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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674218/single-aggressive-and-non-aggressive-social-interactions-elicit-distinct-behavioral-patterns-to-the-context-in-mice
#1
Ariela M Crestani, Ana C Cipriano, Ricardo L Nunes-de-Souza
Aggressive interactions between conspecific animals have been used as a social stressor with ethological characteristics to study how social interactions can modulate animal's behavior. Here, a new protocol based on aggressive and non-aggressive interactions was developed to study how different social interactions can alter the behavioral profile of animals re-exposed to the context in which the interaction occurred. We used factor analysis to trace the behavioral profile of socially defeated and non-defeated mice when they were re-exposed to the apparatus [three interconnected chambers: home chamber, tunnel and surface area]; we also compared the behavior presented before (habituation) and 24 hours after (re-exposure) the non-aggressive or aggressive interactions...
April 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663384/cortical-connections-of-area-2-and-posterior-parietal-area-5-in-macaque-monkeys
#2
Jeffrey Padberg, Dylan F Cooke, Christina M Cerkevich, Jon H Kaas, Leah Krubitzer
The overarching goal of the current investigation was to examine the connections of anterior parietal area 2 and the medial portion of posterior parietal area 5 in macaque monkeys; two areas that are part of a network involved reaching and grasping in primates. We injected neuroanatomical tracers into specified locations in each field and directly related labeled cells to histologically identified cortical field boundaries. Labeled cells were counted so that the relative density of projections to areas 2 and 5 from other cortical fields could be determined...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614353/necrosulfonamide-attenuates-the-spinal-cord-injury-via-necroptosis-inhibition
#3
Yongxiang Wang, Jingcheng Wang, Hua Wang, Xinmin Feng, Yuping Tao, Jiandong Yang, Jun Cai
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious trauma without efficient treatment currently. Necroptosis can be blocked post injury by special inhibitors. To investigate the effects of Necrosulfonamide (NSA) in the treatment of SCI, pathological condition, necroptosis related factors, mitochondrial function and ethological performance were detected. Pathological detection using HE staining was performed first. Reduced lesions and protected neurons were found in the injured spinal cord after treatment with NSA. No obvious toxicity on rat liver, kidney, heart and spleen was detected using HE staining...
March 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605636/rapid-effects-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-on-aggressive-behavior-in-songbirds-environmental-and-genetic-influences
#4
REVIEW
Sarah A Heimovics, Jennifer R Merritt, Cecilia Jalabert, Chunqi Ma, Donna L Maney, Kiran K Soma
17β-estradiol (E2 ) has numerous rapid effects on the brain and behavior. This review focuses on the rapid effects of E2 on aggression, an important social behavior, in songbirds. First, we highlight the contributions of studies on song sparrows, which reveal that seasonal changes in the environment profoundly influence the capacity of E2 to rapidly alter aggressive behavior. E2 administration to male song sparrows increases aggression within 20 min in the non-breeding season, but not in the breeding season...
March 29, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603298/hawaiian-drosophila-as-an-evolutionary-model-clade-days-of-future-past
#5
REVIEW
Patrick O'Grady, Rob DeSalle
The Hawaiian Drosophila have been a model system for evolutionary, ecological, and ethological studies since the inception of the Hawaiian Drosophila Project in the 1960s. Here we review the past and present research on this incredible lineage and provide a prospectus for future directions on genomics and microbial interactions. While the number of publications on this group has waxed and waned over the years, we assert that recent systematic, biogeographic, and ecological studies have reinvigorated Hawaiian Drosophila as an evolutionary model system...
March 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580891/repeated-social-stress-leads-to-contrasting-patterns-of-structural-plasticity-in-the-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#6
D Patel, S Anilkumar, S Chattarji, B Buwalda
Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated immobilization and restraint stress cause contrasting patterns of dendritic reorganization as well as alterations in spine density in amygdalar and hippocampal neurons. Whether social and ethologically relevant stressors can induce similar patterns of morphological plasticity remains largely unexplored. Hence, we assessed the effects of repeated social defeat stress on neuronal morphology in basolateral amygdala (BLA), hippocampal CA1 and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
March 23, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574845/hunter-gatherer-studies-and-human-evolution-a-very-selective-review
#7
EDITORIAL
Kristen Hawkes, James O'Connell, Nicholas Blurton Jones
The century long publication of this journal overlapped major changes in the sciences it covers. We have been eyewitnesses to vast changes during the final third of the last century and beginning of this one, momentous enough to fundamentally alter our work separately and collectively. One (NBJ) from animal ethology, another from western North American archaeology (JOC), and a third (KH) from cultural anthropology came to longtime collaboration as evolutionary ecologists with shared focus on studying modern hunter-gatherers to guide hypotheses about human evolution...
