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Phospholipase A2

Maria M M Kaisar, Manuel Ritter, Carlos Del Fresno, Hulda S Jónasdóttir, Alwin J van der Ham, Leonard R Pelgrom, Gabriele Schramm, Laura E Layland, David Sancho, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, Martin Giera, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Bart Everts
The molecular mechanisms through which dendritic cells (DCs) prime T helper 2 (Th2) responses, including those elicited by parasitic helminths, remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that soluble egg antigen (SEA) from Schistosoma mansoni, which is well known to drive potent Th2 responses, triggers DCs to produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which subsequently-in an autocrine manner-induces OX40 ligand (OX40L) expression to license these DCs to drive Th2 responses. Mechanistically, SEA was found to promote PGE2 synthesis through Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, and via a downstream signaling cascade involving spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2)...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
Tiange Li, Dongxiao Gao, Min Du, Xue Cheng, Xueying Mao
A casein glycomacropeptide hydrolysate (GMPH) was found to possess inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in our previous study. In the current study, the inhibitory effect and the underlying molecular mechanism of GMPH on inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were further investigated. Results showed that GMPH significantly suppressed LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. GMPH reduced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PEG2) and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in LPS-stimulated macrophages...
April 18, 2018: Food & Function
María J Pérez, Iris C Zampini, Maria R Alberto, María I Isla
This work is part of the search in native food matrices from arid regions of Argentina of interest to improve human health. Prosopis species are ethnic food resources in South America capable of growing in arid and semi-arid environments. This work was focused to determine the nutritional and phytochemical composition of Prosopis nigra fine flour and to evaluate its biological properties. Flour showed a high level of sucrose (30.35 g/100 g flour), fiber (6.34 g/100 g flour), polyphenols (0.45 g GAE/100 g flour), and minerals (potassium, calcium, and magnesium)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Andrés Sánchez, María Herrera, Mauren Villalta, Daniela Solano, Álvaro Segura, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León, Mariángela Vargas
The protein composition and toxinological profile of the venom of the African spitting elapid Hemachatus haemachatus (Ringhals) were characterized by bottom-up proteomics and functional in vitro and in vivo assays. Venom is composed of abundant three-finger toxins (3FTxs; 63.3%), followed by phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s; 22.8%), snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs 7.1%), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs; 4.1%) and Kunitz type protease inhibitors (KTPIs; 1.5%). 3FTxs are the main responsible for lethality and myotoxicity in mice and in vitro anticoagulant activity...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Weihao Li, Mingming Zhang, Yaping Guo, Xiaomei Liu, Xin Ji, Junhua Su, Zhiping Zhang, Feifei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Serum secretory phospholipase A2 group IB (sPLA2-IB) is involved in the pathological processes of membranous nephropathy (MN). To date, there is no large-scale study validating the usefulness of circulating sPLA2-IB in the follow-up of patients with MN. This study investigated the role of circulating sPLA2-IB in the evaluation of severity of MN. METHODS: A total of 158 patients with primary membranous nephropathy (pMN), 34 with secondary membranous nephropathy (sMN) and 53 healthy controls were enrolled...
April 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Sebastian Daniel Hiller, Sarah Heldmann, Katrin Richter, Innokentij Jurastow, Mira Küllmar, Andreas Hecker, Sigrid Wilker, Gabriele Fuchs-Moll, Ivan Manzini, Günther Schmalzing, Wolfgang Kummer, Winfried Padberg, J Michael McIntosh, Jelena Damm, Anna Zakrzewicz, Veronika Grau
While interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine essential for host defense, high systemic levels cause life-threatening inflammatory syndromes. ATP, a stimulus of IL-1β maturation, is released from damaged cells along with β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that β-NAD controls ATP-signaling and, hence, IL-1β release. Lipopolysaccharide-primed monocytic U937 cells and primary human mononuclear leukocytes were stimulated with 2'(3')- O -(4-benzoyl-benzoyl)ATP trieethylammonium salt (BzATP), a P2X7 receptor agonist, in the presence or absence of β-NAD...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yingwei Wang, Jianhua Zhang, Zixi Qin, Zepei Fan, Cheng Lu, Baoxin Chen, Jupeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Li, Fei Xiao, Xi Lin, Zheng Wu
Cell sheet techniques offer a promising future for myocardial infarction (MI) therapy; however, insufficient nutrition supply remains the major limitation in maintaining stem cell bioactivities in vitro. In order to enhance cell sheet mechanical strength and bioactivities, a decellularized porcine pericardium (DPP) scaffold was prepared by the phospholipase A2 method, and aspartic acid was used as a spacer arm to improve the vascular endothelial growth factor crosslink efficiency on the DPP scaffold. Based on this scaffold, multilayered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets were rapidly constructed, using RAD16-I peptide hydrogel as a temporary 3D scaffold, and cell sheets were cultured in either the 3D-dynamic system (DCcs) or the traditional static condition (SCcs)...
