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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202801/molecular-epidemiology-and-strain-comparison-between-hepatitis-e-virus-in-human-sera-and-pig-livers-during-2014-2016-in-hong-kong
#1
Martin C W Chan, Kirsty Kwok, Tin-Nok Hung, Paul K S Chan
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is considered an emerging food-borne pathogen in previously non-endemic developed countries. To investigate genetic association between human HEV infection and HEV-contaminated high-risk food in Hong Kong, we compared local virus strains obtained from hepatitis E patient sera with those surveyed from high-risk food items during 2014-2016. Twenty-four cases of laboratory-confirmed human HEV infections were identified from January 2014 to March 2016 in our hospitals...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194462/designing-an-efficient-multi-epitope-oral-vaccine-against-helicobacter-pylori-using-immunoinformatics-and-structural-vaccinology-approaches
#2
Navid Nezafat, Mahboobeh Eslami, Manica Negahdaripour, Mohammad Reza Rahbar, Younes Ghasemi
Helicobacter pylori is the cunning bacterium that can live in the stomachs of many people without any symptoms, but gradually can lead to gastric cancer. Due to various obstacles, which are related to anti-H. pylori antibiotic therapy, recently developing an anti-H. pylori vaccine has attracted more attention. In this study, different immunoinformatics and computational vaccinology approaches were employed to design an efficient multi-epitope oral vaccine against H. pylori. Our multi-epitope vaccine is composed of heat labile enterotoxin IIc B (LT-IIc) that is used as a mucosal adjuvant to enhance vaccine immunogenicity for oral immunization, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) to increase vaccine stability in acidic pH of gut, one experimentally protective antigen, OipA, and two hypothetical protective antigens, HP0487 and HP0906, and "CTGKSC" peptide motif that target epithelial microfold cells (M cells) to enhance vaccine uptake from the gut barrier...
February 14, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192237/untargeted-next-generation-sequencing-based-first-line-diagnosis-of-infection-in-immunocompromised-adults-a-multicentre-blinded-prospective-study
#3
Perrine Parize, Erika Muth, Clémence Richaud, Marlène Gratigny, Benoit Pilmis, Arnaud Lamamy, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Justine Cheval, Louise de Visser, Florence Jagorel, Laura Ben Yahia, Geraldine Bamba, Myriam Dubois, Olivier Join-Lambert, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Xavier Nassif, Agnes Lefort, Fanny Lanternier, Felipe Suarez, Olivier Lortholary, Marc Lecuit, Marc Eloit
OBJECTIVE: Infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Improving microbiological diagnosis in these patients is of paramount clinical importance. METHODS: We performed this multicentre, blinded, prospective, proof-of-concept study, to compare untargeted next-generation sequencing with conventional microbiological methods for first-line diagnosis of infection in 101 immunocompromised adults. Patients were followed for 30 days and their blood samples, and in some cases nasopharyngeal swabs and/or biological fluids, were analysed...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191658/interpatient-mutational-spectrum-of-human-coronavirus-oc43-revealed-by-illumina-sequencing
#4
Geoffrey J Gorse, Gira B Patel, Xiaofeng Fan
Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are RNA viruses that cause respiratory tract infections with viral replication of limited duration. The host and viral population heterogeneity could influence clinical phenotypes. Employing long RT-PCR with Illumina sequencing, we quantified the gene mutation load at 0.5% mutation frequency for the 4,529 bp-domain spanning the Spike gene (4,086 bp) of HCoV-OC43 in four upper respiratory clinical specimens obtained during acute illness. There were a total of 121 mutations for all four HCoV samples with the average number of mutations at 30...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185714/choosing-wisely-the-top-5-recommendations-from-the-italian-panel-of-the-national-guidelines-for-the-management-of-acute-pharyngitis-in-children
#5
