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Ryo Amano, Kenta Takada, Yoichiro Tanaka, Yoshikazu Nakamura, Gota Kawai, Tomoko Kozu, Taiichi Sakamoto
AML1 (RUNX1) protein is an essential transcription factor involved in the development of hematopoietic cells. Several genetic aberrations that disrupt the function of AML1 have been frequently observed in human leukemia. AML1 contains a DNA-binding domain known as the Runt domain (RD), which recognizes the RD-binding double-stranded DNA element of target genes. In this study, we identified high-affinity RNA aptamers that bind to RD by SELEX. The binding assay using surface plasmon resonance indicated that a shortened aptamer retained the ability to bind to RD when 1 M potassium acetate was used...
October 21, 2016: Biochemistry
Lei Zhou, Qian Wang, Xiaosu Chen, Lin Fu, Xiaodong Zhang, Lijun Wang, Ailing Deng, Dandan Li, Jing Liu, Na Lv, Lili Wang, Yonghui Li, Daihong Liu, Li Yu, Liping Dou
SIRT1 has been recently found to play an important role in a variety of solid and hematologic malignancies. The expression and function of SIRT1 may be completely different depending on cell type and gene subtype and it can act as a tumor suppressor or oncogene. In this study, we show that SIRT1 mRNA and protein levels are overexpressed in t(8;21) AML cells. AML1-ETO triggers the activation of SIRT1 by binding at AML1-binding sites on SIRT1 promoter. Pharmacologic targeting or RNAi-mediated inhibition of SIRT1 induce G1 arrest, apoptosis, and proliferation inhibition that is more sensitive in AML1-ETO positive cell lines than the negative...
October 7, 2016: Experimental Hematology
Marco Saia, Alberto Termanini, Nicoletta Rizzi, Massimiliano Mazza, Elisa Barbieri, Debora Valli, Paolo Ciana, Alicja M Gruszka, Myriam Alcalay
The AML1/ETO fusion protein found in acute myeloid leukemias functions as a transcriptional regulator by recruiting co-repressor complexes to its DNA binding site. In order to extend the understanding of its role in preleukemia, we expressed AML1/ETO in a murine immortalized pluripotent hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell line, EML C1, and found that genes involved in functions such as cell-to-cell adhesion and cell motility were among the most significantly regulated as determined by RNA sequencing. In functional assays, AML1/ETO-expressing cells showed a decrease in adhesion to stromal cells, an increase of cell migration rate in vitro, and displayed an impairment in homing and engraftment in vivo upon transplantation into recipient mice...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jiang Cao, Hao Feng, Ning-Ning Ding, Qing-Yun Wu, Chong Chen, Ming-Shan Niu, Wei Chen, Ting-Ting Qiu, Hong-Hu Zhu, Kai-Lin Xu
Homoharringtonine combined with aclarubicin and cytarabine (HAA) is a highly effective treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially for t(8;21) AML. However, the underlying mechanisms by which HAA kills t(8;21) AML cells remain unclear. In this study, SKNO-1 and Kasumi-1 cells with t(8;21) were used. Compared with individual or pairwise administration of homoharringtonine, aclarubicin, or cytarabine, HAA showed the strongest inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in SKNO-1 and Kasumi-1 cells...
October 5, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Staci L Haney, G Michael Upchurch, Jana Opavska, David Klinkebiel, Ryan A Hlady, Sohini Roy, Samikshan Dutta, Kaustubh Datta, Rene Opavsky
DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) is an enzyme involved in DNA methylation that is frequently mutated in human hematologic malignancies. We have previously shown that inactivation of Dnmt3a in hematopoietic cells results in chronic lymphocytic leukemia in mice. Here we show that 12% of Dnmt3a-deficient mice develop CD8+ mature peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) and 29% of mice are affected by both diseases. 10% of Dnmt3a+/- mice develop lymphomas, suggesting that Dnmt3a is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in PTCL...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Susanna Teppo, Saara Laukkanen, Thomas Liuksiala, Jessica Nordlund, Mikko Oittinen, Kaisa Teittinen, Toni Grönroos, Pascal St-Onge, Daniel Sinnett, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Matti Nykter, Keijo Viiri, Merja Heinäniemi, Olli Lohi
Approximately 20%-25% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemias carry the ETV6-RUNX1 (E/R) fusion gene, a fusion of two central hematopoietic transcription factors, ETV6 (TEL) and RUNX1 (AML1). Despite its prevalence, the exact genomic targets of E/R have remained elusive. We evaluated gene loci and enhancers targeted by E/R genome-wide in precursor B acute leukemia cells using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq). We show that expression of the E/R fusion leads to widespread repression of RUNX1 motif-containing enhancers at its target gene loci...
