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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331090/hili-inhibits-hiv-replication-in-activated-t-cells
#1
B Matija Peterlin, Pingyang Liu, Xiaoyun Wang, Daniele Cary, Wei Shao, Marie Leoz, Tian Hong, Tao Pan, Koh Fujinaga
Piwil proteins restrict the replication of mobile genetic elements in the germline. They are also expressed in many transformed cell lines. In this report, we discovered that the human piwil 2 (hili) can also inhibit HIV replication, especially in activated CD4+ T cells that are the preferred target cells for this virus in the infected host. Although resting cells did not express hili, it was rapidly induced following T cell activation. In these cells and transformed cell lines, depletion of hili increased levels of viral proteins and new viral particles...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323754/-it-s-inside-my-body-and-it-s-mine
#2
Elizabeth T Montgomery, Ariane van der Straten, Miria Chitukuta, Krishnaveni Reddy, Kubashni Woeber, Millicent Atujuna, Linda-Gail Bekker, Juliane Etima, Teopista Nakyanzi, Ashley J Mayo, Ariana Katz, Nicole Laborde, Cynthia I Grossman, Lydia Soto-Torres, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Jared M Baeten
The MTN-020/ASPIRE trial evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the dapivirine vaginal ring for prevention of HIV-1 infection among African women. A nested qualitative component was conducted at 6 of 15 study sites in Uganda, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa to evaluate acceptability of and adherence to the ring. Qualitative study participants (n = 214) were interviewed with one of 3 modalities: single in-depth interview, up to 3 serial interviews, or an exit Focus Group Discussion. Using semi-structured guides administered in local languages, 280 interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated, coded and analyzed...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299163/youth-awareness-on-sexually-transmitted-infections-hiv-and-aids-in-secondary-schools-in-the-dschang-municipality-cameroon-the-mobile-caravan-project
#3
Martin Sanou Sobze, Armand Tsapi Tiotsia, Ghyslaine Bruna Djeunang Dongho, Guy Aurelien Foaleng Tankui, Joseph Fokam, Kien-Atsu Tsi, Jimmy Roger Fotso, Yannick Ngueko Azeufack, Patrick Pete Nkamedjie, Adogaye Ben Bechir Sali, Rodrigue Biguioh Mabvouna, Lucia Ercoli, Vittorio Colizzi, Gianluca Russo
Awareness is a preventive action to instill in individuals certain concepts to improve their health. It is an essential element in the prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV and early pregnancies among adolescents. In 2012, the prevalence of HIVin Cameroon was estimated at 4.3%. The young population appear to be the most affected (3.2%); very close to that of the Dschang Health District (Cameroon; 3.1%) in the 15-19 years age group. Theaimof this study was to evaluate the contribution of the Mobile Caravan project on the preventive aspect of STI/HIV/AIDS among youths of Dschang in 10 secondary schools within three years...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287099/double-stranded-rna-virus-outer-shell-assembly-by-bona-fide-domain-swapping
#4
Zhaoyang Sun, Kamel El Omari, Xiaoyu Sun, Serban L Ilca, Abhay Kotecha, David I Stuart, Minna M Poranen, Juha T Huiskonen
Correct outer protein shell assembly is a prerequisite for virion infectivity in many multi-shelled dsRNA viruses. In the prototypic dsRNA bacteriophage φ6, the assembly reaction is promoted by calcium ions but its biomechanics remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the near-atomic resolution structure of the φ6 double-shelled particle. The outer T=13 shell protein P8 consists of two alpha-helical domains joined by a linker, which allows the trimer to adopt either a closed or an open conformation. The trimers in an open conformation swap domains with each other...
