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Systemic inflammatory response syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547319/systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-sirs-score-independently-predicts-poor-outcome-in-isolated-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Tomas Jacome, Danielle Tatum
INTRODUCTION: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is frequently observed after various types of acute cerebral injury and has been linked to clinical deterioration in non-traumatic brain injury (TBI). SIRS scores have also been shown to be predictive of length of stay and mortality in trauma patients. We aimed to determine the prognostic utility of SIRS present at admission in trauma patients with isolated TBI. METHODS: This was a 5-year retrospective cohort study of adults (≥18 years) with isolated TBI admitted to a Level II trauma center...
May 25, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542029/the-impact-of-the-sepsis-3-septic-shock-definition-on-previously-defined-septic-shock-patients
#2
Sarah A Sterling, Michael A Puskarich, Andrew F Glass, Faheem Guirgis, Alan E Jones
OBJECTIVE: The Third International Consensus Definitions Task Force (Sepsis-3) recently recommended changes to the definitions of sepsis. The impact of these changes remains unclear. Our objective was to determine the outcomes of patients meeting Sepsis-3 septic shock criteria versus patients meeting the "old" (1991) criteria of septic shock only. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of two clinical trials of early septic shock resuscitation. SETTING: Large academic emergency departments in the United States...
May 24, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540600/microglial-interferon-signaling-and-white-matter
#3
Ashley McDonough, Richard V Lee, Jonathan R Weinstein
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, are primary regulators of the neuroimmune response to injury. Type I interferons (IFNs), including the IFNαs and IFNβ, are key cytokines in the innate immune system. Their activity is implicated in the regulation of microglial function both during development and in response to neuroinflammation, ischemia, and neurodegeneration. Data from numerous studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke suggest that type I IFNs can modulate the microglial phenotype, influence the overall neuroimmune milieu, regulate phagocytosis, and affect blood-brain barrier integrity...
May 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539056/systemic-inflammation-and-arrhythmogenesis-a-review-of-mechanistic-and-clinical-perspectives
#4
Tulin Yalta, Kenan Yalta
In the recent decades, systemic inflammation, as a clinical phenomenon, has been the focus of extensive research particularly with regard to its potential association with a variety of cardiovascular diseases including atherogenesis and acute coronary syndromes. Within this context, there also exists a potential link between systemic inflammation and cardiac arrhythmogenesis in various aspects. Accordingly, systemic inflammation response as measured with inflammation markers (cytokines, etc) has been investigated in the setting of well-known cardiac arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536210/systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-sirs-and-a-left-bundle-branch-block-lbbb-due-to-nitrofurantoin
#5
Susheer Dilbagh Gandotra, Mariola A Smotrys, Darshan B Patel, Akash Chadha
We present a case of a 74-year-old woman, who was on nitrofurantoin treatment for urinary tract infection (UTI), with fever and chills 7 hours after taking nitrofurantoin. She was hospitalised and evaluated for worsening UTI and sepsis. Initially, it appeared to be secondary to post-UTI sepsis because of possible resistant infection or conditions like pulmonary embolism or acute hepatitis. The patient also developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome, left bundle branch block (LBBB), thrombocytopaenia and transaminitis...
May 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534038/analysis-of-mitochondrial-transfer-in-direct-co-cultures-of-human-monocyte-derived-macrophages-mdm-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-msc
#6
Megan V Jackson, Anna D Krasnodembskaya
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are adult stem cells which have been shown to improve survival, enhance bacterial clearance and alleviate inflammation in pre-clinical models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. These diseases are characterised by uncontrolled inflammation often underpinned by bacterial infection. The mechanisms of MSC immunomodulatory effects are not fully understood yet. We sought to investigate MSC cell contact-dependent communication with alveolar macrophages (AM), professional phagocytes which play an important role in the lung inflammatory responses and anti-bacterial defence...
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533911/hepatic-encephalopathy
#7
Peter Ferenci
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome of impaired brain function occurring in patients with advanced liver diseases. The precise pathophysiology of HE is still under discussion; the leading hypothesis focus on the role of neurotoxins, impaired neurotransmission due to metabolic changes in liver failure, changes in brain energy metabolism, systemic inflammatory response and alterations of the blood brain barrier. HE produces a wide spectrum of nonspecific neurological and psychiatric manifestations...
