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Danielle Oliveira Dos Anjos, Eliomara Sousa Sobral Alves, Vinicius Tomaz Gonçalves, Sheila Suarez Fontes, Mateus Lima Nogueira, Ana Márcia Suarez-Fontes, João Batista Neves da Costa, Fabricio Rios-Santos, Marcos André Vannier-Santos
Natural products comprise valuable sources for new antiparasitic drugs. Here we tested the effects of a novel β-lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi parasite survival and proliferation and used microscopy and cytometry techniques to approach the mechanism(s) underlying parasite death. The selectivity index determination indicate that the compound trypanocidal activity was over ten-fold more cytotoxic to epimastigotes than to macrophages or splenocytes. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the R72 β-lapachone derivative affected the T...
October 12, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Mark A Frye, Euijung Ryu, Malik Nassan, Gregory D Jenkins, Ana C Andreazza, Jared M Evans, Susan L McElroy, Devin Oglesbee, W Edward Highsmith, Joanna M Biernacka
Converging genetic, postmortem gene-expression, cellular, and neuroimaging data implicate mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder. This study was conducted to investigate whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and single nucleotide variants (SNVs) are associated with sub-phenotypes of bipolar disorder. MtDNA from 224 patients with Bipolar I disorder (BPI) was sequenced, and association of sequence variations with 3 sub-phenotypes (psychosis, rapid cycling, and adolescent illness onset) was evaluated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Fu-Yan Xing, Lin-Lin Guan, Yan-Long Li, Chun-Juan Jia
This work reports a one-step simple synthesis method for functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by a Platanus orientalis leaf extract polyphenol-mediated deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO). Microscopic and spectroscopic characterization revealed the successful deoxygenation of GO and subsequent stabilization by oxidized polyphenols of plant extract. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses were used to examine the reduction of GO. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed capping of RGO with oxidized polyphenols of Platanus orientalis extract, which prevented aggregation of graphene sheets...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
M David Keller, John M Ziriax, William Barns, Benjamin Sheffield, Douglas Brungart, Tony Thomas, Bobby Jaeger, Kurt Yankaskas
Noise, hearing loss, and electronic signal distortion, which are common problems in military environments, can impair speech intelligibility and thereby jeopardize mission success. The current study investigated the impact that impaired communication has on operational performance in a command and control environment by parametrically degrading speech intelligibility in a simulated shipborne Combat Information Center. Experienced U.S. Navy personnel served as the study participants and were required to monitor information from multiple sources and respond appropriately to communications initiated by investigators playing the roles of other personnel involved in a realistic Naval scenario...
October 19, 2016: Hearing Research
Marilucia Santos Ludovico, Luciano Moura Martins, Juares Ednaldo Romero Bianco, Célia Guadalupe Tardelli de Jesus Andrade, Rosabel Falcon, Paulo Pinto Joazeiro, Maria Silvia Viccari Gatti, Tomomasa Yano
Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from water in Brazil was previously described as a hemorrhagic heat-labile cytotoxic-enterotoxin producer. We purified this toxin from culture supernatants using ion metallic affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by molecular exclusion chromatography. The pure toxin presented molecular mass of 50kDa and isoelectric point (pI) around 6.9 by 2D electrophoresis. When injected intravenously, the purified cytotoxic-enterotoxin induced also severe spasms followed by sudden death of mice...
October 19, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Gordon X Wang, Stephen J Smith, Philippe Mourrain
The distribution of proteins within sub-synaptic compartments is an essential aspect of their neurological function. Current methodology such as electron microscopy (EM) and super-resolution imaging techniques can provide precise localization of proteins, but are often limited to a small number of one-time observations with narrow spatial and molecular coverage. The diversity of synaptic proteins and synapse types demands synapse analysis on a scale that is prohibitive with current methods. Here, we demonstrate SubSynMAP, a fast, multiplexed sub-synaptic protein analysis method using wide-field data from deconvolution array tomography (ATD)...
