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Ethology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453997/effects-of-para-methoxyamphetamine-pma-on-agonistic-encounters-between-male-mice
#1
Mercedes Martín-López, Ana T Muela, María Cavas, José Francisco Navarro
Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) is a synthetic drug chemically similar to the recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and often replaces MDMA in tablets that show an "ecstasy" logo. PMA displays a higher toxic potential than MDMA, but the behavioral profile of PMA has been scarcely studied in animal models. Here we evaluated the effects of PMA (2, 4, 8, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.) on agonist encounters between male mice using an ethopharmacological approach, the isolation-induced aggression model...
February 14, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432797/ethological-and-multi-behavioral-analysis-of-learning-and-memory-performance-in-laboratory-rodent-models
#2
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Arakawa, Yoshio Iguchi
Behavioral studies using animal models have widely contributed to advancing our understanding of the neuroregulatory mechanisms of human cognitive states and disorders. A variety of behavioral tests and theoretical models have been developed that provide a standardized toolbox of behavioral test paradigms available to researchers, and thus allow rapid progress in studies of the molecular-genetic bases of behavior relevant to neurocognitive diseases. However, a growing effort to utilize standardized paradigms has overlooked the diverse behavioral characteristics of test rodents expressed in standardized test situations...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425919/the-visible-burrow-system-a-behavioral-paradigm-to-assess-sociability-and-social-withdrawal-in-btbr-and-c57bl-6j-mice-strains
#3
Maria Bove, Kevin Ike, Adriaan Eldering, Bauke Buwalda, Sietse F de Boer, Maria Grazia Morgese, Stefania Schiavone, Vincenzo Cuomo, Luigia Trabace, Martien J H Kas
Disrupted sociability and consequent social withdrawal are (early) symptoms of a wide variety of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, depressive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The paucity of objective measures to translationally assess social withdrawal characteristics has been an important limitation to study this behavioral phenotype, both in human and rodents. The aim of the present study was to investigate sociability and social withdrawal in rodents using an ethologically valid behavioral paradigm, the Visible Burrow System (VBS)...
February 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421591/voluntary-exercise-increases-resilience-to-social-defeat-stress-in-syrian-hamsters
#4
Rody C Kingston, Michael Smith, Tiara Lacey, Malcolm Edwards, Janae N Best, Chris M Markham
Exposure to social stressors can cause profound changes in an individual's well-being and can be an underlying factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In Syrian hamsters, a single social defeat experience results in behavioral changes collectively known as conditioned defeat (CD), and includes an abolishment of territorial aggression and the emergence of high levels of defensive behaviors. In contrast, voluntary exercise has been shown to promote stress resilience and can also have anxiolytic-like effects...
February 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417236/working-across-species-down-on-the-farm-howard-s-liddell-and-the-development-of-comparative-psychopathology-c-1923-1962
#5
Robert G W Kirk, Edmund Ramsden
Seeking a scientific basis for understanding and treating mental illness, and inspired by the work of Ivan Pavlov, American physiologists, psychiatrists and psychologists in the 1920s turned to nonhuman animals. This paper examines how new constructs such as "experimental neurosis" emerged as tools to enable psychiatric comparison across species. From 1923 to 1962, the Cornell "Behavior Farm" was a leading interdisciplinary research center pioneering novel techniques to experimentally study nonhuman psychopathology...
February 7, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412155/development-of-novel-tasks-for-studying-view-invariant-object-recognition-in-rodents-sensitivity-to-scopolamine
#6
Krista A Mitchnick, Cassidy E Wideman, Andrew E Huff, Daniel Palmer, Bruce L McNaughton, Boyer D Winters
The capacity to recognize objects from different view-points or angles, referred to as view-invariance, is an essential process that humans engage in daily. Currently, the ability to investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of this phenomenon is limited, as few ethologically valid view-invariant object recognition tasks exist for rodents. Here, we report two complementary, novel view-invariant object recognition tasks in which rodents physically interact with three-dimensional objects. Prior to experimentation, rats and mice were given extensive experience with a set of 'pre-exposure' objects...