Elena Chiappini, Barbara Bortone, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Susanna Esposito, Luisa Galli, Massimo Landi, Andrea Novelli, Paola Marchisio, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Nicola Principi, Maurizio de Martino
PURPOSE: With the aim to reduce waste in the health care system and avoid risks associated with unnecessary treatment, the Italian Panel of the National Guidelines for the Management of Acute Pharyngitis in Children joined the Choosing Wisely initiative. METHODS: An ad hoc Choosing Wisely task force was selected to develop a candidate list of items for the top-5 list on pharyngitis medicine. Through a process of literature review and consensus, the final list of 5 items was chosen...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166463/saprolegniosis-in-nile-tilapia-identification-molecular-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-two-novel-pathogenic-saprolegnia-strains
#6
Eman Zahran, Elsayed E Hafez, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf Hossain, Mohamed Elhadidy, Adel A Shaheen
Saprolegniosis is a fungal infection that leads to huge economic losses in tilapia aquaculture. Saprolegnia spp. are usually implicated as the etiological agents, but their identification is sometimes troublesome and confusing. In this study, two Saprolegnia strains (ManS22 and ManS33) were isolated from Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus suffering from saprolegniosis. Both isolates were characterized morphologically and from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. Additionally, both strains were tested for pathogenicity, and they were highly pathogenic and caused cumulative mortalities of 88...
March 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163825/genomic-analysis-of-four-strains-of-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-bv-equi-isolated-from-horses-showing-distinct-signs-of-infection
#7
Rafael A Baraúna, Rommel T J Ramos, Adonney A O Veras, Pablo H C G de Sá, Luís C Guimarães, Diego A das Graças, Adriana R Carneiro, Judy M Edman, Sharon J Spier, Vasco Azevedo, Artur Silva
The genomes of four strains (MB11, MB14, MB30, and MB66) of the species Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform, completely assembled, and their gene content and structure were analyzed. The strains were isolated from horses with distinct signs of infection, including ulcerative lymphangitis, external abscesses on the chest, or internal abscesses on the liver, kidneys, and lungs. The average size of the genomes was 2.3 Mbp, with 2169 (Strain MB11) to 2235 (Strain MB14) predicted coding sequences (CDSs)...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152026/hiv-prevalence-and-gender-differences-among-new-injection-drug-users-in-tallinn-estonia-a-persisting-problem-in-a-stable-high-prevalence-epidemic
#8
Anneli Uusküla, Mait Raag, Kristina Marsh, Ave Talu, Sigrid Vorobjov, Don Des Jarlais
INTRODUCTION: New injectors / younger drug users are an important population to target for intervention because they are often at especially high risk of HIV and HCV infection. We examined HIV prevalence and gender differences in HIV prevalence and risk behavior among new injection-drug-users in Tallinn, Estonia. METHODS: Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys and HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2009, 2011 and 2013. We classified "new injectors" as persons who reported their first injection as occurring within three years of the study interview...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111712/morphological-characterization-and-hsp70-igs-based-phylogenetic-analysis-of-two-microsporidian-parasites-isolated-from-antheraea-pernyi
#9
Yong Wang, Yutao Ru, Wei Liu, Deyi Wang, Jinglin Zhou, Yiren Jiang, Shenglin Shi, Li Qin
Two microsporidian isolates were extracted from single infected egg-laying tussah silk moth (Antheraea pernyi) in Liaoning Province, China. The microsporidia were subsequently grown in silk moth larvae, isolated, and subjected to morphological characterization (by light and transmission electron microscopy) and phylogenetic analysis (based on conserved genes). One type of spore was long-axis-oval in shape, measuring 4.71 × 1.95 μm, and the other type was short-axis-oval, measuring 3.64 × 2.17 μm. These dimensions were markedly different from those reported in the spores of the common microsporidia infecting A...
