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Qingguang Li, Pan Wu, Xuefang Zha, Xuexian Li, Linna Wu, Shangyi Gu
The generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) may accelerate watershed erosion and promote the migration of heavy metals, then threaten local ecosystems such as aquatic life and even human health. Previous studies have focused primarily on influence of AMD in surface environment. In order to reveal the acidizing processes in karst high-sulfur coalfield in Southwest China, this study, by contrast, focused on the hydrogeochemical evolution process and acidification mechanism of mine water in Zhijin coalfield, western Guizhou Province...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Beata A Zasońska, Helena Hlídková, Eduard Petrovský, Severyn Myronovskij, Tetyana Nehrych, Nazar Negrych, Mariya Shorobura, Volodymyr Antonyuk, Rostyslav Stoika, Yuriy Kit, Daniel Horák
Monodisperse nonmagnetic macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres were synthesized by multistep swelling polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate, ethylene dimethacrylate and 2-[(methoxycarbonyl)methoxy]ethyl methacrylate (MCMEMA). This was followed (a) by ammonolysis to modify the microspheres with amino groups, and (b) by incorporation of iron oxide (γ-Fe2 O3 ) into the pores to render the particles magnetic. The resulting porous and magnetic microspheres were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), atomic absorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (AAS and FTIR), elemental analysis, vibrating magnetometry, mercury porosimetry and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption/desorption isotherms...
April 23, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Thaís Aparecida Kazimoto, Sthenia Santos Albano Amora, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Jamille Maia E Magalhães, Yannara Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo Sousa, Anne Emanuelle Câmara da Silva Melo, Monique Paiva Campos, Nilza Dutra Alves, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck
In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, primarily transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis and with the dog as its main urban reservoir. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars (DMC) DIC, Scalibor® 65 cm model and MSD manufacturer, on the prevalence and incidence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and on the rate of infection of sandflies by L. infantum. The research was conducted in two areas of the municipality Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte in Northeast of Brazil...
April 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Dongseon Kim, Geun-Ha Park, Seung Ho Baek, Yujeong Choi, Tae-Wook Kim
We investigated the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag ) during all four seasons in a coastal region of southern Korea that receives considerable freshwater input. The surface Ωarag values were higher during productive seasons with enhanced freshwater influences, likely due to an increased net removal of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the water column (i.e., biological control). In addition, during the productive seasons, enhancement of Ωarag was observed with decreasing salinity within a linear mixing zone present between river-influenced surface and saltier bottom waters...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Chiara Volta, David T Ho, Gernot Friederich, Victor C Engel, Mahadev Bhat
High-resolution time series measurements of temperature, salinity, pH and pCO2 were made during the period October 2014-September 2015 at the midpoint of Shark River, a 15km tidal river that originates in the freshwater Everglades of south Florida (USA) and discharges into the Gulf of Mexico. Dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in this system vary over time, and during this study could be classified into three distinct regimes corresponding to October 2014-February 2015 (a wet to dry season transition period), March-May 2015 (dry period) and July-September 2015 (wet period)...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fawzi A El-Yazbi, Omayma A Amin, Eman I El-Kimary, Essam F Khamis, Sameh E Younis
Two simple, sensitive and specific high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) methods were developed for the determination of febuxostat (FEB) individually, and simultaneously with diclofenac (DIC) in human plasma. Method A presents the first HPTLC-ultraviolet attempt for FEB determination in human plasma. FEB was separated from endogenous plasma components (at hRF  = 70) with ethyl acetate-methanol-water (9:2:1, v/v) mixture as mobile phase and quantified by densitometry at its λmax (315 nm)...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Xiao Yang, Xiaobo Chen, Juntong Xi
Digital image correlation (DIC)-based stereo 3D shape measurement is a kind of single-shot method, which can achieve high precision and is robust to vibration as well as environment noise. The efficiency of DIC has been greatly improved with the proposal of inverse compositional Gauss-Newton (IC-GN) operators for both first-order and second-order warp functions. Without the algorithm itself, both the registration accuracy and efficiency of DIC-based stereo matching for shapes with different complexities are closely related to the selection of warp function, subset size, and convergence criteria...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
