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K K Davison, C E Blake, A Kachurak, J C Lumeng, D L Coffman, A L Miller, S O Hughes, T G Power, A F Vaughn, R E Blaine, N Younginer, J O Fisher
Snacking makes significant contributions to children's dietary intake but is poorly understood from a parenting perspective. This research was designed to develop and evaluate the psychometrics of a theoretically grounded, empirically-informed measure of snack parenting. The Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire (P-SNAQ) was developed using a conceptual model derived from current theory and mixed-methods research to include 20 hypothesized snack parenting practices along 4 parenting dimensions (autonomy support, structure, coercive control and permissiveness)...
February 20, 2018: Appetite
Stefania S Moro, Jennifer K E Steeves
Previously, we have shown that people who have had one eye surgically removed early in life during visual development have enhanced sound localization [1] and lack visual dominance, commonly observed in binocular and monocular (eye-patched) viewing controls [2]. Despite these changes, people with one eye integrate auditory and visual components of multisensory events optimally [3]. The current study investigates how people with one eye perceive the McGurk effect, an audiovisual illusion where a new syllable is perceived when visual lip movements do not match the corresponding sound [4]...
February 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Greg D Watkins, Brett A Swanson, Gregg J Suaning
OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implant (CI) sound processing strategies are usually evaluated in clinical studies involving experienced implant recipients. Metrics which estimate the capacity to perceive speech for a given set of audio and processing conditions provide an alternative means to assess the effectiveness of processing strategies. The aim of this research was to assess the ability of the output signal to noise ratio (OSNR) to accurately predict speech perception. It was hypothesized that compared with the other metrics evaluated in this study (1) OSNR would have equivalent or better accuracy and (2) OSNR would be the most accurate in the presence of variable levels of speech presentation...
February 22, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Lesley Pritchard-Wiart, Shanon K Phelan
OBJECTIVES: The three objectives of this scoping review were to (1) identify key conceptual/theoretical frameworks and the extent to which they are used to inform goal setting related to rehabilitation goal setting with children with motor disabilities, (2) describe research that has evaluated goal setting processes and outcomes, and (3) summarize the purposes of goal setting described in paediatric rehabilitation literature. METHODS: The scoping review process described by Arksey and O'Malley was used to guide article selection and data extraction...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Li Zhao, Xueqing Li, Zhimin Shi
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical therapeutic effects on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) treated with electroacupuncture (EA), sparse-dense wave and 2 Hz/15 Hz, at Dachangshu (BL 25) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) assisting ulinastetin and explore the effective therapeutic method for SAP. METHODS: A total of 120 patients of SAP were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 60 cases in each one. In the control group, the routine western medicine was adopted with the intravenous drip with ulinastatin...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Lingxi Lu, Xiaohan Bao, Jing Chen, Tianshu Qu, Xihong Wu, Liang Li
Under a noisy "cocktail-party" listening condition with multiple people talking, listeners can use various perceptual/cognitive unmasking cues to improve recognition of the target speech against informational speech-on-speech masking. One potential unmasking cue is the emotion expressed in a speech voice, by means of certain acoustical features. However, it was unclear whether emotionally conditioning a target-speech voice that has none of the typical acoustical features of emotions (i.e., an emotionally neutral voice) can be used by listeners for enhancing target-speech recognition under speech-on-speech masking conditions...
February 22, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Alyssa W Accomando, Carlos E Vargas-Irwin, James A Simmons
Bats emit biosonar pulses in complex temporal patterns that change to accommodate dynamic surroundings. Efforts to quantify these patterns have included analyses of inter-pulse intervals, sonar sound groups, and changes in individual signal parameters such as duration or frequency. Here, the similarity in temporal structure between trains of biosonar pulses is assessed. The spike train similarity space (SSIMS) algorithm, originally designed for neural activity pattern analysis, was applied to determine which features of the environment influence temporal patterning of pulses emitted by flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus ...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Hyunyong Shim, Seungwan Lee, Miseung Koo, Jinsook Kim
Background and Objectives: To prevent noise induced hearing losses caused by listening to music with personal listening devices for young adults, this study was aimed to measure output levels of an MP3 and to identify preferred listening levels (PLLs) depending on earphone types, music genres, and listening durations. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-two normal hearing young adults (mean=18.82, standard deviation=0.57) participated. Each participant was asked to select his or her most PLLs when listened to Korean ballade or dance music with an earbud or an over-the-ear earphone for 30 or 60 minutes...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Audiology & Otology
A R Crane, R R Redden, M S Crouse, J D Kirsch, P P Borowicz, J E Held, K C Swanson, C S Schauer
The hypothesis of this experiment was that increasing the inclusion level of distiller's dried grains (DDGS) in the diets would decrease semen quality but have no negative effects on growth performance. Following the removal of DDGS from the diet, it was hypothesized that the ram lambs would recover and become reproductively sound, independent of treatment. To test this hypothesis, Suffolk and Hampshire ram lambs (n = 112) were allocated to four treatments (n = 4 pens/treatment; 7 rams/pen) in a completely randomized design...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Li-Mei Chen, Katherine C Hustad, Ray D Kent, Yu Ching Lin
Purpose: This study explored the speech characteristics of Mandarin-speaking children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) children to determine (a) how children in the 2 groups may differ in their speech patterns and (b) the variables correlated with speech intelligibility for words and sentences. Method: Data from 6 children with CP and a clinical diagnosis of moderate dysarthria were compared with data from 9 TD children using a multiple speech subsystems approach...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Dayse Távora-Vieira, Andre Wedekind, Roberta Marino, Suzanne C Purdy, Gunesh P Rajan
OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) to verify, and if necessary, optimize the cochlear implant (CI) fitting of adult CI users with postlingual single-sided deafness (SSD). METHODS: Sound field cortical responses to the speech tokens /m/, /g/, /t/, and /s/ were recorded from input to the CI while the normal hearing ear was masked. Responses were evaluated by visual inspection and classified as presence or absence of the CAEPs components P1, N1, P2...
