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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908505/a-green-soundscape-index-gsi-the-potential-of-assessing-the-perceived-balance-between-natural-sound-and-traffic-noise
#1
Pablo Kogan, Jorge P Arenas, Fernando Bermejo, María Hinalaf, Bruno Turra
Urban soundscapes are dynamic and complex multivariable environmental systems. Soundscapes can be organized into three main entities containing the multiple variables: Experienced Environment (EE), Acoustic Environment (AE), and Extra-Acoustic Environment (XE). This work applies a multidimensional and synchronic data-collecting methodology at eight urban environments in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. The EE was assessed by means of surveys, the AE by acoustic measurements and audio recordings, and the XE by photos, video, and complementary sources...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907958/the-mechanosensory-motor-apparatus-of-antennae-in-the-oleander-hawk-moth-daphnis-nerii-lepidoptera
#2
Harshada H Sant, Sanjay P Sane
Insect antennae are sensory organs of great importance because they can sense diverse environmental stimuli. In addition to serving as primary olfactory organs of insects, antennae also sense a wide variety of mechanosensory stimuli, ranging from low-frequency airflow or gravity cues to high-frequency antennal vibrations due to sound, flight or touch. The basal segments of the antennae house multiple types of mechanosensory structures that prominently include the sensory hair plates, or Böhm's bristles, which measure the gross extent of antennal movement, and a ring of highly sensitive scolopidial neurons, collectively called the Johnston's organs, which record subtle flagellar vibrations...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907579/a-mobile-revolution-for-healthcare-setting-the-agenda-for-bioethics
#3
Federica Lucivero, Karin R Jongsma
Mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly being implemented and changing our ways of doing, understanding and organising healthcare. mHealth includes wearable devices as well as apps that track fitness, offer wellness programmes or provide tools to manage chronic conditions. According to industry and policy makers, these systems offer efficient and cost-effective solutions for disease prevention and self-management. While this development raises many ethically relevant questions, so far mHealth has received only little attention in medical ethics...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907208/well-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-and-robotic-transaxillary-surgery-at-a-north-american-institution
#4
Meghan Garstka, Khuzema Mohsin, Daniah Bu Ali, Hosam Shalaby, Kareem Ibraheem, Mahmoud Farag, Sang-Wook Kang, Emad Kandil
BACKGROUND: Recent studies from Asia have reported the safety and feasibility of robotic-assisted thyroid surgery. In the United States, several small series and case reports have been published, mostly regarding treatment of benign disease. The aim of our study is to report the safety and feasibility of robotic surgery for well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients at a North American institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using a prospectively collected single-center clinical database at Tulane University Medical Center...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906958/fast-social-like-learning-of-complex-behaviors-based-on-motor-motifs
#5
Carlos Calvo Tapia, Ivan Y Tyukin, Valeri A Makarov
Social learning is widely observed in many species. Less experienced agents copy successful behaviors exhibited by more experienced individuals. Nevertheless, the dynamical mechanisms behind this process remain largely unknown. Here we assume that a complex behavior can be decomposed into a sequence of n motor motifs. Then a neural network capable of activating motor motifs in a given sequence can drive an agent. To account for (n-1)! possible sequences of motifs in a neural network, we employ the winnerless competition approach...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906900/vocal-effort-modulates-the-motor-planning-of-short-speech-structures
#6
Alan Taitz, Diego E Shalom, Marcos A Trevisan
Speech requires programming the sequence of vocal gestures that produce the sounds of words. Here we explored the timing of this program by asking our participants to pronounce, as quickly as possible, a sequence of consonant-consonant-vowel (CCV) structures appearing on screen. We measured the delay between visual presentation and voice onset. In the case of plosive consonants, produced by sharp and well defined movements of the vocal tract, we found that delays are positively correlated with the duration of the transition between consonants...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906868/galilean-invariant-preconditioned-central-moment-lattice-boltzmann-method-without-cubic-velocity-errors-for-efficient-steady-flow-simulations
#7
Farzaneh Hajabdollahi, Kannan N Premnath
Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models used for the computation of fluid flows represented by the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on standard lattices can lead to non-Galilean-invariant (GI) viscous stress involving cubic velocity errors. This arises from the dependence of their third-order diagonal moments on the first-order moments for standard lattices, and strategies have recently been introduced to restore Galilean invariance without such errors using a modified collision operator involving corrections to either the relaxation times or the moment equilibria...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906653/estimation-of-the-ear-canal-displacement-field-due-to-in-ear-device-insertion-using-a-registration-method-on-a-human-like-artificial-ear
#8
S Benacchio, O Doutres, A Le Troter, A Varoquaux, E Wagnac, V Callot, F Sgard
Passive and active in-ear devices (IED) occluding the ear canal are commonly used to (i) protect people from high noise levels (earplugs), (ii) assist people suffering from hearing impairment (hearing aids) or (iii) help people in listening from their sound systems (earbuds). However, the usability and/or efficiency of IEDs can be greatly affected by several discomfort components (physical, acoustical and functional). The mechanical pressure exerted by the IED onto the ear canal walls is greatly suspected to affect the aforementioned comfort components...
