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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332572/lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-and-coronary-heart-disease
#1
Areti Sofogianni, Stelina Alkagiet, Konstantinos Tziomalos
In the last decades, the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been the topic of intense research. Several markers of inflammation have shown predictive value for first and recurrent coronary events in patients without and with established coronary heart disease (CHD). Among these markers, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has recently received considerable attention. In the present review, the potential role of Lp-PLA2 as a marker of CHD risk and as a therapeutic target is discussed...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329419/a-single-mutation-unlocks-cascading-exaptations-in-the-origin-of-a-potent-pitviper-neurotoxin
#2
A Carl Whittington, Andrew J Mason, Darin R Rokyta
Evolutionary innovations and complex phenotypes seemingly require an improbable amount of genetic change to evolve. Rattlesnakes display two dramatically different venom phenotypes. Type I venoms are hemorrhagic with low systemic toxicity and high expression of tissue-destroying snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP). Type II venoms are highly neurotoxic and lack SVMP expression and associated hemorrhagic activity. This dichotomy hinges on Mojave toxin (MTx), a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) based ᵝ-neurotoxin expressed in Type II venoms...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321128/measurement-of-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-by-use-of-3-different-methods-exploration-of-discordance-between-elisa-and-activity-assays
#3
Celalettin Topbas, Alan Swick, Morteza Razavi, N Leigh Anderson, Terry W Pearson, Cory Bystrom
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), an enzyme associated with inflammation, is used as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. Both the concentration and activity of Lp-PLA2 have been shown to be clinically relevant. However, there is a discordance between the serum concentration of Lp-PLA2 measured by the standard ELISA-based immunoassays and the activity of this enzyme, leading to substantial discordance in risk categorization depending on assay format...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306475/chronic-inhibition-of-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-does-not-improve-coronary-endothelial-function-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Megha Prasad, Ryan Lennon, Gregory W Barsness, Abhiram Prasad, Rajiv Gulati, Lilach O Lerman, Amir Lerman
AIMS: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a novel biomarker for vascular inflammation, is associated with coronary endothelial dysfunction (CED) and independently predicts cardiovascular events. The current study aimed to determine whether darapladib, an orally administered Lp-PLA2 inhibitor, improved CED. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-four patients with CED were enrolled in a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial, and were randomized to receive oral darapladib, 160mg daily, or placebo...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305524/-hete-ing-up-mitochondria-in-human-heart-failure
#5
Matthew J Wolf
A decade of research has established the phospholipase iPLA2γ as being involved in cardiomyocyte dysfunction and necrosis leading to heart failure, but the mechanisms by which iPLA2γ acts and its interaction with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) that is critical for cardiac homeostasis are unclear. New investigations by Moon et al. demonstrate that mitochondria in failing hearts undergo dynamic shifts in PLA2 isoform expression, leading to a redistribution of eicosanoid composition that contributes to pathologic mPTP opening...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302464/the-role-of-lp-pla2-and-biochemistry-parameters-as-potential-biomarkers-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-asian-south-indians-a-case-control-study
#6
Sai Giridhar Sairam, Srikanth Sola, Asha Barooah, Sai Kiran Javvaji, Jiten Jaipuria, Vijayalakshmi Venkateshan, Janardhana Chelli, Carani Balaraman Sanjeevi
Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an emerging biomarker for inflammation that has shown association with CAD. Its significance in the Asian Indian population is not clearly known. We sought to compare the possible association of various biomarkers of atherosclerosis along with Lp-PLA2, in symptomatic individuals with CAD vs. healthy controls in Asian South-Indians. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional case control study at three centers in a South Indian population...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299197/inhibition-of-5-lipoxygenase-inhibitor-zileuton-in-high-fat-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-model
#7
Kuifen Ma, Yihe Chen, Xingguang Liang, Jing Miao, Qingwei Zhao
Objectives: Arachidonic Acid/5-lipoxygenase (AA/5-LOX) pathway connects lipid metabolism and proinflammatory cytokine, which are both related to the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of AA/5-LOX pathway in progression of NAFLD, and the effect of zileuton, an inhibitor of 5-LOX, in this model. Materials and Methods: Animal model for progression of NAFLD was established via feeding high saturated fat diet (HFD)...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287778/structural-evidence-for-a-fatty-acid-independent-myotoxic-mechanism-for-a-phospholipase-a2-like-toxin
#8
Guilherme H M Salvador, Juliana I Dos Santos, Rafael J Borges, Marcos R M Fontes
The myotoxic mechanism for PLA2-like toxins has been proposed recently to be initiated by an allosteric change induced by a fatty acid binding to the protein, leading to the alignment of the membrane docking site (MDoS) and membrane disrupting site (MDiS). Previous structural studies performed by us demonstrated that MjTX-II, a PLA2-like toxin isolated from Bothrops moojeni, presents a different mode of ligand-interaction, with its hydrophobic channels caused by natural amino acid substitutions and an insertion...
