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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775475/perceptions-of-community-safety-and-social-activity-participation-among-youth-in-south-africa
#1
Nicole De Wet, Oluwaseyi Somefun, Ndivhuwo Rambau
BACKGROUND: Crime and violence causes massive disruptions to the health, survival and development of populations. In South Africa, incredibly high rates of crime and violence are noted. The country also has a very large youth population whose health, survival and development are key to economic growth. Among other efforts to encourage healthy youth development and the promotion of social activities such as sports, youth groups, choirs and so forth. This study examines the relationship between perceived community safety and the uptake of social activities among youth in South Africa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770828/ozone-mediated-synthesis-of-ceria-nanoparticles
#2
Anuja Bhalkikar, Tai-Sing Wu, Chris M Marin, Tamra J Fisher, Meiyu Wang, Isaac H Wells, Anandakumar Sarella, Yun-Liang Soo, Chin Li Cheung
We report a rapid, room temperature methodology to synthesize fluorite-structured ceria nanoparticles using cerium(iii) salts and ozone in the presence of short chain primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols. This simple technique produced nanoparticles with higher oxygen vacancy compared to that of bulk ceria.
May 17, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770295/recent-innovations-in-perfusion-and-cardiopulmonary-bypass-for-neonatal-and-infant-cardiac-surgery
#3
REVIEW
David Sturmer, Claude Beaty, Sean Clingan, Eric Jenkins, Whitney Peters, Ming-Sing Si
The development and refinement of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has made the repair of complex congenital heart defects possible in neonates and infants. In the past, the primary goal for these procedures was patient survival. Now that substantial survival rates have been achieved for even the most complex of repairs in these patients, focus has been given to the reduction of morbidity. Although a necessity for these complex neonatal and infant heart defect repairs, CPB can also be an important source of perioperative complications...
April 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770289/innovation-in-pediatric-cardiac-care
#4
Ming-Sing Si
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769253/effectiveness-of-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-on-elderly-long-term-cancer-survivors-a-population-based-propensity-score-matched-cohort-study
#5
Wen-Yen Chiou, Moon-Sing Lee, Shih-Kai Hung, Hon-Yi Lin, Yuan-Chen Lo, Feng-Chun Hsu, Shiang-Jiun Tsai, Chung-Yi Li
OBJECTIVE: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in 2012 recommended the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for adults with high risk of pneumonia. However, its effectiveness in cancer survivors has not been investigated. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of PPSV23 in these patients. DESIGN: Population-based matched cohort study. SETTING: Claim data were obtained from 1 million people registered with the National Health Insurance Research Database in 1996, and followed to 2010...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769074/delay-in-reviewing-test-results-prolongs-hospital-length-of-stay-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Mei-Sing Ong, Farah Magrabi, Enrico Coiera
BACKGROUND: Failure in the timely follow-up of test results has been widely documented, contributing to delayed medical care. Yet, the impact of delay in reviewing test results on hospital length of stay (LOS) has not been studied. We examine the relationship between laboratory tests review time and hospital LOS. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of inpatients admitted to a metropolitan teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia, between 2011 and 2012 (n = 5804)...
May 16, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769016/whole-genome-sequencing-data-of-1110-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-identifies-insertions-and-deletions-associated-with-drug-resistance
#7
Xi Zeng, Jamie Sui-Lam Kwok, Kevin Yi Yang, Kenneth Siu-Sing Leung, Mai Shi, Zhiyuan Yang, Wing-Cheong Yam, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the major challenges in tuberculosis (TB) treatment. However, known mutations cannot explain all of the cases of resistance and little research has focused on the relationship between insertions / deletions (indels) and drug resistance. RESULTS: Here, we retrieved whole genome sequencing data of 743 drug-resistant MTB strains and 367 pan-susceptible strains from TB patients from the public domain to identify novel genomic markers of drug resistance...
