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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103515/strong-synergistic-effects-in-pla-pcl-blends-impact-of-pla-matrix-viscosity
#1
Aleksandra Ostafinska, Ivan Fortelný, Jiří Hodan, Sabina Krejčíková, Martina Nevoralová, Jana Kredatusová, Zdeněk Kruliš, Jiří Kotek, Miroslav Šlouf
Blends of two biodegradable polymers, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), with strong synergistic improvement in mechanical performance were prepared by melt-mixing using the optimized composition (80/20) and the optimized preparation procedure (a melt-mixing followed by a compression molding) according to our previous study. Three different PLA polymers were employed, whose viscosity decreased in the following order: PLC ≈ PLA1 > PLA2 > PLA3. The blends with the highest viscosity matrix (PLA1/PCL) exhibited the smallest PCL particles (d∼0...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078244/carvacrol-attenuates-serum-levels-of-total-protein-phospholipase-a2-and-histamine-in-asthmatic-guinea-pig
#2
Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Sedigheh Jalali, Negin Yahyazadeh, Mostafa Boskabady
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological effects of carvacrol such as its anti-inflammatory activities have been shows. In this study the effects of carvacrol on serum levels of total protein (TP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and histamine in sensitized guinea pigs was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S), drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (40, 80 and 160 µg/ml) or dexamethasone. Serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were examined I all sensitized groups as well as a non-sensitized control group (n=6 for each group)...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069812/cooperative-substrate-cofactor-interactions-and-membrane-localization-of-the-bacterial-pla2-enzyme-exou
#3
Maxx H Tessmer, David M Anderson, Adam Buchaklian, Dara W Frank, Jimmy B Feix
The ExoU type III secretion enzyme is a potent phospholipase A2 secreted by the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Activation of phospholipase activity is induced by protein-protein interactions with ubiquitin in the cytosol of a targeted eukaryotic cell, leading to destruction of host cell membranes. Previous work in our laboratory suggested that conformational changes within a C-terminal domain of the toxin might be involved in the activation mechanism. In this study, we use site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate conformational changes in a C-terminal four-helical bundle region of ExoU as it interacts with lipid substrates and ubiquitin, and to examine the localization of this domain with respect to the lipid bilayer...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066794/altered-monocyte-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-expression-is-linked-to-vascular-inflammation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#4
Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Janelle Gabriel, Taylor Amburgy, Elizabeth Mayne, David A Zidar, Courtney Maierhofer, Abigail Norris Turner, Jose A Bazan, Susan L Koletar, Michael M Lederman, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk for vascular thrombosis, potentially driven by interactions between activated leukocytes and the endothelium. METHODS: Monocyte subsets (CD14(+)CD16(-), CD14(+)CD16(+), CD14(Dim)CD16(+)) from HIV negative (HIV(-)) and antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV positive (HIV(+)) participants (N = 19 and 49) were analyzed by flow cytometry for adhesion molecule expression (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1], macrophage-1 antigen [Mac-1], CD11c/CD18, very late antigen [VLA]-4) and the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1); these receptors recognize ligands (intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAMs], vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, fractalkine) on activated endothelial cells (ECs) and promote vascular migration...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063838/exploring-and-understanding-the-functional-role-and-biochemical-and-structural-characteristics-of-an-acidic-phospholipase-a2-apltx-i-purified-from-agkistrodon-piscivorus-leucostoma-snake-venom
#5
L M Resende, J R Almeida, R Schezaro-Ramos, R C O Collaço, L R Simioni, D Ramírez, W González, A M Soares, L A Calderon, S Marangoni, S L da Silva
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) constitute a class of extensively studied toxins, isolated from snake venoms. Basic PLA2 isoforms mediate various toxicological effects, while the acidic isoforms generally have higher enzymatic activities, but do not promote evident toxic effects. The functions of these acidic isoforms in snake venoms are still not completely understood and more studies are needed to characterize the biological functions and diversification of acidic toxins in order to justify their abundant presence in these secretions...