February 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402274/entomological-impact-of-indoor-residual-spraying-with-pirimiphos-methyl-a-pilot-study-in-an-area-of-low-malaria-transmission-in-senegal
#7
Ousmane Sy, El Hadji Amadou Niang, Magatte Ndiaye, Lassana Konaté, Abdoulaye Diallo, Elhadji Conco Ciré Ba, Fassiath Tairou, Elhadji Diouf, Badara Cissé, Oumar Gaye, Ousmane Faye
BACKGROUND: Scaling-up of effective anti-malarial control strategies in Central-West region of Senegal has resulted in the sharp decline in malaria prevalence in this area. However, despite these strategies, residual malaria transmission has been observed in some villages (hot spots). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pirimiphos-methyl on malaria transmission in hot spot areas. METHODS: The malaria vector population dynamics were monitored in each of the six selected villages (4 of which used IRS, 2 were unsprayed control areas) using overnight human landing catches (HLC) and pyrethrum spray catches (PSC)...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393676/male-to-female-aggression-in-cage-housed-common-pheasants-phasianus-colchicus-during-the-breeding-season-was-not-related-to-male-plasma-testosterone-level
#8
D Zapletal, M Macháček, P Suchý, E Straková, F Vitula
1. The aim of this study was to investigate if male-to-female aggression of common pheasants in the course of the breeding season was related to the concentration of plasma testosterone and/or of other biochemical plasma indicators of male pheasants housed in breeding cages. The influence of season on the concentration of testosterone and biochemical indicators was also investigated. 2. Males were divided into a non-aggressive and an aggressive group during the breeding season based on ethological evaluation...
February 2, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358739/mice-use-robust-and-common-strategies-to-discriminate-natural-scenes
#9
Yiyi Yu, Riichiro Hira, Jeffrey N Stirman, Waylin Yu, Ikuko T Smith, Spencer L Smith
Mice use vision to navigate and avoid predators in natural environments. However, their visual systems are compact compared to other mammals, and it is unclear how well mice can discriminate ethologically relevant scenes. Here, we examined natural scene discrimination in mice using an automated touch-screen system. We estimated the discrimination difficulty using the computational metric structural similarity (SSIM), and constructed psychometric curves. However, the performance of each mouse was better predicted by the mean performance of other mice than SSIM...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337904/maternal-exposure-to-pm2-5-during-pregnancy-induces-impaired-development-of-cerebral-cortex-in-mice-offspring
#10
Tianliang Zhang, Xinrui Zheng, Xia Wang, Hui Zhao, Tingting Wang, Hongxia Zhang, Wanwei Li, Hua Shen, Li Yu
Air pollution is a serious environmental health problem closely related to the occurrence of central nervous system diseases. Exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) during pregnancy may affect the growth and development of infants. The present study was to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy on brain development in mice offspring. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into experimental groups of low-, medium-, or high-dosages of PM2...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324369/early-life-social-stress-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-postpartum-rat-anterior-cingulate-circuits
#11
Benjamin C Nephew, Marcelo Febo, Wei Huang, Luis M Colon-Perez, Laurellee Payne, Guillaume L Poirier, Owen Greene, Jean A King
INTRODUCTION: Continued development and refinement of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) fMRI techniques in both animal and clinical studies has enhanced our comprehension of the adverse effects of stress on psychiatric health. The objective of the current study was to assess both maternal behavior and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) changes in these animals when they were dams caring for their own young. It was hypothesized that ECSS exposed dams would express depressed maternal care and exhibit similar (same networks), yet different specific changes in RSFC (different individual nuclei) than reported when they were adult females...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307558/structure-of-the-zebrafish-locomotor-repertoire-revealed-with-unsupervised-behavioral-clustering
#12
João C Marques, Simone Lackner, Rita Félix, Michael B Orger
An important concept in ethology is that complex behaviors can be constructed from a set of basic motor patterns. Identifying the set of patterns available to an animal is key to making quantitative descriptions of behavior that reflect the underlying motor system organization. We addressed these questions in zebrafish larvae, which swim in bouts that are naturally segmented in time. We developed a robust and general purpose clustering method (clusterdv) to ensure accurate identification of movement clusters and applied it to a dataset consisting of millions of swim bouts, captured at high temporal resolution from a comprehensive set of behavioral contexts...
