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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528143/intergenerational-accumulation-of-impairments-in-maternal-behavior-following-postnatal-social-stress
#1
B C Nephew, L M Carini, S Sallah, C Cotino, R A S Alyamani, F Pittet, S Bradburn, C Murgatroyd
Early adversity such as depressed maternal care can have long-term physiological and behavioral effects on offspring and future generations. Exposure to chronic social stress (CSS), an ethologically model of postpartum depression and anxiety, during lactation impairs maternal care and exerts similar effects on the F1 dam offspring of the stressed F0 dams. These changes associate with increased corticosterone and neuroendocrine alterations. CSS F2 offspring further display decreased social behavior as juveniles and adults and decreased basal levels of corticosterone...
May 13, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507154/information-socialtaxis-and-efficient-collective-behavior-emerging-in-groups-of-information-seeking-agents
#2
Ehud D Karpas, Adi Shklarsh, Elad Schneidman
Individual behavior, in biology, economics, and computer science, is often described in terms of balancing exploration and exploitation. Foraging has been a canonical setting for studying reward seeking and information gathering, from bacteria to humans, mostly focusing on individual behavior. Inspired by the gradient-climbing nature of chemotaxis, the infotaxis algorithm showed that locally maximizing the expected information gain leads to efficient and ethological individual foraging. In nature, as well as in theoretical settings, conspecifics can be a valuable source of information about the environment...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503035/current-trends-in-canine-problem-solving-and-cognition
#3
Ádám Miklósi, Enikő Kubinyi
Dogs have occupied a central place in modern comparative cognition, partly because of their specific past and present relationship with humans. Over the years, we have gained insights about the functioning of the dog's mind, which has helped us to understand how dogs' problem-solving abilities differ from those present in related species such as the wolf. Novel methodologies are also emerging that allow for the study of neural and genetic mechanisms that control mental functions. By providing an overview from an ethological perspective, we call for greater integration of the field and a better understanding of natural dog behavior as a way to generate scientific hypotheses...
October 1, 2016: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458202/toxicity-of-%C3%AE-fe2o3-nanoparticles-to-artemia-salina-cysts-and-three-stages-of-larvae
#4
Chunjie Wang, Huali Jia, Lili Zhu, Hui Zhang, Yunsheng Wang
Artemia salina cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae (instar I, II and III) were exposed to α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (α-Fe2O3-NPs) to evaluate the effects on marine ecosystems. Hatchability, mortality and a number of ethological, morphological and biochemical parameters were selected as end-points to define the toxic responses. Results indicate that the hatchability of capsulated and decapsulated cysts was significantly decreased (p<0.01) following exposure to 600mg/L at 12, 18, 24 and 36h. Both increases of mortality and decreases of swimming speed were shown concentration-dependent manners...
April 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450152/early-deprivation-increases-high-leaning-behavior-a-novel-anxiety-like-behavior-in-the-open-field-test-in-rats
#5
Hiroshi Kuniishi, Satoshi Ichisaka, Miki Yamamoto, Natsuko Ikubo, Sae Matsuda, Eri Futora, Riho Harada, Kohei Ishihara, Yoshio Hata
The open field test is one of the most popular ethological tests to assess anxiety-like behavior in rodents. In the present study, we examined the effect of early deprivation (ED), a model of early life stress, on anxiety-like behavior in rats. In ED animals, we failed to find significant changes in the time spent in the center or thigmotaxis area of the open field, the common indexes of anxiety-like behavior. However, we found a significant increase in high-leaning behavior in which animals lean against the wall standing on their hindlimbs while touching the wall with their forepaws at a high position...
