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Phospholipase A2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042943/suxiao-jiuxin-pill-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-mitochondrial-injury-and-alters-gene-expression-during-ischemic-injury
#1
Xiaofen Ruan, Tiejun Chen, Xiaolong Wang, Yiping Li
Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (SX), a traditional Chinese medicine compound consisting primarily of tetramethylpyrazine and borneol, has been reported to protect against ischemic heart disease. However, the effects of SX on mitochondrial injury and gene expression in various signaling pathways are unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of SX on mitochondrial injury and to screen the expression of genes potentially altered by SX using a cell culture model of ischemic injury. Simulated ischemia was established by culturing HL-1 cardiomyocytes in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium without glucose or serum in a hypoxic chamber containing 95% N2 and 5% CO2 for 24 h...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038009/advances-in-mechanisms-of-allergic-disease-in-2016
#2
Marc E Rothenberg, Hirohisa Saito, R Stokes Peebles
This review highlights advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly type 2 innate lymphoid cells; TH2 lymphocytes; eicosanoid regulation of inflammation; extracellular vesicles in allergic responses; IL-33; microbiome properties, especially as they relate to mucosal barrier function; and a series of findings concerning the allergic inflammatory cells eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells. During the last year, mechanistic advances occurred in understanding type 2 innate lymphoid cells, particularly related to their response to ozone, involvement with experimental food allergy responses, and regulation by IL-33...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037876/photobiomodulation-of-local-alterations-induced-by-bthtx-i-a-phospholipase-a2-myotoxin-from-bothrops-jararacussu-snake-venom-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-evaluation
#3
Adriano Silvio Dos Santos, Ludmila Guimarães-Sousa, Maricilia Silva Costa, Luis Fernando Zamuner, Norma Cristina Sousa, Stephen Hyslop, Andreimar M Soares, Maria Cristina Chavantes, José Carlos Cogo, Stella Regina Zamuner
This report describes the effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) on edema formation, leukocyte influx, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biosynthesis and cytotoxicity caused by bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I), a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) homologue isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom. Swiss mice or C2C12 cells were irradiated with low-level laser (LLL) at 685nm wavelength, an energy density of 4.6J/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 13s. To evaluate the effect on edema formation and leukocyte influx, LLL was applied to the site of inoculation 30min and 3h post-injection...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035888/nitric-oxide-mediates-insect-cellular-immunity-via-phospholipase-a2-activation
#4
Md Sadekuzzaman, David Stanley, Yonggyun Kim
After infection or invasion is recognized, biochemical mediators act in signaling insect immune functions. These include biogenic amines, insect cytokines, eicosanoids, and nitric oxide (NO). Treating insects or isolated hemocyte populations with different mediators often leads to similar results. Separate treatments with an insect cytokine, 2 biogenic amines, and an eicosanoid lead to a single result, hemocyte spreading, understood in terms of intracellular cross-talk among these signaling systems. This study focuses on the cross-talk between NO and eicosanoid signaling in our model insect, Spodoptera exigua...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035365/omega-3-fatty-acid-epoxides-are-autocrine-mediators-that-control-the-magnitude-of-ige-mediated-mast-cell-activation
#5
Yuta Shimanaka, Nozomu Kono, Yoshitaka Taketomi, Makoto Arita, Yoshimichi Okayama, Yuki Tanaka, Yasumasa Nishito, Tatsuki Mochizuki, Hiroyuki Kusuhara, Alexander Adibekian, Benjamin F Cravatt, Makoto Murakami, Hiroyuki Arai
Critical to the function of mast cells in immune responses including allergy is their production of lipid mediators, among which only omega-6 (ω-6) arachidonate-derived eicosanoids have been well characterized. Here, by employing comprehensive lipidomics, we identify omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid epoxides as new mast cell-derived lipid mediators and show that they are produced by PAF-AH2, an oxidized-phospholipid-selective phospholipase A2. Genetic or pharmacological deletion of PAF-AH2 reduced the steady-state production of ω-3 epoxides, leading to attenuated mast cell activation and anaphylaxis following FcɛRI cross-linking...
October 9, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034405/immunohistochemical-and-serological-characterization-of-membranous-nephropathy-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
Anne K Dettmar, Thorsten Wiech, Markus J Kemper, Armin Soave, Michael Rink, Jun Oh, Rolf A K Stahl, Elion Hoxha
BACKGROUND: Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults, but is less frequent in children. Antibodies against four antigens leading to MN have been described in children: phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1), thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), and cationic bovine serum albumin (BSA). METHODS: Twelve children with MN were included in this study. Sera of all patients were analyzed for antibodies against PLA2R1, THSD7A, NEP, and BSA...
