keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ethology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813970/modelling-engagement-in-dementia-through-behaviour-contribution-for-socially-interactive-robotics
#1
Giulia Perugia, Marta Diaz Doladeras, Andreu Catala Mallofre, Matthias Rauterberg, Emilia Barakova
In this paper, we present a novel tool to measure engagement in people with dementia playing board games and interacting with a social robot, Pleo. We carried out two studies to reach a comprehensive inventory of behaviours accounting for engagement in dementia. The first one is an exploratory study aimed at modelling engagement in cognitive board games. The second one is a longitudinal study to investigate how people with dementia express engagement in cognitive games and in interactions with social robots...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804452/supervised-and-unsupervised-learning-technology-in-the-study-of-rodent-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Katsiaryna V Gris, Jean-Philippe Coutu, Denis Gris
Quantifying behavior is a challenge for scientists studying neuroscience, ethology, psychology, pathology, etc. Until now, behavior was mostly considered as qualitative descriptions of postures or labor intensive counting of bouts of individual movements. Many prominent behavioral scientists conducted studies describing postures of mice and rats, depicting step by step eating, grooming, courting, and other behaviors. Automated video assessment technologies permit scientists to quantify daily behavioral patterns/routines, social interactions, and postural changes in an unbiased manner...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800678/new-perspectives-on-the-neurophysiology-of-primate-amygdala-emerging-from-the-study-of-naturalistic-social-behaviors
#3
REVIEW
Katalin M Gothard, Clayton P Mosher, Prisca E Zimmerman, Philip T Putnam, Jeremiah K Morrow, Andrew J Fuglevand
A major challenge of primate neurophysiology, particularly in the domain of social neuroscience, is to adopt more natural behaviors without compromising the ability to relate patterns of neural activity to specific actions or sensory inputs. Traditional approaches have identified neural activity patterns in the amygdala in response to simplified versions of social stimuli such as static images of faces. As a departure from this reduced approach, single images of faces were replaced with arrays of images or videos of conspecifics...
August 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791871/toward-an-architecture-of-attachment-disorganization-john-bowlby-s-published-and-unpublished-reflections
#4
Judith Solomon, Robbie Duschinsky, Lianne Bakkum, Carlo Schuengel
This article examines the construct of disorganized attachment originally proposed by Main and Solomon, developing some new conjectures based on inspiration from a largely unknown source: John Bowlby's unpublished texts, housed at the Wellcome Trust Library Archive in London (with permission from the Bowlby family). We explore Bowlby's discussions of disorganized attachment, which he understood from the perspective of ethological theories of conflict behavior. Bowlby's reflections regarding differences among the behaviors used to code disorganized attachment will be used to explore distinctions that may underlie the structure of the current coding system...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771568/laminar-differences-in-response-to-simple-and-spectro-temporally-complex-sounds-in-the-primary-auditory-cortex-of-ketamine-anesthetized-gerbils
#5
Markus K Schaefer, Manfred Kössl, Julio C Hechavarría
In mammals, acoustic communication plays an important role during social behaviors. Despite their ethological relevance, the mechanisms by which the auditory cortex represents different communication call properties remain elusive. Recent studies have pointed out that communication-sound encoding could be based on discharge patterns of neuronal populations. Following this idea, we investigated whether the activity of local neuronal networks, such as those occurring within individual cortical columns, is sufficient for distinguishing between sounds that differed in their spectro-temporal properties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739639/advances-in-neuroscience-imply-that-harmful-experiments-in-dogs-are-unethical
#6
Jarrod Bailey, Shiranee Pereira
Functional MRI (fMRI) of fully awake and unrestrained dog 'volunteers' has been proven an effective tool to understand the neural circuitry and functioning of the canine brain. Although every dog owner would vouch that dogs are perceptive, cognitive, intuitive and capable of positive emotions/empathy, as indeed substantiated by ethological studies for some time, neurological investigations now corroborate this. These studies show that there exists a striking similarity between dogs and humans in the functioning of the caudate nucleus (associated with pleasure and emotion), and dogs experience positive emotions, empathic-like responses and demonstrate human bonding which, some scientists claim, may be at least comparable with human children...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736172/early-integration-of-temperature-and-humidity-stimuli-in-the-drosophila-brain
#7
Dominic D Frank, Anders Enjin, Genevieve C Jouandet, Emanuela E Zaharieva, Alessia Para, Marcus C Stensmyr, Marco Gallio
