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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938173/human-infants-understanding-of-social-imitation-inferences-of-affiliation-from-third-party-observations
#1
Lindsey J Powell, Elizabeth S Spelke
Imitation is ubiquitous in positive social interactions. For adult and child observers, it also supports inferences about the participants in such interactions and their social relationships, but the origins of these inferences are obscure. Do infants attach social significance to this form of interaction? Here we test 4- to 5.5-month-old infants' interpretation of imitation, asking if the imitative interactions they observe support inferences of social affiliation, across 10 experimental conditions that varied the modality of the imitation (movement vs...
September 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938165/a-novel-dopa-albumin-based-tissue-adhesive-for-internal-medical-applications
#2
Wenzhen Zhu, Yvonne Peck, Jabed Iqbal, Dong-An Wang
To date, existing tissue adhesives have various weak points in gluing kinetics and stability - particularly, in biocompatibility, which make most of them remain suboptimal for internal conditions. Herein, a novel mussel-inspired "BCD" tissue glue made of bovine serum albumin (BSA), citrate acid (CA) and dopamine was developed aiming at internal medical applications. BSA was employed as a natural and biocompatible macromolecular backbone; CA was introduced as a dual-functional intermediate to increase reactive carboxyl sites for engraftment of dopamine onto BSA backbone and also block the competing reactive amines from the proteinic backbone...
September 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938126/the-need-for-theory-evaluation-in-global-citizenship-programmes-the-case-of-the-gcsa-programme
#3
Sarah Goodier, Carren Field, Suki Goodman
Many education programmes lack a documented programme theory. This is a problem for programme planners and evaluators as the ability to measure programme success is grounded in the plausibility of the programme's underlying causal logic. Where the programme theory has not been documented, conducting a theory evaluation offers a foundational evaluation step as it gives an indication of whether the theory behind a programme is sound. This paper presents a case of a theory evaluation of a Global Citizenship programme at a top-ranking university in South Africa, subsequently called the GCSA Programme...
August 24, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937886/effectiveness-of-biology-based-methods-for-inhibiting-orthodontic-tooth-movement-a-systematic-review
#4
M Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, R M Yañez-Vico, E Solano-Reina, J C Palma-Fernandez, A Iglesias-Linares
INTRODUCTION: Several experimental studies in the literature have tested different biology-based methods for inhibiting or decreasing orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in humans. This systematic review investigated the effects of these interventions on the rate of tooth movement. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic [MedLine; SCOPUS; Cochrane Library; OpenGrey;Web of Science] and manual searches were conducted up to January 26th, 2016 in order to identify publications of clinical trials that compared the decreasing or inhibiting effects of different biology-based methods over OTM in humans...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937328/biomechanical-effects-of-hybrid-stabilization-on-the-risk-of-proximal-adjacent-segment-degeneration-following-lumbar-spinal-fusion-using-an-interspinous-device-or-a-pedicle-screw-based-dynamic-fixator
#5
Chang-Hyun Lee, Young Eun Kim, Hak Joong Lee, Dong Gyu Kim, Chi Heon Kim
OBJECTIVE Pedicle screw-rod-based hybrid stabilization (PH) and interspinous device-based hybrid stabilization (IH) have been proposed to prevent adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD) and their effectiveness has been reported. However, a comparative study based on sound biomechanical proof has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical effects of IH and PH on the transition and adjacent segments. METHODS A validated finite element model of the normal lumbosacral spine was used...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937262/empirical-factors-affecting-the-quality-of-non-negative-matrix-factorization-of-mammalian-cell-raman-spectra
#6
H Georg Schulze, Stanislav O Konorov, James M Piret, Michael W Blades, Robin F B Turner
Mammalian cells contain various macromolecules that can be investigated non-invasively with Raman spectroscopy. The particular mixture of major macromolecules present in a cell being probed are reflected in the measured Raman spectra. Determining macromolecular identities and estimating their concentrations from these mixture Raman spectra can distinguish cell types and otherwise enable biological research. However, the application of canonical multivariate methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), to perform spectral unmixing yields mathematical solutions that can be difficult to interpret...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937016/impact-of-usage-of-personal-music-systems-on-oto-acoustic-emissions-among-medical-students
#7
Prasanth G Narahari, Jayashree Bhat, Arivudai Nambi, Anshul Arora
BACKGROUND: Intact hearing is essential for medical students and physicians for communicating with patients and appreciating internal sounds with a stethoscope. With the increased use of (PMSs), they are exposed to high sound levels and are at a risk of developing hearing loss. The effect of long term personal music system (PMS) usage on auditory sensitivity has been well established. Our study has reported the immediate and short term effect of PMS usage on hearing especially among medical professionals...
