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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087658/are-winter-and-summer-dormancy-symmetrical-seasonal-adaptive-strategies-the-case-of-temperate-herbaceous-perennials
#1
REVIEW
Lauren M Gillespie, Florence A Volaire
BACKGROUND: Dormancy in higher plants is an adaptive response enabling plant survival during the harshest seasons and has been more explored in woody species than in herbaceous species. Nevertheless, winter and summer shoot meristem dormancy are adaptive strategies that could play a major role in enhancing seasonal stress tolerance and resilience of widespread herbaceous plant communities. SCOPE: This review outlines the symmetrical aspects of winter and summer dormancy in order to better understand plant adaptation to severe stress, and highlight research priorities in a changing climate...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086861/managing-shades-of-grey-a-focus-group-study-exploring-community-dwellers-views-on-advance-care-planning-in-older-people
#2
Natasha Michael, Clare O'Callaghan, Emma Sayers
BACKGROUND: Community-dwelling consumers of healthcare are increasing, many aging with life-limiting conditions and deteriorating cognition. However, few have had advance care planning discussions or completed documentation to ensure future care preferences are acted upon. This study examines the awareness, attitudes, and experiences of advance care planning amongst older people and unrelated offspring/caregivers of older people residing in the community. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive research, which included focus groups with older people (55+ years) and older people's offspring/caregivers living in an Australian city and surrounding rural region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081575/what-arthroscopic-skills-need-to-be-trained-before-continuing-safe-training-in-the-operating-room
#3
Gabrielle Tuijthof, Federico Cabitza, Vincenza Ragone, Riccardo Compagnoni, Pietro Randelli
The purpose of this study was to generate consensus among experienced surgeons on "what skills a resident should possess before continuing safe training in the operating room (OR)." An online survey of 65 questions was developed and distributed to surgeons in the European community. A total of 216 responded. The survey included 15 questions regarding generic and specific skills; 16 on patient and tissue manipulation, 11 on knowledge of pathology and 6 on inspection of e-anatomical structures; 5 methods to prepare residents; and 12 on specific skills exercises...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079646/public-health-agency-accreditation-among-rural-local-health-departments-influencers-and-barriers
#4
Kate E Beatty, Paul Campbell Erwin, Ross C Brownson, Michael Meit, James Fey
OBJECTIVE: Health department accreditation is a crucial strategy for strengthening public health infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to investigate local health department (LHD) characteristics that are associated with accreditation-seeking behavior. This study sought to ascertain the effects of rurality on the likelihood of seeking accreditation through the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using secondary data from the 2013 National Association of County & City Health Officials (NACCHO) National Profile of Local Health Departments Study (Profile Study)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078831/perception-on-the-abortion-laws-in-sri-lanka-a-community-based-study-in-the-city-of-colombo
#5
M S Suranga, K T Silva, L Senanayake
Introduction: Abortion is legally permitted in Sri Lanka, only if it is performed to save the mother’s life. However, it is estimated that a large number of induced abortions take place in Sri Lanka. Knowledge and attitudes towards induced abortion in the society are key issues influencing the policy response towards changes in the law. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of adults towards induced abortion in Sri Lanka. Methods: Six Grama Niladhari Divisions (GNDs) and five to eight housing clusters from each GND were selected from Thimbirigasyaya Divisional Secretariat Division using multi stage stratified random sampling...
30, 2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076942/prevalence-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-suburban-district-in-sri-lanka-a-population-based-study
#6
B H Sudasinghe, P S Ginige, C N Wijeyaratne
Introduction: GDM is a leading metabolic cause of morbidity to mother and offspring. Determining its prevalence is important for health planning and implementation. Objective: Assess prevalence of GDM in the District of Gampaha. Method: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted in women attending field-based ante-natal clinics in two Medical Officer of Health (MOH) areas between January 2014 to March 2015. Consecutive women were recruited by cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size using strict exclusion criteria...
