keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ethology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314964/increased-intake-of-energy-dense-diet-and-negative-energy-balance-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-psychosocial-defeat
#1
Roberto Coccurello, Adele Romano, Giacomo Giacovazzo, Bianca Tempesta, Marco Fiore, Anna Maria Giudetti, Ilaria Marrocco, Fabio Altieri, Anna Moles, Silvana Gaetani
PURPOSE: Chronic exposure to stress may represent a risk factor for developing metabolic and eating disorders, mostly driven by the overconsumption of easily accessible energy-dense palatable food, although the mechanisms involved remain still unclear. In this study, we used an ethologically oriented murine model of chronic stress caused by chronic psychosocial defeat (CPD) to investigate the effects of unrestricted access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) on food intake, body weight, energy homeostasis, and expression of different brain neuropeptides...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284881/susceptibility-or-resilience-prenatal-stress-predisposes-male-rats-to-social-subordination-but-facilitates-adaptation-to-subordinate-status
#2
Karen A Scott, Annette D de Kloet, Michael D Smeltzer, Eric G Krause, Jonathan N Flak, Susan J Melhorn, Michelle T Foster, Kellie L K Tamashiro, Randall R Sakai
Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) affect a significant proportion of the population. Although progress has been made in the development of therapeutics, a large number of individuals do not attain full remission of symptoms and adverse side effects affect treatment compliance for some. In order to develop new therapies, there is a push for new models that better reflect the multiple risk factors that likely contribute to the development of depressive illness. We hypothesized that early life stress would exacerbate the depressive-like phenotype that we have previously observed in socially subordinate (SUB), adult male rats in the visible burrow system (VBS), a semi-natural, ethologically relevant environment in which males in a colony form a dominance hierarchy...
March 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273660/other-persons-on-the-phenomenology-of-interpersonal-experience-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-3
#3
Giovanni Stanghellini, Massimo Ballerini, Milena Mancini
In this paper, we discuss the philosophical and psychopathological background of Domain 3, Other persons, of the Examination of Anomalous World Experiences (EAWE). The EAWE interview aims to describe the manifold phenomena of the schizophrenic lifeworld in all of their concrete and distinctive features, thus complementing a more abstract, symptom-focused approach. Domain 3, Other persons, focuses specifically on subjectively experienced interpersonal disturbances that may be especially common in schizophrenia...
March 9, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236301/a-view-from-the-animal-kingdom
#4
Alexander Weiss
Given their backgrounds in classical ethology and in comparative psychology, animal personality in biology and psychology, respectively, differ in how they measure personality, what questions they see as important, and how they address these questions. Despite these differences, both comparative psychologists and biologists embrace personality traits. By doing so they have solved empirical and conceptual problems in animal behavior. Studies of animal personality have provided answers to questions about the evolution of human personality and have presented conceptual and empirical anomalies for sociocognitive theories...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216320/coordination-of-orofacial-motor-actions-into-exploratory-behavior-by-rat
#5
Anastasia Kurnikova, Jeffrey D Moore, Song-Mao Liao, Martin Deschênes, David Kleinfeld
The delineation of sensorimotor circuits that guide exploration begins with an understanding of the pattern of motor outputs [1]. These motor patterns provide a clue to the form of the underlying circuits [2-4] (but see [5]). We focus on the behaviors that rodents use to explore their peripersonal space through goal-directed positioning of their nose, head, and vibrissae. Rodents sniff in response to novel odors, reward expectation, and as part of social interactions [6-12]. Sniffing serves olfaction [13, 14], while whisking synchronized to sniffing serves vibrissa-based touch [6, 15, 16]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177062/critical-neuropsychobiological-analysis-of-panic-attack-and-anticipatory-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-rodents-confronted-with-snakes-in-polygonal-arenas-and-complex-labyrinths-a-comparison-to-the-elevated-plus-and-t-maze-behavioral-tests
#6
Norberto C Coimbra, Tatiana Paschoalin-Maurin, Gabriel S Bassi, Alexandre Kanashiro, Audrey F Biagioni, Tatiana T Felippotti, Daoud H Elias-Filho, Joyce Mendes-Gomes, Jade P Cysne-Coimbra, Rafael C Almada, Bruno Lobão-Soares
Objective: To compare prey and snake paradigms performed in complex environments to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and T-maze (ETM) tests for the study of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. Methods: PubMed was reviewed in search of articles focusing on the plus maze test, EPM, and ETM, as well as on defensive behaviors displayed by threatened rodents. In addition, the authors' research with polygonal arenas and complex labyrinth (designed by the first author for confrontation between snakes and small rodents) was examined...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145404/ethological-principles-predict-the-neuropeptides-co-opted-to-influence-parenting
#7
Christopher B Cunningham, Majors J Badgett, Richard B Meagher, Ron Orlando, Allen J Moore
Ethologists predicted that parental care evolves by modifying behavioural precursors in the asocial ancestor. As a corollary, we predict that the evolved mechanistic changes reside in genetic pathways underlying these traits. Here we test our hypothesis in female burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect where caring adults regurgitate food to begging, dependent offspring. We quantify neuropeptide abundance in brains collected from three behavioural states: solitary virgins, individuals actively parenting or post-parenting solitary adults and quantify 133 peptides belonging to 18 neuropeptides...