April 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549031/social-behaviour-of-domestic-dogs-canis-familiaris-in-a-public-off-leash-dog-park
#8
Melissa S Howse, Rita E Anderson, Carolyn J Walsh
This study examines the activity budgets and social behaviours initiated and received by 69 focal dogs in an off-leash dog park for 400 seconds after entry, a time of high activity about which little is known. Using motivationally-neutral labels for social behaviour categories, we describe the frequency of behaviours, and correlations among them. We then examine these relationships in the context of proposed functions for some behaviours in dogs, in terms of information gathering and communication, including visual and tactile signalling...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531024/simple-mechanosense-and-response-of-cilia-motion-reveal-the-intrinsic-habits-of-ciliates
#9
Takuya Ohmura, Yukinori Nishigami, Atsushi Taniguchi, Shigenori Nonaka, Junichi Manabe, Takuji Ishikawa, Masatoshi Ichikawa
An important habit of ciliates, namely, their behavioral preference for walls, is revealed through experiments and hydrodynamic simulations. A simple mechanical response of individual ciliary beating (i.e., the beating is stalled by the cilium contacting a wall) can solely determine the sliding motion of the ciliate along the wall and result in a wall-preferring behavior. Considering ciliate ethology, this mechanosensing system is likely an advantage in the single cell's ability to locate nutrition. In other words, ciliates can skillfully use both the sliding motion to feed on a surface and the traveling motion in bulk water to locate new surfaces according to the single "swimming" mission...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529922/assessing-the-antecedents-and-consequences-of-threat-appraisal-of-an-acute-psychosocial-stressor-the-role-of-optimism-displacement-behavior-and-physiological-responses
#10
Martina Zandara, Carolina Villada, Vanesa Hidalgo, Alicia Salvador
The feeling of stress is increasing in today's societies, particularly in young adults subjected to social evaluative situations in highly competitive academic and work contexts. Threat appraisal is a primary and fundamental reaction when people face a stressful situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dispositional optimism as an antecedent and displacement behavior as a consequence of threat appraisal of a social-evaluative situation of stress. A second objective was to verify the moderating role of physiological responses to stress (heart rate and cortisol reactivity) in the relationship between threat appraisal and displacement behavior...
March 13, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521060/analysis-of-prevalence-of-selected-anamnestic-factors-among-women-with-pelvic-organ-prolapse
#11
Jakub Śliwa, Anna Rosner-Tenerowicz, Anna Kryza-Ottou, Sylvester Ottou, Artur Wiatrowski, Michał Pomorski, Lesław Sozański, Mariusz Zimmer
BACKGROUND: Pelvic organ prolapse is the most frequent medical condition in women in the postmenopausal age. The pathophysiology is multifactorial. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper was to analyze the prevalence of selected anamnestic factors in the population of women treated due to pelvic organ prolapse in the 2nd Department and Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 104 medical histories of women treated in the 2nd Department and Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the years 2012-2013 due to pelvic organ prolapse were analyzed...
February 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501373/multiple-origins-and-strong-phenotypic-convergence-in-fish-cleaning-palaemonid-shrimp-lineages
#12
Ivona Horká, Sammy De Grave, Charles H J M Fransen, Adam Petrusek, Zdeněk Ďuriš
Several species of palaemonid shrimps are known to act as fish-cleaning symbionts, with cleaning interactions ranging from dedicated (obligate) to facultative. We confirmed five evolutionarily independent origins of fish cleaning symbioses within the family Palaemonidae based on a phylogenetic analysis and the ancestral state reconstruction of 68 species, including 13 fish-cleaners from the genera Ancylomenes, Brachycarpus, Palaemon, Periclimenes, and Urocaridella. We focus in particular on two distantly related lineages of fish cleaning shrimps with allopatric distributions, the Indo-West Pacific Ancylomenes and the western Atlantic monophyletic Ancylomenes/Periclimenes group, which exhibit striking similarities in morphology, colouration and complex behaviour...
February 28, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494168/inter-and-intra-mouse-variability-in-odor-preferences-revealed-in-an-olfactory-multiple-choice-test
#13
Sonum Jagetia, Adrianna J Milton, Lucas A Stetzik, Samantha Liu, Kavya Pai, Keiko Arakawa, Nathalie Mandairon, Daniel W Wesson
Animals choose between sensory stimuli, a highly complex behavior which includes detection, discrimination, preference, and memory processes. Rodents are reported to display robust preferences for some odors, for instance, in the context of choosing among possible mates or food items. In contrast to the apparent robustness of responses toward these and other "ethologically relevant" odors, little is known about the robustness of behaviors toward odors which have no overt role in the rodent ecological niche, so-called "nonethologically relevant" odors...
