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Disinfection byproduct

Megumi Akiyama, Yoshihiko Matsui, Junki Kido, Taku Matsushita, Nobutaka Shirasaki
The probability distributions of total potential doses of disinfection byproducts and volatile organic compounds via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure were estimated with Monte Carlo simulations, after conducting physiologically based pharmacokinetic model simulations to takes into account the differences in availability between the three exposures. If the criterion that the 95th percentile estimate equals the TDI (tolerable daily intake) is regarded as protecting the majority of a population, the drinking water criteria would be 140 (trichloromethane), 66 (bromodichloromethane), 157 (dibromochloromethane), 203 (tribromomethane), 140 (dichloroacetic acid), 78 (trichloroacetic acid), 6...
March 16, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Huihui Han, Hengfeng Miao, Yajing Zhang, Minfeng Lu, Zhenxing Huang, Wenquan Ruan
Disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors in wastewater during the reversed anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2 /O) process, as well as their molecular weight (MW) and polarity-based fractions, were characterized with UV scanning, fluorescence excitation emission matrix, Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Their DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs) after chlorination were further tested. Results indicated that the reversed A2 /O process could not only effectively remove the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved total nitrogen in the wastewater, but also affect the MW distribution and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM)...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Kai He, Erika Okuta, José Andres Cordero, Shinya Echigo, Yasuhiro Asada, Sadahiko Itoh
Anthropogenic compounds accidentally released to the environment could be important precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water treatment processes. In this study, the haloacetic acid formation potentials (HAAFPs) of 155 anthropogenic compounds listed on the Japanese pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR) system were evaluated. The results showed that phenolic and aromatic amine compounds were important HAA precursors, and chlorinated phenols showed high HAAFPs (>400 μg/mgC)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Daisuke Minakata, Erica Coscarelli
Nitrosamines are a group of carcinogenic chemicals that are present in aquatic environments that result from byproducts of industrial processes and disinfection products. As indirect and direct potable reuse increase, the presence of trace nitrosamines presents challenges to water infrastructures that incorporate effluent from wastewater treatment. Ultraviolet (UV) photolysis or UV-based advanced oxidation processes that produce highly reactive hydroxyl radicals are promising technologies to remove nitrosamines from water...
February 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Guang Huang, Ping Jiang, Lindsay K Jmaiff Blackstock, Dayong Tian, Xing-Fang Li
Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) are highly toxic, but few precursors of I-DBPs have been investigated. Tyrosine containing biomolecules are ubiquitous in surface water. Here we investigated the formation of I-DBPs from the chloramination of seven tyrosyl dipeptides (i.e., tyrosylglycine, tyrosylalanine, tyrosylvaline, tyrosylhistidine, tyrosylglutamine, tyrosylglutamic acid, and tyrosylphenylalanine) in the presence of potassium iodide. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses of the benchtop reaction solutions found all seven precursors formed both I- and Cl- substituted tyrosyl dipeptide products...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Phanwatt Phungsai, Futoshi Kurisu, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai
Molecular changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from treatment processes at two drinking water treatment plants in Japan were investigated using unknown screening analysis by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. DOM formulae with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO-DOM) were the most abundant class in water samples, and over half of them were commonly found at both plants. Among the treatment processes, ozonation induced the most drastic changes to DOM. Mass peak intensities of less saturated CHO-DOM (positive (oxygen subtracted double bond equivalent per carbon (DBE-O)/C)) decreased by ozonation, while more saturated oxidation byproducts (negative (DBE-O)/C) were increased or new oxidation byproducts (OBPs) were detected...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Haifeng Zhang, Min Yang
To date, study on the speciation of brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs), which have higher cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than their analogous chlorinated DBPs (Cl-DBPs), formed in chloramination is still limited. In this study, the previous unknown Br-DBPs formed during chloramination of artificial drinking water were explored with electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS). In total, 193 formulae of one bromine containing Br-DBPs and 5 formulae of two bromine containing Br-DBPs were detected in the chloraminated artificial drinking water sample...
