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Joy Leahy, Aisling O'Leary, Nezam Afdhal, Emma Gray, Scott Milligan, Malte H Wehmeyer, Cathal Walsh
The use of Individual Patient Data (IPD) in Network Meta Analysis (NMA) is becoming increasingly popular. However, as most studies do not report IPD, most NMAs are carried out using aggregate data (AD) for at least some, if not all, of the studies. We investigate the benefits of including varying proportions of IPD studies in an NMA. Several models have previously been developed for including both AD and IPD in the same NMA. We carried out a simulation study based on these models to examine the impact of additional IPD studies on the accuracy and precision of the estimates of both the treatment effect and the covariate effect...
June 20, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
Ana Carolina Antunes Naime, Jessica Oliveira Frade Ganaes, Maria Elisa Lopes-Pires
OBJECTIVE: Sepsis, a serious and life threatening complication arising from infection caused by lipopolysaccharide, is a complex inflammatory syndrome, and one of the main causes of death in intensive care units (ICU). It is characterized as an over-response of pro-coagulant agents promotes coagulopathy and thrombus formation, resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Furthermore, it can cause multiple organ dysfunction and hypotension (septic shock) resulting in death...
June 19, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Jibran Durrani, Faizan Malik, Naveed Ali, Syed Imran Mustafa Jafri
Heparin resistance can be defined as high doses of unfractionated heparin (UFH), greater than 35,000 IU/day, required to raise the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and activated coagulation time (ACT) to within therapeutically desired ranges or the impossibility of doing so. The most common pathology responsible is the deficiency of anti-thrombin III (ATIII) deficiency. Other clinically relevant conditions that can present with heparin resistance are congenital deficiencies; use of high doses of heparin during extracorporeal circulation, use of asparaginase therapy and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Jingjie Hu, Yuxiao Zhou, John D Obayemi, Jing Du, Winston O Soboyejo
An improved understanding of the evolution of cell structure and viscoelasticity with cancer malignancy could enable the development of a new generation of biomarkers and methods for cancer diagnosis. Hence, in this study, we present the viscoelastic properties (moduli and viscosities) and the actin cytoskeletal structures of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells with different metastatic potential. These include: MCF-10A normal breast cells (studied as a control); MDA-MB-468 cells (less metastatic TNBC cells), and MDA-MB-231 cells (highly metastatic TNBC cells)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Kwang Il Lee, Merissa Olmer, Jihye Baek, Darryl D D'Lima, Martin K Lotz
The aim of this study was to examine the potential of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-coated decellularized meniscus scaffold in mediating integrative healing of meniscus tears by inducing endogenous cell migration. Fresh bovine meniscus was chemically decellularized and covalently conjugated with heparin and PDGF-BB. In vitro PDGF release kinetics was measured. The scaffold was transplanted into experimental tears in avascular bovine meniscus explants and cultured for 2 and 4 weeks. The number migrating and proliferating cells at the borderline between the scaffold and injured explant and PDGF receptor-β (PDGFR β) expressing cells were counted...
June 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Roya Taleban, Mohammad Moafi, Behrooz Ataei, Majid Yaran, Zary Nokhodian, Nazila Kassaian, Peyman Adibi, Abbasali Javadi
Background: Scientists perceive drug users (DUs) as a high-risk population for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Effective strategies aiming at the reduction of HBV infection can be depicted when its epidemiological status is clearly defined. The present study provides new insight into associated risk factors of HBV infection and its seroepidemiological status among DUs attending drop-in centers (DICs). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which was implemented in 7 DICs of Isfahan province...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Fumika Fujii, Takefumi Kimura, Naoki Tanaka, Daisuke Kubota, Ayumi Sugiura, Takeji Umemura, Shuichi Wada, Eiji Tanaka
A 76-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to massive gingival bleeding following teeth extraction. Laboratory findings suggested disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). Enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging disclosed multiple hypervascular liver masses of 2-6 cm in diameter, the largest of which displaying an irregular enhancement pattern. We considered that her DIC was caused by the multiple liver masses and commenced repeated erythrocyte/fresh frozen plasma infusión and gabexate mesilate administration...