April 5, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Vincenzo L'Imperio, Federico Pieruzzi, Renato Alberto Sinico, Manuela Nebuloni, Antonio Granata, Andrew Smith, Antonella Radice, Fabio Pagni
BACKGROUND: Membranous nephropathy (MN) can be idiopathic (iMN) or manifest as a result of systemic underlying conditions as a secondary epiphenomenon. For the prognostic and predictive consequences of this discrimination, the routine use of reliable markers is crucial. This large MN series aimed to evaluate the routine and standardized immunohistochemical (IHC) employment of a panel of 3 biomarkers-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R), thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A), and immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-in the differential diagnosis of MN forms, contributing to the validation of the technique and the correct interpretation of reproducible patterns of reactivity...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Moneeza K Siddiqui, Gwen Kennedy, Fiona Carr, Alexander S F Doney, Ewan R Pearson, Andrew D Morris, Toby Johnson, Megan M McLaughlin, Rachel E Williams, Colin N A Palmer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to examine the association between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) activity levels and incident diabetic retinopathy and change in retinopathy grade. METHODS: This was a cohort study of diabetic participants with serum collected at baseline and routinely collected diabetic retinal screening data. Participants with type 2 diabetes from the GoDARTS (Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland) cohort were used...
April 6, 2018: Diabetologia
Ilona Kowalczyk-Zieba, Izabela Woclawek-Potocka, Tomasz Wasniewski, Dorota Boruszewska, Katarzyna Grycmacher, Emilia Sinderewicz, Joanna Staszkiewicz, Slawomir Wolczynski
Endometriosis has been considered as an estrogen (E2)-dependent and progesterone (P4)-resistant disease. On the other hand, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been suggested as a significant modulator of ovarian pathology, acting via both LPA levels and LPA receptor (LPAR) upregulation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate LPA concentration as well as LPARs, autotaxin (ATX), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) expression in ovarian endometriotic cysts and normal endometrium with correlation of the expression of E2 and P4 receptors in endometriotic cysts...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Pei Chen, Su-Fang Shi, Zhen Qu, Na Zhao, Xin-Fang Xie, Ji-Cheng Lv, Li-Jun Liu, Hong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Coexistence of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and membranous nephropathy (MN) in the same patient is rare. Few studies have reported the clinical and pathological features of patients with combined IgAN and MN (IgAN-MN). METHODS: The clinico-pathological features, levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) and autoantibodies against M-type transmembrane phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2 R) in sera were compared among IgAN-MN, IgAN, and MN patients. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with biopsy-proven IgAN-MN were enrolled...
November 2018: Renal Failure
Elżbieta Kimak, Bartosz Zięba, Dariusz Duma, Janusz Solski
BACKGROUND: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) impairing endothelial functions. We investigated whether increasing concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inflammatory markers induce progression and incident acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) patients. Therefore, the concentration of MPO, lipids, lipoproteins (apo(apolipoprotein) AI, apoB, lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) level), inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) concentration) were examined...
April 4, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Dasom Shin, Won Choi, Hyunsu Bae
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by highly pruritic, erythematous, and eczematous skin plaques. We previously reported that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) derived from bee venom alleviates AD-like skin lesions induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and house dust mite extract ( Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) in a murine model. However, the underlying mechanisms of PLA2 action in actopic dermatitis remain unclear. In this study, we showed that PLA2 treatment inhibited epidermal thickness, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and cytokine levels, macrophage and mast cell infiltration in the ear of an AD model induced by DFE and DNCB...
