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Phospholipase A2

M Murakami, K Yamamoto, Y Miki, R Murase, H Sato, Y Taketomi
Within the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family that hydrolyzes phospholipids to yield fatty acids and lysophospholipids, secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes comprise the largest group containing 11 isoforms in mammals. Individual sPLA2s exhibit unique tissue or cellular distributions and enzymatic properties, suggesting their distinct biological roles. Although PLA2 enzymes, particularly cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2α), have long been implicated in inflammation by driving arachidonic acid metabolism, the precise biological roles of sPLA2s have remained a mystery over the last few decades...
2016: Advances in Immunology
Yan Wang, Jin Zhang, Yuesheng Qian, Xiaofeng Tang, Huawei Ling, Kemin Chen, Pingjin Gao, Dingliang Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asians, whereas whites tend to have more extracranial lesions. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been associated with ischemic stroke by a large amount of work. However, there are few studies focusing on the relationship of Lp-PLA2 and asymptomatic ICAS or extracranial arterial stenosis (ECAS). We hereby sought to explore the relationship of Lp-PLA2 and ICAS, ECAS and concurrent stenosis in stroke-free hypertensive patients in Chinese population...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Haiyan Luan, Peng Wu, Mingxiao Wang, Hongyu Sui, Lili Fan, Ruimin Gu
Adenosine is a molecule produced by several organs within the body, including the kidneys, where it acts as an autoregulatory factor. It mediates ion transport in several nephron segments, including the proximal tubule and the thick ascending limb (TAL). Ion transport is dictated in part by anionic chloride channels, which regulate crucial kidney functions, including the reabsorption of Na+ and Cl‑, urine concentration, and establishing and maintaining the corticomedullary osmotic gradient. The present study investigated the effects of adenosine on the mRNA expression of chloride voltage‑gated channel Kb (CLCNKB), a candidate gene involved in hypertension, which encodes for the ClC‑Kb channel...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Carlos H M Oliveira, Anderson A Simão, Marcus V C Trento, Pedro H S César, Silvana Marcussi
The enzyme inhibition by natural and/ or low-cost compounds may represent a valuable adjunct to traditional serotherapy performed in cases of snakebite, mainly with a view to mitigate the local effects of envenoming. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible interactions between vitamins and enzymes that comprise Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, in vitro. Proteolysis inhibition assays (substrates: azocasein, collagen, gelatin and fibrinogen), hemolysis, coagulation, hemagglutination were carried out using different proportions of vitamins in face of to inhibit minimum effective dose of each venom...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Ivor B Asztalos, Joi A Gleason, Sakine Sever, Reyhan Gedik, Bela F Asztalos, Katalin V Horvath, Michael L Dansinger, Stefania Lamon-Fava, Ernst J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the primary omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the independent effects of EPA and DHA on lipid and apolipoprotein levels, as well as on inflammatory biomarkers of CVD risk, using doses often used in the general population. DESIGN: A blinded, randomized 6-week trial was performed in 121 healthy, normolipidemic subjects who received olive oil placebo 6g/d, EPA 600mg/d, EPA 1800mg/d, or DHA 600mg/d...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jalees Fatima, Ritu Karoli, Ruchita Sharma, Saumya Gupta, Aman Mor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yunwi Heo, Young Chul Kwon, Kyoungsoon Shin, Won Duk Yoon, Chang Hoon Han, Seungshic Yum, Euikyung Kim
We have shown that Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) contains various kinds of proteolytic enzyme activities, including phospholipase (PLA), metalloproteinase (MP) and hyaluronidase activities. In this study, we reported the full-length cDNA and gene sequences of two PLA2 isoforms: acidic PLA2 PA4 and PLA2 PA3A/PA3B/PA5. The full-length cDNA of acidic PLA2 PA4 contains 483 nucleotides (nt), which encode 160 amino acids (and the stop codon), including a signal peptide, six cysteine residues that form disulfide bonds, and metal-binding and catalytic active sites...
