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Phospholipase A2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108057/bani-polymorphism-of-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-gene-and-somatic-symptoms-in-medication-free-acute-depressed-patients
#1
Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Ta-Wei Guu, Yi-Chih Chen, Piotr Gałecki, Anna Walczewska, Kuan-Pin Su
Somatic symptoms are commonly seen in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and might be associated with inflammatory activation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) are the key enzymes in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which in turn may play an important role in inflammation and somatic symptoms in depression. This study investigated the effects of BanI polymorphism of cPLA2 gene and COX-2 rs4648308 genotypes on somatic symptoms and inflammatory marker in patients with MDD...
January 4, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107559/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-dose-escalation-first-in-man-study-phase-0-to-assess-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-topical-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-inhibitor-avx001-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-plaque-psoriasis
#2
S H Omland, A Habicht, P Damsbo, J Wilms, B Johansen, R Gniadecki
BACKGROUND: Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) is an enzyme suggested as a therapeutic target in inflammatory skin diseases. AVX001, a cPLA2α-inhibitor was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-design, first-in-man study in patients with mild to moderate psoriasis. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate cutaneous safety and tolerability of AVX001 in doses from 0.002%-5.0%. Safety was assessed as local skin reaction adverse events (LSRAE) grade 3-4...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106899/fluorogenic-probes-to-monitor-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-activity
#3
Cheng Yang Ng, Timothy Xiong Wei Kwok, Francis Chee Kuan Tan, Chian-Ming Low, Yulin Lam
Arachidonic acid derivatives equipped with either one or two fluorescent groups attached to the tip of the alkyl chains were synthesized and shown to function as inhibitor and substrate probes of cPLA2. The inhibitor probe was demonstrated to perform dual functions of inhibition and imaging while the substrate probe could be used for activity assay.
January 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105558/immunology-of-bee-venom
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Farzaneh Shafaghat, Ricardo D Zwiener
Bee venom is a blend of biochemicals ranging from small peptides and enzymes to biogenic amines. It is capable of triggering severe immunologic reactions owing to its allergenic fraction. Venom components are presented to the T cells by antigen-presenting cells within the skin. These Th2 type T cells then release IL-4 and IL-13 which subsequently direct B cells to class switch to production of IgE. Generating venom-specific IgE and crosslinking FcεR1(s) on the surface of mast cells complete the sensitizing stage in allergic individuals who are most likely to experience severe and even fatal allergic reactions after being stung...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087476/phospholipase-d-mrna-expression-and-clinical-role-in-high-grade-serous-carcinoma
#5
Keren Harel-Dassa, Saul Yedgar, Claes G Tropé, Ben Davidson, Reuven Reich
This objective of this study was to analyze the expression and clinical role of phospholipase D (PLD) in high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). PLD1 and PLD2 isoform expression was studied in 125 HGSC specimens (73 effusions, 28 ovarian tumors, 24 solid metastases) using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Expression levels were analyzed for association with clinicopathologic parameters, including chemoresponse, and survival. PLD1 and PLD2 isoforms were found in the majority of specimens at all anatomic sites and their levels were strongly positively related (P<...
January 10, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079896/impaired-embryonic-development-in-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficient-caenorhabditis-elegans-due-to-abnormal-redox-homeostasis-induced-activation-of-calcium-independent-phospholipase-and-alteration-of-glycerophospholipid-metabolism
#6
Tzu-Ling Chen, Hung-Chi Yang, Cheng-Yu Hung, Meng-Hsin Ou, Yi-Yun Pan, Mei-Ling Cheng, Arnold Stern, Szecheng J Lo, Daniel Tsun-Yee Chiu
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a commonly pervasive inherited disease in many parts of the world. The complete lack of G6PD activity in a mouse model causes embryonic lethality. The G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans model also shows embryonic death as indicated by a severe hatching defect. Although increased oxidative stress has been implicated in both cases as the underlying cause, the exact mechanism has not been clearly delineated. In this study with C. elegans, membrane-associated defects, including enhanced permeability, defective polarity and cytokinesis, were found in G6PD-deficient embryos...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078244/carvacrol-attenuates-serum-levels-of-total-protein-phospholipase-a2-and-histamine-in-asthmatic-guinea-pig
#7
Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Sedigheh Jalali, Negin Yahyazadeh, Mostafa Boskabady
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological effects of carvacrol such as its anti-inflammatory activities have been shows. In this study the effects of carvacrol on serum levels of total protein (TP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and histamine in sensitized guinea pigs was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S), drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (40, 80 and 160 µg/ml) or dexamethasone. Serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were examined I all sensitized groups as well as a non-sensitized control group (n=6 for each group)...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077172/promoting-effect-of-hepatitis-b-virus-on-the-expressoin-of-phospholipase-a2-group-iia
#8
Chengliang Zhu, Hui Song, Bingzheng Shen, Long Wu, Fang Liu, Xinghui Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes acute and chronic liver disease, ultimately leading to the development of liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) plays important roles in the development and progression of many tumors. Thus far, there have been no reports on the association between HBV and PLA2G2A. The present study investigated the effect of HBV infection on PLA2G2A expression and its application in the diagnosis of HBV-related diseases...
