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Disinfection byproduct

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538093/toxic-byproduct-formation-during-electrochemical-treatment-of-latrine-wastewater
#1
Justin T Jasper, Yang Yang, Michael R Hoffmann
Electrochemical systems are an attractive option for onsite latrine wastewater treatment due to their high efficiency and small footprint. While concerns remain over formation of toxic byproducts during treatment, rigorous studies examining byproduct formation are lacking. Experiments treating authentic latrine wastewater over variable treatment times, current densities, chloride concentrations, and anode materials were conducted to characterize byproducts and identify conditions that minimize their formation...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531557/characterization-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-leached-from-a-woodchip-bioreactor
#2
Ibrahim Abusallout, Guanghui Hua
Woodchip bioreactors are increasingly being applied to remove nitrate from agricultural subsurface drainage. However, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from woodchips may negatively affect the aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the leaching characteristics, disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potentials, and treatability of DOC derived from a laboratory woodchip bioreactor. Initial flush of woodchips resulted in the release of high organic content from woodchips...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531123/evaluation-of-drinking-water-disinfectant-byproducts-compliance-data-as-an-indirect-measure-for-short-term-exposure-in-humans
#3
Shahid Parvez, Kali Frost, Madhura Sundararajan
In the absence of shorter term disinfectant byproducts (DBPs) data on regulated Trihalomethanes (THMs) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs), epidemiologists and risk assessors have used long-term annual compliance (LRAA) or quarterly (QA) data to evaluate the association between DBP exposure and adverse birth outcomes, which resulted in inconclusive findings. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of using long-term LRAA and QA data as an indirect measure for short-term exposure. Short-term residential tap water samples were collected in peak DBP months (May-August) in a community water system with five separate treatment stations and were sourced from surface or groundwater...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527389/dynamics-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-riverine-sediments-affected-by-weir-impoundments-production-benthic-flux-and-environmental-implications
#4
Meilian Chen, Sung-Han Kim, Heon-Jae Jung, Jung-Ho Hyun, Jung Hyun Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, In-Ae Huh, Jin Hur
In order to understand the characteristics and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sediment of rivers affected by impoundments, we examined the vertical profiles and the benthic fluxes of DOM in four different core sediments located at upstream sites of weirs in major rivers of South Korea. In three out of four sites, exponential accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with depth was observed with the signature of seasonal variability. Except for the site displaying a below-detection limit of Fe(II), the general accumulation trends of DOC with depth was concurrent with the increases of Fe(II) and NH4(+) and the decrease of PO4(3-), signifying a close linkage of the DOM dynamics with anaerobic respiration via iron reduction, an important early diagenesis pathway...
May 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511102/highly-effective-antibacterial-activity-by-the-synergistic-effect-of-three-dimensional-ordered-mesoporous-carbon-lysozyme-composite
#5
Jingjing Wang, Lin Tang, Ponisseril Somasundaran, Wei Fan, Guangming Zeng, Yaocheng Deng, Yaoyu Zhou, Jiajia Wang, Yang Shen
Aiming at developing a safe and efficient alternative to traditional drinking water disinfection, this work successfully synthesized a novel antibacterial material with high surface area, ultra large pore size and tunable loading of immobilized lysozyme. The immobilized enzymes exhibit high antibacterial efficacy without forming carcinogenic disinfection byproducts. Critical immobilization parameters were optimized to keep the activity of the immobilized enzyme at a high level. The immobilization of lysozymes on 3DOm COOH could be confirmed by the characterizations of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Zeta-Potential...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500969/oxidation-of-the-antibacterial-agent-norfloxacin-during-sodium-hypochlorite-disinfection-of-marine-culture-water
#6
Yuanyuan Zhang, Chuan Rong, Yanqun Song, Yinghui Wang, Jiying Pei, Xinying Tang, Ruijie Zhang, Kefu Yu
Chlorination disinfection and antibiotic addition are two universal processes of marine culture. The generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is unavoidable. Antibiotic residue not only pollutes water but also acts as a precursor to the production of new DBPs. The fate of antibiotic norfloxacin (NOR) in chlorination disinfection was investigated. It was observed that NOR could be oxidized by disinfection agent sodium hypochlorite, but the oxidation rate varied considerably with the type of disinfected water...