April 24, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444848/biologically-meaningful-scents-a-framework-for-understanding-predator-prey-research-across-disciplines
#6
Michael H Parsons, Raimund Apfelbach, Peter B Banks, Elissa Z Cameron, Chris R Dickman, Anke S K Frank, Menna E Jones, Ian S McGregor, Stuart McLean, Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Elisa E Sparrow, Daniel T Blumstein
Fear of predation is a universal motivator. Because predators hunt using stealth and surprise, there is a widespread ability among prey to assess risk from chemical information - scents - in their environment. Consequently, scents often act as particularly strong modulators of memory and emotions. Recent advances in ecological research and analytical technology are leading to novel ways to use this chemical information to create effective attractants, repellents and anti-anxiolytic compounds for wildlife managers, conservation biologists and health practitioners...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441117/sexual-dimorphism-of-parental-care-from-genes-to-behavior
#7
Noga Zilkha, Niv Scott, Tali Kimchi
Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420788/reconstructing-the-spectrotemporal-modulations-of-real-life-sounds-from-fmri-response-patterns
#8
Roberta Santoro, Michelle Moerel, Federico De Martino, Giancarlo Valente, Kamil Ugurbil, Essa Yacoub, Elia Formisano
Ethological views of brain functioning suggest that sound representations and computations in the auditory neural system are optimized finely to process and discriminate behaviorally relevant acoustic features and sounds (e.g., spectrotemporal modulations in the songs of zebra finches). Here, we show that modeling of neural sound representations in terms of frequency-specific spectrotemporal modulations enables accurate and specific reconstruction of real-life sounds from high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response patterns in the human auditory cortex...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412035/novel-consequences-of-bird-pollination-for-plant-mating
#9
REVIEW
Siegfried L Krauss, Ryan D Phillips, Jeffrey D Karron, Steven D Johnson, David G Roberts, Stephen D Hopper
Pollinator behaviour has profound effects on plant mating. Pollinators are predicted to minimise energetic costs during foraging bouts by moving between nearby flowers. However, a review of plant mating system studies reveals a mismatch between behavioural predictions and pollen-mediated gene dispersal in bird-pollinated plants. Paternal diversity of these plants is twice that of plants pollinated solely by insects. Comparison with the behaviour of other pollinator groups suggests that birds promote pollen dispersal through a combination of high mobility, limited grooming, and intra- and interspecies aggression...
May 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405934/a-brief-review-of-neurotoxicity-induced-by-melamine
#10
REVIEW
Lei An, Wei Sun
In September 2008, in China, tens of thousands of children were hospitalized, several even died, as a result of infant-formula milk adulterated with a synthetic chemical compound, melamine, and in the next few months, this crisis became the focus of attention worldwide. Although there are a number of articles about nephrotoxicity of melamine, the evidence of melamine toxicity on other organs is still scanty. Specially, several recent studies indicated that melamine can perturb the central nervous system (CNS) function and induce cognitive deficits, breaking the previous view that melamine toxicity is limited to the urinary system...
April 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396145/do-you-see-what-i-see-the-difference-between-dog-and-human-visual-perception-may-affect-the-outcome-of-experiments
#11
Péter Pongrácz, Vera Ujvári, Tamás Faragó, Ádám Miklósi, András Péter
The visual sense of dogs is in many aspects different than that of humans. Unfortunately, authors do not explicitly take into consideration dog-human differences in visual perception when designing their experiments. With an image manipulation program we altered stationary images, according to the present knowledge about dog-vision. Besides the effect of dogs' dichromatic vision, the software shows the effect of the lower visual acuity and brightness discrimination, too. Fifty adult humans were tested with pictures showing a female experimenter pointing, gazing or glancing to the left or right side...
April 7, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387376/snake-scales-partial-exposure-and-the-snake-detection-theory-a-human-event-related-potentials-study
#12
Jan W Van Strien, Lynne A Isbell
Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380404/toxicity-evaluation-of-graphene-oxide-on-cysts-and-three-larval-stages-of-artemia-salina
#13
Song Zhu, Fei Luo, Weichao Chen, Bin Zhu, Gaoxue Wang
Using Artemia salina as an experimental model, the potential risks of graphene oxide (GO) to marine ecosystems were investigated. Hatchability of capsulated and decapsulated cysts, mortality of instar I, II and III larvae, and a number of morphological, ethological and physiological parameters were selected as end-points for toxicity assessment. Our results show that GO significantly decreased (p<0.01) the hatchability of capsulated and decapsulated cysts following exposure to 400 and 600mg/L for 36h. There was a concentration-dependent increase in mortality and decrease in swimming speed of larvae, and instar II larvae showed a greater sensitivity compared with instar I and instar III larvae...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362931/outcome-of-finger-extension-after-nerve-transfer-to-repair-c7-t1-brachial-plexus-palsy-in-rats-comparative-study-of-the-supinator-motor-branch-transfer-to-the-posterior-interosseous-nerve-and-the-contralateral-c7-transfer-to-the-lower-trunk
#14
Lei Zhang, Chun-Lin Zhang, Zhen Dong, Yu-Dong Gu
BACKGROUND: Functional recovery following supinator motor branch transfer requires further investigation. OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of finger extension after supinator motor branch transfer or contralateral C7 (cC7) transfer in C7-T1 brachial plexus palsies in rats. METHODS: In this study, 120 adult rats underwent C7-T1 nerve root avulsion and received different nerve transfer repairs: group A, cC7 nerve transfer to the lower trunk; group B, supinator motor branch nerve transfer to the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN); and group C, no repair...