January 4, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063492/interfacial-enzymes-membrane-binding-orientation-membrane-insertion-and-activity
#6
S A Tatulian
Most interfacial enzymes undergo activation upon membrane binding. Interfacial activation is determined not only by the binding strength but also by the specific mode of protein-membrane interactions, including the angular orientation and membrane insertion of the enzymes. This chapter describes biophysical techniques to quantitatively evaluate membrane binding, orientation, membrane insertion, and activity of secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and lipoxygenase (LO) enzymes. Procedures for recombinant production and purification of human pancreatic PLA2 and human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) are also presented...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063488/analyses-of-calcium-independent-phospholipase-a2beta-ipla2%C3%AE-in-biological-systems
#7
S E Barbour, S Ramanadham
The Ca(2+)-independent phospholipases A2 (iPLA2s) are part of a diverse family of PLA2s, manifest activity in the absence of Ca(2+), are ubiquitous, and participate in a variety of biological processes. Among the iPLA2s, the cytosolic iPLA2β has received considerable attention and ongoing studies from various laboratories suggest that dysregulation of iPLA2β can have a profound impact on the onset and/or progression of many diseases (e.g., cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic, autoimmune). Therefore, appropriate approaches are warranted to gain a better understanding of the role of iPLA2β in vivo and its contribution to pathophysiology...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055018/sumoylation-deficient-prdx6-gains-protective-function-by-amplifying-enzymatic-activity-and-stability-and-escapes-oxidative-stress-induced-aberrant-sumoylation
#8
Bhavana Chhunchha, Eri Kubo, Nigar Fatma, Dhirendra P Singh
Aberrant Sumoylation of protein(s) in response to oxidative stress or during aging is known to be involved in etiopathogenesis of many diseases. Upon oxidative stress, Peroxiredoxin (Prdx) 6 is aberrantly Sumoylated by Sumo1, resulting in loss of functions and cell death. We identified lysines (K) 122 and 142 as the major Sumo1 conjugation sites in Prdx6. Intriguingly, the mutant Prdx6 K122/142 R (arginine) gained protective efficacy, increasing in abundance and promoting glutathione (GSH) peroxidase and acidic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (aiPLA2) activities...
January 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035985/impact-of-bee-venom-enzymes-on-diseases-and-immune-responses
#9
REVIEW
Md Sakib Hossen, Ummay Mahfuza Shapla, Siew Hua Gan, Md Ibrahim Khalil
Bee venom (BV) is used to treat many diseases and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antimutagenic, radioprotective, anti-nociceptive immunity promoting, hepatocyte protective and anti-cancer activity. According to the literature, BV contains several enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase B, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase and α-glucosidase. Recent studies have also reported the detection of different classes of enzymes in BV, including esterases, proteases and peptidases, protease inhibitors and other important enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism...
December 27, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034717/crystal-structure-of-a-phospholipase-a2-from-bothrops-asper-venom-insights-into-a-new-putative-myotoxic-cluster
#10
Guilherme H M Salvador, Juliana I Dos Santos, Bruno Lomonte, Marcos R M Fontes
Snake venoms from the Viperidae and Elapidae families often have several phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), which may display different functions despite having a similar structural scaffold. These proteins are considered an important target for the development of drugs against local myotoxic damage because they are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy. PLA2s from these venoms are generally divided into two classes: (i) catalytic PLA2s (or Asp49-PLA2s) and (ii) non-catalytic PLA2-like toxins (or Lys49-PLA2s)...
December 26, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028722/relationship-between-two-blood-stasis-syndromes-and-inflammatory-factors-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#11
Cai-Yun Ma, Jing-Hua Liu, Jian-Xun Liu, Da-Zhuo Shi, Zhen-Ye Xu, Shao-Ping Wang, Min Jia, Fu-Hai Zhao, Yue-Rong Jiang, Qin Ma, Hong-Yu Peng, Yuan Lu, Ze Zheng, Feng-Xue Ren
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between inflammatory factors and two Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome types of qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS) and qi deficiency and blood stasis (QDBS) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Sixty subjects with ACS, whose pathogenesis changes belongs to qi disturbance blood stasis syndrome, were divided into 2 groups: 30 in the QSBS group and 30 in the QDBS group. The comparative analysis on them was carried out through comparing general information, coronary angiography and inflammatory factors including intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2)...