January 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095663/morphology-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-raillietina-spp-cestoda-cyclophyllidea-davaineidae-from-domestic-chickens-in-thailand
#10
Preeyaporn Butboonchoo, Chalobol Wongsawad, Amnat Rojanapaibul, Jong-Yil Chai
Raillietina species are prevalent in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand. Their infection may cause disease and death, which affects the public health and economic situation in chicken farms. The identification of Raillietina has been based on morphology and molecular analysis. In this study, morphological observations using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) coupled with molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene were employed for precise identification and phylogenetic relationship studies of Raillietina spp...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079669/the-irish-helicobacter-pylori-working-group-consensus-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-h-pylori-infection-in-adult-patients-in-ireland
#11
Sinead Smith, Breida Boyle, Denise Brennan, Martin Buckley, Paul Crotty, Maeve Doyle, Richard Farrell, Mary Hussey, David Kevans, Peter Malfertheiner, Francis Megraud, Sean Nugent, Anthony O'Connor, Colm O'Morain, Shiobhan Weston, Deirdre McNamara
BACKGROUND: Irish eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori are decreasing and there is an increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These trends call into question current management strategies. OBJECTIVE: To establish an Irish Helicobacter pylori Working Group (IHPWG) to assess, revise and tailor current available recommendations. METHODS: Experts in the areas of gastroenterology and microbiology were invited to join the IHPWG...
January 21, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073394/gregarine-infection-accelerates-larval-development-of-the-cat-flea-ctenocephalides-felis-bouch%C3%A3
#12
M E Alarcón, A Jara-F, R C Briones, A K Dubey, C H Slamovits
A high degree of specialization between host and parasite is a well-known outcome of a long history of coevolution, and it is strikingly illustrated in a coordination of their life cycles. In some cases, the arms race ensued at the establishment of a symbiotic relationship results in the adoption of manipulative strategies by the parasite. We have already learned that Steinina ctenocephali, a gregarine living in the alimentary canal of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis follows its phenology and metamorphosis...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063871/new-trends-in-human-and-animal-leptospirosis-in-croatia-2009-2014
#13
Josipa Habus, Zdenka Persic, Silvio Spicic, Silvijo Vince, Zrinka Stritof, Zoran Milas, Zeljko Cvetnic, Matko Perharic, Nenad Turk
Leptospirosis is a geographically widespread and globally underestimated zoonosis that affects humans and variety of animals. To identify trends and possible risk factors, joined medical and veterinary teams investigated epidemiology and epizootiology of leptospirosis in Croatia. Retrospective analysis of data obtained from referent diagnostic laboratories included a total of 1917 human and 123964 animal sera tested in the period from 2009 to 2014. We found high human leptospirosis average incidence rate of 1...
January 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049516/genetic-clustering-and-polymorphism-of-the-merozoite-surface-protein-3-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-clinical-isolates-from-peninsular-malaysia
#14
Jeremy Ryan De Silva, Yee Ling Lau, Mun Yik Fong
BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has been reported to cause significant numbers of human infection in South East Asia. Its merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP3) is a protein that belongs to a multi-gene family of proteins first found in Plasmodium falciparum. Several studies have evaluated the potential of P. falciparum MSP3 as a potential vaccine candidate. However, to date no detailed studies have been carried out on P. knowlesi MSP3 gene (pkmsp3). The present study investigates the genetic diversity, and haplotypes groups of pkmsp3 in P...
January 3, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024238/forensic-application-of-phylogenetic-analyses-exploration-of-suspected-hiv-1-transmission-case
#15
Marina Siljic, Dubravka Salemovic, Valentina Cirkovic, Ivana Pesic-Pavlovic, Jovan Ranin, Marija Todorovic, Slobodan Nikolic, Djordje Jevtovic, Maja Stanojevic
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) between individuals may have important legal implications and therefore may come to require forensic investigation based upon phylogenetic analysis. In criminal trials results of phylogenetic analyses have been used as evidence of responsibility for HIV transmission. In Serbia, as in many countries worldwide, exposure and deliberate transmission of HIV are criminalized. We present the results of applying state of the art phylogenetic analyses, based on pol and env genetic sequences, in exploration of suspected HIV transmission among three subjects: a man and two women, with presumed assumption of transmission direction from one woman to a man...
