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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719848/transformation-of-don-in-reclaimed-water-under-solar-light-irradiation-leads-to-decreased-haloacetamide-formation-potential-during-chloramination
#1
Ye Du, Xue Zhang, Chao Li, Qian-Yuan Wu, Huang Huang, Hong-Ying Hu
Reclaimed water is usually stored in rivers or lakes before subsequent use. In storage ecosystems, the natural process of solar light irradiation plays a key role in water quality, altering disinfection byproduct formation potential in later use. This study investigated changes in haloacetamide formation potential (HAcAm FP) during subsequent chloramination when reclaimed water was exposed to solar light irradiation. Significant decreases in HAcAm FP were observed for the solar light irradiated reclaimed water, with reductions of 27%-69% for different haloacetamides...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713508/presence-and-seasonal-variation-of-trihalomethanes-thms-levels-in-drinking-tap-water-in-mostaganem-province-in-northwest-algeria
#2
Benhamimed El-Attafia, Moulessehoul Soraya
BACKGROUND: The use of chlorine to disinfect water, produces various disinfection byproducts such as trihalomethanes (THMs). These compounds are formed when free available chlorine reacts with natural organic matter in raw water during water disinfection. Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between long-term exposure to THMs and an increased risk of cancer, all of them are suspected of having carcinogenic effects. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of THMs in the drinking tap water of Mostaganem Province (Algeria) in order to assess the seasonal variation in trihalomethane levels in tap water and to identify the season of high risk to the consumer...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683333/comparative-toxicity-of-chloro-and-bromo-nitromethanes-in-mice-based-on-a-metabolomic-method
#3
Jinbao Yin, Bing Wu, Xu-Xiang Zhang, Qiming Xian
Halonitromethanes (HNMs) as one typical class of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts have been widely found in drinking water. In vitro test found HNMs could induce higher cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. However, data on toxic effect from in vivo experiment is limited. In this study, bromonitromethane (BNM), bromochloronitromethane (BCNM) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM) were chosen as target HNMs, and exposed to mice for 30 d. Hepatic toxicity and serum metabolic profiles were determined to reveal toxic effects and mechanisms of the three HNMs...
June 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672704/control-of-disinfection-byproducts-dbps-by-ozonation-and-peroxone-process-role-of-chloride-on-removal-of-dbp-precursors
#4
Popta Deeudomwongsa, Songkeart Phattarapattamawong, Kun-Yi Andrew Lin
The objective of this study was to remove regulated DBP precursors by using ozonation and peroxone process (H2O2/O3). Regarding formation potentials of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), the role of chloride in chlorination and ozonation/peroxone processes was revealed. The organic compounds in water samples from rapid sand filtration preferably yielded the THM formation potentials, rather than HAAs. Ozonation with the typical applied doses (1-5 mg L(-1)) was ineffective for removals of THM and HAA precursors...
June 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672207/removal-of-disinfection-byproduct-dbp-precursors-in-water-by-two-stage-biofiltration-treatment
#5
Jie Fu, Wan-Ning Lee, Clark Coleman, Kirk Nowack, Jason Carter, Ching-Hua Huang
The removal of precursors of 36 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in effluents from flocculation/sedimentation process was evaluated across a pilot-scale two-stage biofiltration process, i.e., a sand/anthracite (SA) biofilter (empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 7.5 min) coupled with a biologically-active granular activated carbon (GAC) contactor (EBCT of 15 min). The biofiltration process exhibited a good capacity for removal of the total DBP formation potential (DBPFP) (by 25.90 ± 2.63%), and GAC contactors contributed most to the DBPFP removal (accounting for 60...
June 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667842/proactive-modeling-of-water-quality-impacts-of-extreme-precipitation-events-in-a-drinking-water-reservoir
#6
Lillian C Jeznach, Mark Hagemann, Mi-Hyun Park, John E Tobiason
Extreme precipitation events are of concern to managers of drinking water sources because these occurrences can affect both water supply quantity and quality. However, little is known about how these low probability events impact organic matter and nutrient loads to surface water sources and how these loads may impact raw water quality. This study describes a method for evaluating the sensitivity of a water body of interest from watershed input simulations under extreme precipitation events. An example application of the method is illustrated using the Wachusett Reservoir, an oligo-mesotrophic surface water reservoir in central Massachusetts and a major drinking water supply to metropolitan Boston...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666088/dynamic-changes-of-disinfection-byproduct-precursors-following-exposures-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-to-wildfire-ash-solutions
#7
Kuo-Pei Tsai, Habibullah Uzun, Tanju Karanfil, Alex T Chow
Wildfires can elevate dissolved organic matter (DOM) levels due to ash input and algal growth in source waters, and consequently impacting disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in finished water; however, it remains unclear how quality and quantity of overall allochthonous and autochthonous DOM as well as associated DBP formation are changed during an entire algal life cycle. Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured in the medium containing low and high concentrations [10% and 65% (v/v)] of black and white ash water extracts (BE and WE) to study dynamic changes of carbonaceous, nitrogenous, and oxygenated DBP precursors during algal growth...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651083/characterization-of-organic-precursors-in-dbp-formation-and-aoc-in-urban-surface-water-and-their-fate-during-managed-aquifer-recharge
#8
Hyun-Chul Kim, Won Mo Lee, Seunghak Lee, Jaewon Choi, Sung Kyu Maeng
In this study, the organic components were identified that are mainly responsible for the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and for the biostability of urban surface water. The compositional distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was strongly associated with the potential for both DBP formation and bacterial growth. Further evaluation was carried out (1) to compare the potential for DBP formation upon chlorination of treated water, (2) to determine the biostability that might result from minimizing assimilable organic carbon (AOC), and (3) to use laboratory-scale soil-column experiments to compare the effects of removal of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) between managed aquifer recharge (MAR) hybrid systems (such as bank filtration followed by artificial recharge and recovery: ARR), and ozonation followed by ARR...