March 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285591/black-backed-jackals-canis-mesomelas-are-natural-hosts-of-babesia-rossi-the-virulent-causative-agent-of-canine-babesiosis-in-sub-saharan-africa
#5
Barend L Penzhorn, Ilse Vorster, Robert F Harrison-White, Marinda C Oosthuizen
BACKGROUND: Babesia rossi, which is transmitted by Haemaphysalis spp. and is highly virulent to domestic dogs, occurs only in sub-Saharan Africa. Since dogs are not native to the region, it has been postulated that the natural host of B. rossi is an indigenous African canid. Although various attempts at artificial infection indicated that black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) could become subclinically infected with B. rossi, data on occurrence of B. rossi in free-ranging jackals was lacking...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285506/morphological-characteristics-and-phylogenetic-trends-of-trematode-cercariae-in-freshwater-snails-from-nakhon-nayok-province-thailand
#6
Thapana Chontananarth, Thanawan Tejangkura, Napat Wetchasart, Cherdchay Chimburut
The prevalence of cercarial infection in freshwater snails and their evolutionary trends were studied in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. A total of 2,869 individual snails were examined for parasitic infections. The results showed that 12 snail species were found to host larval stages of trematodes with an overall prevalence of 4.7%. The infected specimens included 7 types at the cercarial stage; cercariae, megalurous cercariae, echinostome cercariae, furcocercous cercariae, parapleurolophocercous cercariae, virgulate cercariae, and xiphidiocercariae...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285505/platynosomum-fastosum-trematoda-dicrocoeliidae-from-cats-in-vietnam-morphological-redescription-and-molecular-phylogenetics
#7
Hung Manh Nguyen, Hien Van Hoang, Loan Thi Ho
The present study was performed to reveal the morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic position of Platynosomum fastosum Kossack, 1910. A total 167 specimens of P. fastosum were collected in 8 (4.9%) out of 163 sets of gall-bladders and bile ducts of cats. The number of worms was 1-105 per infected cat. This species was characterized by having a long and slender body, slightly larger ventral sucker than the oral sucker, indistinct prepharynx, small pharynx, short esophagus, bifurcation midway between 2 suckers, and ceca extending to the posterior end of the body...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278255/a-pan-european-epidemiological-study-reveals-honey-bee-colony-survival-depends-on-beekeeper-education-and-disease-control
#8
Antoine Jacques, Marion Laurent, Magali Ribière-Chabert, Mathilde Saussac, Stéphanie Bougeard, Giles E Budge, Pascal Hendrikx, Marie-Pierre Chauzat
Reports of honey bee population decline has spurred many national efforts to understand the extent of the problem and to identify causative or associated factors. However, our collective understanding of the factors has been hampered by a lack of joined up trans-national effort. Moreover, the impacts of beekeeper knowledge and beekeeping management practices have often been overlooked, despite honey bees being a managed pollinator. Here, we established a standardised active monitoring network for 5 798 apiaries over two consecutive years to quantify honey bee colony mortality across 17 European countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268260/impact-of-genetic-variations-and-transcriptional-alterations-of-hla-class-i-genes-on-cervical-cancer-pathogenesis
#9
Damayanti Das Ghosh, Indranil Mukhopadhyay, Amrapali Bhattacharya, Rahul Roy Chowdhury, Nidhu Ranjan Mandal, Sudipta Roy, Sharmila Sengupta
In a novel attempt to understand the variations in DNA sequences underlying HLA class I alleles associated with HPV16-related CaCx, we determined the alleles by reconstructing SNP-based haplotypes from resequencing of the most polymorphic exons 2 and 3 of HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C. We also determined the impact of SNPs and transcriptional alterations of the genes on CaCx. A high density of SNPs was identified from resequencing. HLA expression was determined by real-time PCR. We identified that even a single associated HLA allele had many underlying SNP-based haplotypes...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260147/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cell-line-designated-hzk-1-derived-from-a-metastatic-lymph-node-tumor-of-the-tongue
#10
Tetsuya Hirabayashi, Haruka Takahashi, Miho Watanabe, Toshiaki Tachibana
The hZK-1 cell line was successfully established from the metastatic foci of a lymph node of an 82-year-old Japanese woman with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The pathological diagnosis of the tumor was moderately to well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The hZK-1 cells were angular in shape, and had neoplastic and pleomorphic features. Adjacent hZK-1 cells were joined by desmosomes and well-developed microvilli, and many free ribosomes were observed in the cytoplasm. The doubling time of the hZK-1 cells was approximately 36, 33, and 29 h at the 10th, 20th, and 30th passages, respectively...
