Read by QxMD icon Read


F Claire Rind, Stefan Wernitznig, Peter Pölt, Armin Zankel, Daniel Gütl, Julieta Sztarker, Gerd Leitinger
In locusts, two lobula giant movement detector neurons (LGMDs) act as looming object detectors. Their reproducible responses to looming and their ethological significance makes them models for single neuron computation. But there is no comprehensive picture of the neurons that connect directly to each LGMD. We used high-through-put serial block-face scanning-electron-microscopy to reconstruct the network of input-synapses onto the LGMDs over spatial scales ranging from single synapses and small circuits, up to dendritic branches and total excitatory input...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jennifer L Hoy, Iryna Yavorska, Michael Wehr, Cristopher M Niell
The ability to genetically identify and manipulate neural circuits in the mouse is rapidly advancing our understanding of visual processing in the mammalian brain [1, 2]. However, studies investigating the circuitry that underlies complex ethologically relevant visual behaviors in the mouse have been primarily restricted to fear responses [3-5]. Here, we show that a laboratory strain of mouse (Mus musculus, C57BL/6J) robustly pursues, captures, and consumes live insect prey and that vision is necessary for mice to perform the accurate orienting and approach behaviors leading to capture...
October 8, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Jenny Y Y Lau, Chun-Chiu Pang, Lawrence Ramsden, Richard M K Saunders
The floral phenology, pollination ecology and breeding systems of two sympatric early-divergent angiosperms, Goniothalamus tapisoides and G. suaveolens (Annonaceae) are compared. The flowers are protogynous and morphologically similar, with anthesis over 23-25 h. Both species are predominantly xenogamous and pollinated by small beetles: G. tapisoides mainly by Curculionidae and G. suaveolens mainly by Nitidulidae. Coevolution and reproductive resource partitioning, reducing interspecific pollen transfer, is achieved by temporal isolation, due to contrasting floral phenologies; and ethological isolation, due to contrasting floral scents that contain attractants specific to the two beetle families...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ricky-John Spencer, James U Van Dyke, Michael B Thompson
Ecological traps are threats to organisms, and exist in a range of biological systems. A subset of ecological trap theory is the "ethological trap," whereby behaviors canalized by past natural selection become traps when environments change rapidly. Invasive predators are major threats to imperiled species and their ability to exploit canalized behaviors of naive prey is particularly important for the establishment of the predator and the decline of the native prey. Our study uses ecological theory to demonstrate that invasive predator controls require shifts in management priorities...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Diego A Laplagne, Martín Elías Costa
Acoustic signals have the potential for transmitting information fast across distances. Rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations of two distinct classes: "22-kHz" or "alarm" calls and "50-kHz" calls. The latter comprises brief sounds in the 30-80-kHz range, whose ethological role is not fully understood. We recorded ultrasonic vocalizations from pairs of rats freely behaving in neighboring but separated arenas. 50-kHz vocalizations in this condition were tightly linked to the locomotion of the emitter at the subsecond time scale, their rate sharply increasing and decreasing prior to the onset and offset of movement respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Alicja Puścian, Szymon Łęski, Grzegorz Kasprowicz, Maciej Winiarski, Joanna Borowska, Tomasz Nikolaev, Paweł M Boguszewski, Hans-Peter Lipp, Ewelina Knapska
Eco-HAB is an open source, RFID-based system for automated measurement and analysis of social preference and in-cohort sociability in mice. The system closely follows murine ethology. It requires no contact between a human experimenter and tested animals, overcoming the confounding factors that lead to irreproducible assessment of murine social behavior between laboratories. In Eco-HAB, group-housed animals live in a spacious, four-compartment apparatus with shadowed areas and narrow tunnels, resembling natural burrows...