February 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143721/zebrafish-and-relational-memory-could-a-simple-fish-be-useful-for-the-analysis-of-biological-mechanisms-of-complex-vertebrate-learning
#8
REVIEW
Robert Gerlai
Analysis of the zebrafish allows one to combine two distinct scientific approaches, comparative ethology and neurobehavioral genetics. Furthermore, this species arguably represents an optimal compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity. This mini-review focuses on a complex form of learning, relational learning and memory, in zebrafish. It argues that zebrafish are capable of this type of learning, and it attempts to show how this species may be useful in the analysis of the mechanisms and the evolution of this complex brain function...
January 28, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135243/hormonal-gain-control-of-a-medial-preoptic-area-social-reward-circuit
#9
Jenna A McHenry, James M Otis, Mark A Rossi, J Elliott Robinson, Oksana Kosyk, Noah W Miller, Zoe A McElligott, Evgeny A Budygin, David R Rubinow, Garret D Stuber
Neural networks that control reproduction must integrate social and hormonal signals, tune motivation, and coordinate social interactions. However, the neural circuit mechanisms for these processes remain unresolved. The medial preoptic area (mPOA), an essential node for social behaviors, comprises molecularly diverse neurons with widespread projections. Here we identify a steroid-responsive subset of neurotensin (Nts)-expressing mPOA neurons that interface with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to form a socially engaged reward circuit...
March 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109776/semaphorin-6a-knockout-mice-display-abnormalities-across-ethologically-based-topographies-of-exploration-and-in-motor-learning
#10
Kerstin Håkansson, Annette E Runker, Gerard J O'Sullivan, Kevin J Mitchell, John L Waddington, Colm M P O'Tuathaigh
Semaphorins are secreted or membrane-bound proteins implicated in neurodevelopmental processes of axon guidance and cell migration. Exploratory behaviour and motor learning was examined ethologically in Semaphorin 6A (Sema6A) mutant mice. The ethogram of initial exploration in Sema6A knockout mice was characterised by increased rearing to wall with decreased sifting; over subsequent habituation, locomotion, sniffing and rearing to wall were increased, with reduced habituation of rearing seated. Rotarod analysis indicated delayed motor learning in Sema6A heterozygous mutants...
January 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089970/spatial-working-memory-impairment-in-patients-with-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#11
Chun-Min Zhu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Shou-Xing Duan, Zhi-Rong Lin, Jing-Jing Yin, Hong-Bo Le, Dan-Miao Sun, Wen-Can Xu, Shu-Hua Ma
OBJECTIVE: Using ethology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore mild cognitive dysfunction and spatial working memory (WM) impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE) and to study whether any clinical biomarkers could serve as predictors of brain dysfunction in this disease. METHODS: Eighteen non-NPSLE patients and 18 matched subjects were all tested using the Montreal cognitive assessment scale test and scanned using blood-oxygen-level dependent fMRI while performing the n-back task to investigate the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089702/the-visible-burrow-system-a-view-from-across-the-hall
#12
REVIEW
James P Herman, Kellie L Tamashiro
The visible burrow system (VBS) is an ethologically relevant social stress model that creates a distinct dominance hierarchy in rats. Randall Sakai's laboratory performed an impressive series of studies documenting the very different impact of VBS exposure on the brain and behavior of dominants (DOM) and subordinates (SUBs). Hierarchy formation causes pronounced changes in metabolism in SUBs relative to both DOMs and unstressed controls, resulting in marked weight loss and metabolic imbalance. Stress testing revealed multiple phenotypes in the VBS, including DOMs, stress-responsive SUBs and stress-non-responsive SUBs...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074830/tet1-in-nucleus-accumbens-opposes-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors
#13
Jian Feng, Catherine J Pena, Immanuel Purushothaman, Olivia Engmann, Deena Walker, Amber N Brown, Orna Issler, Marie Doyle, Eileen Harrigan, Ezekiell Mouzon, Vincent Vialou, Li Shen, Meelad M Dawlaty, Rudolf Jaenisch, Eric J Nestler
Depression is a leading cause of disease burden, yet current therapies fully treat <50% of affected individuals. Increasing evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms in depression and antidepressant action. Here we examined a possible role for the DNA dioxygenase, ten-eleven translocation protein 1 (TET1), in depression-related behavioral abnormalities. We applied chronic social defeat stress, an ethologically validated mouse model of depression-like behaviors, and examined Tet1 expression changes in nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region...
