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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546690/update-on-the-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-ocular-infections
#1
Darlene Miller
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the epidemiology and current antibiotic-resistant threats in ophthalmology. METHODS: Trends in frequency and antibiotic-nonsusceptible profiles during an 11 year-period (2005-2015) were evaluated and compared with the 5-year Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganism (ARMOR) study. RESULTS: Trends in the current review confirmed the continued high rates of fluoroquinolone nonsusceptbility circulating among ocular methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant S...
January 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520969/cell-mediated-immunity-to-target-the-persistent-human-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoir
#2
James L Riley, Luis J Montaner
Effective clearance of virally infected cells requires the sequential activity of innate and adaptive immunity effectors. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, naturally induced cell-mediated immune responses rarely eradicate infection. However, optimized immune responses could potentially be leveraged in HIV cure efforts if epitope escape and lack of sustained effector memory responses were to be addressed. Here we review leading HIV cure strategies that harness cell-mediated control against HIV in stably suppressed antiretroviral-treated subjects...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512376/oscheius-microvilli-n-sp-nematoda-rhabditidae-a-facultatively-pathogenic-nematode-from-chongming-island-china
#3
Guixin Zhou, Huan Yang, Feng Wang, Haoran Bao, Guoxiang Wang, Xianglong Hou, Jian Lin, Gabriel Yedid, Keyun Zhang
A new species, Oscheius microvilli n. sp., was found on Chongming Island (Shanghai, China). The new species is morphologically similar to the type strain of Oscheius myriophilus, but can be distinguished from it and other species of Oscheius on the basis of unique morphological characteristics of the bursa as well as male papillae. In this new species, the male bursal papillar formula is 2, 1, 3, 3 with everted tips in the first, fifth, and seventh pairs. The bursal rim is jagged, joins together anterior to the spicules, and is partially extended and decorated with microvilli...
March 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507545/clinical-and-molecular-heterogeneity-of-rtel1-deficiency
#4
Carsten Speckmann, Sushree Sangita Sahoo, Marta Rizzi, Shinsuke Hirabayashi, Axel Karow, Nina Kathrin Serwas, Marc Hoemberg, Natalja Damatova, Detlev Schindler, Jean-Baptiste Vannier, Simon J Boulton, Ulrich Pannicke, Gudrun Göhring, Kathrin Thomay, J J Verdu-Amoros, Holger Hauch, Wilhelm Woessmann, Gabriele Escherich, Eckart Laack, Liliana Rindle, Maximilian Seidl, Anne Rensing-Ehl, Ekkehart Lausch, Christine Jandrasits, Brigitte Strahm, Klaus Schwarz, Stephan R Ehl, Charlotte Niemeyer, Kaan Boztug, Marcin W Wlodarski
Typical features of dyskeratosis congenita (DC) resulting from excessive telomere shortening include bone marrow failure (BMF), mucosal fragility, and pulmonary or liver fibrosis. In more severe cases, immune deficiency and recurring infections can add to disease severity. RTEL1 deficiency has recently been described as a major genetic etiology, but the molecular basis and clinical consequences of RTEL1-associated DC are incompletely characterized. We report our observations in a cohort of six patients: five with novel biallelic RTEL1 mutations p...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500375/first-molecular-identification-and-genetic-diversity-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-and-strongyloides-fuelleborni-in-human-communities-having-contact-with-long-tailed-macaques-in-thailand
#5
Tongjit Thanchomnang, Pewpan M Intapan, Oranuch Sanpool, Rutchanee Rodpai, Somjintana Tourtip, Sujitra Yahom, Jitsuda Kullawat, Prayong Radomyos, Chalida Thammasiri, Wanchai Maleewong
The parasitic nematodes, Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides fuelleborni, can infect humans and non-human primates. We amplified and sequenced a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) and of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of Strongyloides from humans in the study area in Thailand, where people have frequent contact with long-tailed macaques. Fresh stool samples were obtained from 213 people and were examined using the agar plate culture method. The overall prevalence of Strongyloides infection was 8...