January 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Koji Kosaka, Azusa Iwatani, Yuuki Takeichi, Yusuke Yoshikawa, Keiko Ohkubo, Michihiro Akiba
Haloacetamides (HAcAms) are nitrogenous disinfection byproducts in drinking water. The profiles of six HAcAms and their formation potentials (FPs) upon chlorination at water purification plant 1 (WPP-1) in September 2016 and at WPP-2 in September 2016 and January 2017 were investigated. HAcAms were removed effectively when they were formed via intermediate chlorination during water purification processes. Removal of total HAcAm-FPs ranged from 50% to 75%. Coagulation/flocculation/sand filtration showed the highest removal of total HAcAm-FPs...
January 29, 2018: Chemosphere
Shaoyang Hu, Tingting Gong, Jian Ma, Yuxian Tao, Qiming Xian
Iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are an emerging category of halogenated DBPs in concern due to their high toxicity. Among them, polar iodinated DBPs, mainly including iodinated haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aromatic iodinated DBPs, were reported to be especially toxic. Thus, simultaneous determination of these polar iodinated DBPs in disinfected waters is of great significance for DBP studies. In this study, it was found that traditional liquid-liquid extraction, which was adopted for the determination of polar iodinated DBPs, was actually not suitable for the determination of monoiodoacetic acid (MIAA) and diiodoacetic acid (DIAA) due to the low recoveries, and thus a new SPE-HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of iodinated HAAs and aromatic iodinated DBPs...
January 31, 2018: Chemosphere
Wei Wang, Yichao Qian, Jinhua Li, Naif Aljuhani, Arno G Siraki, X Chris Le, Xing-Fang Li
Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are a class of emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water is potentially associated with an increased risk of human bladder cancer. HBQ-induced cytotoxicity involves depletion of cellular glutathione (GSH), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we used high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to study interactions between HBQs and GSH, and found that HBQs can directly react with GSH, forming various glutathionyl conjugates (HBQ-SG) in both aqueous solution and HepG2 cells...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Tian Xu, Junfa Yin, Shaokun Chen, Dapeng Zhang, Hailin Wang
Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are an emerging class of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water, which raised public concerns due to potential carcinogenic effects to human bladder. Our previous work demonstrated that HBQs and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) together generated oxidative DNA damage via a metal-independent and intercalation-enhanced oxidation mechanism in vitro. This study further investigated the efficiency of various HBQs to induce oxidative DNA damage in T24 bladder cancer cells. Compared with T24 cells without treatment (3...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Fei Ge, Yao Xiao, Yixuan Yang, Wei Wang, Birget Moe, Xing-Fang Li
We report that green algae in lakes and rivers can serve as precursors of halobenzoquinone (HBQ) disinfection byproducts (DBPs) produced during chlorination. Chlorination of a common green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, produced 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-DCBQ), the most prevalent HBQ DBP in disinfected water. Under varying pH conditions (pH6.0-9.0), 2,6-DCBQ formation ranged from 0.3 to 2.1μg/mg C with maximum formation at pH8.0. To evaluate the contribution of organic components of C. vulgaris to 2,6-DCBQ formation, we separated the organics into two fractions, the protein-rich fraction of intracellular organic matter (IOM) and the polysaccharide-laden fraction of extracellular organic matter (EOM)...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Christopher Holladay Jones, Elizabeth G Shilling, Karl G Linden, Sherri Michelle Cook
Small drinking water systems serve a fifth of the U.S. population and rely heavily on disinfection. While chlorine disinfection is common, there is interest in minimizing chemical addition, especially due to carcinogenic disinfection byproducts and chlorine-resistant pathogens, by using ultraviolet technologies; however, the relative, broader environmental impacts of these technologies are not well established, especially in the context of small (<10,000 people) water systems. The objective of this study was to identify environmental trade-offs between chlorine and ultraviolet disinfection via comparative life cycle assessment...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sai Zheng, Jiachen Shi, Jing Zhang, Yi Yang, Jianying Hu, Bing Shao
Bisphenol S (BPS), an alternative product to bisphenol A (BPA), has been the focus of increasing public concern due to its potential endocrine disrupting effect and its adverse effects related to metabolic disorders such as obesity. The detection of its residue in drinking water supply systems suggests that BPS can be chlorinated; however, whether its endocrine disrupting effect can be disrupted by this chlorination remains unclear. In the present study, we identified the byproducts of the reaction of BPS with chlorine and assessed the effect of the main byproducts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)...