June 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646800/regulated-and-unregulated-halogenated-disinfection-byproduct-formation-from-chlorination-of-saline-groundwater
#9
Aleksandra Szczuka, Kimberly M Parker, Cassandra Harvey, Erin Hayes, Avner Vengosh, William A Mitch
Coastal utilities exploiting mildly saline groundwater (<150 mg/L chloride) may be challenged by disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation, a concern likely to increase with sea-level rise. Groundwater from North Carolina coastal aquifers is characterized by large variations in concentrations of halides (bromide up to 10,600 μg/L) and dissolved organic carbon (up to 5.7 mg-C/L). Formation of 33 regulated and unregulated halogenated DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles, haloacetamides, and haloacetaldehydes, was measured after simulated chlorination of 24 coastal North Carolina groundwater samples under typical chlorination conditions...
June 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636529/bladder-cancer-and-water-disinfection-by-product-exposures-through-multiple-routes-a-population-based-case-control-study-new-england-usa
#10
Laura E Beane Freeman, Kenneth P Cantor, Dalsu Baris, John R Nuckols, Alison Johnson, Joanne S Colt, Molly Schwenn, Mary H Ward, Jay H Lubin, Richard Waddell, G Monawar Hosain, Chris Paulu, Richard McCoy, Lee E Moore, An-Tsun Huang, Nat Rothman, Margaret R Karagas, Debra T Silverman
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of disinfection byproducts has been associated with bladder cancer in multiple studies. Although associations with other routes of exposure have been suggested, epidemiologic evidence is limited. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship between bladder cancer and total, chlorinated, and brominated trihalomethanes (THMs) through various exposure routes. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in New England ( cases; controls), we estimated lifetime exposure to THMs from ingestion, showering/bathing, and hours of swimming pool use...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614742/transformation-of-halobenzoquinones-with-the-presence-of-amino-acids-in-water-products-pathways-and-toxicity
#11
Penghui Du, He Zhao, Hongbin Cao, Ching-Hua Huang, Wen Liu, Yao Li
The transformation and detoxification of halobenzoquinones (HBQs), a class of emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs), was studied in the presence of amino acids (AAs). The reaction activity of three HBQs with AAs generally ranked as 2-chlorobenzoquinone (CBQ) < 2,6-dichlorobezoquinone (DCBQ) < tetrachloroquinone (TCBQ), consistent with their halogenation degree and the calculated electron affinity (EA) results. According to mass spectrometry and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, AAs can easily covalently incorporate into HBQs via nucleophilic addition (CBQ and DCBQ) or substitution (TCBQ) through CNC or CSC linkages...
June 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601007/distribution-and-relevance-of-iodinated-x-ray-contrast-media-and-iodinated-trihalomethanes-in-an-aquatic-environment
#12
Zhifa Xu, Xia Li, Xialin Hu, Daqiang Yin
Distribution and relevance of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) in a real aquatic environment have been rarely documented. In this paper, some ICM were proven to be strongly correlated with I-DBPs through investigation of five ICM and five iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) in surface water and two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total ICM concentrations in Taihu Lake and the Huangpu River ranged from 88.7 to 131 ng L(-1) and 102-252 ng L(-1), respectively...
June 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573904/dichloroacetonitrile-induces-cytotoxicity-through-oxidative-stress-mediated-and-p53-dependent-apoptosis-pathway-in-lo2-cells
#13
Hao Luo, Lu Zhai, Hui Yang, Longmei Xu, Jiaxian Liu, Hairong Liang, Huanwen Tang
Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), one of the disinfection byproducts of water chlorination, induces cell proliferation and apoptosis, however, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Oxidative stress participates in various biological processes, including DNA damage and cytotoxicity. To explore whether oxidative stress mediated DCAN-induced cell proliferation and apoptosis, we assessed the effect of redox imbalance and apoptosis in LO2 cells. We observed increase of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde and increased apoptosis by 13...