June 2, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906457/enhanced-perception-of-pitch-changes-in-speech-and-music-in-early-blind-adults
#9
Laureline Arnaud, Vincent Gracco, Lucie Ménard
It is well known that congenitally blind adults have enhanced auditory processing for some tasks. For instance, they show supra-normal capacity to perceive accelerated speech. However, only a few studies have investigated basic auditory processing in this population. In this study, we investigated if pitch processing enhancement in the blind is a domain-general or domain-specific phenomenon, and if pitch processing shares the same properties as in the sighted regarding how scores from different domains are associated...
June 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906169/impact-of-the-injection-protocol-on-an-impurity-s-stationary-state
#10
Oleksandr Gamayun, Oleg Lychkovskiy, Evgeni Burovski, Matthew Malcomson, Vadim V Cheianov, Mikhail B Zvonarev
We examine stationary-state properties of an impurity particle injected into a one-dimensional quantum gas. We show that the value of the impurity's end velocity lies between zero and the speed of sound in the gas and is determined by the injection protocol. This way, the impurity's constant motion is a dynamically emergent phenomenon whose description goes beyond accounting for the kinematic constraints of the Landau approach to superfluidity. We provide exact analytic results in the thermodynamic limit and perform finite-size numerical simulations to demonstrate that the predicted phenomena are within the reach of the ultracold gas experiments...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906157/energy-current-cumulants-in-one-dimensional-systems-in-equilibrium
#11
Abhishek Dhar, Keiji Saito, Anjan Roy
A recent theory based on fluctuating hydrodynamics predicts that one-dimensional interacting systems with particle, momentum, and energy conservation exhibit anomalous transport that falls into two main universality classes. The classification is based on behavior of equilibrium dynamical correlations of the conserved quantities. One class is characterized by sound modes with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling, while the second class has diffusive sound modes. The heat mode follows Lévy statistics, with different exponents for the two classes...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905797/crucial-role-for-nox2-and-sleep-deprivation-in-aircraft-noise-induced-vascular-and-cerebral-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-gene-regulation
#12
Swenja Kröller-Schön, Andreas Daiber, Sebastian Steven, Matthias Oelze, Katie Frenis, Sanela Kalinovic, Axel Heimann, Frank P Schmidt, Antonio Pinto, Miroslava Kvandova, Ksenija Vujacic-Mirski, Konstantina Filippou, Markus Dudek, Markus Bosmann, Matthias Klein, Tobias Bopp, Omar Hahad, Philipp S Wild, Katrin Frauenknecht, Axel Methner, Erwin R Schmidt, Steffen Rapp, Hanke Mollnau, Thomas Münzel
Aims: Aircraft noise causes endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Transportation noise increases the incidence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and stroke. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Herein, we investigated effects of phagocyte-type NADPH oxidase (Nox2) knockout and different noise protocols (around-the-clock, sleep/awake phase noise) on vascular and cerebral complications in mice. Methods and results: C57BL/6j and Nox2-/- (gp91phox-/-) mice were exposed to aircraft noise (maximum sound level of 85 dB(A), average sound pressure level of 72 dB(A)) around-the-clock or during sleep/awake phases for 1, 2, and 4 days...
June 14, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905093/auditory-orthographic-integration-at-the-onset-of-l2-speech-acquisition
#13
Yasaman Rafat, Ryan A Stevenson
Recent studies have provided evidence for both a positive and a negative effect of orthography on second language speech learning. However, not much is known about whether orthography can trigger a McGurk-like effect (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976) in second language speech learning. This study examined whether exposure to auditory and orthographic input may lead to a McGurk-like effect in naïve English-speaking participants learning a second language with Spanish phonology and orthography. Specifically, it reports on (a) production of non-target-like combinations such as [lj] as in [poljo] for <pollo>-[pojo], where the auditory Spanish [j] and the first language English [l] that correspond to the shared digraph <ll> are integrated, and (b) fusion quantified in terms of [z] devoicing such as [z̥apito] for <zapito>-[zapito]...
June 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904980/naturalistically-observing-non-cancer-conversations-among-couples-coping-with-breast-cancer
#14
Megan L Robbins, Alexander Karan, Ana Maria Lopez, Karen Weihs
OBJECTIVE: This study revealed the landscape of non-cancer conversations, identifying topics and types of everyday conversation, and examined links to psychological adjustment among couples coping with breast cancer. METHODS: Fifty-two couples wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) over one weekend and self-reported psychological adjustment while patients were on treatment. The EAR sampled 50 s of ambient sound every 9 min to estimate the frequency of non-cancer conversation and reveal topics and types of conversation...
