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Phospholipase A2

Natsumi Masuda, Youhei Mantani, Chiaki Yoshitomi, Hideto Yuasa, Miho Nishida, Masaya Arai, Junichi Kawano, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The host defense system with lysozyme and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) was immunohistochemically investigated in rat respiratory tract under healthy conditions. In the nasal epithelium, a large number of non-ciliated and non-microvillous cells (NC) and a small number of goblet cells (GC) were immunopositive for lysozyme and sPLA2. A few acinar cells and almost all epithelial cells of intercalated ducts were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances in the nasal glands. In the laryngeal and tracheal epithelia, few NC and GC were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Yonggyun Kim, Shabbir Ahmed, David Stanley, Chunju An
Eicosanoid is a collective term for oxygenated metabolites of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. As seen in mammals, eicosanoids play crucial roles in mediating various physiological processes, including immune responses, in insects. Upon microbial pathogen infection, non-self recognition signals are propagated to nearly immune effectors such as hemocytes and fat body using various immune mediators, in which eicosanoid signals act as the ultimate downstream mediator. The chemical diversity of eicosanoids may operate to mediate various immune responses...
December 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xueling Lu, Xijin Xu, Yu Zhang, Yuling Zhang, Chenyang Wang, Xia Huo
Cardiovascular toxicity of lead (Pb) manifests primarily as an effect on blood pressure and eventual increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Therefore, we investigated vascular inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular effects of Pb-exposed children. A total of 590 children (3-7 years old) were recruited from Guiyu (n = 337), an electronic waste (e-waste)-exposed group, and Haojiang (n = 253), a reference group, from November to December 2016. We measured child blood Pb levels (BPbs), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Toshiaki Ara, Norio Sogawa
Previously, we revealed that several kampo medicines used for patients with excess and/or medium patterns (kakkonto (TJ-1), shosaikoto (TJ-9), hangeshashinto (TJ-14), and orento (TJ-120)) reduced prostaglandin (PG)E2 levels using LPS-treated human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Recently, we examined other kampo medicines used for patients with the deficiency pattern [bakumondoto (TJ-29), shinbuto (TJ-30), ninjinto (TJ-32), and hochuekkito (TJ-41)] and the herbs comprising shinbuto and ninjinto using the same experimental model...
2017: PeerJ
Laudicéia Alves de Oliveira, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera, Francilene Capel Tavares de Carvalho, Luciana Curtolo de Barros, Lucilene Delazari Dos Santos, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta
Background: Classically, Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom can be described, according to chromatographic criteria, as a simple venom, composed of four major toxins, namely: gyroxin, crotamine, crotoxin and convulxin. Crotoxin is a non-covalent heterodimeric neurotoxin constituted of two subunits: an active phospholipase A2 and a chaperone protein, termed crotapotin. This molecule is composed of three peptide chains connected by seven disulfide bridges. Naturally occurring variants/isoforms of either crotoxin or crotapotin itself have already been reported...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Bittu Saira Koshy, Jaideep Mahendra
Introduction: Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been explored as a potential biomarker for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). The human Lp-PLA2 is a serine-dependent, Ca2+- independent enzyme. It gives way to oxidised free fatty acids and lysophosphatidyl choline by hydrolysing oxidised phospholipids, that leads to smooth muscle cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell chemotaxis and endothelial cell dysfunction in CVD. Owing to its role in inflammation, it may influence the development and progression of periodontitis as well...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Jong-Won Chung, Mi Jeong Oh, Yeon Hee Cho, Gyeong Joon Moon, Gyeong-Moon Kim, Chin-Sang Chung, Kwang Ho Lee, Oh Young Bang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the differential roles of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in intracranial atherosclerotic stroke (ICAS). METHODS: We prospectively recruited 262 patients with acute cerebral infarcts caused by ICAS and 75 individuals with no history of stroke as controls. Markers of endothelial dysfunction (asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA) and inflammation (lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, Lp-PLA2) were measured...