May 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533781/myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-deciphering-a-target-in-inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Patrick Peschl, Monika Bradl, Romana Höftberger, Thomas Berger, Markus Reindl
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, is a myelin protein solely expressed at the outermost surface of myelin sheaths and oligodendrocyte membranes. This makes MOG a potential target of cellular and humoral immune responses in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Due to its late postnatal developmental expression, MOG is an important marker for oligodendrocyte maturation. Discovered about 30 years ago, it is one of the best-studied autoantigens for experimental autoimmune models for multiple sclerosis (MS)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526997/nafld-as-a-sexual-dimorphic-disease-role-of-gender-and-reproductive-status-in-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inherent-cardiovascular-risk
#9
REVIEW
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue...
May 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523173/thrombotic-responses-to-coronary-stents-bioresorbable-scaffolds-and-the-kounis-hypersensitivity-associated-acute-thrombotic-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Nicholas G Kounis, Ioanna Koniari, Anastasios Roumeliotis, Grigorios Tsigas, George Soufras, Nicholas Grapsas, Periklis Davlouros, George Hahalis
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with coronary stent implantation is a life-saving medical procedure that has become, nowadays, the most frequent performed therapeutic procedure in medicine. Plain balloon angioplasty, bare metal stents, first and second generation drug-eluting stents, bioresorbable and bioabsorbable scaffolds have offered diachronically a great advance against coronary artery disease and have enriched our medical armamentarium. Stented areas constitute vulnerable sites for endothelial damage, endothelial dysfunction, flow turbulence, hemorheologic changes, platelet dysfunction, coagulation changes and fibrinolytic disturbances...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518089/laparoscopic-technique-for-serial-collection-of-liver-and-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-in-macaques
#11
Alexander S Zevin, Cassie Moats, Drew May, Solomon Wangari, Charlene Miller, Joel Ahrens, Naoto Iwayama, Megan Brown, Debbie Bratt, Nichole R Klatt, Jeremy Smedley
The mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the liver are exposed to microbes and microbial products from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making them immunologically unique. The GI tract and associated MLN are sites of early viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the MLN are likely important reservoir sites that harbor latently-infected cells even after prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). The liver has been shown to play a significant role in immune responses to lentiviruses and appears to play a significant role in clearance of virus from circulation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511370/correlation-of-plasma-neutrophil-elastase-activity-and-endogenous-protease-inhibitor-levels-with-the-severity-of-pre-eclampsia
#12
Mamatha Kunder, Av Moideen Kutty, V Lakshmaiah, S R Sheela
INTRODUCTION: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a common maternal syndrome characterized by severe systemic inflammatory response including neutrophil activation leading to uncontrolled activity of elastase. The excessive activity of elastase would lead to destroyal of the integrity of endothelial cells and could exacerbate the pathophysiological symptoms in PE. Thus, assessment of NE activity and its control mechanisms would be of relevance in the determination of severity of PE. AIM: To correlate the activity of plasma NE and its endogenous inhibitors α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) and α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG) with severity of PE...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507927/immune-dysfunction-in-cirrhosis
#13
REVIEW
Mohd Talha Noor, Piyush Manoria
Cirrhosis due to any etiology disrupts the homeostatic role of liver in the body. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction leads to alterations in both innate and acquired immunity, due to defects in the local immunity of liver as well as in systemic immunity. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction is a dynamic phenomenon, comprised of both increased systemic inflammation and immunodeficiency, and is responsible for 30% mortality. It also plays an important role in acute as well as chronic decompensation. Immune paralysis can accompany it, which is characterized by increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502138/presepsin-a-diagnostic-marker-for-sepsis-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#14
Hanaa A Amer, Hala Ghareeb, Neama M Lotfy, Noran O El-Azizi, Asmaa Mahmoud Mahmoud
The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of presepsin as a diagnostic marker of sepsis in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Presepsin was measured by a rapid method based on a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (PATHFAST). The clinical usefulness of presepsin to diagnose sepsis and septic shock was studied and compared with procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and total leucocytic count. This study was conducted on 53 individuals divided into 3 groups. Group I included 28 adult ICU patients with at least two diagnostic criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as patient group, Group IIa 15 patients admitted to ICU for any medical cause but with no evidence of infection were enrolled as patient control group and further 10 apparently healthy subjects as healthy control group...