May 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475156/sustainable-methods-for-decontamination-of-microcystin-in-water-using-cold-plasma-and-uv-with-reusable-tio%C3%A2-nanoparticle-coating
#7
Xuewen Jiang, Seungjun Lee, Chulkyoon Mok, Jiyoung Lee
Microcystins (MCs) are a family of cyanotoxins and pose detrimental effects on human, animal, and ecological health. Conventional water treatment processes have limited success in removing MCs without producing harmful byproducts. Therefore, there is an urgent need for cost-effective and environmentally-friendly methods for treating MCs. The objective of this study was to develop sustainable and non-chemical-based methods for controlling MCs, such as using cold plasma and ultra violet (UV) light with titanium dioxide (TiO₂) coating, which can be applied for diverse scale and settings...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467913/uv-induced-effects-on-toxicity-of-model-disinfection-byproducts
#8
ShihChi Weng, Jer-Yen Yang, Yen-Hsing Li, Ernest R Blatchley
UV (Ultraviolet)-based treatment has been demonstrated to be effective for removal of some disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and to be beneficial for reduction of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in chlorinated water. However, to a large extent, UV-induced effects on chemistry and toxicology have been treated as a black box, in the sense that little or no UV dose-dependent behavior has been reported. To address this issue, the effects of UV254 irradiation on 1,4-dibenzoquinone (BQ), 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), and chlorocreatinine (Cl-Cre) as model DBPs were examined, both in terms of photodegradation and cytotoxicity...
April 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445816/disinfection-byproduct-formation-in-drinking-water-sources-a-case-study-of-yuqiao-reservoir
#9
Hongyan Zhai, Xizhen He, Yan Zhang, Tingting Du, Adeyemi S Adeleye, Yao Li
This study investigated the potential formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination and chloramination of 20 water samples collected from different points of Yuqiao reservoir in Tianjin, China. The concentrations of dissolved organic matter and ammonia decreased downstream the reservoir, while the specific UV absorbance (SUVA: the ratio of UV254 to dissolved organic carbon) increased [from 0.67 L/(mg*m) upstream to 3.58 L/(mg*m) downstream]. The raw water quality played an important role in the formation of DBPs...
April 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416302/effect-of-bacterial-biofilm-on-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-stem-cells-of-apical-papilla
#10
Lakshmi Vishwanat, Rose Duong, Koyo Takimoto, Linda Phillips, Claudia O Espitia, Anibal Diogenes, Shivani B Ruparel, David Kolodrubetz, Nikita B Ruparel
INTRODUCTION: Although clinical success in regenerative endodontics is substantially high, histological success is limited to finding bone/cementum-like tissue instead of dentin within the canal space. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the effect of bacterial biofilm on osteogenic gene expression in stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) and (2) the effect of bacterial antigens on the functional differentiation of SCAP into a mineralizing phenotype. METHODS: Using an ex vivo organotypic root canal model and an American Association of Endontists-recommended regenerative endodontic procedures, we evaluated SCAP differentiation in the presence and absence of an Enterococcus faecalis biofilm...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391120/transformation-of-acesulfame-in-chlorination-kinetics-study-identification-of-byproducts-and-toxicity-assessment
#11
Adela Jing Li, Pengran Wu, Japhet Cheuk-Fung Law, Chi-Hang Chow, Cristina Postigo, Ying Guo, Kelvin Sze-Yin Leung
Acesulfame (ACE) is one of the most commonly used artificial sweeteners. Because it is not metabolized in the human gut, it reaches the aquatic environment unchanged. In the present study, the reactivity of ACE in free chlorine-containing water was investigated for the first time. The degradation of ACE was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. The first-order rate increased with decreasing pH from 9.4 to 4.8 with estimated half-lives from 693 min to 2 min. Structural elucidation of the detected transformation products (TPs) was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
June 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377117/reductions-of-dissolved-organic-matter-and-disinfection-by-product-precursors-in-full-scale-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-winter
#12
Shuang Xue, Wujisiguleng Jin, Zhaohong Zhang, Hong Liu
The reductions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and disinfection byproduct precursors in four full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (Liaoning Province, China) where different biological treatment processes were employed in winter were investigated. The total removal efficiencies of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light at 254 nm (UV-254), trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) were in the range of 70.3-76.0%, 49.6-57.3%, 54.4-65.0%, and 53...
July 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334666/bio-refractory-dissolved-organic-matter-and-colorants-in-cassava-distillery-wastewater-characterization-coagulation-treatment-and-mechanisms
#13
Ming Zhang, Zhou Wang, Penghui Li, Hua Zhang, Li Xie
An important portion of organic matter and colorants still remain in the biologically treated distillery wastewater, leaving the dark brown and odorous downstream with the heavy loading of chemical oxygen demand and the potential of forming disinfection byproducts. However, those bio-recalcitrant colorants have not been clearly recognized. The current study investigated the features of the bio-refractory organic matter and colorants in a typical distillery effluent, cassava distillery wastewater; special attention was paid to their change and behaviors in the coagulation treatment following the bio-processes...