December 27, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025044/a-dual-label-time-resolved-fluorescence-immunoassay-trfia-for-screening-of-coronary-atherosclerosis-based-on-simultaneous-detection-of-lp-pla2-and-hscrp
#12
Zhong Zhang, Xiaozhu Liu, Yinfeng Li, Ruolan Huang, Ling Wang, Laiqing Li, Cuicui Chen, Lijun Ou, Xiao Chang, Qiujie Qiao, Mingtai Chen
Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of most coronary events. The conventional method for coronary atherosclerosis detection is morphological examination or coronary arterionyraphy. These methods are complex and time-consuming. In this study a two-step dual-label TRFIA was developed for the simultaneous detection of Lp-PLA2 and hsCRP in a single run. The performance of this assay was first evaluated using clinical serum samples, and then compared with commercialized kits. The sensitivity of this assay for Lp-PLA2 detection was 1ng/mL (dynamic range, 0-1000U/L), and the sensitivity for hsCRP detection was 1mg/L (dynamic range, 1-1000mg/L)...
December 23, 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009293/calcium-release-from-stores-inhibits-girk
#13
Paul F Kramer, John T Williams
Synaptic transmission is mediated by ionotropic and metabotropic receptors that together regulate the rate and pattern of action potential firing. Metabotropic receptors can activate ion channels and modulate other receptors and channels. The present paper examines the interaction between group 1 mGluR-mediated calcium release from stores and GABAB/D2-mediated GIRK currents in rat dopamine neurons of the Substantia Nigra. Transient activation of mGluRs decreased the GIRK current evoked by GABAB and D2 receptors, although less efficaciously for D2...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992874/differential-expression-of-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-in-monocyte-subsets-impact-of-uremia-and-atherosclerosis
#14
Christof Ulrich, Bogusz Trojanowicz, Roman Fiedler, Felix Kohler, Anna-Franziska Wolf, Eric Seibert, Matthias Girndt
BACKGROUND: Monocytic products, such as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), may participate in the development of atherosclerosis. Heterogeneity of monocytes is widely acknowledged. Classical, intermediate, and non-classical subsets can be discerned. Recently, an inflammatory, pro-atherogenic monocyte population could be identified in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we investigated the expression of Lp-PLA2 on leucocytes and different monocyte subpopulations and their possible role in uremia, inflammation, and atherosclerosis...
20, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964890/chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-fluorogenic-phospholipids-and-evaluation-in-assays-of-phospholipases-a-c-and-d
#15
Mathilde S Piel, Günther H J Peters, Jesper Brask
Phospholipases are ubiquitous in nature and the target of significant research aiming at both their physiological roles and technical applications in e.g. the food industry. In the search for sensitive and selective phospholipase assays, we have focused on synthetic FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) substrates. This has led to the development of a facile, easily scalable and low cost synthesis of fluorogenic phospholipids featuring the dansyl/dabcyl fluorophore/quencher-pair on the fatty acid ω-position and on the phosphatidylethanolamine head group, respectively...
December 10, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960254/engineering-the-protein-corona-of-a-synthetic-polymer-nanoparticle-for-broad-spectrum-sequestration-and-neutralization-of-venomous-biomacromolecules
#16
Jeffrey O'Brien, Shih-Hui Lee, Shunsuke Onogi, Kenneth J Shea
Biochemical diversity of venom extracts often occurs within a small number of shared protein families. Developing a sequestrant capable of broad-spectrum neutralization across various protein isoforms within these protein families is a necessary step in creating broad-spectrum antivenom. Using directed synthetic evolution to optimize a nanoparticle (NP) formulation capable of sequestering and neutralizing venomous phospholipase A2 (PLA2), we demonstrate that broad-spectrum neutralization and sequestration of venomous biomacromolecules is possible via a single optimized NP formulation...
December 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956130/lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-in-coronary-heart-disease-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Dongze Li, Lizhi Zhao, Jing Yu, Wei Zhang, Rongsheng Du, Xin Liu, Ying Liu, You Chen, Rui Zeng, Yu Cao, Zhi Zeng, Zhiwei Zhao, Jiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Risk associations between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and adverse outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) remain unclear. The aim of the meta-analysis was to investigate the association between Lp-PLA2 and prognosis of CHD. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were examined for prospective studies published before June 2016. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of adverse outcomes according to Lp-PLA2 activity or mass were extracted, pooled, and weighted using generic inverse-variance and random-effect modeling...