October 12, 2016: ELife
Adrianna Jenkins, Lusha Zhu, Ming Hsu
Understanding the neural basis of human honesty and deception has enormous potential scientific and practical value. However, past approaches, largely developed out of studies with forensic applications in mind, are increasingly recognized as having serious methodological and conceptual shortcomings. Here we propose to address these challenges by drawing on so-called signaling games widely used in game theory and ethology to study behavioral and evolutionary consequences of information transmission and distortion...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Changsheng Dong, RuiXin Wu, Jing Wu, Jing Guo, Fangyuan Wang, Yanli Fu, Qing Wang, Ling Xu, Juyong Wang
BACKGROUND: Cancer pain is a complex medical syndrome. Understanding its underlying mechanisms relies on the use of animal models which can mimic the human condition. A crucial component of this model is the quantity of tumor cells; however, the exact relationship between the doses of tumor cells on bone cancer pain is yet unknown. OBJECTIVE: We explored the relationship of different doses of Walker 256 carcinoma cells using a bone cancer pain model in rats, and evaluated its success and stability...
September 2016: Pain Physician
İbrahim Kılınç, Ersin G Dumlu, Vedia Öztürk, Neslihan Çuhacı, Serdar Balcı, Abdussamed Yalçın, Mehmet Kılıç
INTRODUCTION: Adrenal haemorrhage is a relatively rare condition. If there is not a specific ethology describing adrenal hematoma, then, this is termed as 'idiopathic adrenal hematoma'. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We presented a case of idiopathic adrenal hematoma in this study. A 62-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a 40mm mass in the left upper abdominal cavity. The histopathological findings of the surgical specimen revealed a hematoma with normal adrenal tissue...
April 7, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Aaron Kucyi, Karen D Davis
Pain occurs in time. In naturalistic settings, pain perception is sometimes stable but often varies in intensity and quality over the course of seconds, minutes, and days. A principal aim in classic electrophysiology studies of pain was to uncover a neural code based on the temporal patterns of single neuron firing. In contrast, modern neuroimaging studies have placed emphasis on uncovering the spatial pattern of brain activity (or "map") that may reflect the pain experience. However, in the emerging field of connectomics, communication within and among brain networks is characterized as intrinsically dynamic on multiple time scales...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Hayley Clatterbuck
Charles Darwin and C. Lloyd Morgan forward two influential principles of cognitive ethological inference that yield conflicting results about the extent of continuity in the cognitive traits of humans and other animals. While these principles have been interpreted as reflecting commitments to different senses of parsimony, in fact, both principles result from the same vera causa inferential strategy, according to which "We ought to admit no more causes of natural things, than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances"...
September 16, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Rachel Wodarski, Ada Delaney, Camilla Ultenius, Rosie Morland, Nick Andrews, Catherine Baastrup, Luke A Bryden, Ombretta Caspani, Thomas Christoph, Natalie J Gardiner, Wenlong Huang, Jeffrey D Kennedy, Suguru Koyama, Dominic Li, Marcin Ligocki, Annika Lindsten, Ian Machin, Anton Pekcec, Angela Robens, Sanziana M Rotariu, Sabrina Vo, Marta Segerdahl, Carina Stenfors, Camilla I Svensson, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Katsuhiro Uto, Kazumi Yamamoto, Kris Rutten, Andrew S C Rice
Burrowing, an ethologically relevant rodent behaviour, has been proposed as a novel outcome measure to assess the global impact of pain in rats. In a prospective multicentre study using male rats (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley), replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour in the complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced model of inflammatory pain (unilateral, 1 mg/mL in 100 µL) was evaluated in 11 studies across 8 centres. Following a standard protocol, data from participating centres were collected centrally and analysed with a restricted maximum likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures...
October 2016: Pain
(no author information available yet)
The 50th anniversary of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) was celebrated in July, with the return of its annual international congress to Edinburgh, the city where the society was founded in 1966. Scientific legacy was a prevalent topic at the meeting, in line with the congress theme: standing on the shoulders of giants. The event was the biggest in the ISAE's history, spanning five days, from July 12 to 16, and comprising almost 200 talks. Rachel Orritt reflects on proceedings.