September 12, 2016: Genome Research
J X Zhao, X H Chen, J L Li, J Pan, Y H Tan, Z F Xu, F G Ren, Y F Zhang, J Xu, M Q Li, J Li, N Zhang, J M Chang, X J Wang, H W Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency and clinical features of additional sex combs-like 2 (ASXL2) gene mutation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with AML1-ETO fusion gene and to analyze the relationship between ASXL2 gene mutation and c- kit gene mutation. METHODS: Mutation analysis of exon 11 and 12 of ASXL2 gene in 59 de novo AML patients was performed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequence analysis. The clinical features, survival curve and c-kit gene mutation in ASXL2 gene mutation positive and negative patients were compared...
August 14, 2016: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Sultan Alqahtani, Pawika Promtong, Anthony W Oliver, Xiaotong T He, Thomas D Walker, Andrew Povey, Lynne Hampson, Ian N Hampson
Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) sequences make up ~8% of the human genome and increased expression of some HERV proteins has been observed in various pathologies including leukaemia and multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the function of these HERV proteins or environmental factors which regulate their expression. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used very extensively as antimicrobials and antivirals in numerous consumer products although their effect on the expression of HERV gene products is unknown...
August 30, 2016: Mutagenesis
Yoichi Imai, Yoshiro Maru, Junji Tanaka
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) critically regulate gene expression by determining the acetylation status of histones. In addition, studies have increasingly focused on the activities of HDACs, especially involving non-histone proteins, and their various biological effects. Aberrant HDAC expression observed in several kinds of human tumors makes HDACs potential targets for cancer treatment. Several preclinical studies have suggested that HDAC inhibitors exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with AML1-ETO, which mediates transcriptional repression through its interaction with a complex including HDAC1...
August 24, 2016: Cancer Science
Benjamin Neveu, Jean-François Spinella, Chantal Richer, Karine Lagace', Pauline Cassart, Mathieu Lajoie, Silvana Jananji, Simon Drouin, Jasmine Healy, Gilles R X Hickson, Daniel Sinnett
The most common rearrangement in childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the t(12;21)(p13;q22) translocation resulting in the ETV6-AML1 fusion gene. A frequent concomitant event is the loss of the residual ETV6 allele suggesting a critical role for the ETV6 transcriptional repressor in the etiology of this cancer. However, the precise mechanism through which loss of functional ETV6 contributes to disease pathogenesis is still unclear. To investigate the impact of ETV6 loss on the transcriptional network and to identify new transcriptional targets of ETV6, we used whole transcriptome analysis of both pre-B leukemic cell lines and patients combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation...
August 18, 2016: Haematologica
Fang Fang, Ping Zhu, Ying Zhang, Xu-Zhen Lu, Yu-Jun Dong, Yu-Hua Sun, Li-Hong Wang, Ding-Fang Bu, Xi-Nan Cen, Mang-Ju Wang
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical features and prognostic significance of cross-lineage antigen expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia(AML) in order to establish individualized treatment for a better outcome and prognosis. METHODS: A total of 227 cases (exduding M3) were detected by flow cytometry for immune phenotype. The CD7(-)CD56(-)CD19(-) AML served as control. The clinical features, treatment response and prognosis of CD7(+) group, CD56(+) group and CD19(+) group were compared...
August 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Li-Tzong Chen, Chiung-Tong Chen, Weir-Torn Jiaang, Tsai-Yun Chen, Joseph H Butterfield, Neng-Yao Shih, John Tsu-An Hsu, Hui-You Lin, Sheng-Fung Lin, Hui-Jen Tsai
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) carrying t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)/t(16;16)(p13;q22) is classified as core binding factor (CBF)-AML and accounts for approximately 15% of AML. c-KIT mutation can be detected in 17%∼46% of CBF-AML and is associated with poor prognosis. c-KIT mutation is a crucial hit and cooperates with AML1-ETO resulting from t(8;21)(q22;q22) to cause overt AML. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) targeting c-KIT, such as imatinib, has been used successfully to treat c-KIT driven gastrointestinal stromal tumors...
October 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Shan Lin, Junping Wei, Mark Wunderlich, Fu-Sheng Chou, James C Mulloy
Human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) expressing fusion protein AML1-ETO (AE), generated by the t(8;21)(q22;q22) rearrangement, manifest enhanced self-renewal and dysregulated differentiation without leukemic transformation, representing a pre-leukemia stage. Enabling replicative immortalization via telomerase reactivation is a crucial step in cancer development. However, AE expression alone is not sufficient to maintain high telomerase activity to immortalize human HSPC cells, which may hamper transformation...
