Read by QxMD icon Read

Community responder

Adam J Weiss, Torben Vestergaard-Frandsen, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Donald R Hopkins, Franklin Aseidu-Bekoe, David Agymang
Despite several periods of stagnating guinea worm disease (GWD) incidence in Ghana during its national eradication campaign in the 1990s and early 2000s, the last reported case of GWD was in May 2010. In July 2011, Ghana celebrated the interruption of guinea worm (GW) transmission. Although it has been established that GWD causes disability, pain, and socioeconomic hardship, there is a dearth of population-based evidence collected in post-GW-endemic countries to document the value attributed to GWD eradication by residents in formerly endemic communities...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jamie R Wood
Ancient samples present a number of technical challenges for DNA barcoding, including damaged DNA with low endogenous copy number and short fragment lengths. Nevertheless, techniques are available to overcome these issues, and DNA barcoding has now been used to successfully recover parasite DNA from a wide variety of ancient substrates, including coprolites, cesspit sediment, mummified tissues, burial sediments and permafrost soils. The study of parasite DNA from ancient samples can provide a number of unique scientific insights, for example: (1) into the parasite communities and health of prehistoric human populations; (2) the ability to reconstruct the natural parasite faunas of rare or extinct host species, which has implications for conservation management and de-extinction; and (3) the ability to view in 'real-time' processes that may operate over century- or millenial-timescales, such as how parasites responded to past climate change events or how they co-evolved alongside their hosts...
March 20, 2018: Parasitology
Brad E Dicianno, James Joseph, Stacy Eckstein, Christina K Zigler, Eleanor J Quinby, Mark R Schmeler, Richard M Schein, Jon Pearlman, Rory A Cooper
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the opinions of providers of mobility assistive technologies to help inform a research agenda and set priorities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This survey study was anonymous and gathered opinions of individuals who participate in the process to provide wheelchairs and other assistive technologies to clients. Participants were asked to rank the importance of developing various technologies and rank items against each other in terms of order of importance...
March 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Andreas Braun, Daksha P Trivedi, Angela Dickinson, Laura Hamilton, Claire Goodman, Heather Gage, Kunle Ashaye, Steve Iliffe, Jill Manthorpe
Background People living with dementia often develop distressing behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) that can affect their quality of life and the capacity of family carers and staff providing support at home. This systematic review of qualitative studies considers the views and experiences of people living with dementia and care providers about these symptoms and what helps to reduce their impact. Methods The two-stage review involved (a) An initial mapping of the literature to understand the range of BPSD, and how it is operationalised by different groups, to develop a search strategy; (b) A search of electronic databases from January 2000 to March 2015, updated in October 2016...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Olubukola Oyetunde, Veronika Williams
Background Oral rehydration salt (ORS) is an affordable and effective intervention for the management of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD), especially in children under 5 years. A knowledge/practice gap exists among community pharmacists (CPs) in Lagos, Nigeria, and in many low to middle income countries. This gap results in underutilization of ORS for diarrhoea management. Objective The objective was to explore CPs' views of the barriers and facilitators to the use of ORS in practice. Setting Community pharmacy practices, Lagos, Nigeria...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Bastian Hornung, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Hauke Smidt, Peter J Schaap
Humans are not autonomous entities. We are all living in a complex environment, interacting not only with our peers, but as true holobionts; we are also very much in interaction with our coexisting microbial ecosystems living on and especially within us, in the intestine. Intestinal microorganisms, often collectively referred to as intestinal microbiota, contribute significantly to our daily energy uptake by breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, which are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and subsequently absorbed by human cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Sheila N Garland, Hillary Rowe, Lily M Repa, Ken Fowler, Eric S Zhou, Michael A Grandner
INTRODUCTION: Insomnia is recognized as a public health issue. The objectives of this study were to characterize and compare the prevalence of insomnia symptoms in the Canadian population in 2002 and 2012, and to identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of trouble sleeping. METHODS: Data from adult participants in the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health cycles 2000-2002 (n = 34,118) and 2011-2012 (n = 23,089) were used. Participants responded to the question "How often do you have trouble going to sleep or staying asleep?", with those who indicated "most of the time" or "all of the time" classified as having insomnia symptoms...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Richard Sola, Valerie A Waddell, Shawn D St Peter, Pablo Aguayo, David Juang
INTRODUCTION: Non-accidental trauma (NAT) has significant societal and health care implications. Standardized care has been shown to improve outcomes. The purpose of our study was to survey trauma centers and elucidate the continued variable management of NAT. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, an email survey was sent to Level 1 and 2 ACS verified trauma centers along with general and pediatric surgery training programs. Trauma hospital characteristics and NAT management were analyzed...
