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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933683/genetics-and-the-conservation-of-natural-populations-allozymes-to-genomes
#1
Fred W Allendorf
I consider how the study of genetic variation has influenced efforts to conserve natural populations over the last 50 years. Studies with allozymes in the 1970s provided the first estimates of the amount of genetic variation within and between natural populations at multiple loci. These early studies played an important role in developing plans to conserve species. The description of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA in the early 1980s laid the foundation for the field of phylogeography, which provided a deeper look in time of the relationships and connectivity among populations...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933349/-speech-audiometric-outcome-parameters-in-clinical-trials-on-hearing-improvement
#2
J Müller, S K Plontke, T Rahne
BACKGROUND: When comparing clinical studies nationally and internationally, there is great heterogeneity in the applied audiometric outcome parameters. Beside different frequencies included in pure-tone audiometry and the resulting averages, the word recognition scores are measured at varying sound pressure levels, i.e., either with a fixed sound pressure level or with a fixed sensation level. However, a comparison of studies, e. g., in meta-analysis, requires comparable outcome parameters...
December 8, 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933290/validation-of-a-cochlear-implant-patient-specific-model-of-the-voltage-distribution-in-a-clinical-setting
#3
Waldo Nogueira, Daniel Schurzig, Andreas Büchner, Richard T Penninger, Waldemar Würfel
Cochlear Implants (CIs) are medical implantable devices that can restore the sense of hearing in people with profound hearing loss. Clinical trials assessing speech intelligibility in CI users have found large intersubject variability. One possibility to explain the variability is the individual differences in the interface created between electrodes of the CI and the auditory nerve. In order to understand the variability, models of the voltage distribution of the electrically stimulated cochlea may be useful...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933011/psychological-restoration-can-depend-on-stimulus-source-attribution-a-challenge-for-the-evolutionary-account
#4
Andreas Haga, Niklas Halin, Mattias Holmgren, Patrik Sörqvist
Visiting or viewing nature environments can have restorative psychological effects, while exposure to the built environment typically has less positive effects. A classic view is that this difference in restorative potential of nature and built environments depends on differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the stimuli. In addition, an evolutionary account is often assumed whereby restoration is believed to be a hardwired response to nature's stimulus-features. Here, we propose the novel hypothesis that the restorative effects of a stimulus do not entirely depend on the stimulus-features per se, but also on the meaning that people assign to the stimulus...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932987/limits-of-applicability-of-the-voronoi-tessellation-determined-by-centers-of-cell-nuclei-to-epithelium-morphology
#5
Sara Kaliman, Christina Jayachandran, Florian Rehfeldt, Ana-Sunčana Smith
It is well accepted that cells in the tissue can be regarded as tiles tessellating space. A number of approaches were developed to find an appropriate mathematical description of such cell tiling. A particularly useful approach is the so called Voronoi tessellation, built from centers of mass of the cell nuclei (CMVT), which is commonly used for estimating the morphology of cells in epithelial tissues. However, a study providing a statistically sound analysis of this method's accuracy is not available in the literature...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932941/long-term-memory-for-noise-evidence-of-robust-encoding-of-very-short-temporal-acoustic-patterns
#6
Jayalakshmi Viswanathan, Florence Rémy, Nadège Bacon-Macé, Simon J Thorpe
Recent research has demonstrated that humans are able to implicitly encode and retain repeating patterns in meaningless auditory noise. Our study aimed at testing the robustness of long-term implicit recognition memory for these learned patterns. Participants performed a cyclic/non-cyclic discrimination task, during which they were presented with either 1-s cyclic noises (CNs) (the two halves of the noise were identical) or 1-s plain random noises (Ns). Among CNs and Ns presented once, target CNs were implicitly presented multiple times within a block, and implicit recognition of these target CNs was tested 4 weeks later using a similar cyclic/non-cyclic discrimination task...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932687/diabetes-distress-among-persons-with-type-1-diabetes-associations-with-disordered-eating-depression-and-other-psychological-health-concerns
#7
Margaret A Powers, Sara A Richter, Diann M Ackard, Cheryl Craft
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate associations between diabetes distress and a range of psychological health behaviors and concerns among persons with type 1 diabetes for the benefit of enhancing early identification and intervention of at-risk individuals. METHODS: Persons with type 1 diabetes (n = 268; 57.1% female, 91.0% white, 76.8% <18 years of age, average A1C 8.4%) completed the 2-item Diabetes Distress Screening Scale (DDS2) and a battery of psychometrically sound instruments measuring satisfaction with life, self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, perfectionism, body image satisfaction, dietary restraint and eating, and shape and weight concerns...
