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Ethology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234278/effects-of-social-defeat-stress-on-sleep-in-mice
#1
Fiona Henderson, Vincent Vialou, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Fabre
Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224023/negative-symptoms-and-avoidance-of-social-interaction-a-study-of-non-verbal-behaviour
#2
Elizabeth Worswick, Sara Dimic, Christiane Wildgrube, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped...
December 9, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212749/treating-hummingbirds-as-feathered-bees-a-case-of-ethological-cross-pollination
#3
REVIEW
D J Pritchard, M C Tello Ramos, F Muth, S D Healy
Hummingbirds feed from hundreds of flowers every day. The properties of these flowers provide these birds with a wealth of information about colour, space and time to guide how they forage. To understand how hummingbirds might use this information, researchers have adapted established laboratory paradigms for use in the field. In recent years, however, experimental inspiration has come less from other birds, and more from looking at other nectar-feeders, particularly honeybees and bumblebees, which have been models for foraging behaviour and cognition for over a century...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206864/high-visual-acuity-revealed-in-dogs
#4
Olle Lind, Ida Milton, Elin Andersson, Per Jensen, Lina S V Roth
Humans have selectively bred and used dogs over a period of thousands of years, and more recently the dog has become an important model animal for studies in ethology, cognition and genetics. These broad interests warrant careful descriptions of the senses of dogs. Still there is little known about dog vision, especially what dogs can discriminate in different light conditions. We trained and tested whippets, pugs, and a Shetland sheepdog in a two-choice discrimination set-up and show that dogs can discriminate patterns with spatial frequencies between 5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198754/divergent-connectivity-of-homologous-command-like-neurons-mediates-segment-specific-touch-responses-in-drosophila
#5
Suguru Takagi, Benjamin Thomas Cocanougher, Sawako Niki, Dohjin Miyamoto, Hiroshi Kohsaka, Hokto Kazama, Richard Doty Fetter, James William Truman, Marta Zlatic, Albert Cardona, Akinao Nose
Animals adaptively respond to a tactile stimulus by choosing an ethologically relevant behavior depending on the location of the stimuli. Here, we investigate how somatosensory inputs on different body segments are linked to distinct motor outputs in Drosophila larvae. Larvae escape by backward locomotion when touched on the head, while they crawl forward when touched on the tail. We identify a class of segmentally repeated second-order somatosensory interneurons, that we named Wave, whose activation in anterior and posterior segments elicit backward and forward locomotion, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185525/primate-archaeology-evolves
#6
REVIEW
Michael Haslam, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Tomos Proffitt, Adrian Arroyo, Tiago Falótico, Dorothy Fragaszy, Michael Gumert, John W K Harris, Michael A Huffman, Ammie K Kalan, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, William McGrew, Eduardo B Ottoni, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido, Alex Piel, Jill Pruetz, Caroline Schuppli, Fiona Stewart, Amanda Tan, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Lydia V Luncz
Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour...
October 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183827/complex-environmental-rearing-enhances-social-salience-and-affects-hippocampal-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-crhr-1-crhr2-expression-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#7
Amanda C Kentner, Erika Lima, Mattia M Migliore, Junyoung Shin, Stephanie Scalia
Methods for understanding the neurocircuitry of ethologically relevant behaviors have advanced substantially; however renovations to standard animal laboratory housing, in the form of enhanced enrichment, have lagged behind. This is despite evidence that environmental enrichment (EE) reduces stress, stereotypy, and promotes healthy species typical behaviors. While many scientists express interest for increased EE as a standard for animal caging systems, there are concerns that its effects on brain, behavior, and cognition are not well characterized...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179005/decision-making-behaviors-weighing-ethology-complexity-and-sensorimotor-compatibility
#8
REVIEW
Ashley L Juavinett, Jeffrey C Erlich, Anne K Churchland
Rodent decision-making research aims to uncover the neural circuitry underlying the ability to evaluate alternatives and select appropriate actions. Designing behavioral paradigms that provide a solid foundation to ask questions about decision-making computations and mechanisms is a difficult and often underestimated challenge. Here, we propose three dimensions on which we can consider rodent decision-making tasks: ethological validity, task complexity, and stimulus-response compatibility. We review recent research through this lens, and provide practical guidance for researchers in the decision-making field...