March 10, 2018: Injury
Daniel Nyato, Evodius Kuringe, Mary Drake, Caterina Casalini, Soori Nnko, Amani Shao, Albert Komba, Stefan D Baral, Mwita Wambura, John Changalucha
BACKGROUND: Across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), HIV disproportionately affects men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) compared with other men of the same age group in the general population. Access to HIV services remains low among this group although several effective interventions have been documented. It is therefore important to identify what has worked well to increase the reach of HIV services among MSM. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, POPLINE and the Web of Science databases to collect published articles reporting HIV interventions among MSM across sub-Saharan Africa...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Kate A Leger, Susan T Charles, David M Almeida
The way we respond to life's daily stressors has strong implications for our physical health. Researchers have documented the detrimental effects of initial emotional reactivity to daily stressors on future physical health outcomes but have yet to examine the effects of emotions that linger after a stressor occurs. The current study investigated how negative affect that lingers the day after a minor stressor occurs is associated with health-related outcomes. Participants ( N = 1,155) in a community-based, nationwide study answered questions about daily stressors and affect across 8 consecutive days and about their physical health almost 10 years later...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Alexandra L Terrill, Maija Reblin, Justin J MacKenzie, Beth Cardell, Jackie Einerson, Cynthia A Berg, Jennifer J Majersik, Lorie Richards
OBJECTIVE: Stroke provides challenges for survivors and partner caregivers. Stroke survivors and caregivers are interconnected in their emotional health, including depression, a common stroke sequelae. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a dyadic positive psychology-based intervention (PPI) for couples coping poststroke. DESIGN: Community-dwelling couples consisted of 1 partner who had a stroke ≥6 months ago and a cohabiting partner caregiver...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Basma R Damiri, Hisham N Sandouka, Eiad H Janini, Omar N Yaish
BACKGROUND: Substance use has been an increasing problem in the occupied Palestinian territory for decades. The aim of this study was to describe the practice, knowledge, and attitudes associated with substance use by university students in the occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done in 2015. Male and female students from four main public universities in the West Bank were recruited to fill out a self-administered questionnaire...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Sathvik B Sridhar, Atiqulla Shariff, Lana Dallah, Doaa Anas, Maryam Ayman, Padma Gm Rao
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature, reasons, and consequences of self-medication practice among the general population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, survey-based study. Data with respect to knowledge, awareness, and practices regarding self-medication were collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire answered by the study participants. Thus, collected data from 413 survey respondents were analyzed using SPSS version 24...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
(no author information available yet)
The use of proton beam therapy (PBT) offers the opportunity to improve greater conformality of radiotherapy treatment delivery in some patients. However, it is associated with a high capital cost and the need to build new dedicated facilities. We discuss how the global radiotherapy community can respond to the challenge of producing high-quality evidence of clinical benefit from PBT in adult patients. In the UK, the National Cancer Research Institute-funded Clinical and Radiotherapy Translational group has established the PBT Clinical Trial Strategy Group...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Zhi-Wei Lai, Ryan Kelly, Thomas Winans, Ivan Marchena, Ashwini Shadakshari, Julie Yu, Maha Dawood, Ricardo Garcia, Hajra Tily, Lisa Francis, Stephen V Faraone, Paul E Phillips, Andras Perl
BACKGROUND: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have T-cell dysfunction that has been attributed to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Rapamycin inhibits antigen-induced T-cell proliferation and has been developed as a medication under the generic designation of sirolimus. We assessed safety, tolerance, and efficacy of sirolimus in a prospective, biomarker-driven, open-label clinical trial. METHODS: We did a single-arm, open-label, phase 1/2 trial of sirolimus in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus disease unresponsive to, or intolerant of, conventional medications at the State University of New York Upstate Medical University (Syracuse, NY, USA)...
March 15, 2018: Lancet
Saqib Mumtaz, Claire Streten, David L Parry, Keith A McGuinness, Ping Lu, Karen S Gibb
Soil microorganisms may respond to metal stress by a shift in the microbial community from metal sensitive to metal resistant microorganisms. We assessed the bacterial community from low (2-20 mg kg-1 ), medium (200-400 mg kg-1 ), high (500-900 mg kg-1 ) and very high (>900 mg kg-1 ) uranium soils at Ranger Uranium Mine in northern Australia through pyrosequencing. Proteobacteria (28.85%) was the most abundant phylum at these sites, followed by Actinobacteria (9.31%), Acidobacteria (7.33%), Verrucomicrobia (2...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
R V Herron, M A Wrathall
Living alongside and working with people with dementia who yell or strike out can be very demanding and sometimes harmful. It is generally understood that such actions may be a response to the social and physical environment, yet very little attention has been paid to understanding what role the environment plays in eliciting and responding to these actions across different settings. Drawing on 27 semi-structured interviews with formal and informal carers, this article examines how carers understand the actions of people with dementia in relation to their environment...
March 10, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Yitagesu Habtu, Samuel Yohannes, Tariku Laelago
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the most easily preventable forms of female cancers if early screening and diagnosis is made. Low awareness level about the disease and risk factors, beliefs about the disease, poor access to preventive services, affordability of the service and current health service system can influence decision to seek health care services for cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine health seeking behaviour and determinant factors for cervical cancer in Hossana town...
March 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
Curtis Harris, Kelli McCarthy, E Liang Liu, Kelly Klein, Raymond Swienton, Parker Prins, Tawny Waltz
2017 was a record year for disasters and disaster response in the U.S. Redefining and differentiating key response roles like "immediate responders" and "first responders" is critical. Traditional first responders are not and cannot remain the only cadre of expected lifesavers following a mass casualty event. The authors argue that the U.S. needs to expand its understanding of response roles to include that of the immediate responders, or those individuals who find themselves at the incident scene and are able to assist others...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Madalina Andreea Robea, Gabriel Plavan, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea, Alin Ciobica, Mircea Nicoara
Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 h of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"