January 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069812/cooperative-substrate-cofactor-interactions-and-membrane-localization-of-the-bacterial-pla2-enzyme-exou
#9
Maxx H Tessmer, David M Anderson, Adam Buchaklian, Dara W Frank, Jimmy B Feix
The ExoU type III secretion enzyme is a potent phospholipase A2 secreted by the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Activation of phospholipase activity is induced by protein-protein interactions with ubiquitin in the cytosol of a targeted eukaryotic cell, leading to destruction of host cell membranes. Previous work in our laboratory suggested that conformational changes within a C-terminal domain of the toxin might be involved in the activation mechanism. In this study, we use site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate conformational changes in a C-terminal four-helical bundle region of ExoU as it interacts with lipid substrates and ubiquitin, and to examine the localization of this domain with respect to the lipid bilayer...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066794/altered-monocyte-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-expression-is-linked-to-vascular-inflammation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#10
Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Janelle Gabriel, Taylor Amburgy, Elizabeth Mayne, David A Zidar, Courtney Maierhofer, Abigail Norris Turner, Jose A Bazan, Susan L Koletar, Michael M Lederman, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk for vascular thrombosis, potentially driven by interactions between activated leukocytes and the endothelium. METHODS: Monocyte subsets (CD14(+)CD16(-), CD14(+)CD16(+), CD14(Dim)CD16(+)) from HIV negative (HIV(-)) and antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV positive (HIV(+)) participants (N = 19 and 49) were analyzed by flow cytometry for adhesion molecule expression (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1], macrophage-1 antigen [Mac-1], CD11c/CD18, very late antigen [VLA]-4) and the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1); these receptors recognize ligands (intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAMs], vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, fractalkine) on activated endothelial cells (ECs) and promote vascular migration...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065518/membranous-nephropathy-integrating-basic-science-into-improved-clinical-management
#11
REVIEW
Daniel C Cattran, Paul E Brenchley
Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (INM) remains a common cause of the nephrotic syndrome in adults. The autoimmune nature of IMN was clearly delineated in 2009 with the identification of the glomerular-deposited IgG to be a podocyte receptor, phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) in 70% to 75% of cases. This anti-PLA2R autoantibody, predominantly the IgG4 subclass, has been quantitated in serum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and has been used to aid diagnosis and monitor response to immunosuppressive therapy...
January 5, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063838/exploring-and-understanding-the-functional-role-and-biochemical-and-structural-characteristics-of-an-acidic-phospholipase-a2-apltx-i-purified-from-agkistrodon-piscivorus-leucostoma-snake-venom
#12
L M Resende, J R Almeida, R Schezaro-Ramos, R C O Collaço, L R Simioni, D Ramírez, W González, A M Soares, L A Calderon, S Marangoni, S L da Silva
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) constitute a class of extensively studied toxins, isolated from snake venoms. Basic PLA2 isoforms mediate various toxicological effects, while the acidic isoforms generally have higher enzymatic activities, but do not promote evident toxic effects. The functions of these acidic isoforms in snake venoms are still not completely understood and more studies are needed to characterize the biological functions and diversification of acidic toxins in order to justify their abundant presence in these secretions...