May 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765635/poor-neuro-motor-tuning-of-the-human-larynx-a-comparison-of-sung-and-whistled-pitch-imitation
#8
Michel Belyk, Joseph F Johnson, Sonja A Kotz
Vocal imitation is a hallmark of human communication that underlies the capacity to learn to speak and sing. Even so, poor vocal imitation abilities are surprisingly common in the general population and even expert vocalists cannot match the precision of a musical instrument. Although humans have evolved a greater degree of control over the laryngeal muscles that govern voice production, this ability may be underdeveloped compared with control over the articulatory muscles, such as the tongue and lips, volitional control of which emerged earlier in primate evolution...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760933/a-brief-review-of-relationship-between-occupational-benzene-exposure-and-hematopoietic-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Jin-Ha Yoon, Woo Seok Kwak, Yeon-Soon Ahn
We reviewed articles to clarify the current evidence status for 1) types of cancer which related to benzene exposure, and 2) certain benzene exposure level which might cause the hematopoietic cancers. Hematopoietic function of the bone marrow is involved in the production of all blood cells types. The benzene metabolites including benzoquinone and mucoaldehyde affect hematopoietic stem cells as well as differentiation steps of progenitor cells for each blood cell. Hence, we concluded that benzene was associated with all lymphohematic carcinogenesis...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757080/singing-for-lung-health-service-evaluation-of-the-british-lung-foundation-programme
#10
A Lewis, P Cave, N S Hopkinson
AIMS: Singing for Lung Health (SLH) is a novel intervention for individuals with respiratory disease. Qualitative results suggest benefits to physical, mental and emotional health. Limited data also suggest objective improvements in measures of quality of life with SLH are achievable. It is not known how effective the SLH groups supported by the British Lung Foundation (BLF) in the UK are. The objective was to understand the clinical impact SLH has on individuals with respiratory disease...
May 1, 2018: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757061/exercise-induced-laryngeal-obstruction-in-athletes-contributory-factors-and-treatment-implications
#11
Liv-Jorunn Kolnes, Trine Stensrud
Otherwise healthy adolescent athletes presenting with respiratory symptoms consistent with exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) are frequently encountered in clinical practice. The symptoms are often incorrectly considered to result from exercise-induced asthma, and may be wrongly treated as such. Given the potential implications for health and performance if EILO is left untreated, a more comprehensive understanding of contributory mechanisms is essential in order to create appropriate treatment procedures...
May 14, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747624/association-of-wrist-and-forearm-range-of-motion-measures-with-self-reported-functional-scores-amongst-patients-with-distal-radius-fractures-a-longitudinal-study
#12
Zixian Yang, Peggy Poh Hoon Lim, Sing Hwee Teo, Huiwen Chen, Huaying Qiu, Yong Hao Pua
BACKGROUND: Patients with distal radius fractures (DRF) often have limited range-of-motion (ROM) in multiple planes of movement. No studies have comprehensively examined the impact of various ROM limitations on physical function. METHODS: We performed a multi-center, longitudinal study of 138 patients with conservatively managed DRF. ROM measures were taken at initial evaluation, and at 4 and 8 weeks later. Self-reported physical function was indexed by the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH)...
May 11, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747214/intestinal-perforation-due-to-deep-infiltrating-endometriosis-during-pregnancy-case-report
#13
Márcia Mendonça Carneiro, Luciana Maria Pyramo Costa, Maria Das Graças Torres, Patrícia Salomé Gouvea, Ivete de Ávila
We report the case of a 33 year-old woman who complained of severe dysmenorrhea since menarche. From 2003 to 2009, she underwent 4 laparoscopies for the treatment of pain associated with endometriosis. After all four interventions, the pain recurred despite the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues and the insertion of a levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). Finally, a colonoscopy performed in 2010 revealed rectosigmoid stenosis probably due to extrinsic compression. The patient was advised to get pregnant before treating the intestinal lesion...
