malignancy of CD4+ T-cells infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1). ATL cells often exhibit random gross chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with the induction and improper repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). The viral oncoprotein Tax has been reported to impair DSB repair, but is not shown to be consistently expressed throughout all phases of infection. The viral oncoprotein HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) is consistently expressed prior to and throughout disease progression, but it is unclear whether it also influences DSB repair...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
Adel A Rashad, Li-Rui Song, Andrew P Holmes, Kriti Acharya, Shiyu Zhang, Zhi-Long Wang, Ebony Gary, Xin Xie, Vanessa Pirrone, Michele A Kutzler, Ya-Qiu Long, Irwin Chaiken
To address the urgent need for new agents to reduce the global occurrence and spread of AIDS, we investigated the underlying hypothesis that antagonists of HIV-1 Envelope (Env) gp120 and host cell co-receptor (CoR) proteins can be covalently joined into bifunctional synergistic combinations that will improve antiviral. A synthetic protocol was established to covalently combine a CCR5 small molecule antagonist and a gp120 peptide triazole antagonist to form the bifunctional chimera. Importantly, the chimeric inhibitor preserved the specific targeting properties of the two separate chimera components, and at the same time exhibited low to sub-nanomolar potencies, in inhibiting cell infection by different pseudoviruses, that were substantially greater than those of a non-covalent mixture of individual components...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hmwe H Kyu, Claudia E Stein, Cynthia Boschi Pinto, Ivo Rakovac, Martin W Weber, Tina Dannemann Purnat, Joseph E Amuah, Scott D Glenn, Kelly Cercy, Stan Biryukov, Audra L Gold, Adrienne Chew, Meghan D Mooney, Kevin F O'Rourke, Amber Sligar, Christopher J L Murray, Ali H Mokdad, Mohsen Naghavi
Background: The mortality burden in children aged 5-14 years in the WHO European Region has not been comprehensively studied. We assessed the distribution and trends of the main causes of death among children aged 5-9 years and 10-14 years from 1990 to 2016, for 51 countries in the WHO European Region. Methods: We used data from vital registration systems, cancer registries, and police records from 1980 to 2016 to estimate cause-specific mortality using the Cause of Death Ensemble model...
May 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Leah T Sigle, Julián F Hillyer
The primary pump of the circulatory system of insects is a dorsal vessel that traverses the length of the insect. The anterior portion, located in the head, neck and thorax, is the aorta, and the posterior portion, located in the abdomen, is the heart. Here, we characterize the structure and function of the aorta and conical chamber of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae The aorta begins in the head with an excurrent opening located above the dorsal pharyngeal plate and ends at the thoraco-abdominal junction where it joins the conical chamber of the heart...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Johannes Brozy, Erika Schlaepfer, Christina K S Mueller, Mary-Aude Rochat, Silvana K Rampini, Renier Myburgh, Tobias Raum, Peter Kufer, Patrick A Baeuerle, Markus Muenz, Roberto F Speck
Today's gold standard in HIV therapy is the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). It requires strict adherence by patients and life-long medication, which can lower the viral load below detection limits and prevent HIV-associated immunodeficiency, but cannot cure patients. The bispecific T cell engaging (BiTE®) antibody technology has demonstrated long-term relapse-free outcomes in patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphocytic leukemia. We here generated BiTE® antibody constructs that target the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 (HIV gp120) using either the scFv B12 or VRC01, the first two extracellular domains (1+2) of human CD4 alone or joined to the single chain variable fragment (scFv) of the antibody 17b fused to an anti-human CD3ϵ scFv...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Virology
Laurent Schio
Laurent Schio speaks to Benjamin Walden, Commissioning Editor. Laurent Schio is leading the group of Integrated Drug Discovery of Sanofi, France. He joined Sanofi more than 25 years ago and is an organic chemist by training. He has made most of his career in medicinal chemistry supporting and leading projects, especially in the anti-infective and then in the oncology fields. He has developed a strong expertise in kinases and lately has contributed to the discovery of several clinical candidates for cancer treatment...