The Drosophila antenna contains receptor neurons for mechanical, olfactory, thermal, and humidity stimuli. Neurons expressing the ionotropic receptor IR40a have been implicated in the selection of an appropriate humidity range [1, 2], but although previous work indicates that insect hygroreceptors may be made up by a "triad" of neurons (with a dry-, a cold-, and a humid-air-responding cell [3]), IR40a expression included only cold- and dry-air cells. Here, we report the identification of the humid-responding neuron that completes the hygrosensory triad in the Drosophila antenna...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721603/the-disadapted-animal-niko-tinbergen-on-human-nature-and-the-human-predicament
#8
Marga Vicedo
This paper explores ethologist Niko Tinbergen's path from animal to human studies in the 1960s and 1970s and his views about human nature. It argues, first, that the confluence of several factors explains why Tinbergen decided to cross the animal/human divide in the mid 1960s: his concern about what he called "the human predicament," his relations with British child psychiatrist John Bowlby, the success of ethological explanations of human behavior, and his professional and personal situation. It also argues that Tinbergen transferred his general adaptationist view of animal behavior to the realm of human biology; here, his concern about disadaptation led him to a view of human behavior that was strongly determined by the species' evolutionary past, a position that I call evolutionary determinism...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715773/developmental-toxicity-of-fe3o4-nanoparticles-on-cysts-and-three-larval-stages-of-artemia-salina
#9
Song Zhu, Ming-Yang Xue, Fei Luo, Wei-Chao Chen, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Using Artemia salina cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae (instar I, II and III) as experimental models, the potential effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) on marine ecosystems were investigated. Hatchability, mortality and a number of ethological, morphological and biochemical parameters were selected as end-points to define the toxic responses. Data showed that the hatching rates of capsulated and decapsulated cysts were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) following exposure to 600 mg/L for 24 and 36 h...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702756/creating-a-common-terminology-for-play-behavior-to-increase-cross-disciplinary-research
#10
Lance J Miller
Historically, play behavior has been difficult to define. This likely stems from the number of different species, types of play, and context under which it occurs. In 2016, the Chicago Zoological Society - Brookfield Zoo hosted the Psychonomic Society leading edge workshop on the evolutionary and psychological significance of play. Sixteen experts attended from the diverse fields of African ethnology, animal behavior, animal science, animal welfare, cognitive psychology, cognitive zoology, comparative psychology, cultural anthropology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, ethology, neuroscience, primatology, and zoology...
July 12, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697903/implicit-self-other-discrimination-affects-the-interplay-between-multisensory-affordances-of-mental-representations-of-faces
#11
David Zeugin, Norhan Arfa, Michael Notter, Micah M Murray, Silvio Ionta
Face recognition is an apparently straightforward but, in fact, complex ability, encompassing the activation of at least visual and somatosensory representations. Understanding how identity shapes the interplay between these face-related affordances could clarify the mechanisms of self-other discrimination. To this aim, we exploited the so-called "face inversion effect" (FIE), a specific bias in the mental rotation of face images (of other people): with respect to inanimate objects, face images require longer time to be mentally rotated from the upside-down...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686584/assessing-recent-and-remote-associative-olfactory-memory-in-rats-using-the-social-transmission-of-food-preference-paradigm
#12
Benjamin Bessières, Olivier Nicole, Bruno Bontempi
Rats have the ability to learn about potential food sources by sampling their odors on the breath of conspecifics. Although this ethologically based social behavior has been transposed to the laboratory to probe nonspatial associative olfactory memory, only a few studies have taken full advantage of its unique features to examine the organization of recently and remotely acquired information. We provide a set of standardized procedures and technical refinements that are particularly useful in achieving this goal while minimizing confounding factors...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681021/use-of-cost-effective-and-rapid-molecular-tools-for-identification-of-candida-species-opportunistic-pathogens
#13
E Rezazadeh, M Moazeni, A Sabokbar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Candidiasis is a widespread fungal infection caused by different Candida species. Rapid identification of Candida species in clinical laboratory is becoming increasingly important since the identification and discrimination of ethological agents for early treatment. We aimed at molecular identification of commonly Candida species isolated from clinical samples by using both PCR-RFLP assay and amplification of hwp1 gene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical samples comprising of vaginal specimens ,cutaneous, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL,( and blood cultures were recovered from suspected patients...