July 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Gai-Ling Chen, Ye-Ru Qiao, Jin-Hui Ma, Jian-Xin Wang, Fei-Long Hei, Jie Yu
Background: Recent advances in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have led to increasing interest in its use during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, decisions regarding extracorporeal CPR (ECPR) in children are difficult as a result of limited studies, especially in Asia Pacific. The objective of this study was to investigate trends in survival and demographic details for children with ECPR in Asia Pacific recorded in the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry from 1999 to 2016 and identify the risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality...
June 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Sewoong Chung, Hyungseok Park, Jisu Yoo
Inland waters are substantial sources of atmospheric carbon, but relevant data are rare in Asian monsoon regions including Korea. Emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere depend largely on the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) in water; however, measured pCO2 data are scarce and calculated pCO2 can show large uncertainty. This study had three objectives: 1) to examine the spatial variability of pCO2 in diverse surface water systems in Korea; 2) to compare pCO2 calculated using pH-total alkalinity (Alk) and pH-dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with pCO2 measured by an in situ submersible nondispersive infrared detector; and 3) to characterize the major environmental variables determining the variation of pCO2 based on physical, chemical, and biological data collected concomitantly...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Megumi Hatano, Ryuji Fukuzawa, Yukihiro Hasegawa
Some patients with mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD), whose prototypical karyotype is 45,X/46,XY, are known to manifest complications characteristic of Turner syndrome. We report a 16-year-old social male with MGD presenting with coarctation of the aorta, one of the common complications for Turner syndrome. At birth, the patient was found to have hypospadias, bifid scrotum, and cryptorchidism. Chromosomal analysis of his lymphocytes revealed the karyotype 45,X[7]/46,X,dic(Y;22)(p11.3;q13.3)[23] (named 45,X/46,X+Y fragment in this article)...
June 8, 2018: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
Youming Huang, Xiaochun Zeng, Heping Cao
Plant hormones play important roles in regulating every aspect of growth, development, and metabolism of plants. We are interested in understanding hormonal regulation of floret opening and closure in plants. This is a particularly important problem for hybrid rice because regulation of flowering time is vitally important in hybrid rice seed production. However, little was known about the effects of plant hormones on rice flowering. We have shown that jasmonate and methyl jasmonate play significant roles in promoting rice floret opening...
2018: PloS One
Z Xu, J Dela Cruz, C Fthenakis, C Saliou
BACKGROUND: Measuring skin mechanical properties has been of great interest in the skincare industry. It is a high accuracy and non-invasive optical technique which quantitatively tracks skin movement and deformation under mechanical perturbations. METHODS: A study was conducted with female subjects (25-65 years old). A refined speckle pattern applied onto the skin surface was used for DIC measurements. A unidirectional force pulled the skin at a constant velocity, while the deformation process was quantified by the DIC...
June 6, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Mehdi Hosseinpour, Sina Sahebi, Zamira Hasanah Zamzuri, Ahmad Shukri Yahaya, Noriszura Ismail
According to crash configuration and pre-crash conditions, traffic crashes are classified into different collision types. Based on the literature, multi-vehicle crashes, such as head-on, rear-end, and angle crashes, are more frequent than single-vehicle crashes, and most often result in serious consequences. From a methodological point of view, the majority of prior studies focused on multivehicle collisions have employed univariate count models to estimate crash counts separately by collision type. However, univariate models fail to account for correlations which may exist between different collision types...