2017: European Neurology
Yizhi Ren, Hao Zhu, Zhongguo Fan, Yali Gao, Nailiang Tian
Statins lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and the addition of ezetimibe to statins further reduces LDL-C and hsCRP. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a potentially important pathogenic factor participating in the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of current study was to investigate how the addition of ezetimibe to rosuvastatin treatment affects reductions in LDL-C, hsCRP and Lp-PLA2 in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
María Laura Fernández, Pablo Yunes Quartino, Ruth Arce-Bejarano, Julián Fernández, Luis F Camacho, José María Gutiérrez, Daniel Kuemmel, Gerardo Fidelio, Bruno Lomonte
A unique feature of the venom of Micrurus fulvius (Eastern coral snake) is its ability to induce severe intravascular hemolysis in particular species, such as dogs or mice. This effect was previously shown to be induced by distinct phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms which cause direct hemolysis in vitro, an uncommon finding for such enzymes. The functional profiles of PLA2-17, a direct hemolytic enzyme, and PLA2-12, a co-existing venom isoform lacking such effect, were compared. The enzymes differed not only in their ability to cause intravascular hemolysis: PLA2-17 additionally displayed lethal, myotoxic, and anticoagulant actions, whereas PLA2-12 lacked these effects...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Shirou Tabe, Hisako Hikiji, Wataru Ariyoshi, Tomomi Hashidate-Yoshida, Hideo Shindou, Takao Shimizu, Toshinori Okinaga, Yuji Seta, Kazuhiro Tominaga, Tatsuji Nishihara
Glycerophospholipids have important structural and functional roles in cells and are the main components of cellular membranes. Glycerophospholipids are formed via the de novo pathway (Kennedy pathway) and are subsequently matured in the remodeling pathway (Lands' cycle). Lands' cycle consists of two steps: deacylation of phospholipids by phospholipases A2 and reacylation of lysophospholipids by lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs). LPLATs play key roles in the maturation and maintenance of the fatty acid composition of biomembranes, and cell differentiation...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Qiufeng Liu, Fubao Huang, Xiao-Jing Yuan, Kai Wang, Yi Zou, Jianhua Shen, Yechun Xu
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a promising therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and diabetic macular edema. Here we report the identification of novel sulfonamide scaffold Lp-PLA2 inhibitors derived from a relatively weak fragment. Similarity searching on this fragment followed by molecular docking leads to the discovery of a micromolar inhibitor with 300-fold potency improvement. By the application of a structure-guided design strategy, a successful hit-to-lead optimization was achieved and a number of Lp-PLA2 inhibitors with single-digit nanomolar activity were obtained...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Zhang-Min Yang, Ying-Zhe Xie, Su-Xian Yan, Zhen-Zhen Liu, Jian-Cheng Song, Zhe-Zhi Wang, Inn-Ho Tsai
Two acidic Asp49-PLA2s with Glu6 substitution and a neutral Lys49-PLA (designated Gst-K49) were cloned from G. strauchii venom glands, their full amino acid sequences were deduced. The predominant acidic PLA2 (designated Gst-E6a) contains 124 residues and the M18W30 substitutions, while the minor acidic PLA2 (designated Gst-E6b) contains 122 residues and the V18A30 substitutions. Their sequences are most similar to those of the respective orthologous PLA2s of G. intermedius venom. Gst-E6a and Gst-E6b appear to be paralogs and possibly have different predatory targets or functions...
November 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Gyung Deok Han, Jahyun Na, Yong Shik Chun, Sunil Kumar, Wook Kim, Yonggyun Kim
Polyunsaturated fatty acids usually undergo lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Calcium-independent cellular phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) can maintain fatty acid compositions in phospholipids depending on physiological conditions. An insect iPLA2 (Pi-iPLA2) was predicted from the transciptome of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella. It encodes 835 amino acids. It possesses five ankyrin repeats in the N terminal and patatin lipase domain in the C terminal. Pi-iPLA2 was expressed in all developmental stages of the Indianmeal moth...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Daniela M Hatakeyama, Karen de Morais-Zani, Caroline Serino-Silva, Kathleen F Grego, Savio S Sant'anna, Wilson Fernandes, Patrícia A E A Aniz, Ricardo J S Torquato, Aparecida S Tanaka, Libia Sanz, Juan J Calvete, Anita M Tanaka-Azevedo
The number of snakes donated to the Brazilian Instituto Butantan has been decreasing in the past 10 years. This circumstance motivated us to compare the properties of five venom pools of Bothrops jararaca snake stored for up to 54 years. Results showed differences among venom pools regarding enzymatic and other biological activities, such as caseinolytic, phospholipase A2, hemorrhagic and coagulant activities, as well as antigenicity. Protein content, reverse-phase chromatographic profile, and immunorecognition by commercial Bothrops antivenom were comparable for all venom pools, although lethality of the most recent preparations was higher...