December 7, 2016: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932397/sound-trust-and-the-ethics-of-telecare
#8
Sander A Voerman, Philip J Nickel
The adoption of web-based telecare services has raised multifarious ethical concerns, but a traditional principle-based approach provides limited insight into how these concerns might be addressed and what, if anything, makes them problematic. We take an alternative approach, diagnosing some of the main concerns as arising from a core phenomenon of shifting trust relations that come about when the physician plays a less central role in the delivery of care, and new actors and entities are introduced. Correspondingly, we propose an applied ethics of trust based on the idea that patients should be provided with good reasons to trust telecare services, which we call sound trust...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932389/fifteen-minute-consultation-investigation-and-management-of-an-infant-with-stridor
#9
E Hoskison, J Grainger
Stridor is an abnormal sound caused by turbulent airflow through the airway. In an infant under 3 months of age presenting with stridor, there are many different underlying aetiologies. Some key assessment points help to differentiate those patients who can be reassured and monitored versus those requiring referral to an ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeon for further assessment or management. We present a structured approach to guide the clinician through initial assessment, examination and management, including referral to ENT surgery...
December 8, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932074/distributed-neural-signatures-of-natural-audiovisual-speech-and-music-in-the-human-auditory-cortex
#10
Juha Salmi, Olli-Pekka Koistinen, Enrico Glerean, Pasi Jylänki, Aki Vehtari, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Sasu Mäkelä, Lauri Nummenmaa, Katarina Nummi-Kuisma, Ilari Nummi, Mikko Sams
During a conversation or when listening to music, auditory and visual information are combined automatically into audiovisual objects. However, it is still poorly understood how specific type of visual information shapes neural processing of sounds in lifelike stimulus environments. Here we applied multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigate how naturally matching visual input modulates supratemporal cortex activity during processing of naturalistic acoustic speech, singing and instrumental music. Bayesian logistic regression classifiers with sparsity-promoting priors were trained to predict whether the stimulus was audiovisual or auditory, and whether it contained piano playing, speech, or singing...
December 5, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931916/the-reliability-and-factor-structure-of-thai-young-schema-questionnaire-short-form-3
#11
Chaiyun Sakulsriprasert, Darunee Phukao, Suree Kanjanawong, Natthani Meemon
Previous research which documented the psychometric properties of Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) was conducted in Western countries. The current research examined the reliability and factor structure of the Thai version of the Young Schema-Short From-3 (YSQ-S3). The participants were 622 undergraduates (62% females) recruited from three universities in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Results suggested acceptable internal consistency of 18 early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) (Cronbach's α range from 0.619 to 0.846). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the factor structures of 18 EMSs...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931868/a-critical-review-of-the-potential-impacts-of-marine-seismic-surveys-on-fish-invertebrates
#12
REVIEW
A G Carroll, R Przeslawski, A Duncan, M Gunning, B Bruce
Marine seismic surveys produce high intensity, low-frequency impulsive sounds at regular intervals, with most sound produced between 10 and 300Hz. Offshore seismic surveys have long been considered to be disruptive to fisheries, but there are few ecological studies that target commercially important species, particularly invertebrates. This review aims to summarise scientific studies investigating the impacts of low-frequency sound on marine fish and invertebrates, as well as to critically evaluate how such studies may apply to field populations exposed to seismic operations...
December 5, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931773/protective-effect-of-propofol-on-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#13
Jian Wen, Na Duan, Qiang Wang, Gui-Xia Jing, Ying Xiao
PURPOSE: Iatrogenic noise produced by mastoid or craniotomy drills may cause hearing damage, which is induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the reduction of cochlear blood flow (CoBF). This study investigated whether propofol could reduce noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in a guinea pig model. METHODS: Sixty-four male pigmented guinea pigs were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups: control, noise, propofol and propofol+noise. Propofol was infused intravenously for 20 min prior to noise exposure with a loading dose of 5 mg·kg(-1) for 5 min and a maintenance infusion of 20 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1) for 135 min...