September 17, 2016: Veterinary Record
Loni Loftus, Kelly Marks, Rosie Jones-McVey, Jose L Gonzales, Veronica L Fowler
Effective training of horses relies on the trainer's awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analysis of beat-to-beat (RR) intervals and heart rate variability (HRV) of ten horses being used in Monty Roberts' public demonstrations within the United Kingdom. RR and HRV was measured in the stable before training and during training...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Paul L McNeil, Carolina Nebot, Alberto Cepeda, Katherine A Sloman
The development of the eye in vertebrates is dependent upon glucocorticoid signalling, however, specific components of the eye are sensitive to synthetic glucocorticoids. The presence of synthetic glucocorticoids within the aquatic environment may therefore have important consequences for fish, which are heavily reliant upon vision for mediating several key behaviours. The potential ethological impact of synthetic glucocorticoid oculotoxicity however has yet to be studied. Physiological and behavioural responses which are dependent upon vision were selected to investigate the possible toxicity of prednisolone, a commonly occurring synthetic glucocorticoid within the environment, during early life stages of zebrafish...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Yan Zhang, Zifeng Pi, Fengrui Song, Zhiqiang Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax ginseng C.A.Mey. is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) for thousands of years. Ginsenoside is one of the major compounds found in P. ginseng. This study aimed to explore the attenuation of spatial memory impairment by ginsenosides and its correlation with restoring the dysfunction of the neurotransmitter systems in AD model rats to understand the mechanism underlying the anti-AD effect of P...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Fay F Warnock, Kenneth D Craig, Roger Bakeman, Thaila Castral, Jila Mirlashari
BACKGROUND: Sensitive and responsive maternal caregiving behavior strengthens infant self-regulatory capacities (HL), but this regulatory role may be diminished in some mothers with second-trimester prenatal exposure to depression and/ or anxiety (MDA). This study examined maternal and infant behavior during infant heel lance (HL) when mothers had or did not have MDA. Ethological methods and micro-analytic approaches capable of distinguishing and comparing time-based patterning in maternal and infant behavior were used to clarify biological mechanisms, such as MDA, that may underlie observed behavior...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Slawomir A Lux, Andrzej Wnuk, Heidrun Vogt, Tim Belien, Andreas Spornberger, Marcin Studnicki
The paper reports application of a Markov-like stochastic process agent-based model and a "virtual farm" concept for enhancement of site-specific Integrated Pest Management. Conceptually, the model represents a "bottom-up ethological" approach and emulates behavior of the "primary IPM actors"-large cohorts of individual insects-within seasonally changing mosaics of spatiotemporally complex faming landscape, under the challenge of the local IPM actions. Algorithms of the proprietary PESTonFARM model were adjusted to reflect behavior and ecology of R...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
V I Evsikov, V Yu Muzyka, O F Potapova, M A Potapov
Adult males of the water vole have been found experimentally to recognize their neighbors and react to them differently depending on the degree of spatial proximity in nature. Most tensions (estimated by the number of aggressive acts in the encounters) were observed between distant neighbors (from neighboring settlements), which did not belong to the same groups with established hierarchy and a relatively reduced aggression. These are probably perceived as the most likely competitors (because of their spatial proximity)...
July 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Ada Eban-Rothschild, Gideon Rothschild, William J Giardino, Jeff R Jones, Luis de Lecea
Dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons are critically involved in a variety of behaviors that rely on heightened arousal, but whether they directly and causally control the generation and maintenance of wakefulness is unknown. We recorded calcium activity using fiber photometry in freely behaving mice and found arousal-state-dependent alterations in VTA dopaminergic neurons. We used chemogenetic and optogenetic manipulations together with polysomnographic recordings to demonstrate that VTA dopaminergic neurons are necessary for arousal and that their inhibition suppresses wakefulness, even in the face of ethologically relevant salient stimuli...
October 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"