September 2016: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680403/scopolamine-induces-deficits-in-spontaneous-object-location-recognition-and-fear-learning-in-marmoset-monkeys
#14
Jonathan L Melamed, Fernando M de Jesus, Rafael S Maior, Marilia Barros
The non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCP) induces memory deficits in both animals and humans. However, few studies have assessed the effects of amnesic agents on memory functions of marmosets - a small-bodied neotropical primate that is becoming increasingly used as a translational model for several neuropathologies. Here we assessed the effects of an acute SCP administration (0.03 mg/kg, sc) on the behavior of adult marmoset monkeys in two tasks. In the spontaneous object-location (SOL) recognition task, two identical neutral stimuli were explored on the sample trial, after which preferential exploration of the displaced versus the stationary object was analyzed on the test trial...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674176/effects-of-chronic-social-defeat-stress-on-sleep-and-circadian-rhythms-are-mitigated-by-kappa-opioid-receptor-antagonism
#15
Audrey M Wells, Elysia Ridener, Clinton A Bourbonais, Woori Kim, Harry Pantazopoulos, F Ivy Carroll, Kwang-Soo Kim, Bruce M Cohen, William A Carlezon
Stress plays a critical role in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Sleep and circadian rhythms are affected in many of these conditions. Here we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), an ethological form of stress, on sleep and circadian rhythms. We exposed male mice implanted with wireless telemetry transmitters to a 10-day CSDS regimen known to produce anhedonia (a depressive-like effect) and social avoidance (an anxiety-like effect). Electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), body temperature, and locomotor activity data were collected continuously during the CSDS regimen and a 5-day recovery period...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664707/locomotor-activity-of-adult-dermacentor-reticulatus-ticks-ixodida-ixodidae-in-natural-conditions
#16
Alicja Buczek, Zbigniew Zając, Aneta Woźniak, Dorota Kulina, Katarzyna Bartosik
[b] Abstract Introduction and objective[/b]. Expansion into new areas and the great epidemiological significance of the D. reticulatus tick in Europe prompts investigations of its ethology. Therefore, the locomotor activity of D. reticulatus adult stages in an optimal habitat during the spring and autumn activity periods was analysed. [b]Materials and method[/b]. Marked D. reticulatus adults were placed at the central point of each experimental plot. At regular time intervals, specimens attached to the cloth used in the flagging method were collected, and the distance covered by the ticks was measured...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649213/ethorobotics-a-new-approach-to-human-robot-relationship
#17
REVIEW
Ádám Miklósi, Péter Korondi, Vicente Matellán, Márta Gácsi
Here we aim to lay the theoretical foundations of human-robot relationship drawing upon insights from disciplines that govern relevant human behaviors: ecology and ethology. We show how the paradox of the so called "uncanny valley hypothesis" can be solved by applying the "niche" concept to social robots, and relying on the natural behavior of humans. Instead of striving to build human-like social robots, engineers should construct robots that are able to maximize their performance in their niche (being optimal for some specific functions), and if they are endowed with appropriate form of social competence then humans will eventually interact with them independent of their embodiment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638991/integrating-tinbergen-s-inquiries-mimicry-and-play-in-humans-and-other-social-mammals
#18
Elisabetta Palagi, Chiara Scopa
Visual signals convey emotions and intentions between individuals. Darwin underlined that human facial expressions represent a shared heritage between our species and many other social mammals. Social play is a fertile field to examine the role and the potential communicative function of facial expressions. The relaxed open-mouth (or play face) is a context-specific playful expression, which is widespread in human and non-human mammals. Here, we focus on playful communication by applying Tinbergen's four areas of inquiry: proximate causation, ontogeny, function, and evolution...
June 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637956/cd36-involvement-in-the-olfactory-perception-of-oleic-aldehyde-an-odour-active-volatile-compound-in-mice
#19
Shinhye Lee, Satoshi Tsuzuki, Takahiko Amitsuka, Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita, Kazuo Inoue
Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a broadly expressed transmembrane receptor that has multiple ligands. It has been found to occur abundantly on the surface of the olfactory epithelium in mice and postulated to play a role in mammalian olfaction. However, there have been no ethological analyses of the mammalian behaviour showing CD36 involvement in the olfactory perception of a distinct odour-active volatile compound. In this study, we aimed to assess whether mammals perceive oleic aldehyde, an odour-active volatile that serves as a potential CD36 ligand, and if so, whether CD36 is involved in the sensing by following measurements using CD36-knockout mice and their wild-type littermates...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622973/maternal-programming-of-sex-specific-responses-to-predator-odor-stress-in-adult-rats
#20
Sophie St-Cyr, Sameera Abuaish, Shathveekan Sivanathan, Patrick O McGowan
Prenatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term adaptations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. This study tested the long-lasting effect of prenatal exposure to predator odor, an ethologically relevant and psychogenic stressor, in the second half of pregnancy. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anxiety-like behaviors in commonly used laboratory tasks assessing novelty-induced anxiety, increased defensive behavior in males and increased ACTH stress reactivity in females in response to predator odor...
June 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
keyword
keyword
14586
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"