June 14, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904753/phosphoric-acid-containing-chlorhexidine-compromises-bonding-of-universal-adhesive
#15
Lucas Saldanha da Rosa, Andressa Cargnelutti Follak, Tathiane Larissa Lenzi, Rachel de Oliveira Rocha, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck Soares
PURPOSE: To examine the influence of phosphoric acid containing chlorhexidine on the dentin bond stability of a universal and a 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty sound bovine incisors were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n = 10) according to: phosphoric acid (37% phosphoric acid [CTR] or 37% phosphoric acid with 2% chlorhexidine [CHX]); adhesive (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU]or Adper Single Bond 2 [SB2]); and water storage time (24 h and 6 months)...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904654/a-high-density-scalp-eeg-dataset-acquired-during-brief-naps-after-a-visual-working-memory-task
#16
Ning Mei, Michael D Grossberg, Kenneth Ng, Karen T Navarro, Timothy M Ellmore
There is growing interest in understanding how specific neural events that occur during sleep, including characteristic spindle oscillations between 10 and 16 Hz (Hz), are related to learning and memory. Neural events can be recorded during sleep using the well-known method of scalp electroencephalography (EEG). While publicly available sleep EEG datasets exist, most consist of only a few channels collected in specific patient groups being evaluated overnight for sleep disorders in clinical settings. The dataset described in this Data in Brief includes 22 participants who each participated in EEG recordings on two separate days...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904124/temporal-and-spectral-eeg-dynamics-can-be-indicators-of-stealth-placement
#17
Regina W Y Wang, Yi-Chung Chen, I-Ning Liu, Shang-Wen Chuang
Stealth placement marketing, where consumers are unaware that they are being marketed to, attempts to reduce the audiences' resistance to traditional persuasive advertising. It is a form of advertising that involves targeted exposure of brands or products incorporated in other works, usually with or without explicit reference to the brands or products. Brand placement can be presented in different visual and auditory forms in video programs. The present study proposed that different 'representations' (i.e., representable or non-representable) and 'sounds' (i...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903995/big-sound-and-extreme-fungi-xerophilic-halotolerant-aspergilli-and-penicillia-with-low-optimal-temperature-as-invaders-of-historic-pipe-organs
#18
Katja Sterflinger, Christian Voitl, Ksenija Lopandic, Guadalupe Piñar, Hakim Tafer
Recent investigations have shown that xerophilic fungi may pose a biodeterioration risk by threatening objects of cultural heritage including many types of materials, including wood, paint layers, organic glues or leather and even metal. Historic&mdash;and also new built&mdash;pipe organs combine all those materials. In this study, halotolerant aspergilli and penicillia with low optimal temperatures were shown to be the most frequent invaders of pipe organs. The fungi form white mycelia on the organic components of the organs with a clear preference for the bolus paint of the wooden pipes, the leather-made hinges of the stop actions and all parts fixed by organic glue...
June 14, 2018: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902747/elucidating-the-relationship-between-aerosol-concentration-and-summertime-boundary-layer-structure-in-central-china
#19
Lin Liu, Jianping Guo, Yucong Miao, Lin Liu, Jian Li, Dandan Chen, Jing He, Chunguang Cui
Wuhan, a megacity in central China, suffers from frequent aerosol pollution and is accompanied by meteorological factors at both synoptic and local scales. Partly due to the lack of appropriate observations of planetary boundary layer (PBL), the associations between synoptic conditions, PBL, and pollution there are not yet fully understood. Thus, systematic analyses were conducted using the fine-resolution soundings, surface meteorological measurements, and aerosol observations in Wuhan during summer for the period 2013-2016, in combination with T-mode principal component analysis and simulations of backward trajectory...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902627/the-use-of-biogeochemical-models-to-evaluate-mitigation-of-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-managed-grasslands
#20
Renáta Sándor, Fiona Ehrhardt, Lorenzo Brilli, Marco Carozzi, Sylvie Recous, Pete Smith, Val Snow, Jean-François Soussana, Christopher D Dorich, Kathrin Fuchs, Nuala Fitton, Kate Gongadze, Katja Klumpp, Mark Liebig, Raphaël Martin, Lutz Merbold, Paul C D Newton, Robert M Rees, Susanne Rolinski, Gianni Bellocchi
Simulation models quantify the impacts on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in grassland systems caused by changes in management practices. To support agricultural policies, it is however important to contrast the responses of alternative models, which can differ greatly in their treatment of key processes and in their response to management. We applied eight biogeochemical models at five grassland sites (in France, New Zealand, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States) to compare the sensitivity of modelled C and N fluxes to changes in the density of grazing animals (from 100% to 50% of the original livestock densities), also in combination with decreasing N fertilization levels (reduced to zero from the initial levels)...
June 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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