January 5, 2018: Water Research
Cheng Liu, Meiqi Zhao, Siyuan He, Zhen Cao, Wei Chen
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) has drawn more attention from research into drinking water treatment because of its potential to form nitrogenous disinfection byproducts. Amino acids are important DON constituents that are difficult to remove by conventional water treatment. The permanganate/hydrogen sulfite (PM/BS) system, a novel oxidation process, is used to remove a typical amino acid, glutamate. The factors that affect removal mechanism and the degradation pathways were studied. The results show that the rates of DON and glutamate removal in the PM/BS system within 10 min were 55% and 90%, respectively...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Technology
Xing-Fang Li, William A Mitch
While drinking water disinfection has effectively prevented waterborne diseases, an unintended consequence is the generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Epidemiological studies have consistently observed an association between consumption of chlorinated drinking water with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Out of the >600 DBPs identified, regulations focus on a few classes, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), whose concentrations were hypothesized to correlate with the DBPs driving the toxicity of disinfected waters...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Stephanie Gängler, Pantelis Charisiadis, Ratanesh Seth, Saurabh Chatterjee, Konstantinos C Makris
Non-persistent environmental chemicals (NOPEC) are xenobiotics with short half-lives of elimination (<7h). Similar to chronopharmacokinetics, NOPEC metabolism may follow diurnal patterns of cytochrome P450 activity. The role of circadian liver clock in shaping NOPEC metabolism and their concomitant measurements of biomarkers of exposure and effect remains poorly understood in real-life human settings. Metabolic activation (toxication) by CYP2E1 converts trihalomethanes (THM) to harmful metabolites. We investigated the diurnal variation of urinary THM exposures and their metabolism patterns as catalyzed by CYP2E1 redox activity, using the surrogate marker of 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE)...
December 13, 2017: Environment International
Bineyam Mezgebe, George A Sorial, E Sahle-Demessie, Ashraf Aly Hassan, Jingrang Lu
The objective of this research was to evaluate the biodegradation of chloroform by using biotrickling filter (BTF) and determining the dominant bacteria responsible for the degradation. The research was conducted in three phases under anaerobic condition, namely, in the presence of co-metabolite (Phase I), in the presence of co-metabolite and surfactant (Phase II) and in the presence of surfactant but no co-metabolite (Phase III). The results showed that the presence of ethanol as a co-metabolite provided 49% removal efficiency...
November 1, 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Angela M Hansen, Tamara E C Kraus, Sandra M Bachand, William R Horwath, Philip A M Bachand
Constructed wetlands are used worldwide to improve water quality while also providing critical wetland habitat. However, wetlands have the potential to negatively impact drinking water quality by exporting dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that upon disinfection can form disinfection byproducts (DBPs) like trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). We used a replicated field-scale study located on organic rich soils in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to test whether constructed flow-through wetlands which receive water high in DOC that is treated with either iron- or aluminum-based coagulants can improve water quality with respect to DBP formation...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chao Qin, Chaoqi Chen, Chao Shang, Kang Xia
Existing water disinfection practices often produce harmful disinfection byproducts. The antibacterial activity of Fe3+ -saturated montmorillonite was investigated mechanistically using municipal wastewater effluents. Bacterial deactivation efficiency (bacteria viability loss) was 92±0.64% when a secondary wastewater effluent was mixed with Fe3+ -saturated montmorillonite for 30min, and further enhanced to 97±0.61% after 4h. This deactivation efficiency was similar to that when the same effluent was UV-disinfected before it exited a wastewater treatment plant...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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