March 4, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259139/infectious-keratoconjunctivitis-in-wild-caprinae-merging-field-observations-and-molecular-analyses-sheds-light-on-factors-shaping-outbreak-dynamics
#11
Giuseppina Gelormini, Dominique Gauthier, Edy M Vilei, Jean-Paul Crampe, Joachim Frey, Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis
BACKGROUND: Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is an ocular infectious disease caused by Mycoplasma conjunctivae which affects small domestic and wild mountain ruminants. Domestic sheep maintain the pathogen but the detection of healthy carriers in wildlife has raised the question as to whether M. conjunctivae may also persist in the wild. Furthermore, the factors shaping the dynamics of IKC outbreaks in wildlife have remained largely unknown. The aims of this study were (1) to verify the etiological role of M...
March 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254074/development-of-antibacterial-conjugates-using-sulfamethoxazole-with-monocyclic-terpenes-a-systematic-medicinal-chemistry-based-computational-approach
#12
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To develop 6 conjugate agents of the moribund antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) joined to 6 individual monoterpenes, followed by protocols of medicinal chemistry as potent antibacterials, against multidrug resistant (MDR) human gruesome pathogenic bacteria. METHODS: Antibacterial activities of the proposed conjugates were ascertained by the 'prediction of activity spectra of substances' (PASS) program. Drug-likeness parameters and toxicity profiles of conjugates were standardized with the Lipinski rule of five, using cheminformatic tools, Molsoft, molinspiration, OSIRIS and ProTox...
March 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202801/molecular-epidemiology-and-strain-comparison-between-hepatitis-e-virus-in-human-sera-and-pig-livers-during-2014-2016-in-hong-kong
#13
Martin C W Chan, Kirsty Kwok, Tin-Nok Hung, Paul K S Chan
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is considered an emerging food-borne pathogen in previously non-endemic developed countries. To investigate genetic association between human HEV infection and HEV-contaminated high-risk food in Hong Kong, we compared local virus strains obtained from hepatitis E patient sera with those surveyed from high-risk food items during 2014-2016. Twenty-four cases of laboratory-confirmed human HEV infections were identified from January 2014 to March 2016 in our hospitals...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194462/designing-an-efficient-multi-epitope-oral-vaccine-against-helicobacter-pylori-using-immunoinformatics-and-structural-vaccinology-approaches
#14
Navid Nezafat, Mahboobeh Eslami, Manica Negahdaripour, Mohammad Reza Rahbar, Younes Ghasemi
Helicobacter pylori is the cunning bacterium that can live in the stomachs of many people without any symptoms, but gradually can lead to gastric cancer. Due to various obstacles, which are related to anti-H. pylori antibiotic therapy, recently developing an anti-H. pylori vaccine has attracted more attention. In this study, different immunoinformatics and computational vaccinology approaches were employed to design an efficient multi-epitope oral vaccine against H. pylori. Our multi-epitope vaccine is composed of heat labile enterotoxin IIc B (LT-IIc) that is used as a mucosal adjuvant to enhance vaccine immunogenicity for oral immunization, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) to increase vaccine stability in acidic pH of gut, one experimentally protective antigen, OipA, and two hypothetical protective antigens, HP0487 and HP0906, and "CTGKSC" peptide motif that target epithelial microfold cells (M cells) to enhance vaccine uptake from the gut barrier...