May 12, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498178/supporting-implementation-research-to-improve-coverage-and-uptake-of-hiv-related-interventions
#6
Pierre Blais, Sylvia Sirivar, Joyce Seto
In 2015, Global Affairs Canada joined other members of the United Nations to establish the Sustainable Development Goals, which include the elimination of AIDS by 2030. Innovation is an important part of accelerating the response against HIV and ensuring success in eliminating AIDS by 2030. This is the reason Global Affairs Canada decided to partner with the World Health Organization, to support the INtegration and Scaling Up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch (INSPIRE) initiative, to learn how HIV interventions can be successfully integrated with other essential health services for mothers and children, especially among the most vulnerable populations...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475623/analysis-of-the-functional-compatibility-of-siv-capsid-sequences-in-the-context-of-the-fiv-gag-precursor
#7
César A Ovejero, José L Affranchino, Silvia A González
The formation of immature lentiviral particles is dependent on the multimerization of the Gag polyprotein at the plasma membrane of the infected cells. One key player in the virus assembly process is the capsid (CA) domain of Gag, which establishes the protein-protein interactions that give rise to the hexagonal lattice of Gag molecules in the immature virion. To gain a better understanding of the functional equivalence between the CA proteins of simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively), we generated a series of chimeric FIV Gag proteins in which the CA-coding region was partially or totally replaced by its SIV counterpart...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466095/survival-of-the-fetus-fetal-b-and-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-development
#8
REVIEW
Erez Rechavi, Raz Somech
A mature and diverse T and B cell receptor repertoire is a prerequisite for immunocompetence. In light of its increased susceptibility to infection, the human fetus has long been considered deficient in this regard. However, data accumulated since the 1990s and in earnest in the past couple of years paints a more complicated picture. As we describe in this review, mechanisms responsible for generating a diverse receptor repertoire, such as somatic recombination, class switch recombination, and somatic hypermutation, are all operational to surprising extents in the growing fetus...
May 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441175/acceptability-and-use-of-a-dapivirine-vaginal-ring-in-a-phase-iii-trial
#9
Elizabeth T Montgomery, Ariane van der Straten, Miria Chitukuta, Krishnaveni Reddy, Kubashni Woeber, Millicent Atujuna, Linda-Gail Bekker, Juliane Etima, Teopista Nakyanzi, Ashley J Mayo, Ariana Katz, Nicole Laborde, Cynthia I Grossman, Lydia Soto-Torres, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: The MTN-020/ASPIRE trial evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the dapivirine vaginal ring for prevention of HIV-1 infection among African women. A nested qualitative component was conducted at six of 15 study sites in Uganda, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa to evaluate acceptability of and adherence to the ring. METHOD: Qualitative study participants (n = 214) were interviewed with one of three modalities: single in-depth interview, up to three serial interviews or an exit Focus Group Discussion...