September 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936941/-diagnostics-in-memory-loss-for-whom-what-and-when
#8
E Richard, E P Moll van Charante
With the advancement of diagnostic tests, the call for an ever-earlier diagnosis of people with memory problems is becoming louder. Diagnostic tests for people with mild cognitive impairment are in fact prognostic tests, complicating the application and interpretation of test results. There is currently insufficient evidence on the incremental diagnostic (or prognostic) value of specific diagnostic tests including MRI, CSF and PET scanning in representative memory clinic populations. Labelling large groups of people who may never develop dementia as having prodromal Alzheimer's disease may be more harmful than a postponed nosological diagnosis in those with mild cognitive impairment...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936887/interpretation-of-correlations-in-clinical-research
#9
Man Hung, Jerry Bounsanga, Maren Wright Voss
BACKGROUND: Critically analyzing research is a key skill in evidence-based practice and requires knowledge of research methods, results interpretation, and applications, all of which rely on a foundation based in statistics. Evidence-based practice makes high demands on trained medical professionals to interpret an ever-expanding array of research evidence. OBJECTIVE: As clinical training emphasizes medical care rather than statistics, it is useful to review the basics of statistical methods and what they mean for interpreting clinical studies...
September 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936690/correlation-and-agreement-between-language-environment-analysis-lena%C3%A2-and-manual-transcription-for-dutch-natural-language-recordings
#10
Tobias Busch, Anouk Sangen, Filiep Vanpoucke, Astrid van Wieringen
The Language ENvironment Analysis system (LENA™) automatically analyzes the natural sound environments of children. Among other things, it estimates the amounts of adult words (AWC), child vocalizations (CV), conversational turns (CT), and electronic media (TV) that a child is exposed to. To assess LENA's reliability, we compared it to manual transcription. Specifically, we calculated the correlation and agreement between the LENA estimates and manual counts for 48 five-min audio samples. These samples were selected from eight day-long recordings of six Dutch-speaking children (ages 2-5)...
September 21, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936199/bone-status-in-a-patient-with-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-deletion-syndrome-bone-quality-and-structure-evaluation-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography-and-quantitative-ultrasonography
#11
Paola Pelosi, Elisabetta Lapi, Loredana Cavalli, Alberto Verrotti, Marilena Pantaleo, Maurizio de Martino, Stefano Stagi
Haploinsufficiency of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor (IGF1R) gene is a rare, probably under-diagnosed, cause of short stature. However, the effects of IGF1R haploinsufficiency on glucose metabolism, bone status, and metabolism have rarely been investigated. We report the case of a patient referred to our center at the age of 18 months for short stature, failure to thrive, and Silver-Russell-like phenotype. Genetic analysis did not show hypomethylation of the 11p15.5 region or uniparental disomy of chromosome 7...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936189/psychometric-properties-of-language-assessments-for-children-aged-4-12-years-a-systematic-review
#12
Deborah Denman, Renée Speyer, Natalie Munro, Wendy M Pearce, Yu-Wei Chen, Reinie Cordier
Introduction: Standardized assessments are widely used by speech pathologists in clinical and research settings to evaluate the language abilities of school-aged children and inform decisions about diagnosis, eligibility for services and intervention. Given the significance of these decisions, it is important that assessments have sound psychometric properties. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the psychometric quality of currently available comprehensive language assessments for school-aged children and identify assessments with the best evidence for use...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935936/evidence-of-auditory-insensitivity-to-vocalization-frequencies-in-two-frogs
#13
Sandra Goutte, Matthew J Mason, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Fernando Montealegre-Z, Benedict D Chivers, Fabio A Sarria-S, Marta M Antoniazzi, Carlos Jared, Luciana Almeida Sato, Luís Felipe Toledo
The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discrimination from background noise and heterospecific calls. However, we present here evidence that two anurans, Brachycephalus ephippium and B. pitanga, are insensitive to the sound of their own calls. Both species produce advertisement calls outside their hearing sensitivity range and their inner ears are partly undeveloped, which accounts for their lack of high-frequency sensitivity...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935231/pandemic-legislation-in-the-european-union-fit-for-purpose-the-need-for-a-systematic-comparison-of-national-laws
#14
Elizabeth M Speakman, Scott Burris, Richard Coker
Sound governance is central to effective pandemic management. Key international legal instruments governing pandemic management in the European Union (EU): the International Health Regulations (2005) and Decision 1082/13 require EU Member States to develop national plans and invite them to establish national legal frameworks to support compliance with this international legislation. Although Member States may design the legal framework as they choose, the strongest instrument of pandemic governance is national legislation...