October 15, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030107/ammodytin-l-is-the-main-cardiotoxic-component-of-the-vipera-ammodytes-ammodytes-venom
#7
Svjetlana Karabuva, Boris Lukšić, Ivica Brizić, Zorica Latinović, Adrijana Leonardi, Igor Križaj
Venom of the nose-horned viper (V. a. ammodytes) as also venoms of some related European viperids can induce also cardiotoxic effects in mammals. In this work we demonstrated that the protein in the V. a. ammodytes venom acting on heart is a myotoxic secreted phospholipase A2 analogue ammodytin L (AtnL). In the isolated perfused rat heart AtnL induced significant and irreversible cardiotoxicity characterized by atrioventricular (AV) blockade. This venom protein induced appearance of high levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and troponin I in the sinus effluent of the isolated heart, indicative for myocardial damage, which is obviously the primary cause of its cardiotoxic action...
October 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028570/bovine-ovarian-follicular-growth-and-development-correlate-with-lysophosphatidic-acid-expression
#8
Emilia Sinderewicz, Katarzyna Grycmacher, Dorota Boruszewska, Ilona Kowalczyk-Zięba, Joanna Staszkiewicz, Tomasz Ślężak, Izabela Woclawek-Potocka
The basis of successful reproduction is proper ovarian follicular growth and development. In addition to prostaglandins and vascular endothelial growth factor, a number of novel factors are suggested as important regulators of follicular growth and development: PGES, TFG, CD36, RABGAP1, DBI and BTC. This study focuses on examining the expression of these factors in granulosa and thecal cells that originate from different ovarian follicle types and their link with the expression of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), known local regulator of reproductive functions in the cow...
September 25, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027597/lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-activity-in-obese-adolescents-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes
#9
Julia Seyfarth, Thomas Reinehr, Annika Hoyer, Christina Reinauer, Christina Bächle, Beate Karges, Ertan Mayatepek, Michael Roden, Sabine E Hofer, Susanna Wiegand, Joachim Woelfle, Wieland Kiess, Joachim Rosenbauer, Reinhard W Holl, Thomas Meissner
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) was identified as a strong predictor for cardiovascular events. Furthermore, it is highly associated with obesity. The role of Lp-PLA2 in diabetes mellitus is controversial and analyses, especially in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D), are missing. Therefore, we compared Lp-PLA2 activity between two obese age-, sex-, and BMI-matched cohorts of adolescents with and without T2D. Relationships between Lp-PLA2 activity and age, BMI, hemoglobin A1c, lipids, and adipokines were evaluated...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027487/effect-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-on-pufa-levels-and-inflammation-in-an-animal-and-cell-model-of-hepatic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#10
M Aslan, E Kıraç, Ö Yılmaz, B Ünal, E K Konuk, F Özcan, H Tuzcu
The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory response in an animal and cell model of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Rats were divided into control, tunicamycin (TM)-treated, and TM + tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA)-treated groups. Hepatic ER stress was induced by TM and the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA was injected 30 min before induction of ER stress. Liver THLE-3 cells were treated with TM and TUDCA was administered in advance to decrease cytotoxic effects...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026428/evaluation-of-the-physiological-activity-of-venom-from-the-eurasian-water-shrew-neomys-fodiens
#11
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
BACKGROUND: Animal toxins can have medical and therapeutic applications. Principally, toxins produced by insects, arachnids, snakes and frogs have been characterized. Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been comprehensively investigated. Among shrews, only the venom of Blarina brevicauda has been analysed so far, and blarina toxin has been proven to be its main toxic component. It is assumed that Neomys fodiens employs its venom to hunt larger prey. However, the toxic profile, properties and mode of action of its venom are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024642/epithelial-cell-derived-phospholipase-a2-group-1b-is-an-endogenous-anthelmintic
#12
Lewis J Entwistle, Victoria S Pelly, Stephanie M Coomes, Yashaswini Kannan, Jimena Perez-Lloret, Stephanie Czieso, Mariana Silva Dos Santos, James I MacRae, Lucy Collinson, Abdul Sesay, Nikolay Nikolov, Amina Metidji, Helena Helmby, David Y Hui, Mark S Wilson
Immunity to intestinal helminth infections has been well studied, but the mechanism of helminth killing prior to expulsion remains unclear. Here we identify epithelial-cell-derived phospholipase A2 group 1B (PLA2g1B) as a host-derived endogenous anthelmintic. PLA2g1B is elevated in resistant mice and is responsible for killing tissue-embedded larvae. Despite comparable activities of other essential type-2-dependent immune mechanisms, Pla2g1b(-/-) mice failed to expel the intestinal helminths Heligmosomoides polygyrus or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024637/pla2g1b-places-worms-in-peril
#13
Mark Palma, Darine W El-Naccache, William C Gause
The determinants of helminth resistance are not well understood. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Entwistle et al. (2017) provide intriguing evidence that a phospholipase A2 (Pla2gb1) produced by epithelial cells can impair larval development in helminths, providing a novel mechanism contributing to intestinal nematode resistance.