March 1, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486574/the-three-amigos-lurking-behind-type-1-diabetes-hygiene-gut-microbiota-and-viruses
#14
Odin Andreas Johan Jakobsen, Laszlo Szereday
Incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is on the rise and yet, despite decades of research, the exact ethology of the disease still remains a mystery. The autoimmune reaction, which ultimately leads to the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, causing insulin deficiency and T1D, is a result of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Precisely, what are these environmental factors? Current popular opinion implies these pathogens, such as viruses, especially human enteroviruses, are a triggering factor...
February 28, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484541/taking-an-insect-inspired-approach-to-bird-navigation
#15
REVIEW
David J Pritchard, Susan D Healy
Navigation is an essential skill for many animals, and understanding how animal use environmental information, particularly visual information, to navigate has a long history in both ethology and psychology. In birds, the dominant approach for investigating navigation at small-scales comes from comparative psychology, which emphasizes the cognitive representations underpinning spatial memory. The majority of this work is based in the laboratory and it is unclear whether this context itself affects the information that birds learn and use when they search for a location...
February 26, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466382/mating-and-aggregative-behaviors-among-basal-hexapods-in-the-early-cretaceous
#16
Alba Sánchez-García, Enrique Peñalver, Xavier Delclòs, Michael S Engel
Among the many challenges in paleobiology is the inference and reconstruction of behaviors that rarely, if ever, leave a physical trace on the environment that is suitable for fossilization. Of particular significance are those behaviors tied to mating and courtship, individual interactions critical for species integrity and continuance, as well as those for dispersal, permitting the taxon to expand its distribution as well as access new habitats in the face of local or long-term environmental change. In this context, two recently discovered fossils from the Early Cretaceous amber of Spain (ca...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458097/topographical-memory-analyzed-in-mice-using-the-hamlet-test-a-novel-complex-maze
#17
Lucie Crouzier, Damien Gilabert, Mireille Rossel, Françoise Trousse, Tangui Maurice
The Hamlet test is an innovative device providing a complex environment for testing topographic memory in mice. Animals were trained in groups for weeks in a small village with a central agora, streets expanding from it towards five functionalized houses, where they can drink, eat, hide, run, interact with a stranger mouse. Memory was tested by depriving mice from water or food and analyzing their ability to locate the Drink/Eat house. Exploration and memory were analyzed in different strains, gender, and after different training periods and delays...
February 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454644/testing-aggressive-behaviour-in-a-feeding-context-importance-of-ethologically-relevant-stimuli
#18
Daniel González, Péter Szenczi, Oxána Bánszegi, Robyn Hudson
The choice of stimuli used in tests of animal behaviour can have a critical effect on the outcome. Here we report two experiments showing how different foods influence aggressive behaviour in competition tests at weaning among littermates of the domestic cat. Whereas in Experiment 1 canned food elicited almost no overt competition, a piece of raw beef rib elicited clearly aggressive behaviour among littermates. In Experiment 2 the food stimuli were chosen to differ from raw beef rib in various combinations of taste/smell, texture and monopolizability...
February 15, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453997/effects-of-para-methoxyamphetamine-pma-on-agonistic-encounters-between-male-mice
#19
Mercedes Martín-López, Ana T Muela, María Cavas, José Francisco Navarro
Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) is a synthetic drug chemically similar to the recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and often replaces MDMA in tablets that show an "ecstasy" logo. PMA displays a higher toxic potential than MDMA, but the behavioral profile of PMA has been scarcely studied in animal models. Here we evaluated the effects of PMA (2, 4, 8, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.) on agonist encounters between male mice using an ethopharmacological approach, the isolation-induced aggression model...
February 14, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432797/ethological-and-multi-behavioral-analysis-of-learning-and-memory-performance-in-laboratory-rodent-models
#20
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Arakawa, Yoshio Iguchi
Behavioral studies using animal models have widely contributed to advancing our understanding of the neuroregulatory mechanisms of human cognitive states and disorders. A variety of behavioral tests and theoretical models have been developed that provide a standardized toolbox of behavioral test paradigms available to researchers, and thus allow rapid progress in studies of the molecular-genetic bases of behavior relevant to neurocognitive diseases. However, a growing effort to utilize standardized paradigms has overlooked the diverse behavioral characteristics of test rodents expressed in standardized test situations...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience Research
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