January 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307064/crayfish-can-distinguish-between-natural-and-chemical-stimuli-as-assessed-by-cardiac-and-locomotor-reactions
#13
Iryna Kuklina, Filip Ložek, Petr Císař, Antonín Kouba, Pavel Kozák
In this study, cardiac and locomotor activities of signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus were investigated under exposure to a range of natural (i.e., odors of conspecific crayfish, predatory fish, food, and injured conspecific) and one chemical (i.e., disinfectant chloramine-T) stimuli. Crayfish locomotion was simultaneously initiated with an increase in heart rate only when affected by chloramine-T, while locomotor response was delayed in all cases (or was not manifested at all by some specimens) when disturbed by the natural stressors...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305159/the-test-retest-model-of-anxiety-an-appraisal-of-findings-to-explain-benzodiazepine-tolerance
#14
REVIEW
Michel Bourin
A test retest protocol in animal model of anxiety induces an increase of anxious behavior and a loss of benzodiazepine-induced effect. This effect, known as the "one trial tolerance", is mainly observed in the elevated plus maze, an ethological model of anxiety in mice, but also in the four plate test, a model based on punishment. A review of some hypotheses based on behavioral, pharmacological and neurochemical approaches are proposed here to explain this benzodiazepines tolerance phenomenon.
January 2, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304165/genetic-diversity-genetic-structure-and-diet-of-ancient-and-contemporary-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-l-from-north-eastern-france
#15
Annik Schnitzler, José Granado, Olivier Putelat, Rose-Marie Arbogast, Dorothée Drucker, Anna Eberhard, Anja Schmutz, Yuri Klaefiger, Gérard Lang, Walter Salzburger, Joerg Schibler, Angela Schlumbaum, Hervé Bocherens
In north-eastern France, red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) populations were rebuilt from a few hundred individuals, which have subsisted in remote valleys of the Vosges mountains, and to a lesser extent from individuals escaped from private enclosures; at present times, this species occupies large areas, mainly in the Vosges Mountains. In this study, we examined the population dynamics of red deer in the Vosges Mountains using ancient and contemporary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 140 samples (23 ancient + 117 modern) spanning the last 7'000 years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287909/ethological-approach-to-social-isolation-effects-in-behavioral-studies-of-laboratory-rodents
#16
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Arakawa
The aim of the present review is to discuss how housing conditions affect behavioral performance in laboratory rodents from an ethological view. Commonly used laboratory rodents such as rats and mice, are originally captured animals that largely retain species-typical natural behaviors, while have fully adapted to a laboratory setting after long-term domestication. Laboratory settings including caging and artificial group housing are a considerable ethological factor influencing rodents' behaviors in commonly employed behavioral test paradigms, including emotional and defensive behaviors, learning and memory, and attention-related behaviors...
December 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273550/fighting-cichlids-dynamic-of-intrasexual-aggression-in-dyadic-agonistic-encounters
#17
María Florencia Scaia, Leonel Morandini, Cristobal Alejandro Noguera, Martín Roberto Ramallo, Gustavo Manuel Somoza, Matías Pandolfi
Aggression is an extremely complex behaviour and female aggression is understudied when compared to males. Despite the fact that it has been suggested that conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully, in many species females show high levels of aggression. We used Cichlasoma dimerus to describe dynamics and conflict outcome in intrasexual agonistic encounters. We performed encounters of two sex-matched animals in a neutral arena and we recorded agonistic interactions during one hour. All aggressive and submissive behaviours were described and quantified to perform the ethogram...
December 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234278/effects-of-social-defeat-stress-on-sleep-in-mice
#18
Fiona Henderson, Vincent Vialou, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Fabre
Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224023/negative-symptoms-and-avoidance-of-social-interaction-a-study-of-non-verbal-behaviour
#19
Elizabeth Worswick, Sara Dimic, Christiane Wildgrube, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped...
December 9, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212749/treating-hummingbirds-as-feathered-bees-a-case-of-ethological-cross-pollination
#20
REVIEW
D J Pritchard, M C Tello Ramos, F Muth, S D Healy
Hummingbirds feed from hundreds of flowers every day. The properties of these flowers provide these birds with a wealth of information about colour, space and time to guide how they forage. To understand how hummingbirds might use this information, researchers have adapted established laboratory paradigms for use in the field. In recent years, however, experimental inspiration has come less from other birds, and more from looking at other nectar-feeders, particularly honeybees and bumblebees, which have been models for foraging behaviour and cognition for over a century...
December 2017: Biology Letters
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