October 6, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Mauren Villalta, Andrés Sánchez, María Herrera, Mariángela Vargas, Álvaro Segura, Maykel Cerdas, Ricardo Estrada, Indika Gawarammana, Dan E Keyler, Kimberly McWhorter, Roy Malleappah, Alberto Alape-Girón, Guillermo León, José María Gutiérrez
A new whole IgG, freeze-dried, polyspecific antivenom was prepared from the plasma of horses immunized with the venoms of the snakes Daboia russelii, Echis carinatus, Hypnale hypnale, and Naja naja from Sri Lanka. The preclinical neutralizing ability of this antivenom against several toxic and enzymatic activities of these four venoms was analyzed, and compared with that of a batch of VINS antivenom (India) being currently used in Sri Lanka. The activities tested were: lethality, hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, proteinase and phospholipase A2...
October 6, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Kai Wu, Jianfeng Xu, Regan Fong, Xiaozhou Yao, Yanmei Xu, William Guiney, Frank Gray, Andrew Lockhart
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in healthy volunteers the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of GSK2647544, (a selective lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor). METHODS: Study 1 was a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study with healthy male volunteers randomized to receive single escalating oral doses (0.5 - 750 mg) of GSK2647544. Study 2 was a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with healthy volunteers randomized to receive repeat doses (80 mg) of GSK2647544...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Maroula G Kokotou, Dimitris Limnios, Aikaterini Nikolaou, Anastasia Psarra, George Kokotos
The regulation of the catalytic activity of the various phospholipase A2 enzymes is of high importance because these enzymes are involved in various pathological conditions such as arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, and cancer. Thus, a great effort has been devoted in developing synthetic inhibitors as new agents to treat inflammatory diseases. Some of them have reached clinical trials. Areas covered: This review article discusses the phospholipase A2 inhibitors presented in patent literature from October 2012 to June 2016, their activities in vitro and in vivo as well as the results of clinical trials using synthetic PLA2 inhibitors...
October 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Andreas Krebs, Juergen Doerfer, Alexandra Krause, Juergen Grulich-Henn, Martin Holder, Wolfgang Hecker, Kai Lichte, Arno Schmidt-Trucksaess, Karl Winkler, Karl Otfried Schwab
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of atorvastatin on inflammation markers and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind pilot study involving 28 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and subfractions of LDL were measured at baseline, after 1 year and 2 years of treatment with atorvastatin (10 mg/day) vs...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Conor P Kerley, Katrina Hutchinson, Jessica Bramham, Aisling McGowan, John Faul, Liam Cormican
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Our group and others have reported a high rate of vitamin D deficiency in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), where vitamin D levels (25(OH)D) correlate negatively with OSAS severity and some of its associated metabolic alterations. Data regarding vitamin D supplementation in OSAS are lacking. We wanted to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on OSAS symptoms and metabolic parameters. METHODS: We conducted a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily supplementation with 4,000 IU vitamin D3 (D3) or placebo (PL)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Chao Zhu, Changchun Cao, Xiaofei Wang, Jie Yuan, Lai Jin, Shengnan Li
Urocortins (UCNs) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have been demonstrated to participate in various cardiovascular diseases, many of which involve vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) release is an important cause of VSMCs proliferation. The work was to investigate the regulation of VSMCs proliferation by UCN/TGF-beta and whether cPLA2 was a link between their signaling pathways. VSMCs proliferation was measured by colorimetric assay and immunofluorescence microscopy...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
David Majerowicz, Gustavo M Calderón-Fernández, Michele Alves-Bezerra, Iron F De Paula, Lívia S Cardoso, M Patricia Juárez, Georgia C Atella, Katia C Gondim
The kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus is both an important vector of Chagas' disease and an interesting model for investigation into the field of physiology, including lipid metabolism. The publication of this insect genome will bring a huge amount of new molecular biology data to be used in future experiments. Although this work represents a promising scenario, a preliminary analysis of the sequence data is necessary to identify and annotate the genes involved in lipid metabolism. Here, we used bioinformatics tools and gene expression analysis to explore genes from different genes families and pathways, including genes for fat breakdown, as lipases and phospholipases, and enzymes from β-oxidation, fatty acid metabolism, and acyl-CoA and glycerolipid synthesis...