January 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071731/in-silico-experiments-of-zebrafish-behaviour-modeling-swimming-in-three-dimensions
#14
Violet Mwaffo, Sachit Butail, Maurizio Porfiri
Zebrafish is fast becoming a species of choice in biomedical research for the investigation of functional and dysfunctional processes coupled with their genetic and pharmacological modulation. As with mammals, experimentation with zebrafish constitutes a complicated ethical issue that calls for the exploration of alternative testing methods to reduce the number of subjects, refine experimental designs, and replace live animals. Inspired by the demonstrated advantages of computational studies in other life science domains, we establish an authentic data-driven modelling framework to simulate zebrafish swimming in three dimensions...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065723/social-context-dependent-relationships-between-mouse-dominance-rank-and-plasma-hormone-levels
#15
Cait M Williamson, Won Lee, Russell D Romeo, James P Curley
The associations between social status and endogenous testosterone and corticosterone have been well-studied across taxa, including rodents. Dominant social status is typically associated with higher levels of circulating testosterone and lower levels of circulating corticosterone but findings are mixed and depend upon numerous contextual factors. Here, we determine that the social environment is a key modulator of these relationships in Mus musculus. In groups of outbred CD-1 mice living in stable dominance hierarchies, we found no evidence of simple linear associations between social rank and corticosterone or testosterone plasma levels...
January 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065213/the-ecology-of-social-learning-in-animals-and-its-link-with-intelligence
#16
Carel van Schaik, Sereina Graber, Caroline Schuppli, Judith Burkart
Classical ethology and behavioral ecology did not pay much attention to learning. However, studies of social learning in nature reviewed here reveal the near-ubiquity of reliance on social information for skill acquisition by developing birds and mammals. This conclusion strengthens the plausibility of the cultural intelligence hypothesis for the evolution of intelligence, which assumes that selection on social learning abilities automatically improves individual learning ability. Thus, intelligent species will generally be cultural species...
January 9, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060317/observation-and-quantification-of-mating-behavior-in-the-pinewood-nematode-bursaphelenchus-xylophilus
#17
Najie Zhu, Liqun Bai, Stefan Schütz, Baojun Liu, Zhenyu Liu, Xingyao Zhang, Hongshi Yu, Jiafu Hu
A method for observing and quantifying the mating behavior of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, was established under a stereomicroscope. To improve the mating efficiency of B. Xylophilus and to increase the chances of mating observation, virgin adults were cultured and used for the investigation. Eggs were obtained by keeping the nematodes in water and allowing the females to lay eggs for 10 min. The second-stage juveniles (J2) were synchronized by incubating the eggs for 24 h at 25 °C in the dark, and the early J4 were obtained by culturing the J2 with grey mold, Botrytis cinerea, for another 52 h...
December 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053241/comparative-biology-of-pain-what-invertebrates-can-tell-us-about-how-nociception-works
#18
Brian D Burrell
The inability to adequately treat chronic pain is a worldwide health care crisis. Pain has both an emotional and a sensory component and this latter component, nociception, refers specifically to the detection of damaging or potentially damaging stimuli. Nociception represents a critical interaction between an animal and its environment and exhibits considerable evolutionary conservation across species. Using comparative approaches to understand the basic biology of nociception could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat pain and studies of nociception in invertebrates can provide especially useful insights towards this goal...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040000/effects-of-background-noise-on-acoustic-characteristics-of-bengalese-finch-songs
#19
Shintaro Shiba, Kazuo Okanoya, Ryosuke O Tachibana
Online regulation of vocalization in response to auditory feedback is one of the essential issues for vocal communication. One such audio-vocal interaction is the Lombard effect, an involuntary increase in vocal amplitude in response to the presence of background noise. Along with vocal amplitude, other acoustic characteristics, including fundamental frequency (F0), also change in some species. Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica) are a suitable model for comparative, ethological, and neuroscientific studies on audio-vocal interaction because they require real-time auditory feedback of their own songs to maintain normal singing...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018662/the-power-of-associative-learning-and-the-ontogeny-of-optimal-behaviour
#20
Magnus Enquist, Johan Lind, Stefano Ghirlanda
Behaving efficiently (optimally or near-optimally) is central to animals' adaptation to their environment. Much evolutionary biology assumes, implicitly or explicitly, that optimal behavioural strategies are genetically inherited, yet the behaviour of many animals depends crucially on learning. The question of how learning contributes to optimal behaviour is largely open. Here we propose an associative learning model that can learn optimal behaviour in a wide variety of ecologically relevant circumstances. The model learns through chaining, a term introduced by Skinner to indicate learning of behaviour sequences by linking together shorter sequences or single behaviours...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
keyword
keyword
14586
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"