October 22, 2016: ELife
Daniel A Patten, Garrick K Wilson, Dalan Bailey, Robert K Shaw, Sirpa Jalkanen, Marko Salmi, Antal Rot, Christopher J Weston, David H Adams, Shishir Shetty
: The recruitment of lymphocytes via the hepatic sinusoidal channels and positioning within liver tissue is a critical event in the development and persistence of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. The hepatic sinusoid is a unique vascular bed lined by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC), a functionally and phenotypically distinct sub-population of endothelial cells. Using flow based adhesion assays to study the migration of lymphocytes across primary human HSEC, we found that lymphocytes enter into HSEC, confirmed by electron microscopy demonstrating clear intracellular localization of lymphocytes in vitro and by studies in human liver tissues...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Tao Ye, Xi Jiang, Dongyang Wan, Xingzhi Wang, Jun Xing, Thirumalai Venkatesan, Qihua Xiong, Seeram Ramakrishna
Aligned and flexible electrospun carbon nanomaterials are used to synthesize novel carbon perovskite nanocomposite for the first time. The free electron diffusion length in CH3NH3PbI3 phase of the CH3NH3PbI3/carbon nanocomposite is observed to almost double that of bare CH3NH3PbI3 and nearly 95% of the photogenerated free holes can inject from CH3NH3PbI3 phase to the carbon nanomaterials. Furthermore, the exciton binding energy in the composite is estimated to be ~23 meV by utilizing temperature dependent optical absorption spectroscopy...
October 22, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Xiang Ren, Qihang Guo, Jianhui Chen, Hujun Xie, Qing Xu, Zhan Lu
The visible-light-promoted diastereodivergent intramolecular oxyamination of alkenes and amination of unactivated C(Sp3)-H bonds is described to construct oxazolindinones, pyrrolidinones and imidazolidones via mild generation of primary amidyl radicals from functionalized hydroxylamines. A unique phenomenon on highly diastereoselective ring-opening of aziridines controlled by electron sacrifices was observed. High diastereoselective amino alcohols derivatives were obtained efficiently through this protocol in gram scales...
October 22, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Birol Ay, Erdal Karaoz, Cumhur C Kesemenli, Halime Kenar
The reconstruction of skeletal muscle tissue is currently performed by transplanting a muscle tissue graft from local or distant sites of the patient`s body, but this practice leads to donor site morbidity in case of large defects. With the aim of providing an alternative treatment approach, skeletal muscle tissue formation potential of human myoblasts and human menstrual blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMB-MSCs) on synthetic (poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone), 70:30) scaffolds with oriented microfibers, human muscle extracellular matrix (ECM), and their hybrids was investigated in this study...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Joanne E Brady, Danielle K Liffmann, Anthony Yartel, Natalie Kil, Alex D Federman, Joseph Kannry, Cynthia Jordan, Omar I Massoud, David R Nerenz, Kimberly A Brown, Bryce D Smith, Claudia Vellozzi, David B Rein
BACKGROUND: From December 2012-March 2014, three randomized trials, each implementing a unique intervention in primary care settings (mail recruitment [repeated-mailing], an electronic health record best practice alert [BPA], and patient-solicitation [patient-solicitation]), evaluated HCV antibody testing, diagnosis, and costs for each of the interventions compared to standard-of-care testing. Multilevel multivariable models were used to estimate the adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for receiving an HCV antibody test, and costs were estimated using activity-based costing...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Akiko Asada, Takahiro Doi, Takaomi Tagami, Akihiro Takeda, Yoshiyuki Sawabe
N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (APINACA) and N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (APICA) are carboxamide-type synthetic cannabinoids comprising indazole/indole-3-carboxylic acid and adamantan-1-amine moieties. However, in the case of compounds like APINACA or APICA, adamantyl positional isomers exist, wherein either adamantan-1-amine or adamantan-2-amine is present. These adamantyl positional isomers have not been reported in previous studies, and no analytical data are available yet...
October 21, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Gisele Cristiane de Melo Dias, Mônica Cassel, Lázaro Wender Oliveira de Jesus, Sergio Ricardo Batlouni, Maria Inês Borella
Prochilodus lineatus is an important representative of the order Characiformes and a species that offers great advantages to fish farming. Therefore, detailed knowledge of its reproductive biology can be applied to various fields of production and biotechnology. In this study, we have identified testicular germ cells during spermatogenesis and have evaluated the volumetric proportion of the testes occupied by structures of the tubular and intertubular compartments. In addition, the individual volume of type A spermatogonia was measured and used to estimate the mean number of these cells per testis...