May 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440467/structural-and-evolutionary-divergence-of-aquaporins-in-parasites-review
#10
Zi-Xin Ni, Jian-Min Cui, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Bao-Quan Fu
Aquaporins are ubiquitous proteins that belong to the major intrinsic protein family. Previous studies have indicated that aquaporins are involved in multiple physiological processes in parasites, such as nutrient absorption and end product efflux, and thus, would be promising pharmacological agents in the fight against parasite infection. In the present paper, the authors analyzed the evolutionary relationship of parasitic aquaporins by re‑constructing of a phylogenic tree using neighbor‑joining and maximum likelihood methods...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414519/effect-of-a-food-supplement-containing-l-methionine-on-urinary-tract-infections-in-pregnancy-a-prospective-multicenter-observational-study
#11
Mario Passaro, Giampaolo Mainini, Francesco Ambrosio, Raimondo Sgambato, Giancarlo Balbi
OBJECTIVE: Adjuvants or alternatives to antibiotics in urinary tract infections (UTIs) during pregnancy seem advisable because of possible fetal stress. The present study assessed the effectiveness of a food supplement containing L-methionine and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Boswellia serrata Roxb. extracts as a treatment for symptomatic UTIs in pregnancy. DESIGN: Pregnant patients with symptomatic cystitis were screened for UTIs in three different clinical centers...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412954/does-a-quality-improvement-campaign-accelerate-take-up-of-new-evidence-a-ten-state-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-institute-for-health-improvement-s-project-joints
#12
Eric C Schneider, Melony E Sorbero, Ann Haas, M Susan Ridgely, Dmitry Khodyakov, Claude M Setodji, Gareth Parry, Susan S Huang, Deborah S Yokoe, Don Goldmann
BACKGROUND: A decade ago, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement pioneered a quality improvement (QI) campaign, leveraging organizational and personal social networks to disseminate new practices. There have been few rigorous studies of the QI campaign approach. METHODS: Project JOINTS (Joining Organizations IN Tackling SSIs) engaged a network of state-based organizations and professionals in a 6-month QI campaign promoting adherence to three new evidence-based practices known to reduce the risk of infection after joint replacement...
April 17, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408415/impact-of-international-quality-improvement-collaborative-on-congenital-heart-surgery-in-pakistan
#13
Amina Khan, Ahmed Abdullah, Huzaifa Ahmad, Arjumand Rizvi, Sehrish Batool, Kathy J Jenkins, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Muneer Amanullah, Anwar Haq, Nadeem Aslam, Fauzia Minai, Babar Hasan
BACKGROUND: The International Quality Improvement Collaborative (IQIC) was formed to reduce mortality and morbidity from congenital heart disease (CHD) surgeries in low/middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: We conducted this study to compare the postoperative outcomes of CHD surgeries at a centre in Pakistan before and after joining IQIC. METHODS: The IQIC provides guidelines targeting key drivers responsible for morbidity and mortality in postoperativepatients with CHD...
April 13, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379372/the-microbiological-landscape-of-anaerobic-infections-in-hidradenitis-suppurativa-a-prospective-metagenomic-study
#14
Hélène Guet-Revillet, Jean-Philippe Jais, Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer, Hélène Coignard-Biehler, Sabine Duchatelet, Maïa Delage, Thi Lam, Alain Hovnanian, Olivier Lortholary, Xavier Nassif, Aude Nassif, Olivier Join-Lambert
Background.: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a frequent and severe disease of the skin, characterized by recurrent or chronic skinfolds suppurative lesions with a high impact on quality of life. Although considered inflammatory, antimicrobial treatments can improve or lead to clinical remission of HS, suggesting triggering microbial factors. Indeed, mixed anaerobic microbiota are associated with a majority of HS lesions. The aim of this study was to characterize the landscape of anaerobic infections in HS using high throughput sequencing...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350745/the-irish-helicobacter-pylori-working-group-consensus-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-h-pylori-infection-in-adult-patients-in-ireland
#15
Sinead Smith, Breida Boyle, Denise Brennan, Martin Buckley, Paul Crotty, Maeve Doyle, Richard Farrell, Mary Hussey, David Kevans, Peter Malfertheiner, Francis Megraud, Sean Nugent, Anthony O'Connor, Colm O'Morain, Shiobhan Weston, Deirdre McNamara
BACKGROUND: Irish eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori are decreasing and there is an increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These trends call into question current management strategies. OBJECTIVE: To establish an Irish Helicobacter pylori Working Group (IHPWG) to assess, revise and tailor current available recommendations. METHODS: Experts in the areas of gastroenterology and microbiology were invited to join the IHPWG...