May 3, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Angela Terumi Fushita, Gustavo Augusto Lacorte, Pamela Carla Pereira de Assis, Silvia Nassif Del Lama
BACKGROUND: Wetlands are ecosystems in which vectors of avian haemosporidians live and reproduce and where waterbirds join to breed in colonies. Brazil has wetlands at different latitudes, which enables testing the influence of the ecological factors on the prevalence and diversity of haemosporidians. We identified avian haemosporidians in waterbird species in three wetlands and investigated the effects of vector habitat suitability, landscape and host characteristics on the diversity and prevalence of these parasites...
May 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Shan Shan, Wei Wei, Yuanyuan Kong, Junqi Niu, Jia Shang, Wen Xie, Yuexin Zhang, Hong Ren, Hong Tang, Huiguo Ding, Yuemin Nan, Xiaoguang Dou, Tao Han, Xiaoyuan Xu, Zhongping Duan, Lai Wei, Jinlin Hou, Hui Zhuang, Hong You, Jidong Jia
AIMS: The disease burden of chronic HBV infection in China remains high, although the rate of new infections has become extremely low. To facilitate real-world clinical study of chronic HBV infection, we established a nationwide hospital-based electronic platform, named the China Registry of Hepatitis B (CR-HepB). METHODS: This internet-based registry for chronic hepatitis B recruited patients from tertiary or secondary hospitals that have particular interest and expertise in managing hepatitis B patients...
April 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Hiroshi Yoshikura
Relation between number of measles patients (y) and population size (x) was expressed by an equation y = axs , where a is a constant and s the slope of the plot; s was 2.04-2.17 for prefectures in Japan, i.e., the number of patients was proportional to square of the prefecture population size. For European countries that joined European Union no later than 2009, the slope was 1.43-1.87. The measles' population dependency found among prefectures in Japan was thus scalable up to European countries. It was surprising because, unlike Japan, population density in EU countries was not uniform and not proportional to the population size...
April 27, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Evelien Belfroid, Madelief Mollers, Pieter W Smit, Marlies Hulscher, Marion Koopmans, Chantal Reusken, Aura Timen
The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the outbreak. This study is part of the EMERGE project. We assessed the experiences of 251 volunteers with a 19-item online questionnaire. The questions asked about positive aspects of volunteering such as learning new skills, establishing a new path in life, and changing life values...
2018: PloS One
Saeid Fathi, Fatemeh Jalousian, Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Ali Najafi, Enayat Darabi, Faramarz Koohsar
The immunodiagnostic tests for cystic echinococcosis (CE) are mostly serological tests based on ELISA that use hydatid cyst antigens for primary screening because of its simple preparation and availability. The challenge to develop new serological methods (as compared to those based on the hydatid cyst fluid antigens) to meet the gold standard remains. Appropriate sources of antigenic material are necessary for application to improve the efficacy of immunodiagnostic tests at a population level. In the current study, a fusion protein containing the coding sequence of antigen B2t and two sequences of EPC1 antigen with some modifications was reconstructed...
May 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Rutger David Luteijn, Ingo Drexler, Geoffrey L Smith, Robert Jan Lebbink, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz
Poxviruses comprise a group of large dsDNA viruses that include members relevant to human and animal health, such as variola virus, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus and vaccinia virus (VACV). Poxviruses are remarkable for their unique replication cycle, which is restricted to the cytoplasm of infected cells. The independence from the host nucleus requires poxviruses to encode most of the enzymes involved in DNA replication, transcription and processing. Here, we use the CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system to induce DNA damage to VACV (strain Western Reserve) genomes...