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023569/pancreatic-and-snake-venom-presynaptically-active-phospholipases-a2-inhibit-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#14
Catherine A Vulfius, Igor E Kasheverov, Elena V Kryukova, Ekaterina N Spirova, Irina V Shelukhina, Vladislav G Starkov, Tatyana V Andreeva, Grazyna Faure, Marios Zouridakis, Victor I Tsetlin, Yuri N Utkin
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022236/the-protective-effect-of-selenium-on-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cell-injury-caused-by-depression-of-thioredoxin-reductase
#15
Yongmei Guo, Sumei Yan, Jian Gong, Lu Jin, Binlin Shi
To elucidate the effect of selenium (Se) on antioxidant function of mammary glands in dairy cows and the underlying mechanism, an experiment was conducted using a single-factor completely randomized design study. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) were randomly divided into four groups: control, Se treatment, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) inhibition, and Se prevention. Treatment of BMECs with Se was found to significantly reverse decreased cell proliferation and the expression of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) after DNCB exposure...
October 11, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021631/deficiency-of-peroxiredoxin-6-or-inhibition-of-its-phospholipase-a2-activity-impair-the-in-vitro-sperm-fertilizing-competence-in-mice
#16
Adel R Moawad, Maria C Fernandez, Eleonora Scarlata, Chandra Dodia, Sheldon I Feinstein, Aron B Fisher, Cristian O'Flaherty
Prdx6 (-/-) male mice are subfertile, and the deficiency or inactivation of Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) is associated with human male infertility. We elucidate the impact of the lack of PRDX6 or inhibition of its calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (Ca(2+)-iPLA2) activity by MJ33 on fertilization competence of mouse spermatozoa. Sperm motility, viability, fertilization and blastocyst rates were lower in Prdx6 (-/-) spermatozoa than in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) controls (p ≤ 0.05). MJ33 inhibited the PRDX6 Ca(2+)-iPLA2 activity and reduced these parameters in WT spermatozoa compared with controls (p ≤ 0...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019677/scalaradial-is-a-potent-inhibitor-of-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-trpm2-ion-channels
#17
John G Starkus, Peter Poerzgen, Kristine Layugan, Kelly Galbraith Kawabata, Jun-Ichi Goto, Sayuri Suzuki, George Myers, Michelle Kelly, Reinhold Penner, Andrea Fleig, F David Horgen
TRPM2 is a Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channel that plays a role in oxidant-induced cell death, insulin secretion, and cytokine release. Few TRPM2 inhibitors have been reported, which hampers the validation of TRPM2 as a drug target. While screening our in-house marine-derived chemical library, we identified scalaradial and 12-deacetylscalaradial as the active components within an extract of an undescribed species of Cacospongia (class Demospongiae, family Thorectidae) that strongly inhibited TRPM2-mediated Ca(2+) influx in TRPM2-overexpressing HEK293 cells...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993924/effects-of-acetylcholine-on-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-cpla2-activation-in-the-tb-neuroectodermal-cell-line-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Arianna Polverino, Manuela Grimaldi, Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Francesca Jacini, Anna Maria D'Ursi, Giuseppe Sorrentino
The role of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still considered crucial. The state of Aβ aggregation is critical in promoting neuronal loss and neuronal function impairment. Recently, we demonstrated that Acetylcholine (ACh) is neuroprotective against the toxic effects of Aβ in the cholinergic LAN-2 cells. In biophysical experiments, ACh promotes the soluble Aβ peptide conformation rather than the aggregation-prone β-sheet conformation. In order to better understand the biological role of ACh in AD, we studied the effect of Aβ on the phosphorylation of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in the TB neuroectodermal cell line, which differentiates toward a neuronal phenotype when cultured in the presence of retinoic acid (RA)...
October 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993456/phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-dependent-oligomerization-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-cytotoxin-exou
#19
Angelica Zhang, Jeffrey L Veesenmeyer, Alan R Hauser
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system delivers effector proteins directly into target cells, allowing the bacterium to modulate host cell functions. ExoU is the most cytotoxic of the known effector proteins and has been associated with more severe infections in humans. ExoU is a patatin-like A2 phospholipase requiring the cellular host factors phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and ubiquitin for its activation in vitro We demonstrated that PI(4,5)P2 also induces oligomerization of ExoU and that this PI(4,5)P2-mediated oligomerization does not require ubiquitin...
October 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992353/glomerular-mannose-binding-lectin-deposition-in-intrinsic-antigen-related-membranous-nephropathy
#20
Norifumi Hayashi, Keiichirou Okada, Yuki Matsui, Keiji Fujimoto, Hiroki Adachi, Hideki Yamaya, Misao Matsushita, Hitoshi Yokoyama
Background: The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) were identified as intrinsic antigens in primary membranous nephropathy (MN). Complement activation via the lectin pathway in intrinsic antigen-related MN is still unclear. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 60 primary Japanese MN patients and detected activated complement pathways by staining complement proteins in glomerular deposition. According to the findings of PLA2R and THSD7A staining in glomeruli, they were classified into intrinsic antigen-related or -unrelated MN...
July 18, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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