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Ethology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721603/the-disadapted-animal-niko-tinbergen-on-human-nature-and-the-human-predicament
#1
Marga Vicedo
This paper explores ethologist Niko Tinbergen's path from animal to human studies in the 1960s and 1970s and his views about human nature. It argues, first, that the confluence of several factors explains why Tinbergen decided to cross the animal/human divide in the mid 1960s: his concern about what he called "the human predicament," his relations with British child psychiatrist John Bowlby, the success of ethological explanations of human behavior, and his professional and personal situation. It also argues that Tinbergen transferred his general adaptationist view of animal behavior to the realm of human biology; here, his concern about disadaptation led him to a view of human behavior that was strongly determined by the species' evolutionary past, a position that I call evolutionary determinism...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715773/developmental-toxicity-of-fe3o4-nanoparticles-on-cysts-and-three-larval-stages-of-artemia-salina
#2
Song Zhu, Ming-Yang Xue, Fei Luo, Wei-Chao Chen, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Using Artemia salina cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae (instar I, II and III) as experimental models, the potential effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) on marine ecosystems were investigated. Hatchability, mortality and a number of ethological, morphological and biochemical parameters were selected as end-points to define the toxic responses. Data showed that the hatching rates of capsulated and decapsulated cysts were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) following exposure to 600 mg/L for 24 and 36 h...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702756/creating-a-common-terminology-for-play-behavior-to-increase-cross-disciplinary-research
#3
Lance J Miller
Historically, play behavior has been difficult to define. This likely stems from the number of different species, types of play, and context under which it occurs. In 2016, the Chicago Zoological Society - Brookfield Zoo hosted the Psychonomic Society leading edge workshop on the evolutionary and psychological significance of play. Sixteen experts attended from the diverse fields of African ethnology, animal behavior, animal science, animal welfare, cognitive psychology, cognitive zoology, comparative psychology, cultural anthropology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, ethology, neuroscience, primatology, and zoology...
July 12, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697903/implicit-self-other-discrimination-affects-the-interplay-between-multisensory-affordances-of-mental-representations-of-faces
#4
David Zeugin, Norhan Arfa, Michael Notter, Micah M Murray, Silvio Ionta
Face recognition is an apparently straightforward but, in fact, complex ability, encompassing the activation of at least visual and somatosensory representations. Understanding how identity shapes the interplay between these face-related affordances could clarify the mechanisms of self-other discrimination. To this aim, we exploited the so-called "face inversion effect" (FIE), a specific bias in the mental rotation of face images (of other people): with respect to inanimate objects, face images require longer time to be mentally rotated from the upside-down...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686584/assessing-recent-and-remote-associative-olfactory-memory-in-rats-using-the-social-transmission-of-food-preference-paradigm
#5
Benjamin Bessières, Olivier Nicole, Bruno Bontempi
Rats have the ability to learn about potential food sources by sampling their odors on the breath of conspecifics. Although this ethologically based social behavior has been transposed to the laboratory to probe nonspatial associative olfactory memory, only a few studies have taken full advantage of its unique features to examine the organization of recently and remotely acquired information. We provide a set of standardized procedures and technical refinements that are particularly useful in achieving this goal while minimizing confounding factors...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681021/use-of-cost-effective-and-rapid-molecular-tools-for-identification-of-candida-species-opportunistic-pathogens
#6
E Rezazadeh, M Moazeni, A Sabokbar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Candidiasis is a widespread fungal infection caused by different Candida species. Rapid identification of Candida species in clinical laboratory is becoming increasingly important since the identification and discrimination of ethological agents for early treatment. We aimed at molecular identification of commonly Candida species isolated from clinical samples by using both PCR-RFLP assay and amplification of hwp1 gene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical samples comprising of vaginal specimens ,cutaneous, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL,( and blood cultures were recovered from suspected patients...