September 1, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935209/establishment-and-analysis-of-false-vocal-folds-hypertrophy-model-in-excised-canine-larynges
#15
Yanchao Jiao, Ruiqing Wang, Qingkai Zeng, Xinlin Xu, Yu Zhang, Bobby Leggon, Jack Jiang, Peiyun Zhuang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the role of false vocal folds (FVFs) medialization in phonation and the acoustic impact of ventricular hypertrophy by establishing an FVF hypertrophy model. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective in vitro experiment was carried out. SETTING: The study was carried out using a pseudolung platform with high-speed camera in a soundproof room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Control, degree I, and degree II FVFs hypertrophy were simulated in 10 excised larynges via fructose injection of 0...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934448/cervical-spine-deformity-part-2-management-algorithm-and-anterior-techniques
#16
Lee A Tan, K Daniel Riew, Vincent C Traynelis
A sound operative plan based on solid understanding of the pathology and biomechanics is the most important part of cervical deformity correction. Many different surgical options exist for operative management of cervical spine deformities. However, selecting the correct approach that ensures the optimal clinical outcome can be challenging and often controversial. In Part 2 of this three-part review series, we discuss the pre-operative planning, management algorithm, and anterior surgical techniques for cervical deformity correction...
October 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934268/the-physics-of-unwound-and-wound-strings-on-the-electric-guitar-applied-to-the-pitch-intervals-produced-by-tremolo-vibrato-arm-systems
#17
Jonathan A Kemp
The physics of wound and unwound strings on the electric guitar are presented here, and the pitch intervals produced by the movements of a Fender Stratocaster tremolo unit are explained. Predicted changes in pitch sensitivity of different strings are given, and experimentally verified, for changes in saddle height, the distance of string free to move behind the nut and ratio of diameters/masses of the core and windings of wound strings. Also, it is shown that changes to the gauge of strings (assuming the string tension is sufficient for linear behaviour and in absence of changes to other construction details) don't alter the pitch intervals produced by a given angle of tremolo arm use assuming the instrument is set up with the same sounding pitches and starting bridge angle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933893/contextual-variability-and-exemplar-strength-in-phonotactic-learning
#18
Thomas Denby, Jeffrey Schecter, Sean Arn, Svetlin Dimov, Matthew Goldrick
Phonotactics-constraints on the position and combination of speech sounds within syllables-are subject to statistical differences that gradiently affect speaker and listener behavior (e.g., Vitevitch & Luce, 1999). What statistical properties drive the acquisition of such constraints? Because they are naturally highly correlated, previous work has been unable to dissociate the contribution of 2 properties: contextual variability (the number of unique phonological contexts in which a phonotactic pattern appears) and exemplar strength (the overall number of times the pattern appears)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933763/a-critical-review-of-surveys-emphasizing-on-routing-in-wireless-sensor-networks-an-anatomization-under-general-survey-design-framework
#19
REVIEW
Waqas Rehan, Stefan Fischer, Maaz Rehan
A large number of routing-related surveys are published so far for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that exhibit either complete or partial emphasis on routing in WSNs. These surveys classify and discuss the relevant routing protocols published mainly in the fields of classical, energy efficient, secure, hierarchical, geographic, intelligent, Quality of Service (QoS)-based and multipath WSNs. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study is presented so far which may clearly categorize the routing-related survey literature for WSNs...
July 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933762/effects-of-ambient-temperature-and-relative-humidity-on-subsurface-defect-detection-in-concrete-structures-by-active-thermal-imaging
#20
Quang Huy Tran, Dongyeob Han, Choonghyun Kang, Achintya Haldar, Jungwon Huh
Active thermal imaging is an effective nondestructive technique in the structural health monitoring field, especially for concrete structures not exposed directly to the sun. However, the impact of meteorological factors on the testing results is considerable and should be studied in detail. In this study, the impulse thermography technique with halogen lamps heat sources is used to detect defects in concrete structural components that are not exposed directly to sunlight and not significantly affected by the wind, such as interior bridge box-girders and buildings...
July 26, 2017: Sensors
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