June 2016: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502131/diagnostic-value-of-presepsin-in-neonatal-sepsis
#15
Hala AbdEL-Mageed Tabl, Neveen Tawfik Abed
Presepsin has recently been described as biomarker of sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of presepsin in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and discriminating sepsis from non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The study included 70 full term neonates divided into three groups: 1) Sepsis group (22 patients with clinically suspected sepsis and positive blood cultures) 2) Non-infectious SIRS group (28 patients with clinically suspected sepsis and persistently negative blood cultures) 3) Control group (20 healthy neonates without any clinical signs of infection)...
June 2016: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500500/-epistemology-in-the-intensive-care-unit-what-is-the-purpose-of-a-definition-paradigm-shift-in-sepsis-research
#16
P Dickmann, A Scherag, S M Coldewey, C Sponholz, F M Brunkhorst, M Bauer
The adoption of the new sepsis definition in early 2016 introduced a new paradigm for the clinical picture of sepsis. Up until now, sepsis was defined as a systemic inflammatory reaction (systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SIRS) to an infection. Based on a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms, the focus of the new definition is no longer the inflammatory response, but rather the tissue damage and impairment of organ function which this induces. The paradigm thus moves away from the infection and the systemic inflammatory response, and toward that which makes sepsis so dangerous in terms of both disease dynamics and outcome: organ failure due to a dysregulated host response to an infection...
May 12, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495790/systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-related-lymphopenia-is-associated-with-adenosine-a1-receptor-dysfunction
#17
Reut Riff, Yair Cohen, Hadar Eini-Rider, Oshri Naamani, Julia Mazar, Yosef S Haviv, Cidio Chaimovitz, Amos Douvdevani
SIRS is associated with lymphopenia, and prolonged lymphopenia of septic patients has been associated with increased mortality risk. We hypothesize that elevated adenosine during SIRS down-regulates Gi-coupled A1R, which signals an effect that sensitizes a cAMP-dependent lymphotoxic response. In this study, we evaluate the role of adenosine in SIRS-mediated lymphopenia and impaired IL-15 production. Cecal ligation and puncture was used to induce sepsis-associated SIRS in mice. BMDCs were cultured and used to measure the effect of adenosine on IL-15...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493974/serum-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-aat-antagonizes-intrinsic-apoptosis-induction-in-neutrophils-from-patients-with-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome
#18
Theresia Sarabhai, Christoph Peter, Anne-Kathrin Bär, Joachim Windolf, Borna Relja, Sebastian Wesselborg, Thorsten Wahlers, Adnana Paunel-Görgülü
Excessive neutrophil activation accompanied by delayed apoptotic cell death in inflammatory conditions causes progressive damage of cells and tissues, leading to life-threatening multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Previous work suggested that circulating serum factors during inflammation are critically involved in the suppression of neutrophil cell death although the identity of these antiapoptotic mediators remained elusive. In this study, we identified the acute phase protein α-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) as a potent suppressor of staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis in human neutrophils through a mechanism implicating caspases-independent pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492546/cold-inducible-rna-binding-protein-through-tlr4-signaling-induces-mitochondrial-dna-fragmentation-and-regulates-macrophage-cell-death-after-trauma
#19
Zhigang Li, Erica K Fan, Jinghua Liu, Melanie J Scott, Yuehua Li, Song Li, Wen Xie, Timothy R Billiar, Mark A Wilson, Yong Jiang, Ping Wang, Jie Fan
Trauma is a major cause of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Macrophages (Mφ) direct trauma-induced inflammation, and Mφ death critically influences the progression of the inflammatory response. In the current study, we explored an important role of trauma in inducing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in Mφ and the subsequent regulation of Mφ death. Using an animal pseudo-fracture trauma model, we demonstrated that tissue damage induced NADPH oxidase activation and increased the release of reactive oxygen species via cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP)-TLR4-MyD88 signaling...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490915/older-patients-have-increased-risk-of-poor-outcomes-after-low-velocity-pedestrian-motor-vehicle-collisions
#20
Gerard A Baltazar, Parker Bassett, Amy J Pate, Akella Chendrasekhar
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a leading cause of injury in the US. While the probability of collision with a pedestrian (PMVC) has declined in recent years, the probability of a pedestrian fatality has risen. Our objective was to determine whether older age impacts potential outcomes in patients involved in low-velocity PMVCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective-cohort study of adult patients aged >14 years involved in low-velocity pedestrian-MVCs (<15 miles per hour [24...
2017: Pragmatic and Observational Research
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