September 30, 2016: Gene
Samuel Hernandez-Anzaldo, Vesna Brglez, Bianca Hemmeryckx, Dickson Leung, Janos G Filep, Jean E Vance, Dennis E Vance, Zamaneh Kassiri, Roger H Lijnen, Gérard Lambeau, Carlos Fernandez-Patron
BACKGROUND: The development of atherosclerosis is strongly linked to disorders of cholesterol metabolism. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are dysregulated in patients and animal models with atherosclerosis. Whether systemic MMP activity influences cholesterol metabolism is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined MMP-9-deficient (Mmp9(-/-)) mice and found them to have abnormal lipid gene transcriptional responses to dietary cholesterol supplementation. As opposed to Mmp9(+/+) (wild-type) mice, Mmp9(-/-) mice failed to decrease the hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 pathway genes, which control hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake...
September 30, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Felipe Roberto Borba Ferreira, Pollyanna Michelle da Silva, Tatiana Soares, Larissa Gonçalves Machado, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa de Araújo, Teresinha Gonçalves da Silva, Gabriela Souto Vieira de Mello, Maira Galdino da Rocha Pitta, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo Rego, Emmanuel Viana Pontual, Russolina Benedeta Zingali, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva
This study characterized the protein/peptide profile of venom isolated from the spider Lasiodora sp. (Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) found in northeastern Brazil and determined its antimicrobial activity, toxicity against human cells, and hemolytic activity. Protein concentration of the Lasiodora sp. venom was 4.53 ± 0.38 mg/mL. SDS-PAGE showed proteins with molecular masses up to 75 kDa, some of which contained disulfide bridges. RP-HPLC analysis separate at least 12 peaks that were identified by mass spectrometry as peptides U1-theraphotoxin-Lp1a (lasiotoxin-1), U1-theraphotoxin-Lp1c (lasiotoxin-3), U3-theraphotoxin-Lsp1a (LTx5), and ω-theraphotoxin-Asp3a as well as the proteins phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and hyaluronidase...
September 29, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Angélique Vétillard, Wafa Bouzid
Animal venoms are complex mixtures containing simple organic molecules, proteins, peptides, and other bioactive elements with extraordinary biological properties associated with their ability to act on a number of molecular receptors in the process of incapacitating their target organisms. In such a context, arthropod venoms are invaluable sources of bioactive substances, with therapeutic interest but the limited availability of some venom such as those from ants, has restricted the potential that these biomolecules could represent...
2016: Biologie Aujourd'hui
Petra Micova, Klara Hahnova, Marketa Hlavackova, Barbara Elsnicova, Anna Chytilova, Kristyna Holzerova, Jitka Zurmanova, Jan Neckar, Frantisek Kolar, Olga Novakova, Jiri Novotny
Cardiac resistance against acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can be enhanced by adaptation to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), but the changes at the molecular level associated with this adaptation are still not fully explored. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays an important role in phospholipid metabolism and may contribute to membrane destruction under conditions of energy deprivation during I/R. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CIH (7000 m, 8 h/day, 5 weeks) on the expression of cytosolic PLA2α (cPLA2α) and its phosphorylated form (p-cPLA2α), as well as other related signaling proteins in the left ventricular myocardium of adult male Wistar rats...
September 30, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Xuejiao Liu, Dousheng Wu, Yongqiang Zhang, Hong Zhou, Ting Lai, Wei Ding
Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important agricultural pest with a broad host range. We previously identified curcumin as a promising acaricidal compound against T. cinnabarinus. However, the acaricidal mechanism of curcumin remains unknown. In this study, RNA-seq was employed to analyze the transcriptome changes in T. cinnabarinus treated with curcumin or the solvent. A total of 105,706,297 clean sequence reads were generated by sequencing, with more than 90% of the reads successfully mapped to the reference sequence...
2016: BioMed Research International
Ka Lun Cheung, Rachael Jarrett, Sumithra Subramaniam, Maryam Salimi, Danuta Gutowska-Owsiak, Yi-Ling Chen, Clare Hardman, Luzheng Xue, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Graham Ogg
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with a T helper 17 response. Yet, it has proved challenging to identify relevant peptide-based T cell antigens. Antigen-presenting Langerhans cells show a differential migration phenotype in psoriatic lesions and express constitutively high levels of CD1a, which presents lipid antigens to T cells. In addition, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is highly expressed in psoriatic lesions and is known to generate neolipid skin antigens for recognition by CD1a-reactive T cells...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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