April 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347152/-dieting-pitfalls-psychological-factors
#15
Mária Resch
INTRODUCTION: Eating is one of the fundamental sources of happiness. Slimming diets would deprive you of this very enjoyment without granting something else instead, for example, proper eating behaviours for life or a permanent solution for overweight-related problems. AIM: This paper aims to investigate the psycho-dynamic relationships that might be the reason for the failure of all diets and slimming diets. METHOD: Analysing overweight, obesity and the failure of slimming diets with the help of the cognitive behavioral therapeutic approach...
April 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314964/increased-intake-of-energy-dense-diet-and-negative-energy-balance-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-psychosocial-defeat
#16
Roberto Coccurello, Adele Romano, Giacomo Giacovazzo, Bianca Tempesta, Marco Fiore, Anna Maria Giudetti, Ilaria Marrocco, Fabio Altieri, Anna Moles, Silvana Gaetani
PURPOSE: Chronic exposure to stress may represent a risk factor for developing metabolic and eating disorders, mostly driven by the overconsumption of easily accessible energy-dense palatable food, although the mechanisms involved remain still unclear. In this study, we used an ethologically oriented murine model of chronic stress caused by chronic psychosocial defeat (CPD) to investigate the effects of unrestricted access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) on food intake, body weight, energy homeostasis, and expression of different brain neuropeptides...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284881/susceptibility-or-resilience-prenatal-stress-predisposes-male-rats-to-social-subordination-but-facilitates-adaptation-to-subordinate-status
#17
Karen A Scott, Annette D de Kloet, Michael D Smeltzer, Eric G Krause, Jonathan N Flak, Susan J Melhorn, Michelle T Foster, Kellie L K Tamashiro, Randall R Sakai
Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) affect a significant proportion of the population. Although progress has been made in the development of therapeutics, a large number of individuals do not attain full remission of symptoms and adverse side effects affect treatment compliance for some. In order to develop new therapies, there is a push for new models that better reflect the multiple risk factors that likely contribute to the development of depressive illness. We hypothesized that early life stress would exacerbate the depressive-like phenotype that we have previously observed in socially subordinate (SUB) adult male rats in the visible burrow system (VBS), a semi-natural, ethologically relevant environment in which males in a colony form a dominance hierarchy...
March 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273660/other-persons-on-the-phenomenology-of-interpersonal-experience-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-3
#18
REVIEW
Giovanni Stanghellini, Massimo Ballerini, Milena Mancini
In this paper, we discuss the philosophical and psychopathological background of Domain 3, Other persons, of the Examination of Anomalous World Experiences (EAWE). The EAWE interview aims to describe the manifold phenomena of the schizophrenic lifeworld in all of their concrete and distinctive features, thus complementing a more abstract, symptom-focused approach. Domain 3, Other persons, focuses specifically on subjectively experienced interpersonal disturbances that may be especially common in schizophrenia...
2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236301/a-view-from-the-animal-kingdom
#19
Alexander Weiss
Given their backgrounds in classical ethology and in comparative psychology, animal personality in biology and psychology, respectively, differ in how they measure personality, what questions they see as important, and how they address these questions. Despite these differences, both comparative psychologists and biologists embrace personality traits. By doing so they have solved empirical and conceptual problems in animal behavior. Studies of animal personality have provided answers to questions about the evolution of human personality and have presented conceptual and empirical anomalies for sociocognitive theories...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216320/coordination-of-orofacial-motor-actions-into-exploratory-behavior-by-rat
#20
Anastasia Kurnikova, Jeffrey D Moore, Song-Mao Liao, Martin Deschênes, David Kleinfeld
The delineation of sensorimotor circuits that guide exploration begins with an understanding of the pattern of motor outputs [1]. These motor patterns provide a clue to the form of the underlying circuits [2-4] (but see [5]). We focus on the behaviors that rodents use to explore their peripersonal space through goal-directed positioning of their nose, head, and vibrissae. Rodents sniff in response to novel odors, reward expectation, and as part of social interactions [6-12]. Sniffing serves olfaction [13, 14], while whisking synchronized to sniffing serves vibrissa-based touch [6, 15, 16]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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