September 2016: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680403/scopolamine-induces-deficits-in-spontaneous-object-location-recognition-and-fear-learning-in-marmoset-monkeys
#7
Jonathan L Melamed, Fernando M de Jesus, Rafael S Maior, Marilia Barros
The non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCP) induces memory deficits in both animals and humans. However, few studies have assessed the effects of amnesic agents on memory functions of marmosets - a small-bodied neotropical primate that is becoming increasingly used as a translational model for several neuropathologies. Here we assessed the effects of an acute SCP administration (0.03 mg/kg, sc) on the behavior of adult marmoset monkeys in two tasks. In the spontaneous object-location (SOL) recognition task, two identical neutral stimuli were explored on the sample trial, after which preferential exploration of the displaced versus the stationary object was analyzed on the test trial...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674176/effects-of-chronic-social-defeat-stress-on-sleep-and-circadian-rhythms-are-mitigated-by-kappa-opioid-receptor-antagonism
#8
Audrey M Wells, Elysia Ridener, Clinton A Bourbonais, Woori Kim, Harry Pantazopoulos, F Ivy Carroll, Kwang-Soo Kim, Bruce M Cohen, William A Carlezon
Stress plays a critical role in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Sleep and circadian rhythms are affected in many of these conditions. Here we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), an ethological form of stress, on sleep and circadian rhythms. We exposed male mice implanted with wireless telemetry transmitters to a 10-day CSDS regimen known to produce anhedonia (a depressive-like effect) and social avoidance (an anxiety-like effect). Electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), body temperature, and locomotor activity data were collected continuously during the CSDS regimen and a 5-day recovery period...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664707/locomotor-activity-of-adult-dermacentor-reticulatus-ticks-ixodida-ixodidae-in-natural-conditions
#9
Alicja Buczek, Zbigniew Zając, Aneta Woźniak, Dorota Kulina, Katarzyna Bartosik
[b] Abstract Introduction and objective[/b]. Expansion into new areas and the great epidemiological significance of the D. reticulatus tick in Europe prompts investigations of its ethology. Therefore, the locomotor activity of D. reticulatus adult stages in an optimal habitat during the spring and autumn activity periods was analysed. [b]Materials and method[/b]. Marked D. reticulatus adults were placed at the central point of each experimental plot. At regular time intervals, specimens attached to the cloth used in the flagging method were collected, and the distance covered by the ticks was measured...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649213/ethorobotics-a-new-approach-to-human-robot-relationship
#10
REVIEW
Ádám Miklósi, Péter Korondi, Vicente Matellán, Márta Gácsi
Here we aim to lay the theoretical foundations of human-robot relationship drawing upon insights from disciplines that govern relevant human behaviors: ecology and ethology. We show how the paradox of the so called "uncanny valley hypothesis" can be solved by applying the "niche" concept to social robots, and relying on the natural behavior of humans. Instead of striving to build human-like social robots, engineers should construct robots that are able to maximize their performance in their niche (being optimal for some specific functions), and if they are endowed with appropriate form of social competence then humans will eventually interact with them independent of their embodiment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638991/integrating-tinbergen-s-inquiries-mimicry-and-play-in-humans-and-other-social-mammals
#11
Elisabetta Palagi, Chiara Scopa
Visual signals convey emotions and intentions between individuals. Darwin underlined that human facial expressions represent a shared heritage between our species and many other social mammals. Social play is a fertile field to examine the role and the potential communicative function of facial expressions. The relaxed open-mouth (or play face) is a context-specific playful expression, which is widespread in human and non-human mammals. Here, we focus on playful communication by applying Tinbergen's four areas of inquiry: proximate causation, ontogeny, function, and evolution...
June 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637956/cd36-involvement-in-the-olfactory-perception-of-oleic-aldehyde-an-odour-active-volatile-compound-in-mice
#12
Shinhye Lee, Satoshi Tsuzuki, Takahiko Amitsuka, Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita, Kazuo Inoue
Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a broadly expressed transmembrane receptor that has multiple ligands. It has been found to occur abundantly on the surface of the olfactory epithelium in mice and postulated to play a role in mammalian olfaction. However, there have been no ethological analyses of the mammalian behaviour showing CD36 involvement in the olfactory perception of a distinct odour-active volatile compound. In this study, we aimed to assess whether mammals perceive oleic aldehyde, an odour-active volatile that serves as a potential CD36 ligand, and if so, whether CD36 is involved in the sensing by following measurements using CD36-knockout mice and their wild-type littermates...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622973/maternal-programming-of-sex-specific-responses-to-predator-odor-stress-in-adult-rats
#13
Sophie St-Cyr, Sameera Abuaish, Shathveekan Sivanathan, Patrick O McGowan
Prenatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term adaptations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. This study tested the long-lasting effect of prenatal exposure to predator odor, an ethologically relevant and psychogenic stressor, in the second half of pregnancy. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anxiety-like behaviors in commonly used laboratory tasks assessing novelty-induced anxiety, increased defensive behavior in males and increased ACTH stress reactivity in females in response to predator odor...