30, 2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076589/time-volunteered-on-community-health-activities-by-brigadistas-in-nicaragua
#7
Meredith Adamo, Dixmer Rivera, Rashed Shah, Jeanne Koepsell, Leonel Martínez, Justo Pastor Ortiz, Carlos José Jarquín Navarrete, David R Marsh
Objective: To report on how brigadistas ("health brigadiers") in Nicaragua volunteer their time before the introduction of expanded responsibilities (beyond the scope of integrated community case management (iCCM)) for sick children 2-59 months old. Methods: Three complete teams of brigadistas (n = 12 brigadistas total) were selected from remote communities in the department of Matagalpa. Each respondent brigadista was interviewed privately regarding the frequency and duration (i...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076412/significant-local-scale-plant-insect-species-richness-relationship-independent-of-abiotic-effects-in-the-temperate-cape-floristic-region-biodiversity-hotspot
#8
Jurene E Kemp, Allan G Ellis
Globally plant species richness is a significant predictor of insect richness. Whether this is the result of insect diversity responding directly to plant diversity, or both groups responding in similar ways to extrinsic factors, has been much debated. Here we assess this relationship in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), a biodiversity hotspot. The CFR has higher plant diversity than expected from latitude (i.e., abiotic conditions), but very little is known about the diversity of insects residing in this region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076258/perspectives-of-primary-care-providers-toward-palliative-care-for-their-patients
#9
David Nowels, Jacqueline Jones, Carolyn T Nowels, Daniel Matlock
PURPOSE: The need for all providers to deliver basic palliative care has emerged as patients' needs outstrip the capacity of specialty palliative care. Many patients with complex illnesses have unmet needs and are seen in primary care more than other settings. We explore primary care providers' willingness and perceived capacity to provide basic palliative care, and their concerns and perceived barriers. METHODS: We performed semistructured telephone interviews with 20 primary care providers about their perceptions of palliative care, including needs, practices, experiences, access, and what would be helpful for their practices to systematically provide basic palliative care...
November 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074270/tree-leaf-litter-composition-drives-temporal-variation-in-aquatic-beetle-colonization-and-assemblage-structure-in-lentic-systems
#10
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
Tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater systems are a major resource and primary drivers of ecosystem processes and structure. Spatial variation in tree species distributions and forest composition control litter inputs across landscapes, but inputs to individual lentic habitat patches are determined by adjacent plant communities. In small, ephemeral, fishless ponds, resource quality and abundance can be the most important factor affecting habitat selection preferences of colonizing animals. We used a landscape of experimental mesocosms to assess how natural populations of aquatic beetles respond over time to variation in tree leaf litter composition (pine or hardwood)...
January 10, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073733/antibiotic-therapy-and-staphylococcal-skin-infections-in-a-tropical-malarial-zone-guyana-practices-in-conventional-and-exceptional-situations
#11
S-P Corcostegui, H Lefort, A Dia, V Pommier de Santi, C Carfantan, J Galant, E Lightburne, P Guénot, X Deparis, R Migliani, J-J Morand
A problem of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus skin infections emerged in the French armed forces in 2004, in a malaria-endemic areas. The high incidence rate led us to evaluate military staff practices. This was a cross-sectional survey of doctors and nurses deployed as officers in French Guyana since 2006. The definition of skin and soft-tissue infection came from the criteria for epidemiological surveillance of the armed forces. We studied the management of antibiotic therapy and its related difficulties...
November 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073386/disclosure-of-mental-health-problems-findings-from-an-australian-national-survey
#12
N J Reavley, A J Morgan, A F Jorm
AIMS: The aim of the current study was to carry out a national population-based survey to assess the proportion of people disclosing mental health problems in a variety of settings. A further aim was to explore respondent characteristics associated with disclosure. METHODS: In 2014, telephone interviews were carried out with 5220 Australians aged 18+, 1381 of whom reported a mental health problem or scored highly on a symptom screening questionnaire. Questions covered disclosure of mental health problems to friends, intimate partners, other family members, supervisors or other colleagues in the workplace, teachers, lecturers or other students in the educational institution, health professionals and others in the community...
January 11, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072418/microbial-community-dynamics-in-inferno-crater-lake-a-thermally-fluctuating-geothermal-spring
#13
Laura Ward, Michael W Taylor, Jean F Power, Bradley J Scott, Ian R McDonald, Matthew B Stott
Understanding how microbial communities respond and adjust to ecosystem perturbation is often difficult to interpret due to multiple and often simultaneous variations in observed conditions. In this research, we investigated the microbial community dynamics of Inferno Crater Lake, an acidic geothermal spring in New Zealand with a unique thermal cycle that varies between 30 and 80 °C over a period of 40-60 days. Using a combination of next-generation sequencing, geochemical analysis and quantitative PCR we found that the microbial community composition was predominantly chemolithotrophic and strongly associated with the thermal cycle...