Xufeng Yang, Liang Xue, Yunxiao Li, Ping Han, Xiangyu Liu, Longjun Zhang, Wei-Jun Cai
Human-induced changes to carbon fluxes across the land-ocean interface can influence the global carbon cycle, yet the impacts of rapid urbanization and establishment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on coastal ocean carbon cycles are poorly known. This is unacceptable as at present ~64% of global municipal wastewater is treated before discharge. Here, we report surface water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and sedimentary organic carbon concentrations and their isotopic compositions in the rapidly urbanized Jiaozhou Bay in northeast China as well as carbonate parameters in effluents of three large WWTPs around the bay...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
C M Pooley, G Marion
While model evidence is considered by Bayesian statisticians as a gold standard for model selection (the ratio in model evidence between two models giving the Bayes factor), its calculation is often viewed as too computationally demanding for many applications. By contrast, the widely used deviance information criterion (DIC), a different measure that balances model accuracy against complexity, is commonly considered a much faster alternative. However, recent advances in computational tools for efficient multi-temperature Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, such as steppingstone sampling (SS) and thermodynamic integration schemes, enable efficient calculation of the Bayesian model evidence...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Mineji Hayakawa, Kota Ono
Over the past few decades, the large, international, randomized controlled trials of anticoagulant therapies for patients with sepsis have not yielded any improvement in mortality rates. However, in Japan, anticoagulant therapies are administered for sepsis patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), but not for sepsis patients without DIC. Furthermore, epidemiological data regarding sepsis in Japan are scarce. Therefore, a nationwide multicenter retrospective observational study, the Japan Septic Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (JSEPTIC DIC) study, was undertaken...
April 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Elizabeth S Mayne, Anthony L H Mayne, Susan J Louw
INTRODUCTION: Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is a thrombotic microangiopathy arising from consumption of both coagulation factors and platelets. DIC is triggered by a number of clinical conditions including severe infection, trauma and obstetric complications. Early diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition is paramount. A high clinical index of suspicion is needed to ensure that patients at risk of developing DIC are appropriately investigated. METHODS: In order to establish the clinical conditions most frequently associated with DIC, we reviewed all DIC screens received at a tertiary hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa over a 1 year period...
2018: PloS One
Kaj Gijsbertse, André Sprengers, Hamid Naghibi Beidokhti, Maartje Nillesen, Chris de Korte, Nico Verdonschot
Recent first attempts of in situ ultrasound strain imaging in collateral ligaments encountered a number of challenges and illustrated a clear need for additional studies and more thorough validation of the available strain imaging methods. Therefore, in this study we experimentally validated ultrasound strain measurements of ex vivo human lateral collateral ligaments in an axial loading condition. Moreover, the use of high frequency ultrasound (>20 MHz) for strain measurement was explored and its performance compared to conventional ultrasound...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Zhenning Chen, Bobby Nadeau, Kevin Yu, Xinxing Shao, Xiaoyuan He, M Cynthia Goh, Anil Kishen
High-resolution deformation measurements in a functionally graded hard tissue such as human dentin is essential to understand the unbound water-loss mediated changes and their role in its mechanical integrity. Yet a whole-field, 3-dimensional (3D) measurement and characterization of fully-hydrated dentin in both macro- and microscales remain to be a challenge. This study was conducted in two stages. In stage-1, a stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) approach was utilized to determine the water-loss and load-induced 3D deformations of teeth in a sagittal section over consecutively acquired frames, from a fully-hydrated state to non-hydrated conditions for a period up to 2 hours...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Jae C Chang
: 'Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)' occurs commonly in critical illnesses such as sepsis, trauma, cancer, and complications of surgery and pregnancy. Mortality is very high. The pathogenesis has been ascribed to tissue factor-initiated coagulation disorder, resulting in disseminated microblood clots that are made of platelets, plasma factors, fibrins, and blood cells. True DIC depletes coagulation factors and consumes platelets, and activates fibrinolysis. 'DIC' is assumed to orchestrate thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and hypoxic multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, and causes hemorrhagic disorder due to depleted coagulation factors...