June 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614436/social-instigation-and-repeated-aggressive-confrontations-in-male-swiss-mice-analysis-of-plasma-corticosterone-crf-and-bdnf-levels-in-limbic-brain-areas
#14
Paula Madeira Fortes, Lucas Albrechet-Souza, Mailton Vasconcelos, Bruna Maria Ascoli, Ana Paula Menegolla, Rosa Maria M de Almeida
Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm...
June 12, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599071/predator-odor-evokes-sex-independent-stress-responses-in-male-and-female-wistar-rats-and-reduces-phosphorylation-of-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-response-element-binding-protein-creb-in-the-male-but-not-the-female-hippocampus
#15
Damek Homiack, Emma O'Cinneide, Sema Hajmurad, Brett Barrileaux, Mary Stanley, Michael R Kreutz, Laura Schrader
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by memory disturbances following trauma. Acute predator threat has emerged as an ethological model of PTSD, yet the effects of predator odor on signaling cascades associated with long-term memory remain poorly understood. In this study, we exposed male and female Wistar rats to the synthetic predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) to assess behavioral and physiological responses as well as rapid modulation of signal transduction cascades associated with learning and memory in the male and female hippocampus...
June 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591669/bupropion-induces-social-anxiety-in-adolescent-mice-influence-of-housing-conditions
#16
Carmen Gómez, Rosa Redolat, Carmen Carrasco
BACKGROUND: The antidepressant bupropion has received increasing attention as a pharmacological tool to treat addiction although little is known about its effects on social behaviour in adolescents. The present study aimed to evaluate if environmental housing conditions influence bupropion's actions on social behaviour of adolescent mice. METHODS: Mice were either group- or individually housed for 2-weeks and then randomly divided into 2 cohorts: half of the mice remained in the initial housing condition and the other half were changed to isolated conditions for further 2-weeks...
March 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586586/comparative-analysis-of-anterior-knee-pain-in-transpatellar-and-medial-parapatellar-tendon-approaches-in-tibial-interlocking-nailing
#17
Saeed Ahmad, Ashfaq Ahmed, Latif Khan, Shahzad Javed, Naeem Ahmed, Amer Aziz
BACKGROUND: Anterior knee pain is the most common complaint after intramedullary nail of the tibia. The incidence of anterior knee pain ranges from 10-86% and the exact ethology is unclear. Transpatellar tendon approach is commonly used for tibial intramedullary interlocking nailing but it can also be done through medial parapatellar tendon approach. The objective of the study was to compare post-operative anterior knee pain after intramedullary nailing technique by transpatellar approach compared to medial parapatellar approach...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582758/rheumatoid-arthritis-recent-advances-on-its-etiology-role-of-cytokines-and-pharmacotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Javaid Alam, Ibrahim Jantan, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
An autoimmune disease is defined as a clinical syndrome resulted from an instigation of both T cell and B cell or individually, in the absence of any present infection or any sort of distinguishable cause. Clonal deletion of auto reactive cells remains the central canon of immunology for decades, keeping the role of T cell and B cell aside, which are actually the guards to recognize the entry of foreign body. According to NIH, 23.5 million Americans are all together affected by these diseases. They are rare, but with the exception of RA...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570562/anomalous-diffusion-on-the-servosphere-a-potential-tool-for-detecting-inherent-organismal-movement-patterns
#19
Naohisa Nagaya, Nobuaki Mizumoto, Masato S Abe, Shigeto Dobata, Ryota Sato, Ryusuke Fujisawa
Tracking animal movements such as walking is an essential task for understanding how and why animals move in an environment and respond to external stimuli. Different methods that implemented image analysis and a data logger such as GPS have been used in laboratory experiments and in field studies, respectively. Recently, animal movement patterns without stimuli have attracted an increasing attention in search for common innate characteristics underlying all of their movements. However, it is difficult to track the movements in a vast and homogeneous environment without stimuli because of space constraints in laboratories or environmental heterogeneity in the field, hindering our understanding of inherent movement patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556816/salmonid-jumping-and-playing-potential-cultural-and-welfare-implications
#20
Robert M Fagen
Salmonids of several species and other fishes can jump into the air from the water. This behavior has been used in net pen culture applications to control parasitic sea lice. The reasons that salmonids jump remain a topic for speculation. Research on these behaviors has focused on Atlantic salmon in net pen culture in Northwest Europe. Jumping in salmonids is a heterogeneous behavioral category with diverse functional outcomes. Additional research is needed from broad perspectives spanning indigenous and institutional science, cultural wisdom, and ethological direct observation...
May 30, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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