November 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164064/quantitative-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomic-profiling-for-precision-medicine-in-prostate-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Amilcar Flores-Morales, Diego Iglesias-Gato
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men in the western societies. Many PCa patients bear tumors that will not threat their lives if left untreated or if treatment is delayed. Our inability for early identification of these patients has resulted in massive overtreatment. Therefore, there is a great need of finding biomarkers for patient stratification according to prognostic risk; as well as there is a need for novel targets that can allow the development of effective treatments for patients that progress to castration-resistant PCa...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158029/beyond-blanket-terms-challenges-for-the-explanatory-value-of-variational-neuro-ethology-comment-on-answering-schr%C3%A3-dinger-s-question-a-free-energy-formulation-by-maxwell-james-d%C3%A3-sormeau-ramstead-et-al
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154800/the-use-of-model-fish-as-tools-for-research-the-biological-mechanisms-of-cooperative-behaviour-a-future-for-translational-research-concerning-social-anxiety-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Marta C Soares, Sónia C Cardoso, Tamires Dos Santos Carvalho, Caio Maximino
Human societies demand of its composing members the development of a wide array of social tools and strategies. A notable example is human outstanding ability to cooperate with others, in all its complex forms, depicting the reality of a highly demanding social framework in which humans need to be integrated as to attain physical and mental benefits. Considering the importance of social engagement, it's not entirely unexpected that most psychiatric disorders involve some disruption of normal social behaviour, ranging from an abnormal absence to a significant increase of social functioning...
November 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136133/representations-of-fine-digit-movements-in-posterior-and-anterior-parietal-cortex-revealed-using-long-train-intracortical-microstimulation-in-macaque-monkeys
#12
Mary K L Baldwin, Dylan F Cooke, Adam B Goldring, Leah Krubitzer
The current investigation in macaque monkeys utilized long-train intracortical microstimulation to determine the extent of cortex from which movements could be evoked. Not only were movements evoked from motor areas (PMC and M1), but they were also evoked from posterior parietal (5, 7a, 7b) and anterior parietal areas (3b, 1, 2). Large representations of digit movements involving only the index finger (D2) and thumb (D1), were elicited from areas 1, 2, 7b, and M1. Other movements evoked from these regions were similar to ethologically relevant movements that have been described in other primates...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131058/nonfunctional-redundant-acts-characterize-ocd-even-in-ocd-unrelated-tasks-a-demonstration-in-questionnaire-completion
#13
Maya Amitai, Nitzan Arnon, Noa Shaham, Shay Gur, Alan Apter, Abraham Weizman, Haggai Hermesh
BACKGROUND: Ethological methods used to analyze human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals demonstrated excess of unnecessary repetitions as well as irrelevant, idiosyncratic acts (additions) compared to normal activity. A question that still remains is whether these well-known repetitions and additions are manifested in behaviors unrelated to the OCD rituals. Our objectives were to: (1) assess whether OCD-related repetitions and additions as found in previous studies also affect the patients' activity of filling out questionnaires and (2) evaluate the specificity of these behaviors to OCD as opposed to other anxiety disorders and healthy controls...
November 3, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113810/the-search-image-as-link-between-sensation-perception-and-action
#14
Morten Tønnessen
In this paper, it is argued that Jakob von Uexküll's "search image" notion, the original version of this notion within ethology, is still of use. A search image, in Uexküll's sense, is an imagined object that an organism has in mind when it searches for something. Uexküll's conception of the search image is useful both for understanding the theoretical context of contemporary notions of search images, and with an eye to envisioning possible future developments of the idea. Uexküll's classical notion differs from contemporary versions in that it has a wider application, and is therefore of greater relevance to theoretical biology and cognitive science...