December 9, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941334/synergistic-effect-of-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-with-classical-risk-factors-on-coronary-heart-disease-a-multi-ethnic-study-in-china
#18
Peng-Cheng Ge, Zhao-Hong Chen, Ren-You Pan, Xiao-Qing Ding, Jie-Yin Liu, Qiao-Wei Jia, Zhe Liu, Shi-Zhao He, Feng-Hui An, Li-Hua Li, Zhao-Yang Li, Yan Gu, Tie-Bing Zhu, Chun-Jian Li, Lian-Sheng Wang, Wen-Zhu Ma, Zhi-Jian Yang, En-Zhi Jia
AIMS: We evaluated the synergistic effect of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) in association with classical risk factors in predicting coronary heart disease (CHD) and demonstrated the diagnostic value of Lp-PLA2 for predicting coronary stenotic lesions in subjects with CHD. METHODS: Blood samples were acquired from 911 consecutive adult subjects (662 males and 249 females) from 11 ethnic groups. Lp-PLA2 plasma levels were detected using a commercially available turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA)...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940953/genetic-invalidation-of-lp-pla2-as-a-therapeutic-target-large-scale-study-of-five-functional-lp-pla2-lowering-alleles
#19
John M Gregson, Daniel F Freitag, Praveen Surendran, Nathan O Stitziel, Rajiv Chowdhury, Stephen Burgess, Stephen Kaptoge, Pei Gao, James R Staley, Peter Willeit, Sune F Nielsen, Muriel Caslake, Stella Trompet, Linda M Polfus, Kari Kuulasmaa, Jukka Kontto, Markus Perola, Stefan Blankenberg, Giovanni Veronesi, Francesco Gianfagna, Satu Männistö, Akinori Kimura, Honghuang Lin, Dermot F Reilly, Mathias Gorski, Vladan Mijatovic, Patricia B Munroe, Georg B Ehret, Alex Thompson, Maria Uria-Nickelsen, Anders Malarstig, Abbas Dehghan, Thomas F Vogt, Taishi Sasaoka, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Norihiro Kato, Yoshiji Yamada, Frank Kee, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Jean Ferrières, Dominique Arveiler, Philippe Amouyel, Veikko Salomaa, Eric Boerwinkle, Simon G Thompson, Ian Ford, J Wouter Jukema, Naveed Sattar, Chris J Packard, Abdulla Al Shafi Majumder, Dewan S Alam, Panos Deloukas, Heribert Schunkert, Nilesh J Samani, Sekar Kathiresan, Børge G Nordestgaard, Danish Saleheen, Joanna Mm Howson, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Adam S Butterworth, John Danesh
AIMS: Darapladib, a potent inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), has not reduced risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes in recent randomized trials. We aimed to test whether Lp-PLA2 enzyme activity is causally relevant to coronary heart disease. METHODS: In 72,657 patients with coronary heart disease and 110,218 controls in 23 epidemiological studies, we genotyped five functional variants: four rare loss-of-function mutations (c.109+2T > C (rs142974898), Arg82His (rs144983904), Val279Phe (rs76863441), Gln287Ter (rs140020965)) and one common modest-impact variant (Val379Ala (rs1051931)) in PLA2G7, the gene encoding Lp-PLA2...
December 11, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940138/the-small-subunit-of-hemilipin2-a-new-heterodimeric-phospholipase-a2-from-hemiscorpius-lepturus-scorpion-venom-mediates-the-antiangiogenic-effect-of-the-whole-protein
#20
Imen Jridi, Ivana Catacchio, Hafed Majdoub, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Mohamed El Ayeb, Maria Antonia Frassanito, Antonio Solimando, Domenico Ribatti, Angelo Vacca, Lamia Borchani
In a previous study, we reported the identification of Hemilipin, the first secreted heterodimeric phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion venom and demonstrated its effective inhibition of all angiogenesis key steps in vitro and in vivo. Here, we aimed to characterize a second sPLA2, Hemilipin2, from the same venom and to elucidate its antiangiogenic effect. The protein was purified by chromatography separation and analyzed by MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry. Its N terminal amino acid sequence was determined by Edman degradation method and the enzymatic activity by fatty acids release assay...
December 8, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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