December 5, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930918/health-effects-of-informal-caregiving-across-europe-a-longitudinal-approach
#14
Judith Kaschowitz, Martina Brandt
Due to an expected increase of people in need of care, sound knowledge about health effects of informal care provision is becoming more and more important. Theoretically, there might be positive as well as negative health effects due to caregiving to relatives. Moreover, we suppose that such health effects differ by national context - since care is differently organized in Europe - and depend on the social setting in which the care relationship takes place. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement (SHARE, waves 1, 2, 3, and 5) and from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA, waves 2-5) we examined the connection between informal caregiving and self-perceived as well as mental health in a country comparative perspective...
November 27, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929304/enduring-mental-health-prevalence-and-prediction
#15
Jonathan D Schaefer, Avshalom Caspi, Daniel W Belsky, Honalee Harrington, Renate Houts, L John Horwood, Andrea Hussong, Sandhya Ramrakha, Richie Poulton, Terrie E Moffitt
We review epidemiological evidence indicating that most people will develop a diagnosable mental disorder, suggesting that only a minority experience enduring mental health. This minority has received little empirical study, leaving the prevalence and predictors of enduring mental health unknown. We turn to the population-representative Dunedin cohort, followed from birth to midlife, to compare people never-diagnosed with mental disorder (N = 171; 17% prevalence) to those diagnosed at 1-2 study waves, the cohort mode (N = 409)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929300/development-of-an-abbreviated-career-indecision-profile-65-using-item-response-theory-the-cip-short
#16
Hui Xu, Terence J G Tracey
The current study developed an abbreviated version of the Career Indecision Profile-65 (CIP-65; Hacker, Carr, Abrams, & Brown, 2013) by using item response theory. In order to improve the efficiency of the CIP-65 in measuring career indecision, the individual item performance of the CIP-65 was examined with respect to the ordering of response occurrence and gender differential item functioning. The best 5 items of each scale of the CIP-65 (i.e., neuroticism/negative affectivity, choice/commitment anxiety, lack of readiness, and interpersonal conflicts) were retained in the CIP-Short using a sample of 588 college students...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927962/selective-neuronal-activation-by-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-primate
#17
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
: Despite the success of cochlear implants (CIs) in human populations, most users perform poorly in noisy environments and music and tonal language perception. How CI devices engage the brain at the single neuron level has remained largely unknown, in particular in the primate brain. By comparing neuronal responses with acoustic and CI stimulation in marmoset monkeys unilaterally implanted with a CI electrode array, we discovered that CI stimulation was surprisingly ineffective at activating many neurons in auditory cortex, particularly in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the CI...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927956/orientation-selectivity-from-very-sparse-lgn-inputs-in-a-comprehensive-model-of-macaque-v1-cortex
#18
Logan Chariker, Robert Shapley, Lai-Sang Young
: A new computational model of the primary visual cortex (V1) of the macaque monkey was constructed to reconcile the visual functions of V1 with anatomical data on its LGN input, the extreme sparseness of which presented serious challenges to theoretically sound explanations of cortical function. We demonstrate that, even with such sparse input, it is possible to produce robust orientation selectivity, as well as continuity in the orientation map. We went beyond that to find plausible dynamic regimes of our new model that emulate simultaneously experimental data for a wide range of V1 phenomena, beginning with orientation selectivity but also including diversity in neuronal responses, bimodal distributions of the modulation ratio (the simple/complex classification), and dynamic signatures, such as gamma-band oscillations...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927954/predictive-ensemble-decoding-of-acoustical-features-explains-context-dependent-receptive-fields
#19
Izzet B Yildiz, Nima Mesgarani, Sophie Deneve
: A primary goal of auditory neuroscience is to identify the sound features extracted and represented by auditory neurons. Linear encoding models, which describe neural responses as a function of the stimulus, have been primarily used for this purpose. Here, we provide theoretical arguments and experimental evidence in support of an alternative approach, based on decoding the stimulus from the neural response. We used a Bayesian normative approach to predict the responses of neurons detecting relevant auditory features, despite ambiguities and noise...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927950/comodulation-enhances-signal-detection-via-priming-of-auditory-cortical-circuits
#20
Joseph Sollini, Paul Chadderton
: Acoustic environments are composed of complex overlapping sounds that the auditory system is required to segregate into discrete perceptual objects. The functions of distinct auditory processing stations in this challenging task are poorly understood. Here we show a direct role for mouse auditory cortex in detection and segregation of acoustic information. We measured the sensitivity of auditory cortical neurons to brief tones embedded in masking noise. By altering spectrotemporal characteristics of the masker, we reveal that sensitivity to pure tone stimuli is strongly enhanced in coherently modulated broadband noise, corresponding to the psychoacoustic phenomenon comodulation masking release...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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