October 22, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Magdalena M Sakowska, Megan V Thomas, Saxon Connor, Ross Roberts
BACKGROUND: In measuring quality of health-care delivery, digital infrastructure is essential. The aim at this tertiary centre was to create a hospital-wide workflow system that collected data prospectively as part of daily practice. METHODS: In moving towards an electronic health record, a hospital-wide integrated workflow system was introduced in 2013, which electronically managed the perioperative patient journey while simultaneously facilitating surgical audit...
October 21, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
France Lambert, Miljana Bacevic, Pierre Layrolle, Peter Schüpbach, Pierre Drion, Eric Rompen
AIMS: The primary objective of this study was to compare the in vivo performance, namely in terms of quantity of newly formed bone and bone-to-material contact (osteoconductivity), of three hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials (HA) of different origins (natural or synthetic) or manufacturing process in a sinus lift model in rabbits. The secondary objective was to correlate the findings with the physical and topographical characteristics of the biomaterials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two bovine HA manufactured with different processes (bovine hydroxyapatites [BHA] and cuttlebone hydroxyapatite [CBHA]) and a synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) sintered at high temperature were characterised with scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and the measurement of specific surface area (BET)...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Xinmin Li, Yingkai Liu, Shuanghui Li, Jieqing Huang, Yuemei Wu, Dapeng Yu
Pure SnO2 and Y-doped SnO2 nanobelts were prepared by thermal evaporation at 1350 °C in the presence of Ar carrier gas (30 sccm). The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR). The sensing properties of the devices based on a single SnO2 nanobelt and Y-doped SnO2 nanobelt were explored to acetone, ethanol, and ethanediol...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Alice H Suroviec
The use of enzymatically modified electrodes for the detection of glucose or other non-electrochemically active analytes is becoming increasingly common. Direct heterogeneous electron transfer to glucose oxidase has been shown to be kinetically difficult, which is why electron transfer mediators or indirect detection is usually used for monitoring glucose with electrochemical sensors. It has been found, however, that electrodes modified with single or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) demonstrate fast heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics as compared to that found for traditional electrodes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ross D Milton
Electrochemically-active polymers (redox polymers) are useful tools for simultaneous immobilization and electron transfer of enzymes at electrode surfaces, which also serve to increase the localized concentration of the biocatalyst. The properties of the employed redox couple must be compatible with the target biocatalyst from both an electrochemical (potential) and biochemical standpoint. This chapter details the synthesis of a naphthoquinone-functionalized redox polymer (NQ-LPEI) that is used to immobilize and electronically communicate with flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH), yielding an enzymatic bioanode that is able to deliver large catalytic current densities for glucose oxidation at a relatively low associated potential...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
David P Hickey
Enzymatic glucose biosensors and biofuel cells make use of the electrochemical transduction between an oxidoreductase enzyme, such as glucose oxidase (GOx), and an electrode to either quantify the amount of glucose in a solution or generate electrical energy. However, many enzymes including GOx are not able to electrochemically interact with an electrode surface directly, but require an external electrochemical relay to shuttle electrons to the electrode. Ferrocene-modified linear poly(ethylenimine) (Fc-LPEI) redox polymers have been designed to simultaneously immobilize glucose oxidase (GOx) at an electrode and mediate electron transfer from their flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) active site to the electrode surface...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Gaige R VandeZande, Jasmine M Olvany, Julia L Rutherford, Michelle Rasmussen
Enzymatic electrodes are becoming increasingly common for energy production and sensing applications. Research over the past several decades has addressed a major issue that can occur when using these biocatalysts, i.e., slow heterogeneous electron transfer, by incorporation of a redox active species to act as an electron shuttle. There are several advantages to immobilizing both the enzyme and mediator at the enzyme surface, including increased electron transfer rates, decreased enzyme leaching, and minimized diffusion limitations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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