April 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745213/-bacterial-quorum-sensing-cooperation-and-cheating
#14
Bai Min Lai, Mei Zhen Wang, Dong Sheng Shen
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication, regulates a variety of social beha-viors, such as biofilm formation, public goods produce and gene horizontal transfer of bacteria. In the process of quorum sensing, public goods could be utilized by any members in the population, which was termed as cooperation. Notably, public goods also could be shared by the individuals who could not produce them, which was termed as cheating. Once cheaters come up, they possibly maintain equilibrium with cooperators, meanwhile they also possibly induce the collapse of population due to their rapid growth and shortage of public goods...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745184/-quantitative-apportionment-of-slope-aspect-and-altitude-to-soil-moisture-and-temperature-and-plant-distribution-on-alpine-meadow
#15
Yu Jie Niu, Jian Wei Zhou, Si Wei Yang, Gui Zhen Wang, Li Liu, Li Min Hua
For understanding the effect of aspect and altitude of hill on soil moisture and temperature as well as the vegetation community, we selected an alpine meadow located on a hill in north-eastern Tibet Plateau as our study area. Data on soil moisture and temperature, as well as plant distribution pattern in this mountain ecosystem were collected. We used regression analysis, CCA ordination and variance decomposition, to determine the impacts of the key factors (aspect, altitude, soil temperature and moisture) on plant diversity distribution in 189 sample sites of the hill...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744914/association-of-alendronate-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-hip-fracture
#16
Chor-Wing Sing, Angel Ys Wong, Douglas P Kiel, Elaine Yn Cheung, Joanne Ky Lam, Tommy T Cheung, Esther W Chan, Annie Wc Kung, Ian Ck Wong, Ching-Lung Cheung
The risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) with alendronate use in real-world hip fracture patients is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the risk of CVE with and without use of alendronate in patients with hip fracture. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a population-wide database managed by the Hong Kong Hospital Authority. Patients newly diagnosed with hip fracture from 2005 through 2013 were followed until November 6, 2016. Alendronate and other antiosteoporosis medications use during the study period were examined...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744890/genetic-influences-on-musical-specialization-a-twin-study-on-choice-of-instrument-and-music-genre
#17
Miriam A Mosing, Fredrik Ullén
Though several studies show that genetic factors influence individual differences in musical engagement, aptitude, and achievement, no study to date has investigated whether specialization among musically active individuals in terms of choice of instrument and genre is heritable. Using a large twin cohort, we explored whether individual differences in instrument choice, instrument category, and the type of music individuals engage in can entirely be explained by the environment or are partly due to genetic influences...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743680/synergistic-effect-of-renalase-and-chronic-kidney-disease-on-endothelin-1-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-%C3%A2-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Yu-Hsuan Li, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Wen-Jane Lee, Jun -Sing Wang, Chia-Po Fu, Kae-Woei Liang, I-Te Lee
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and vasoconstriction. Increased circulating ET-1 levels are associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality. Renalase, released from kidney, metabolizes catecholamines and regulates blood pressure. An increase in circulating renalase levels has been reported in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized the existence of a synergistic effect of serum renalase levels and CKD on ET-1 levels in patients with CAD...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742738/percutaneous-cholecystostomy-for-high-risk-patients-with-acute-cholangitis
#19
Yan-Lin Li, Kin-Hoi Wong, Keith Wan-Hang Chiu, Andrew Kai-Chun Cheng, Ronald Kin-On Cheung, Max Kai-Ho Yam, Angie Lok-Chi Chan, Victor Siang-Hua Chan, Martin Wai-Ming Law, Paul Sing-Fun Lee
Percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) is a well-established treatment for acute cholecystitis. We investigate the performance and role of PC in managing acute cholangitis.Retrospective review on all patients who underwent PC for acute cholangitis between January 2012 and June 2017 at a major regional hospital in Hong Kong.Thirty-two patients were included. The median age was 84 years and median American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status was Class III (severe systemic disease). All fulfilled Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13) diagnostic criteria for moderate or severe cholangitis...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741704/incidence-and-predictors-of-hbsag-loss-after-peginterferon-therapy-in-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-multicenter-long-term-follow-up-study
#20
I-Cheng Lee, Sien-Sing Yang, Chieh-Ju Lee, Chien-Wei Su, Yuan-Jen Wang, Keng-Hsin Lan, Han-Chieh Lin, Ming-Chih Hou, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Yi-Hsiang Huang
Background: The long-term incidence and factors associated with HBsAg loss in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving peginterferon is rarely reported. Methods: From 2004 to 2016, 233 HBeAg-negative CHB patients who completed 48 weeks of peginterferon treatment from three medical centers in Taiwan were retrospectively enrolled. Results: During a median follow-up of 7.4 years, 27 cases achieved HBsAg loss. The cumulative incidences of HBsAg loss and HBsAg seroconversion at 3, 5, 10 years after peginterferon treatment were 4...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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