November 24, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Xiao-Wei Yu, Wei-Hong Sun, Ying-Zheng Wang, Yan Xu
The methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris) has been developed into a highly successful system for heterologous protein expression in both academia and industry. However, overexpression of recombinant protein often leads to severe burden on the physiology of K. phaffii and triggers cellular stress. To elucidate the global effect of protein overexpression, we set out to analyze the differential transcriptome of recombinant strains with 12 copies and a single copy of phospholipase A2 gene (PLA 2) from Streptomyces violaceoruber...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sathishkumar Chinnasamy, Subbiah Nagarajan, Thirunavukkarasu Sivaraman, Karthikeyan Muthusamy
Ikshusterol3-O-glucoside was isolated from Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC root. A structure of the isolated compound was determined on the basis of various spectroscopic interpretations (UV, NMR, FTIR, and GC-MS-EI). This structure was submitted in the PubChem compound database (SID 249494133). SID 249494133 was carried out by density functional theory calculation to observe the chemical stability and electrostatic potential of this compound. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) property of this compound was predicted to evaluate the drug likeness and toxicity...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Yu Zhou, Jia Xu, Shi-Kang Zhu, Qing-Feng Meng, Zhi-Xiong Lin, Ru Chen, Ai-Dong Qian
In this study, we obtained the whole genomes of three porcine bocaparvovirus (PBoV) strains (GD6, GD10, and GD23) by polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis showed that all three field strains belonged to PBoV group 3 (G3). The phylogenetic trees based on NS1, NP1, and VP1 differed to the extent that these PBoVs were potentially more closely related to bocaparvoviruses known to infect other animals than to other PBoVs. GD6, GD10, and GD23 all included the conserved sequences YLGPF and HDXXY, with known phospholipase A2 activity...
November 23, 2017: Archives of Virology
Yuli Huang, Yu Wu, You Yang, Wensheng Li, Jianhua Lu, Yunzhao Hu
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is considered to be a risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but this remains controversial. This study investigated the role of Lp-PLA2 in young Chinese patients with ACS. 228 young patients (aged ≤55 years) with ACS and 237 age-matched controls were included. Lp-PLA2 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lp-PLA2 levels were significantly correlated with smoking, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ox-LDL levels (all P < 0...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Leda Fabiélen Teixera, Letícia Helena de Carvalho, Onássis Boeri de Castro, Jéssica Silva Félix Bastos, Neriane Monteiro Néry, George Azevedo Oliveira, Anderson Makoto Kayano, Andreimar Martins Soares, Juliana Pavan Zuliani
The present work aimed to isolate a basic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Bothrops diporus snake venom (BdV), evaluate and compare the myotoxic and oedema-inducing activities, as well as the systemic effects caused by both the isolated PLA2 and BdV on Swiss mice. A Lys-49 PLA2 (BdipTX-I) was obtained through two chromatographic steps: an ion-exchange and a reverse phase. The local (oedema and myotoxicity) and systemic (hepatic and renal functions) effects were then assessed for BdipTX-I and BdV. Results showed that the oedema-inducing activity was significant in all tested doses (5 and 20 μg/paw) for both BdipTX-I and BdV...
November 20, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Parveen K Garg, Faye L Norby, Linda M Polfus, Eric Boerwinkle, Richard A Gibbs, Megan L Grove, Aaron R Folsom, Pranav S Garimella, Kunihiro Matsushita, Ron C Hoogeveen, Christie M Ballantyne
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Results from prospective studies evaluating the relationship between elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and incident peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have been mixed. We investigated whether higher Lp-PLA2 levels are associated with increased risk of incident PAD and whether PLA2G7 gene variants, which result in lower Lp-PLA2 levels, are associated with reduced risk of incident PAD. METHODS: Our analysis included 9922 participants (56% female; 21% African-American; mean age 63 years) without baseline PAD at ARIC Visit 4 (1996-1998), who had Lp-PLA2 activity measured and were subsequently followed for the development of PAD, defined by occurrence of a PAD-related hospitalization, through 2012...
November 14, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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