June 2, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538093/toxic-byproduct-formation-during-electrochemical-treatment-of-latrine-wastewater
#14
Justin T Jasper, Yang Yang, Michael R Hoffmann
Electrochemical systems are an attractive option for onsite latrine wastewater treatment due to their high efficiency and small footprint. While concerns remain over formation of toxic byproducts during treatment, rigorous studies examining byproduct formation are lacking. Experiments treating authentic latrine wastewater over variable treatment times, current densities, chloride concentrations, and anode materials were conducted to characterize byproducts and identify conditions that minimize their formation...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531557/characterization-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-leached-from-a-woodchip-bioreactor
#15
Ibrahim Abusallout, Guanghui Hua
Woodchip bioreactors are increasingly being applied to remove nitrate from agricultural subsurface drainage. However, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from woodchips may negatively affect the aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the leaching characteristics, disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potentials, and treatability of DOC derived from a laboratory woodchip bioreactor. Initial flush of woodchips resulted in the release of high organic content from woodchips...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531123/evaluation-of-drinking-water-disinfectant-byproducts-compliance-data-as-an-indirect-measure-for-short-term-exposure-in-humans
#16
Shahid Parvez, Kali Frost, Madhura Sundararajan
In the absence of shorter term disinfectant byproducts (DBPs) data on regulated Trihalomethanes (THMs) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs), epidemiologists and risk assessors have used long-term annual compliance (LRAA) or quarterly (QA) data to evaluate the association between DBP exposure and adverse birth outcomes, which resulted in inconclusive findings. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of using long-term LRAA and QA data as an indirect measure for short-term exposure. Short-term residential tap water samples were collected in peak DBP months (May-August) in a community water system with five separate treatment stations and were sourced from surface or groundwater...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527389/dynamics-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-riverine-sediments-affected-by-weir-impoundments-production-benthic-flux-and-environmental-implications
#17
Meilian Chen, Sung-Han Kim, Heon-Jae Jung, Jung-Ho Hyun, Jung Hyun Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, In-Ae Huh, Jin Hur
In order to understand the characteristics and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sediment of rivers affected by impoundments, we examined the vertical profiles and the benthic fluxes of DOM in four different core sediments located at upstream sites of weirs in major rivers of South Korea. In three out of four sites, exponential accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with depth was observed with the signature of seasonal variability. Except for the site displaying a below-detection limit of Fe(II), the general accumulation trends of DOC with depth was concurrent with the increases of Fe(II) and NH4(+) and the decrease of PO4(3-), signifying a close linkage of the DOM dynamics with anaerobic respiration via iron reduction, an important early diagenesis pathway...
May 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511102/highly-effective-antibacterial-activity-by-the-synergistic-effect-of-three-dimensional-ordered-mesoporous-carbon-lysozyme-composite
#18
Jingjing Wang, Lin Tang, Ponisseril Somasundaran, Wei Fan, Guangming Zeng, Yaocheng Deng, Yaoyu Zhou, Jiajia Wang, Yang Shen
Aiming at developing a safe and efficient alternative to traditional drinking water disinfection, this work successfully synthesized a novel antibacterial material with high surface area, ultra large pore size and tunable loading of immobilized lysozyme. The immobilized enzymes exhibit high antibacterial efficacy without forming carcinogenic disinfection byproducts. Critical immobilization parameters were optimized to keep the activity of the immobilized enzyme at a high level. The immobilization of lysozymes on 3DOm COOH could be confirmed by the characterizations of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Zeta-Potential...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500969/oxidation-of-the-antibacterial-agent-norfloxacin-during-sodium-hypochlorite-disinfection-of-marine-culture-water
#19
Yuanyuan Zhang, Chuan Rong, Yanqun Song, Yinghui Wang, Jiying Pei, Xinying Tang, Ruijie Zhang, Kefu Yu
Chlorination disinfection and antibiotic addition are two universal processes of marine culture. The generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is unavoidable. Antibiotic residue not only pollutes water but also acts as a precursor to the production of new DBPs. The fate of antibiotic norfloxacin (NOR) in chlorination disinfection was investigated. It was observed that NOR could be oxidized by disinfection agent sodium hypochlorite, but the oxidation rate varied considerably with the type of disinfected water...
May 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475156/sustainable-methods-for-decontamination-of-microcystin-in-water-using-cold-plasma-and-uv-with-reusable-tio%C3%A2-nanoparticle-coating
#20
Xuewen Jiang, Seungjun Lee, Chulkyoon Mok, Jiyoung Lee
Microcystins (MCs) are a family of cyanotoxins and pose detrimental effects on human, animal, and ecological health. Conventional water treatment processes have limited success in removing MCs without producing harmful byproducts. Therefore, there is an urgent need for cost-effective and environmentally-friendly methods for treating MCs. The objective of this study was to develop sustainable and non-chemical-based methods for controlling MCs, such as using cold plasma and ultra violet (UV) light with titanium dioxide (TiO₂) coating, which can be applied for diverse scale and settings...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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