November 4, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113794/a-new-rat-compatible-robotic-framework-for-spatial-navigation-behavioral-experiments
#15
Sam Gianelli, Bruce Harland, Jean-Marc Fellous
BACKGROUND: Understanding the neural substrate of information encoding and processing requires a precise control of the animal's behavior. Most of what has been learned from the rodent navigational system results from relatively simple tasks in which the movements of the animal is controlled by corridors or walkways, passive movements, treadmills or virtual reality environments. While a lot has been and continues to be learned from these types of experiments, recent evidence has shown that such artificial constraints may have significant consequences on the functioning of the neural circuits of spatial navigation...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080684/chronic-social-stress-ameliorates-psoriasiform-dermatitis-through-upregulation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#16
Oscar Vegas, Brian Poligone, Paul Blackcloud, Elaine S Gilmore, JoAnne VanBuskirk, Christopher T Ritchlin, Alice P Pentland, Scott A Walter, Yasmine Nousari, Francisco Tausk
Acute stress is a physiological response of an organism to adverse conditions, contributing to survival; however, persistence through time may lead to disease. Indeed, exacerbation of inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis has been reported to follow stressors in susceptible patients. Because chronic stress cannot ethically be elicited in patients under controlled laboratory conditions, we studied genetically modified mice that naturally develop psoriasiform dermatitis, and subjected them to an ethological chronic social contact stress paradigm...
October 25, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071961/-effect-of-electroacupuncture-at-yintang-gv-29-and-tianshu-st-25-on-the-ethology-and-the-expression-of-trpv-1-receptor-in-colon-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rats
#17
Li-Hua Tan, Kai-Ge Li, Yan-Ying Wu, Ying Lan, Meng-Wei Guo, Wen-Lian Zhu, Lu-Fen Zhang, Ya-Fang Zhao, Xiao-Hong Li, Xiao-Xuan Ren
OBJECTIVE: To observe the ethology and expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1(TRPV 1) in colon of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rats treated by electroacupuncture (EA) at "Yintang" (GV 29) and "Tianshu" (ST 25), so as to explore the different effectiveness of different acupoints and its related mechanism underlying improvement of the symptoms of somatopsychic illness. METHODS: Thirty-two neonatal Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, Yintang (GV 29) group, and Tianshu (ST 25) group (n=8 in each group)...
April 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056526/relational-concept-learning-in-domestic-dogs-performance-on-a-two-choice-size-discrimination-task-generalises-to-novel-stimuli
#18
Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere, Lynna C Feng, Philippe A Chouinard, Tiffani J Howell, Pauleen C Bennett
One central issue in the study of animal cognition concerns conceptual behaviour, where an organism categorises objects, events, and relationships so as to transfer previously learned rules to novel contexts. In this study, we investigated whether or not dogs demonstrate conceptual behaviour in the form of simple relational class concept learning. A two-choice visual discrimination task was used to assess if dogs are capable of simple relational class concept learning by generalising the same rule (i.e. circle is larger or smaller than) to various novel shapes...
October 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052939/qtl-mapping-and-analysis-of-heritable-variation-in-affiliative-social-behavior-and-related-traits
#19
Allison T Knoll, Kevin Jiang, Pat Levitt
Humans exhibit broad heterogeneity in affiliative social behavior. Twin and family studies demonstrate that individual differences in core dimensions of social behavior are heritable, yet there are knowledge gaps in understanding the underlying genetic and neurobiological mechanisms. Animal genetic reference panels (GRPs) provide a tractable strategy for examining the behavioral and genetic architecture of complex traits. Here, using males from 50 mouse strains from the BXD GRP, four domains of affiliative social behavior-social approach, social recognition, direct social interaction (partner sniffing), and vocal communication-were examined in two widely used behavioral tasks-the 3-chamber and direct social interaction tasks...
October 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044126/understanding-pup-affective-state-through-ethologically-significant-ultrasonic-vocalization-frequency
#20
Julie Boulanger-Bertolus, Millie Rincón-Cortés, Regina M Sullivan, Anne-Marie Mouly
Throughout life, rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) when confronted with an aversive situation. However, the conditions classically used to elicit USV vary greatly with the animal's age (isolation from the dam in infancy, versus nociceptive stimulation in adults). The present study is the first to characterize USV responses to the same aversive event throughout development. Specifically, infant, juvenile and adult rats were presented with mild foot-shocks and their USV frequency, duration, and relationship with respiration and behavior were compared...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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