February 14, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192237/untargeted-next-generation-sequencing-based-first-line-diagnosis-of-infection-in-immunocompromised-adults-a-multicentre-blinded-prospective-study
#15
Perrine Parize, Erika Muth, Clémence Richaud, Marlène Gratigny, Benoit Pilmis, Arnaud Lamamy, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Justine Cheval, Louise de Visser, Florence Jagorel, Laura Ben Yahia, Geraldine Bamba, Myriam Dubois, Olivier Join-Lambert, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Xavier Nassif, Agnes Lefort, Fanny Lanternier, Felipe Suarez, Olivier Lortholary, Marc Lecuit, Marc Eloit
OBJECTIVE: Infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Improving microbiological diagnosis in these patients is of paramount clinical importance. METHODS: We performed this multicentre, blinded, prospective, proof-of-concept study, to compare untargeted next-generation sequencing with conventional microbiological methods for first-line diagnosis of infection in 101 immunocompromised adults. Patients were followed for 30 days and their blood samples, and in some cases nasopharyngeal swabs and/or biological fluids, were analysed...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191658/interpatient-mutational-spectrum-of-human-coronavirus-oc43-revealed-by-illumina-sequencing
#16
Geoffrey J Gorse, Gira B Patel, Xiaofeng Fan
Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are RNA viruses that cause respiratory tract infections with viral replication of limited duration. The host and viral population heterogeneity could influence clinical phenotypes. Employing long RT-PCR with Illumina sequencing, we quantified the gene mutation load at 0.5% mutation frequency for the 4,529 bp-domain spanning the Spike gene (4,086 bp) of HCoV-OC43 in four upper respiratory clinical specimens obtained during acute illness. There were a total of 121 mutations for all four HCoV samples with the average number of mutations at 30...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185714/choosing-wisely-the-top-5-recommendations-from-the-italian-panel-of-the-national-guidelines-for-the-management-of-acute-pharyngitis-in-children
#17
Elena Chiappini, Barbara Bortone, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Susanna Esposito, Luisa Galli, Massimo Landi, Andrea Novelli, Paola Marchisio, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Nicola Principi, Maurizio de Martino
PURPOSE: With the aim to reduce waste in the health care system and avoid risks associated with unnecessary treatment, the Italian Panel of the National Guidelines for the Management of Acute Pharyngitis in Children joined the Choosing Wisely initiative. METHODS: An ad hoc Choosing Wisely task force was selected to develop a candidate list of items for the top-5 list on pharyngitis medicine. Through a process of literature review and consensus, the final list of 5 items was chosen...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166463/saprolegniosis-in-nile-tilapia-identification-molecular-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-two-novel-pathogenic-saprolegnia-strains
#18
Eman Zahran, Elsayed E Hafez, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf Hossain, Mohamed Elhadidy, Adel A Shaheen
Saprolegniosis is a fungal infection that leads to huge economic losses in tilapia aquaculture. Saprolegnia spp. are usually implicated as the etiological agents, but their identification is sometimes troublesome and confusing. In this study, two Saprolegnia strains (ManS22 and ManS33) were isolated from Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus suffering from saprolegniosis. Both isolates were characterized morphologically and from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. Additionally, both strains were tested for pathogenicity, and they were highly pathogenic and caused cumulative mortalities of 88...
March 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163825/genomic-analysis-of-four-strains-of-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-bv-equi-isolated-from-horses-showing-distinct-signs-of-infection
#19
Rafael A Baraúna, Rommel T J Ramos, Adonney A O Veras, Pablo H C G de Sá, Luís C Guimarães, Diego A das Graças, Adriana R Carneiro, Judy M Edman, Sharon J Spier, Vasco Azevedo, Artur Silva
The genomes of four strains (MB11, MB14, MB30, and MB66) of the species Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform, completely assembled, and their gene content and structure were analyzed. The strains were isolated from horses with distinct signs of infection, including ulcerative lymphangitis, external abscesses on the chest, or internal abscesses on the liver, kidneys, and lungs. The average size of the genomes was 2.3 Mbp, with 2169 (Strain MB11) to 2235 (Strain MB14) predicted coding sequences (CDSs)...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152026/hiv-prevalence-and-gender-differences-among-new-injection-drug-users-in-tallinn-estonia-a-persisting-problem-in-a-stable-high-prevalence-epidemic
#20
Anneli Uusküla, Mait Raag, Kristina Marsh, Ave Talu, Sigrid Vorobjov, Don Des Jarlais
INTRODUCTION: New injectors / younger drug users are an important population to target for intervention because they are often at especially high risk of HIV and HCV infection. We examined HIV prevalence and gender differences in HIV prevalence and risk behavior among new injection-drug-users in Tallinn, Estonia. METHODS: Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys and HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2009, 2011 and 2013. We classified "new injectors" as persons who reported their first injection as occurring within three years of the study interview...
2017: PloS One
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