December 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285352/evidence-for-in-vitro-antiophidian-properties-of-aqueous-buds-extract-of-eucalyptus-against-montivipera-bornmuelleri-venom
#9
Joseph Khoury, Ranin Dabbousy, Riyad Sadek, Sayed Antoun, Walid Hleihel, Christian Legros, Ziad Fajloun
Because snake venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive molecules, snake bites produce a large panel of symptoms which cannot be totally prevented by current antivenoms. Thus investigating plant extracts for antivenomics therapy approaches seemed relevant. Here, we evaluated the potency of the aqueous Buds extract of Eucalyptus (ABEE) to counteract the main enzymatic activities of Montivipera bornmuelleri venom. We showed that ABEE efficiently counteracts the proteolytic, Phospholipases A2 (PLA2), and L-aminoacid oxidase activities (LAAO) of M...
2017: Journal of Venom Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285351/application-of-phage-display-for-the-development-of-a-novel-inhibitor-of-pla2-activity-in-western-cottonmouth-venom
#10
James K Titus, Matthew K Kay, Cdr Jacob J Glaser
Snakebite envenomation is an important global health concern. The current standard treatment approach for snakebite envenomation relies on antibody-based antisera, which are expensive, not universally available, and can lead to adverse physiological effects. Phage display techniques offer a powerful tool for the selection of phage-expressed peptides, which can bind with high specificity and affinity towards venom components. In this research, the amino acid sequences of Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from multiple cottonmouth species were analyzed, and a consensus peptide synthesized...
2017: Journal of Venom Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248447/evaluation-of-pro-inflammatory-events-induced-by-bothrops-alternatus-snake-venom
#11
Silvina Echeverría, Elbio Leiguez, Carlos Guijas, Neide Galvão do Nascimento, Ofelia Acosta, Catarina Teixeira, Laura C Leiva, Juan Pablo Rodríguez
Inflammation is a major local feature of envenomation by bothropic snakes being characterized by a prominent local edema, pain, and extensive swelling. There are reports demonstrating that whole Bothrops snake venoms and toxins isolated from them are able to activate macrophages functions, such as phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen, cytokines and eicosanoids, however, little is known about the effects of Bothrops alternatus (B.a.) venom on macrophages. In this work, we evaluated the proinflammatory effects of B...
December 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234602/neutralization-of-naja-naja-venom-induced-lethality-edema-and-myonecrosis-by-ethanolic-root-extract-of-coix-lacryma-jobi
#12
K S Rajesh, B R Bharath, C V Rao, K I Bhat, K S Chandrashekhar Bhat, Pritesh Bhat
Coix lacryma-jobi, commonly known as job's tear, is a tall grain-bearing tropical plant of the family Poaceae. The ethanolic root extract (ERE) of the plant was investigated for the first time for anti-venom activity against Indian cobra Naja naja venom. In-vitro studies were conducted to determine neutralization of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of the Naja naja venom by the ERE. ERE showed significant inhibition of PLA2 activity, which was further confirmed from effective neutralization of human red blood cells (HRBC) lysis induced by the venom...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231739/phospholipase-a2-induced-degradation-and-release-from-lipid-containing-polymersomes
#13
Mudassar Mumtaz Virk, Erik Reimhult
Hybrid vesicles, comprising blends of amphiphilic block copolymers and phospholipids, have attracted significant attention recently due to their unique combination of chemical and physical properties. We report a method to make unilanellar hybrid vesicles with diameters of 100 nm by mixing polybutadiene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) and phosphocholine lipids using a combination of solvent inversion and sonication. We show that homogeneous hybrid vesicles are formed when one component is a minor fraction. At compositions with balanced mass fractions, separate populations of similarly sized pure liposomes and hybrid vesicles were observed...
December 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229236/ultrastructural-analysis-of-early-toxic-effects-produced-by-bee-venom-phospholipase-a2-and-melittin-in-sertoli-cells-in-rats
#14
Mariana Tilinca, Adrian Florea
In this study, we aimed to investigate the testicular toxicity of two molecules derived from bee venom (BV): phospholipase A2 (PlA2) and melittin (Mlt). Ultrastructural effects of purified BV PlA2 and Mlt were assessed consecutive to repeated dose (30 days) and acute toxicity studies. For the subchronic treatment, PlA2 and Mlt were injected in daily doses equivalent to those released by a bee sting (105 μg PlA2/kg/day and 350 μg Mlt/kg/day), while in the acute treatment their doses corresponded to those released by 100 bee stings (9...