April 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Fuxiang Mao, Jihai Lei, Obeng Enoch, Ming Wei, Cui Zhao, Yanping Quan, Wei Yu
The domesticated silkworm is an ideal and economic insect model that plays crucial roles in sericulture and bioreactor. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is not only an infectious pathogen to B. mori, but also an efficient vector expressing recombinant proteins. Although, the proteomics of silkworm and BmN cell membrane lipid raft towards BmNPV infection had been investigated, proteome results of BmN cells upon BmNPV challenge currently remain ambiguous. In order to explore the interaction between silkworm and BmNPV, we analyzed several pivotal processes of BmNPV infected BmN cell by quantitative mass spectrometry...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Yafen Zhang, Qianwen Ge, Qianchao Cao, Haifeng Cui, Peng Hu, Xiaoping Yu, Zihong Ye
Ustilago esculenta, resembling a fungal endophyte in Zizania latifolia, inhibits the host plant flowering and induces the host stems to swell and form edible galls. It is well believed that when and how the fungus infects and proliferates in the host plants during the host development is of importance in the edible gall formation. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been found to play an important role in sensing environment cues and regulating infection. Two MAPK genes UeKpp2 and UeKpp6 from U. esculenta were cloned and suggested to be involved in the Fus3/Kss1 pathway by a phylogenetic analysis with the neighbor-joining method...
March 28, 2018: Current Microbiology
Susanne Wiegand, G Wichmann, W Golusinski, C R Leemans, J P Klussmann, A Dietz
The Second International Symposium on HPV Infection in Head and Neck Cancer was held on 3rd-4th November 2016 in Leipzig, Germany. The meeting brought together researchers and clinicians to share the latest knowledge on HPV infection in head and neck cancer and to join active and constructive scientific discussions. This report summarizes the major themes discussed during the symposium.
March 27, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Catherine M Flanley, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigao, Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu, Rami Mukbel, Hanafi A Hanafi, Shabaan S El-Hossary, Emad El-Din Y Fawaz, David F Hoel, Alexander W Bray, Gwen Stayback, Douglas A Shoue, Shaden Kamhawi, Mehmet Karakuş, Kaouther Jaouadi, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobie-Ershadi, Andreas Krüger, Ahmad Amro, Mohamed Amin Kenawy, Mostafa Ramadhan Dokhan, Alon Warburg, Omar Hamarsheh, Mary Ann McDowell
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies are major vectors of Leishmania major and phlebovirus infection in North Africa and across the Middle East to the Indian subcontinent. Population genetics is a valuable tool in understanding the level of genetic variability present in vector populations, vector competence, and the development of novel control strategies. This study investigated the genetic differentiation between P. papatasi populations in Egypt and Jordan that inhabit distinct ecotopes and compared this structure to P...
March 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ruimin Zhou, Ying Liu, Suhua Li, Yuling Zhao, Fang Huang, Chengyun Yang, Dan Qian, Deling Lu, Yan Deng, Hongwei Zhang, Bianli Xu
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ovale has two different subspecies: P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, which may be distinguished by the gene potra encoding P. ovale tryptophan-rich antigen. The sequence and size of potra gene was variable between the two P. ovale spp., and more fragment sizes were found compared to previous studies. Further information about the diversity of potra genes in these two P. ovale spp. will be needed. METHODS: A total of 110 dried blood samples were collected from the clinical patients infected with P...
March 23, 2018: Malaria Journal
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the history of the PRM medical specialty. The specialty evolved in different European countries, and sometimes also into the single countries, from different medical streams that finally joined. These included among others: balneology, gymnastic, use of physical agents (water, heat, cold, massage, joint manipulations, physical exercise, etc.). Another important role has been played by the increasing number of people experiencing or likely to experience disability due to improvement of medicine and consequent survivals from wars, accidents and/or big infective epidemics (like polio); these evolutions happened in strict relationship with other specialties like cardiology, neurology, orthopaedics, pneumology, rheumatology, traumatology, creating a knowledge transversal to all of them...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
David P Darrow, Coridon Quinn, Truong H Do, Matthew Hunt, Stephen Haines
INTRODUCTION: External ventricular drains can pose a serious source of morbidity and mortality. Interventions proven to reduce the risk of infections are lacking. Single center studies limit the study of procedures that mitigate infection, but bundled protocols have demonstrated utility. A collaborative EVD registry was designed to facilitate local quality improvement projects to be implemented at any location using standardized data collection instruments through resident collaboration to reduce and study EVD infection and prevention...
March 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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