December 19, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998286/ultrasensitive-single-genome-sequencing-accurate-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-hiv-1-rna
#16
Valerie F Boltz, Jason Rausch, Wei Shao, Junko Hattori, Brian Luke, Frank Maldarelli, John W Mellors, Mary F Kearney, John M Coffin
BACKGROUND: Although next generation sequencing (NGS) offers the potential for studying virus populations in unprecedented depth, PCR error, amplification bias and recombination during library construction have limited its use to population sequencing and measurements of unlinked allele frequencies. Here we report a method, termed ultrasensitive Single-Genome Sequencing (uSGS), for NGS library construction and analysis that eliminates PCR errors and recombinants, and generates single-genome sequences of the same quality as the "gold-standard" of HIV-1 single-genome sequencing assay but with more than 100-fold greater depth...
December 20, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992877/in-situ-structures-of-the-genome-and-genome-delivery-apparatus-in-a-single-stranded-rna-virus
#17
Xinghong Dai, Zhihai Li, Mason Lai, Sara Shu, Yushen Du, Z Hong Zhou, Ren Sun
Packaging of the genome into a protein capsid and its subsequent delivery into a host cell are two fundamental processes in the life cycle of a virus. Unlike double-stranded DNA viruses, which pump their genome into a preformed capsid, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, such as bacteriophage MS2, co-assemble their capsid with the genome; however, the structural basis of this co-assembly is poorly understood. MS2 infects Escherichia coli via the host 'sex pilus' (F-pilus); it was the first fully sequenced organism and is a model system for studies of translational gene regulation, RNA-protein interactions, and RNA virus assembly...
December 19, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988311/first-detection-and-molecular-identification-of-babesia-microti-in-rattus-losea-captured-from-the-offshore-kinmen-island-of-taiwan
#18
Li-Lian Chao, Wen-Ching Yu, Chien-Ming Shih
Babesia microti was firstly detected and identified in brown country rats (Rattus losea, Swinhoe) captured from the offshore Kinmen Island of Taiwan. The prevalence of Babesia infection in 283 rodents was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using a piroplasma-conserved primer set (Piro A/B) and the thirty-seven PCR-positive rodents were further examined by PCR using a species-specific primer set (Bab 1/4) targeting the gene encoding the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) of Babesia species...
December 12, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975310/a-t7-endonuclease-i-assay-to-detect-talen-mediated-targeted-mutation-of-hbv-cccdna
#19
Kristie Bloom, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot
Gene editing using designer nucleases is now widely used in many fields of molecular biology. The technology is being developed for the treatment of viral infections such as persistant hepatitis B virus (HBV). The replication intermediate of HBV comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is stable and resistant to available licensed antiviral agents. Advancing gene editing as a means of introducing targeted mutations into cccDNA thus potentially offers the means to cure infection by the virus. Essentially, targeted mutations are initiated by intracellular DNA cleavage, then error-prone nonhomologous end joining results in insertions and deletions (indels) at intended sites...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959380/sequencing-and-bioinformatics-analysis-of-the-differentially-expressed-genes-in-herniated-discs-with-or-without-calcification
#20
Jia Shao, Miao Yu, Liang Jiang, Fengliang Wu, Xiaoguang Liu
The purpose of this study was to detect the differentially expressed genes between ossified herniated discs and herniated discs without ossification. In addition, we sought to identify a few candidate genes and pathways by using bioinformatics analysis. We analyzed 6 samples each of ossified herniated discs (experimental group) and herniated discs without ossification (control group). Purified mRNA and cDNA extracted from the samples were subjected to sequencing. The NOISeq method was used to statistically identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the 2 groups...
January 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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