January 4, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063500/cellular-assays-for-evaluating-calcium-dependent-translocation-of-cpla2%C3%AE-to-membrane
#13
B Yun, C C Leslie
The group IVA phospholipase A2, commonly called cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α), is a widely expressed enzyme that hydrolyzes membrane phospholipid to produce arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids, which are precursors for a number of bioactive lipid mediators. Arachidonic acid is metabolized through the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways for production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes that regulate normal physiological processes and contribute to disease pathogenesis. cPLA2α is composed of an N-terminal C2 domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain that contains the Ser-Asp catalytic dyad...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063498/preparation-of-the-full-set-of-recombinant-mouse-and-human-secreted-phospholipases-a2
#14
F Ghomashchi, V Brglez, C Payré, L Jeammet, S Bezzine, M H Gelb, G Lambeau
A family of 14-20kDa, disulfide-rich, calcium-dependent secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) that release fatty acids from the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids can be found in mammals. They have a diverse array of tissue distribution and biological functions. In this chapter we provide detailed protocols for production of nearly all of the mouse and human sPLA2s mainly by expression in bacteria and in vitro refolding or by expression in insect cells. High-resolution mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays were, respectively, used to show that all disulfides are formed and that the enzymes are active, strongly suggesting that each sPLA2 was prepared in the structurally native form...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063492/interfacial-enzymes-membrane-binding-orientation-membrane-insertion-and-activity
#15
S A Tatulian
Most interfacial enzymes undergo activation upon membrane binding. Interfacial activation is determined not only by the binding strength but also by the specific mode of protein-membrane interactions, including the angular orientation and membrane insertion of the enzymes. This chapter describes biophysical techniques to quantitatively evaluate membrane binding, orientation, membrane insertion, and activity of secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and lipoxygenase (LO) enzymes. Procedures for recombinant production and purification of human pancreatic PLA2 and human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) are also presented...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063488/analyses-of-calcium-independent-phospholipase-a2beta-ipla2%C3%AE-in-biological-systems
#16
S E Barbour, S Ramanadham
The Ca(2+)-independent phospholipases A2 (iPLA2s) are part of a diverse family of PLA2s, manifest activity in the absence of Ca(2+), are ubiquitous, and participate in a variety of biological processes. Among the iPLA2s, the cytosolic iPLA2β has received considerable attention and ongoing studies from various laboratories suggest that dysregulation of iPLA2β can have a profound impact on the onset and/or progression of many diseases (e.g., cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic, autoimmune). Therefore, appropriate approaches are warranted to gain a better understanding of the role of iPLA2β in vivo and its contribution to pathophysiology...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063487/secreted-phospholipase-a2-specificity-on-natural-membrane-phospholipids
#17
K Yamamoto, Y Miki, H Sato, R Murase, Y Taketomi, M Murakami
The secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family contains 10 catalytically active isoforms. Current in vitro biochemical studies have shown that individual sPLA2s have distinct substrate selectivity in terms of the polar head groups or sn-2 fatty acids of their substrate phospholipids. Importantly, transgenic or knockout mice for distinct sPLA2s display nonoverlapping phenotypes, arguing that they do act on different phospholipid substrates and mobilize unique lipid metabolites in vivo. In an effort to comprehensively understand lipid metabolism driven by individual sPLA2s under pathophysiological conditions, we took advantages of mass spectrometric lipidomics technology to monitor the spatiotemporal changes in phospholipids (substrates) and products (fatty acids, lysophospholipids, and their metabolites) in tissues or cells of sPLA2-transgenic or knockout mice...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058411/spontaneous-formation-of-nanometer-scale-tubular-vesicles-in-aqueous-mixtures-of-lipid-and-block-copolymer-amphiphiles
#18
Seng Koon Lim, Andrew S W Wong, Hans-Peter M de Hoog, Padmini Rangamani, Atul N Parikh, Madhavan Nallani, Sara Sandin, Bo Liedberg
Many common amphiphiles self-assemble in water to produce heterogeneous populations of discrete and symmetric but polydisperse and multilamellar vesicles isolating the encapsulated aqueous core from the surrounding bulk. But when mixtures of amphiphiles of vastly different elastic properties co-assemble, their non-uniform molecular organization can stabilize lower symmetries and produce novel shapes. Here, using high resolution electron cryomicroscopy and tomography, we identify the spontaneous formation of a membrane morphology consisting of unilamellar tubular vesicles in dilute aqueous solutions of binary mixtures of two different amphiphiles of vastly different origins...
January 6, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056488/molecular-dynamics-simulations-reveal-structural-insights-into-inhibitor-binding-modes-and-functionality-in-human-group-iia-phospholipase-a2
#19
Ryung Rae Kim, Alpeshkumar K Malde, Alireza Nematollahi, Kieran F Scott, W Bret Church
Human group IIA phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) promotes inflammation in immune-mediated pathologies by regulating the arachidonic acid pathway through both catalysis-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The hGIIA crystal structure, both alone and inhibitor-bound, together with structures of closely related snake-venom-derived secreted phospholipase enzymes has been well described. However, differentiation of biological and non-biological contacts and the relevance of structures determined from snake venom enzymes to human enzymes are not clear...
January 5, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055018/sumoylation-deficient-prdx6-gains-protective-function-by-amplifying-enzymatic-activity-and-stability-and-escapes-oxidative-stress-induced-aberrant-sumoylation
#20
Bhavana Chhunchha, Eri Kubo, Nigar Fatma, Dhirendra P Singh
Aberrant Sumoylation of protein(s) in response to oxidative stress or during aging is known to be involved in etiopathogenesis of many diseases. Upon oxidative stress, Peroxiredoxin (Prdx) 6 is aberrantly Sumoylated by Sumo1, resulting in loss of functions and cell death. We identified lysines (K) 122 and 142 as the major Sumo1 conjugation sites in Prdx6. Intriguingly, the mutant Prdx6 K122/142 R (arginine) gained protective efficacy, increasing in abundance and promoting glutathione (GSH) peroxidase and acidic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (aiPLA2) activities...
January 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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