April 2, 2018: Toxins
Alberto Oliveira, Lucas Bleicher, Carlos G Schrago, Floriano Paes Silva Junior
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s) comprise a superfamily of glycerophospholipids hydrolyzing enzymes present in many organisms in nature, whose catalytic activity was majorly unveiled by analysis of snake venoms. The latter have pharmaceutical and biotechnological interests and can be divided into different functional sub-classes. Our goal was to identify important residues and their relation to the functional and class-specific characteristics in the PLA2 s family with special emphasis on snake venom PLA2 s (svPLA2 s)...
March 30, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Akira Abe, Miki Hiraoka, James A Shayman, Hiroshi Ohguro
Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) is a key enzyme involved in the homeostasis of cellular phospholipids. Recently, LPLA2 was reported to preferentially degrade some truncated oxidized phospholipids at the sn-1 position. A commercially available, truncated oxidized phospholipid conjugated with a fluorescent dye, 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[4-(dipyrrometheneboron difluoride) butanoyl] (PGPE-BODIPY), was used to develop a specific assay for this enzyme. When recombinant mouse LPLA2 was incubated with liposomes consisting of 1,2-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/PGPE-BODIPY under acidic conditions, PGPE-BODIPY was converted to palmitic acid and a polar BODIPY-product...
March 29, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Sirwan K L Darweesh, Frank J Wolters, M Arfan Ikram, F de Wolf, Daniel Bos, Albert Hofman
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory markers are often elevated in patients with dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether inflammatory markers are associated with the risk of developing dementia. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library for prospective population-based studies reporting associations between inflammatory markers and all-cause dementia or AD. We used random effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals of inflammatory markers (highest vs...
March 29, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Rong Huang, Xinli Xue, Shengxian Li, Yuying Wang, Yun Sun, Wei Liu, Huiyong Yin, Tao Tao
The metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remains poorly characterized in ovarian tissues of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study aimed to explore alterations in the levels of PUFAs and their metabolites in serum and ovarian tissues in a PCOS rat model treated with a high-fat diet and andronate. Levels of PUFAs and their metabolites were measured using gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after the establishment of a PCOS rat model. Only 3 kinds of PUFAs [linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid] were detected in both the circulation and ovarian tissues of the rats, and their concentrations were lower in ovarian tissues than in serum...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Craig Osborne, Ewan West, Clive Bate
The cellular prion protein (PrPC ) acts as a scaffold protein that organises signalling complexes. In synaptosomes, the aggregation of PrPC by amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers attracts and activates cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) leading to synapse degeneration. The signalling platform is dependent upon cholesterol released from cholesterol esters by cholesterol ester hydrolases (CEH)s. The activation of CEHs depends upon activated cPLA2 and platelet activating factor (PAF) demonstrating a positive feedback system, activated cPLA2 increased cholesterol concentrations, which in turn facilitated cPLA2 activation...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Halil Mahir Kaplan, Yurdun Kuyucu, Sait Polat, Percin Pazarci, Arash Alizadeh Yegani, Ergin Şingirik, Peyman Ertuğ
Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) causes vessel damage and mechanism of this damage has not yet been clearly identified. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate whether vessel damage due to the CS exposure will be prevented by the alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) or not which has anti-inflammatory effect in mice. For this reason, mice were grouped as controls (with and without CS) and ALA (with and without CS). The CS application continued 5 days a week for two months. At the end of two months, the mice were killed by cervical dislocation and their blood and thoracic aortas were isolated...
March 23, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Gandreddi V D Sirisha, K Vijaya Rachel, Kunal Zaveri, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, P Kiranmayi, Magdah Ganash, Huda Mohammad Alkreathy, Nisreen Rajeh, Ghulam M D Ashraf
Therapeutic value of allelochemicals in inflammatory disorders and the potential drug targets need to be elucidated to alleviate tissue and vascular injury. Natural anti-inflammatory agents are known to cause minimal adverse effects. Presence of different secondary metabolites (allelochemicals), protease inhibitors like (SNTI) from Sapindus trifoliatus and allied compounds from natural sources cannot blithely ignored as natural therapeutics. In the present study SNTI, a prospective protease inhibitor isolated from seeds of Sapindus trifoliatus were subjected to docking against three isoforms of Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) molecules of the inflammatory pathways which are localized in membrane, cytosol and pancreas...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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