December 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223817/elevated-inflammatory-lp-pla2-and-il-6-link-e-waste-pb-toxicity-to-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-preschool-children
#15
Xueling Lu, Xijin Xu, Yu Zhang, Yuling Zhang, Chenyang Wang, Xia Huo
Cardiovascular toxicity of lead (Pb) manifests primarily as an effect on blood pressure and eventual increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Therefore, we investigated vascular inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular effects of Pb-exposed children. A total of 590 children (3-7 years old) were recruited from Guiyu (n = 337), an electronic waste (e-waste)-exposed group, and Haojiang (n = 253), a reference group, from November to December 2016. We measured child blood Pb levels (BPbs), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215036/proteomics-and-antivenomics-of-echis-carinatus-carinatus-venom-correlation-with-pharmacological-properties-and-pathophysiology-of-envenomation
#16
Aparup Patra, Bhargab Kalita, Abhishek Chanda, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of Echis carinatus carinatus venom (ECV) from India was studied for the first time by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 90, 47, and 22 distinct enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins belonging to 15, 10, and 6 snake venom protein families were identified in ECV by searching the ESI-LC-MS/MS data against non-redundant protein databases of Viperidae (taxid 8689), Echis (taxid 8699) and Echis carinatus (taxid 40353), respectively. However, analysis of MS/MS data against the Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly sequences (87 entries) of conger E...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207826/the-association-between-periodontal-status-serum-lipid-levels-lipoprotein-associated-phosholipase-a2-lp-pla2-in-chronic-periodontitis-subjects-and-healthy-controls
#17
Bittu Saira Koshy, Jaideep Mahendra
Introduction: Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been explored as a potential biomarker for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). The human Lp-PLA2 is a serine-dependent, Ca2+- independent enzyme. It gives way to oxidised free fatty acids and lysophosphatidyl choline by hydrolysing oxidised phospholipids, that leads to smooth muscle cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell chemotaxis and endothelial cell dysfunction in CVD. Owing to its role in inflammation, it may influence the development and progression of periodontitis as well...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207392/distinct-roles-of-endothelial-dysfunction-and-inflammation-in-intracranial-atherosclerotic-stroke
#18
Jong-Won Chung, Mi Jeong Oh, Yeon Hee Cho, Gyeong Joon Moon, Gyeong-Moon Kim, Chin-Sang Chung, Kwang Ho Lee, Oh Young Bang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the differential roles of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in intracranial atherosclerotic stroke (ICAS). METHODS: We prospectively recruited 262 patients with acute cerebral infarcts caused by ICAS and 75 individuals with no history of stroke as controls. Markers of endothelial dysfunction (asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA) and inflammation (lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, Lp-PLA2) were measured...
2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201198/comparison-of-the-effect-of-rosuvastatin-versus-rosuvastatin-ezetimibe-on-markers-of-inflammation-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#19
Yizhi Ren, Hao Zhu, Zhongguo Fan, Yali Gao, Nailiang Tian
Statins lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and the addition of ezetimibe to statins further reduces LDL-C and hsCRP. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a potentially important pathogenic factor participating in the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of current study was to investigate how the addition of ezetimibe to rosuvastatin treatment affects reductions in LDL-C, hsCRP and Lp-PLA2 in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197624/intravascular-hemolysis-induced-by-phospholipases-a2-from-the-venom-of-the-eastern-coral-snake-micrurus-fulvius-functional-profiles-of-hemolytic-and-non-hemolytic-isoforms
#20
María Laura Fernández, Pablo Yunes Quartino, Ruth Arce-Bejarano, Julián Fernández, Luis F Camacho, José María Gutiérrez, Daniel Kuemmel, Gerardo Fidelio, Bruno Lomonte
A unique feature of the venom of Micrurus fulvius (Eastern coral snake) is its ability to induce severe intravascular hemolysis in particular species, such as dogs or mice. This effect was previously shown to be induced by distinct phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms which cause direct hemolysis in vitro, an uncommon finding for such enzymes. The functional profiles of PLA2-17, a direct hemolytic enzyme, and PLA2-12, a co-existing venom isoform lacking such effect, were compared. The enzymes differed not only in their ability to cause intravascular hemolysis: PLA2-17 additionally displayed lethal, myotoxic, and anticoagulant actions, whereas PLA2-12 lacked these effects...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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