June 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Brittany J Carr, Koichiro Mihara, Rithwik Ramachandran, Mahmoud Saifeddine, Neil M Nathanson, William K Stell, Morley D Hollenberg
Purpose: Myopia is a refractive disorder that degrades vision. It can be treated with atropine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist, but the mechanism is unknown. Atropine may block α-adrenoceptors at concentrations ≥0.1 mM, and another potent myopia-inhibiting ligand, mamba toxin-3 (MT3), binds equally well to human mAChR M4 and α1A- and α2A-adrenoceptors. We hypothesized that mAChR antagonists could inhibit myopia via α2A-adrenoceptors, rather than mAChR M4...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Kentaro Nakano, Kumiya Sugiyama, Hideyuki Satoh, Sadaaki Shiromori, Kei Sugitate, Hajime Arifuku, Naruo Yoshida, Hiroyoshi Watanabe, Shingo Tokita, Tomoshige Wakayama, Masamitsu Tatewaki, Ryosuke Souma, Kenya Koyama, Hirokuni Hirata, Yasutsugu Fukushima
BACKGROUND: The mortality rate from disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is higher in patients with lung cancer than in non-lung cancer patients. Moreover, the prevalence of DIC varies among the pathologic types of lung cancer. This study analyzed the relationship between coagulation factors and the pathologic types of lung cancer. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with progressive, inoperable stage IIB or higher lung cancer (20 men, 6 women; mean age 71 years; 11 Adeno, 10 squamous cell carcinoma, and 5 small cell carcinoma) and five healthy volunteers without respiratory disease (3 men, 2 women; mean age 72 years) were enrolled in the study...
May 31, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Maryam Rehan, Jean Paul Atallah
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disorder that can be familial in etiology or a result of infections, malignancy, and autoimmune or inflammatory disorders. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is common in patients admitted to intensive care units and can confound and delay the diagnosis of HLH. We present a case of a 69-year-old female who presented with dyspnea and malaise. Her condition declined rapidly with laboratory parameters consistent with DIC. In addition, she had a ferritin of 32,522 ng/mL, low haptoglobin, and elevated LDH, and bone marrow biopsy showed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytes...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
K Suzuki, H Wada, H Imai, T Iba, J Thachil, C-H Toh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Yoshiaki Shimizu, Takuya Komura, Takuya Seike, Hitoshi Omura, Tatsuo Kumai, Takashi Kagaya, Hajime Ohta, Atsuhiro Kawashima, Kenichi Harada, Shuichi Kaneko, Masashi Unoura
Since diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis (DHH) is an extremely rare disease especially in adults, the etiology and natural course of adult-onset DHH has not been well understood. We report a case of DHH complicated with multiple organic dysfunction and Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) in an 83-year-old female. She presented with mild abdominal distension and laboratory findings revealed thrombocytopenia and abnormal coagulation, indicating disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Enhanced computed tomography revealed diffuse, hypodense hepatic nodules with delayed enhancement involving the whole liver, and multiple hypodense splenic legions...
May 29, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Zhiwei Duan, Hailing He, Wenyan Liang, Zhenqing Wang, Liang He, Xiaohong Zhang
Epoxy resin, modified with different particle sizes (50 nm, 100 nm, 200 nm) and contents (1 wt %, 3 wt %, 5 wt %, 7 wt %) was manufactured. The mechanical behaviors of tensile, quasistatic fracture and dynamic fracture under SHPB (split Hopkinson pressure bar) loading were investigated. The dynamic fracture behaviors of the composites were evaluated by 2D-DIC (digital image correlation) and the strain gauge technique, and the fracture surface was examined by SEM (scanning electron microscope). According to the results, the tensile modulus and strength significantly increased for epoxy resin modified with 5 wt % Al₂O₃ of 50 nm...
May 28, 2018: Materials
Mostafa Abbasi, Dong Qiu, Yashar Behnam, Danny Dvir, Chadd Clary, Ali N Azadani
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a safe and effective treatment option for patients deemed at high and intermediate risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. Similar to surgical aortic valves (SAVs), transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) undergo calcification and mechanical wear over time. However, to date, there have been limited publications on the long-term durability of TAV devices. To assess longevity and mechanical strength of TAVs in comparison to surgical bioprosthetic valves, three-dimensional deformation analysis and strain measurement of the leaflets become an inevitable part of the evaluation...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
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