August 5, 2016: Oncotarget
Thomas H Shin, Christopher Brynczka, Farshid Dayyani, Miguel N Rivera, David A Sweetser
The presence of AML1-ETO (RUNX1-CBF2T1), a fusion oncoprotein resulting from a t(8;21) chromosomal translocation, has been implicated as a necessary but insufficient event in the development of a subset of acute myeloid leukemias (AML). While AML1-ETO prolongs survival and inhibits differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), other contributory events are needed for cell proliferation and leukemogenesis. We have postulated that specific tumor suppressor genes keep the leukemic potential of AML1-ETO in check...
September 2016: Leukemia Research
P Kosik, M Skorvaga, I Belyaev
The diagnostics of leukemia relies upon multi-parametric approach involving a number of different pathology disciplines such as flow cytometry, histopathology, cytogenetics and molecular genetics [fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]. Childhood leukemia is often determined by the presence of specific chromosomal translocation that entails the generation of preleukemic fusion genes (PFG). In the last two decades, several studies have reported observations that PFG are present in healthy population and not necessarily result in leukemia...
2016: Neoplasma
Guopan Yu, Changxin Yin, Ling Jiang, Zhongxin Zheng, Zhixiang Wang, Chunli Wang, Hongsheng Zhou, Xuejie Jiang, Qifa Liu, Fanyi Meng
It has been reported that amyloid precursor protein (APP) promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in various types of solid cancers. In our previous study, we showed that APP is highly expressed and regulates leukemia cell migration in AML1‑ETO-positive (AE) leukemia. Whether APP is involved in the regulation of AE leukemia cell proliferation or apoptosis is unclear. In the present study we focused on the correlation of APP with c-KIT mutation/overexpression and cell proliferation and apoptosis in AE leukemia...
September 2016: Oncology Reports
Kevin A Link, Shan Lin, Mahesh Shrestha, Melissa Bowman, Mark Wunderlich, Clara D Bloomfield, Gang Huang, James C Mulloy
Chromosomal translocation 8;21 is found in 40% of the FAB M2 subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The resultant in-frame fusion protein AML1-ETO (AE) acts as an initiating oncogene for leukemia development. AE immortalizes human CD34(+) cord blood cells in long-term culture. We assessed the transforming properties of the alternatively spliced AE isoform AE9a (or alternative splicing at exon 9), which is fully transforming in a murine retroviral model, in human cord blood cells. Full activity was realized only upon increased fusion protein expression...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jorge Organista-Nava, Yazmín Gómez-Gómez, Berenice Illades-Aguiar, Marco Antonio Leyva-Vázquez
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. miRNAs act in diverse biological processes including development, cell growth, apoptosis, and hematopoiesis. The miRNA expression is associated with specific cytogenetic changes and can also be used to discriminate between the different subtypes of leukemia in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with common translocations, it is shown that the miRNAs have the potential to be used for clinical diagnosis and prognosis...
September 2016: Oncology Reports
Anup Kasi Loknath Kumar, Brandon Weckbaugh, Christopher Sirridge, Janet Woodroof, Diane Persons, Suman Kambhampati
Chromosomal abnormalities lead to the development of hematologic malignancies such as Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS). Known chromosomal changes causing MDS include deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5, runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) also known as acute myeloid leukemia 1 protein (AML1), and very rarely fusion genes involving RUNX1 at t(5;21)(q15;q22). We present a case of a 71-year-old female with MDS, refractory anemia with excess blasts, type 1, with a combination of two cytogenetic abnormalities, specifically a concomitant translocation between chromosomes 5q15 and 21q22 and deletion of chromosome 5q13q33...
2016: Stem Cell Investigation
Naidu M Vegi, Josef Klappacher, Franz Oswald, Medhanie A Mulaw, Amit Mandoli, Verena N Thiel, Shiva Bamezai, Kristin Feder, Joost H A Martens, Vijay P S Rawat, Tamoghna Mandal, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Karsten Spiekermann, Wolfgang Hiddemann, Konstanze Döhner, Hartmut Döhner, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Michaela Feuring-Buske, Christian Buske
Homeobox genes are known to be key factors in leukemogenesis. Although the TALE family homeodomain factor Meis1 has been linked to malignancy, a role for MEIS2 is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that MEIS2 is expressed at high levels in patients with AML1-ETO-positive acute myeloid leukemia and that growth of AML1-ETO-positive leukemia depends on MEIS2 expression. In mice, MEIS2 collaborates with AML1-ETO to induce acute myeloid leukemia. MEIS2 binds strongly to the Runt domain of AML1-ETO, indicating a direct interaction between these transcription factors...
July 12, 2016: Cell Reports
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