April 4, 2018: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
Hong He, Rong Zhou, Yuanwen Zou, Xuejin Huang, Jinchuan Li
Cell mechanical stretching in vitro is a fundamental technique commonly used in cardiovascular mechanobiology research. Accordingly, it is crucial to measure the accurate strain field of cell substrate under different strains. Digital image correlation (DIC) is a widely used measurement technique, which is able to obtain the accurate displacement and strain distribution. However, the traditional DIC algorithm used in digital image correlation engine (DICe) cannot obtain accurate result when utilized in large strain measurement...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Emel Ulusoy, Murat Duman, Aykut Çağlar, Tuncay Küme, Anıl Er, Fatma Akgül, Hale Çitlenbik, Durgül Yılmaz, Hale Ören
OBJECTIVE: Acute traumatic coagulopathy occurs after trauma with impairment of hemostasis and activation of fibrinolysis. Some endogenous substances may play role in this failure of the coagulation system. Extracellular histone is one such molecule that has recently attracted attention. This study investigated the association between plasma histone- complexed DNA (hcDNA) fragments and coagulation abnormalities in pediatric trauma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective case- control study was conducted in pediatric patients with trauma...
March 28, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, Rocío Acosta-Pech, Sergio Pérez-Elizalde, Ciro Velasco Cruz, Javier Suárez Espinosa, José Crossa
Genomic selection (GS) has become a tool for selecting candidates in plant and animal breeding programs. In the case of quantitative traits, it is common to assume that the distribution of the response variable can be approximated by a normal distribution. However, it is known that the selection process leads to skewed distributions. There is vast statistical literature on skewed distributions, but the skew normal distribution is of particular interest in this research. This distribution includes a third parameter that drives the skewness, so that it generalizes the normal distribution...
March 27, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Fabian Engel, Kaitlin J Farrell, Ian M McCullough, Facundo Scordo, Blaize A Denfeld, Hilary A Dugan, Elvira de Eyto, Paul C Hanson, Ryan P McClure, Peeter Nõges, Tiina Nõges, Elizabeth Ryder, Kathleen C Weathers, Gesa A Weyhenmeyer
The magnitude of lateral dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters strongly influences the estimate of the global terrestrial carbon dioxide (CO2 ) sink. At present, no reliable number of this export is available, and the few studies estimating the lateral DIC export assume that all lakes on Earth function similarly. However, lakes can function along a continuum from passive carbon transporters (passive open channels) to highly active carbon transformers with efficient in-lake CO2 production and loss...
March 26, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Adrian Quintero, Emmanuel Lesaffre
Hierarchical models are extensively used in pharmacokinetics and longitudinal studies. When the estimation is performed from a Bayesian approach, model comparison is often based on the deviance information criterion (DIC). In hierarchical models with latent variables, there are several versions of this statistic: the conditional DIC (cDIC) that incorporates the latent variables in the focus of the analysis and the marginalized DIC (mDIC) that integrates them out. Regardless of the asymptotic and coherency difficulties of cDIC, this alternative is usually used in Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for hierarchical models because of practical convenience...
March 26, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Kunihiro Oka, Hisao Moritomo
Scaphoid nonunion causes abnormal wrist kinematics and typically leads to carpal collapse and subsequent degenerative arthritis of the wrist. However, the natural history, including carpal collapse and degenerative arthritis of scaphoid nonunion, may vary at different fracture locations. This article reviews recent biomechanical studies related to the natural history of scaphoid nonunion. In the distal-type fractures (type B2 in Herbert classification), where the fracture located distal to the scaphoid apex, the proximal scaphoid fragment and lunate, which are connected through the dorsal scapholunate interosseous ligament (DSLIL) and dorsal intercarpal ligament (DIC), extend together, and the distal fragment of the scaphoid flexes individually...
April 2018: Journal of Wrist Surgery
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