May 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331090/hili-inhibits-hiv-replication-in-activated-t-cells
#16
B Matija Peterlin, Pingyang Liu, Xiaoyun Wang, Daniele Cary, Wei Shao, Marie Leoz, Tian Hong, Tao Pan, Koh Fujinaga
Piwil proteins restrict the replication of mobile genetic elements in the germline. They are also expressed in many transformed cell lines. In this report, we discovered that the human piwil 2 (hili) can also inhibit HIV replication, especially in activated CD4+ T cells that are the preferred target cells for this virus in the infected host. Although resting cells did not express hili, it was rapidly induced following T cell activation. In these cells and transformed cell lines, depletion of hili increased levels of viral proteins and new viral particles...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323754/-it-s-inside-my-body-and-it-s-mine
#17
Elizabeth T Montgomery, Ariane van der Straten, Miria Chitukuta, Krishnaveni Reddy, Kubashni Woeber, Millicent Atujuna, Linda-Gail Bekker, Juliane Etima, Teopista Nakyanzi, Ashley J Mayo, Ariana Katz, Nicole Laborde, Cynthia I Grossman, Lydia Soto-Torres, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Jared M Baeten
The MTN-020/ASPIRE trial evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the dapivirine vaginal ring for prevention of HIV-1 infection among African women. A nested qualitative component was conducted at 6 of 15 study sites in Uganda, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa to evaluate acceptability of and adherence to the ring. Qualitative study participants (n = 214) were interviewed with one of 3 modalities: single in-depth interview, up to 3 serial interviews, or an exit Focus Group Discussion. Using semi-structured guides administered in local languages, 280 interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated, coded and analyzed...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299163/youth-awareness-on-sexually-transmitted-infections-hiv-and-aids-in-secondary-schools-in-the-dschang-municipality-cameroon-the-mobile-caravan-project
#18
Martin Sanou Sobze, Armand Tsapi Tiotsia, Ghyslaine Bruna Djeunang Dongho, Guy Aurelien Foaleng Tankui, Joseph Fokam, Kien-Atsu Tsi, Jimmy Roger Fotso, Yannick Ngueko Azeufack, Patrick Pete Nkamedjie, Adogaye Ben Bechir Sali, Rodrigue Biguioh Mabvouna, Lucia Ercoli, Vittorio Colizzi, Gianluca Russo
Awareness is a preventive action to instill in individuals certain concepts to improve their health. It is an essential element in the prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV and early pregnancies among adolescents. In 2012, the prevalence of HIVin Cameroon was estimated at 4.3%. The young population appear to be the most affected (3.2%); very close to that of the Dschang Health District (Cameroon; 3.1%) in the 15-19 years age group. Theaimof this study was to evaluate the contribution of the Mobile Caravan project on the preventive aspect of STI/HIV/AIDS among youths of Dschang in 10 secondary schools within three years...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287099/double-stranded-rna-virus-outer-shell-assembly-by-bona-fide-domain-swapping
#19
Zhaoyang Sun, Kamel El Omari, Xiaoyu Sun, Serban L Ilca, Abhay Kotecha, David I Stuart, Minna M Poranen, Juha T Huiskonen
Correct outer protein shell assembly is a prerequisite for virion infectivity in many multi-shelled dsRNA viruses. In the prototypic dsRNA bacteriophage φ6, the assembly reaction is promoted by calcium ions but its biomechanics remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the near-atomic resolution structure of the φ6 double-shelled particle. The outer T=13 shell protein P8 consists of two alpha-helical domains joined by a linker, which allows the trimer to adopt either a closed or an open conformation. The trimers in an open conformation swap domains with each other...
March 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285591/black-backed-jackals-canis-mesomelas-are-natural-hosts-of-babesia-rossi-the-virulent-causative-agent-of-canine-babesiosis-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Barend L Penzhorn, Ilse Vorster, Robert F Harrison-White, Marinda C Oosthuizen
BACKGROUND: Babesia rossi, which is transmitted by Haemaphysalis spp. and is highly virulent to domestic dogs, occurs only in sub-Saharan Africa. Since dogs are not native to the region, it has been postulated that the natural host of B. rossi is an indigenous African canid. Although various attempts at artificial infection indicated that black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) could become subclinically infected with B. rossi, data on occurrence of B. rossi in free-ranging jackals was lacking...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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