January 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070273/describing-and-understanding-behavioral-responses-to-multiple-stressors-and-multiple-stimuli
#14
REVIEW
Robin Hale, Jeremy J Piggott, Stephen E Swearer
Understanding the effects of environmental change on natural ecosystems is a major challenge, particularly when multiple stressors interact to produce unexpected "ecological surprises" in the form of complex, nonadditive effects that can amplify or reduce their individual effects. Animals often respond behaviorally to environmental change, and multiple stressors can have both population-level and community-level effects. However, the individual, not combined, effects of stressors on animal behavior are commonly studied...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069086/fluctuations-in-money-availability-within-an-income-cycle-impacts-diet-quality-of-remote-indigenous-australians
#15
Thomas P Wycherley, Brita Ak Pekarsky, Megan M Ferguson, Kerin O'Dea, Julie K Brimblecombe
OBJECTIVE: To consider the plausible nutritional impacts of fluctuations in money availability within an income cycle for remote Indigenous Australians. DESIGN: Community-level dietary intake (energy, micro/macronutrients) and expenditure on foods and beverages (F&B) were estimated over one year for three remote Indigenous Australian communities (Northern Territory, Australia) using monthly F&B transaction data. F&B that were likely to be consumed during a period within an income cycle when money was relatively limited (low money period (LMP) foods) were identified by panel consensus and scenario modelling was conducted to simulate the nutritional outcomes of a range of F&B selection responses to having an LMP...
January 10, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068973/patterns-of-use-of-oral-health-care-services-and-barriers-to-dental-care-among-ambulatory-older-chilean
#16
Rodrigo Mariño, Rodrigo A Giacaman
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the patterns of use of oral health care services among ambulant 65-74 years or older adults, living in the Maule Region of Chile, factors associated with their use of oral health care services, and self-reported barriers to using oral health care services. METHODS: Four hundred and thirty eight older adults, aged 65-74 years, living independently in the community were orally examined and underwent an oral health interview. Recency of visits was related to the use of oral health care services within the 12 months prior to the study...
January 9, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068378/mesopredator-management-effects-of-red-fox-control-on-the-abundance-diet-and-use-of-space-by-feral-cats
#17
Robyn Molsher, Alan E Newsome, Thomas M Newsome, Christopher R Dickman
Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators-mesopredators-often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo), has been extirpated by humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063185/soil-microbial-communities-are-shaped-by-vegetation-type-and-park-age-in-cities-under-cold-climate
#18
Nan Hui, Ari Jumpponen, Gaia Francini, D Johan Kotze, Xinxin Liu, Martin Romantschuk, Rauni Strömmer, Heikki Setälä
Soil microbes play a key role in controlling ecosystem functions and providing ecosystem services. Yet, microbial communities in urban green space soils remain poorly characterized. Here we compared soil microbial communities in 41 urban parks of (i) divergent plant functional types (evergreen trees, deciduous trees, lawn) and (ii) different ages (constructed 10, ∼50, and >100 years ago). These microbial communities were also compared to those in 5 control forests in southern Finland. Our results indicate that, despite frequent disturbances in urban parks, urban soil microbes still followed the classic patterns typical of plant-microbe associations in natural environments: both bacterial and fungal communities in urban parks responded to plant functional groups, but fungi were under tighter control of plants than bacteria...
January 7, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062932/prevalence-and-quality-of-individual-placement-and-support-ips-supported-employment-in-the-united-states
#19
Annalee Johnson-Kwochka, Gary R Bond, Deborah R Becker, Robert E Drake, Mary Ann Greene
The individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment for people with serious mental illness is an evidence-based practice. Factors including a national learning community promoting IPS and enforcement of the Supreme Court's Olmstead decision have spurred the growth of IPS nationwide. In this study we first evaluated the national prevalence and quality of IPS programs. We then evaluated the impact of learning community membership and Olmstead settlements on IPS program penetration and quality across the United States...
January 6, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062617/growth-differentiation-factor-15-as-a-biomarker-in-cardiovascular-disease
#20
REVIEW
Kai C Wollert, Tibor Kempf, Lars Wallentin
BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is expressed and secreted in response to inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, telomere erosion, and oncogene activation. Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major driver of GDF-15 production. GDF-15 has favorable preanalytic characteristics and can be measured in serum and plasma by immunoassay. CONTENT: In community-dwelling individuals higher concentrations of GDF-15 are associated with increased risks of developing CV disease, chronic kidney disease, and cancer, independent of traditional CV risk factors, renal function, and other biomarkers (C-reactive protein, B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin)...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
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