2018: PloS One
Scott Sinnett, Cj Maglinti, Alan Kingstone
BACKGROUND: Grunting is pervasive in many athletic contests, and empirical evidence suggests that it may result in one exerting more physical force. It may also distract one's opponent. That grunts can distract was supported by a study showing that it led to an opponent being slower and more error prone when viewing tennis shots. An alternative explanation was that grunting masks the sound of a ball being hit. The present study provides evidence against this alternative explanation by testing the effect of grunting in a sport-mixed martial arts-where distraction, rather than masking, is the most likely mechanism...
2018: PloS One
Judi A Lapsley Miller, Charlotte M Reed, Sarah R Robinson, Zachary D Perez
OBJECTIVES: Clinical pure-tone audiometry is conducted using stimuli delivered through supra-aural headphones or insert earphones. The stimuli are calibrated in an acoustic (average ear) coupler. Deviations in individual-ear acoustics from the coupler acoustics affect test validity, and variations in probe insertion and headphone placement affect both test validity and test-retest reliability. Using an insert earphone designed for otoacoustic emission testing, which contains a microphone and loudspeaker, an individualized in-the-ear calibration can be calculated from the ear-canal sound pressure measured at the microphone...
February 21, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Lene Seibæk, Dorthe Hjort Jakobsen, Claus Høgdall
OBJECTIVE: Quality of preoperative and postoperative care is crucial to improve postoperative outcome of cancer surgery and to ensure that neither complications nor a poor general condition delays any subsequent radiochemotherapy or recovery. On this background, the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) established a nursing database in 2011. The aim of DGCD Nursing is to monitor the quality of preoperative and postoperative care and to generate data for research. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In accordance with the current data protection legislation, real-time data are entered by clinical nurses at all national cancer centers...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
S C Jayasankaran, P G Chelakkot, K Thankappan, S Iyer, S Moorthy
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in tumors of anterior two-thirds of tongue has a significant role in assessing different tumor parameters, and in prognosticating. AIM: This prospective study conducted in a tertiary cancer care center, focused on patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anterior two-thirds of tongue. The significance of invasion of paralingual and sublingual spaces in relation to the pathological grade of these tumors, and its predictive value in pathological nodal involvement were analyzed...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Alissa H Cox, José A Amador
Historically, much of the New England landscape was converted to pasture for grazing animals and harvesting hay. Both consumer demand for local sustainably produced food, and the number of small farms is increasing in RI, highlighting the importance of characterizing the effects livestock have on the quality of pasture soils. To assess how livestock affect pasture on Charlton and Canton soils series in RI, we examined soil quality in farms raising beef cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and horses (Equus ferus caballus), using hayed pastures as a control...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Kristin L Laidre, Erik W Born, Stephen N Atkinson, Øystein Wiig, Liselotte W Andersen, Nicholas J Lunn, Markus Dyck, Eric V Regehr, Richard McGovern, Patrick Heagerty
Climate change is expected to result in range shifts and habitat fragmentation for many species. In the Arctic, loss of sea ice will reduce barriers to dispersal or eliminate movement corridors, resulting in increased connectivity or geographic isolation with sweeping implications for conservation. We used satellite telemetry, data from individually marked animals (research and harvest), and microsatellite genetic data to examine changes in geographic range, emigration, and interpopulation connectivity of the Baffin Bay (BB) polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) subpopulation over a 25-year period of sea-ice loss...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Renee E Shimizu, Patrick M Connolly, Nicola Cellini, Diana M Armstrong, Lexus T Hernandez, Rolando Estrada, Mario Aguilar, Michael P Weisend, Sara C Mednick, Stephen B Simons
Sounds associated with newly learned information that are replayed during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep can improve recall in simple tasks. The mechanism for this improvement is presumed to be reactivation of the newly learned memory during sleep when consolidation takes place. We have developed an EEG-based closed-loop system to precisely deliver sensory stimulation at the time of down-state to up-state transitions during NREM sleep. Here, we demonstrate that applying this technology to participants performing a realistic navigation task in virtual reality results in a significant improvement in navigation efficiency after sleep that is accompanied by increases in the spectral power especially in the fast (12-15 Hz) sleep spindle band...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rebecca W Gelding, Yanan Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jennifer J Brout, Miren Edelstein, Mercede Erfanian, Michael Mannino, Lucy J Miller, Romke Rouw, Sukhbinder Kumar, M Zachary Rosenthal
Misophonia is a neurobehavioral syndrome phenotypically characterized by heightened autonomic nervous system arousal and negative emotional reactivity (e. g., irritation, anger, anxiety) in response to a decreased tolerance for specific sounds. The aims of this review are to (a) characterize the current state of the field of research on misophonia, (b) highlight what can be inferred from the small research literature to inform treatment of individuals with misophonia, and (c) outline an agenda for research on this topic...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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