March 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324709/improvement-of-virus-removal-using-ultrafiltration-membranes-modified-with-grafted-zwitterionic-polymer-hydrogels
#14
Ruiqing Lu, Chang Zhang, Maria Piatkovsky, Mathias Ulbricht, Moshe Herzberg, Thanh H Nguyen
Potable water reuse has been adopted by cities suffering water scarcity in recent years. The microbial safety in water reuse, especially with respect to pathogenic viruses, is still a concern for water consumers. Membrane filtration can achieve sufficient removal of pathogenic viruses without disinfection byproducts, but the required energy is intensive. In this study, we graft-polymerized zwitterionic SPP ([3-(methacryloylamino) propyl] dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) on a 150 kDa ultrafiltration polyethersulfone membrane to achieve a significantly higher virus removal...
June 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252454/ingested-nitrate-disinfection-by-products-and-kidney-cancer-risk-in-older-women
#15
Rena R Jones, Peter J Weyer, Curt T Dellavalle, Kim Robien, Kenneth P Cantor, Stuart Krasner, Laura E Beane Freeman, Mary H Ward
BACKGROUND: N-nitroso compounds formed endogenously after nitrate/nitrite ingestion are animal renal carcinogens. Previous epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate did not evaluate other potentially toxic water contaminants, including the suspected renal carcinogen chloroform. METHODS: In a cohort of postmenopausal women in Iowa (1986-2010), we used historical measurements to estimate long-term average concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and disinfection byproducts (DBP) in public water supplies...
March 1, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248086/mass-spectrometry-identification-of-n-chlorinated-dipeptides-in-drinking-water
#16
Guang Huang, Ping Jiang, Xing-Fang Li
We report the identification of N-chlorinated dipeptides as chlorination products in drinking water using complementary high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry techniques. First, three model dipeptides, tyrosylglycine (Tyr-Gly), tyrosylalanine (Tyr-Ala), and phenylalanylglycine (Phe-Gly), reacted with sodium hypochlorite, and these reaction solutions were analyzed by QTOF. N-Cl-Tyr-Gly, N,N-di-Cl-Tyr-Gly, N-Cl-Phe-Gly, N,N-di-Cl-Phe-Gly, N-Cl-Tyr-Ala, and N,N-di-Cl-Tyr-Ala were identified as the major products based on accurate masses, (35)Cl/(37)Cl isotopic patterns, and MS/MS spectra...
March 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235738/highly-efficient-and-environmentally-benign-as-iii-pre-oxidation-in-water-by-using-a-solid-redox-polymer
#17
Hongchao Li, Xiaolin Zhang, Mengfei Wu, Weiming Zhang, Lu Lv, Bingcai Pan
As(III) preoxidation to As(V) is usually a requisite step for its efficient removal from water. Traditional oxidants reacting with As(III) homogenously in water suffer from the excessive dosage as well as the possible formation of disinfection byproducts. Herein, we developed a heterogeneous oxidant, i.e., a solid redox polymer (DOX), by covalently binding chlorine to a commercially available cation-exchange resin, D001. As(III) pre-oxidation by DOX is independent upon the solution pH (6-8) and ionic strength (0-0...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229949/predicting-reactivity-of-model-dom-compounds-towards-chlorine-with-mediated-electrochemical-oxidation
#18
Glen Andrew de Vera, Wolfgang Gernjak, Jelena Radjenovic
Chlorine demand of a water sample depends on the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM). It is an important parameter for water utilities used to assess oxidant and/or disinfectant consumption of source waters during treatment and distribution. In this study, model compounds namely resorcinol, tannic acid, vanillin, cysteine, tyrosine, and tryptophan were used to represent the reactive moieties of complex DOM mixtures. The reactivity of these compounds was evaluated in terms of Cl2 demand and electron donating capacity (EDC)...
May 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199792/removal-of-intermediate-aromatic-halogenated-dbps-by-activated-carbon-adsorption-a-new-approach-to-controlling-halogenated-dbps-in-chlorinated-drinking-water
#19
Jingyi Jiang, Xiangru Zhang, Xiaohu Zhu, Yu Li
During chlorine disinfection of drinking water, chlorine may react with natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide ion in raw water to generate halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). To mitigate adverse effects from DBP exposure, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption has been considered as one of the best available technologies for removing NOM (DBP precursor) in drinking water treatment. Recently, we have found that many aromatic halogenated DBPs form in chlorination, and they act as intermediate DBPs to decompose and form commonly known DBPs including trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids...
February 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196675/occurrence-of-brominated-disinfection-byproducts-in-the-air-and-water-of-chlorinated-seawater-swimming-pools
#20
Tarek Manasfi, Brice Temime-Roussel, Bruno Coulomb, Laurent Vassalo, Jean-Luc Boudenne
An undesirable consequence of disinfection is the formation of chemical contaminants known as disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Chronic exposure to DBPs has been linked to adverse health effects. The occurrence of DBPs in chlorinated pools filled with seawater (such as thalassotherapy pools and pools in spas) has received little attention so far. The present study evaluated the speciation and levels of disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pools filled with seawater and treated with chlorine. Water and air samples were collected from three indoor swimming pools located in Southern France...
February 5, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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