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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924367/genotoxicity-of-a-low-dose-nitrosamine-mixture-as-drinking-water-disinfection-byproducts-in-nih3t3-cells
#1
Hai-Yan Wang, Ming Qin, Lei Dong, Jia-Ying Lv, Xia Wang
N-nitrosamines (NAms), which can arise as byproducts of disinfection agents, are reportedly found in drinking water, and their potential carcinogenicity is a concern; however, little research exists regarding the genotoxicity or carcinogenicity of NAms exposure as a low-dose mixture. The three most common NAms components in China's drinking water are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA). Thus, we measured the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of these compounds and measured the cell cycle and gene expression...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900447/disinfection-byproducts-in-drinking-water-and-evaluation-of-potential-health-risks-of-long-term-exposure-in-nigeria
#2
Nsikak U Benson, Oyeronke A Akintokun, Adebusayo E Adedapo
Levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water from water treatment plants (WTPs) in Nigeria were studied using a gas chromatograph (GC Agilent 7890A with autosampler Agilent 7683B) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The mean concentrations of the trihalomethanes ranged from zero in raw water samples to 950 μg/L in treated water samples. Average concentration values of THMs in primary and secondary disinfection samples exceeded the standard maximum contaminant levels. Results for the average THMs concentrations followed the order TCM > BDCM > DBCM > TBM...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892768/advanced-oxidation-and-disinfection-processes-for-onsite-net-zero-greywater-reuse-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Lucien W Gassie, James D Englehardt
Net-zero greywater (NZGW) reuse, or nearly closed-loop recycle of greywater for all original uses, can recover both water and its attendant hot-water thermal energy, while avoiding the installation and maintenance of a separate greywater sewer in residential areas. Such a system, if portable, could also provide wash water for remote emergency health care units. However, such greywater reuse engenders human contact with the recycled water, and hence superior treatment. The purpose of this paper is to review processes applicable to the mineralization of organics, including control of oxidative byproducts such as bromate, and maintenance of disinfection consistent with potable reuse guidelines, in NZGW systems...
August 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886560/occurrence-of-nitrogenous-and-carbonaceous-disinfection-byproducts-in-drinking-water-distributed-in-shenzhen-china
#4
Huang Huang, Haihui Zhu, Wenhui Gan, Xue Chen, Xin Yang
A 12-month sampling program was conducted throughout a drinking water distribution system in Shenzhen and the data from 251 samples provide a comprehensive picture of the spatial and seasonal variability of 17 species disinfection by-products (DBPs) in a city with subtropical monsoon climate. The carbonaceous disinfection by-product (C-DBPs) included four trihalomethanes (THMs), three trihaloacetaldehydes (THAs) and two haloketones (HKs). Their median concentrations over the entire period were 19.9 μg/L, 3...
September 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885828/multidrug-resistance-protein-4-mrp4-abcc4-protects-cells-from-the-toxic-effects-of-halobenzoquinones
#5
Jinhua Li, Madlen Bauer, Birget Moe, Elaine M Leslie, Xing-Fang Li
Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are frequently detected disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in treated water. Recent studies have demonstrated that HBQs are highly cytotoxic and capable of inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depleting cellular glutathione (GSH). Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs/ABCCs) are known to play a critical role in the elimination of numerous drugs, carcinogens, toxicants, and their conjugated metabolites. In general, little is known about the roles of transporters in DBP toxicity...
September 8, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881244/disinfection-byproduct-precursor-dynamics-and-water-treatability-during-an-extreme-flooding-event-in-a-coastal-blackwater-river-in-southeastern-united-states
#6
A Ruecker, H Uzun, T Karanfil, M T K Tsui, A T Chow
Coastal blackwater rivers, characterized by high concentrations of natural organic matter, are source water for millions of people in the southeastern US. In October 2015, large areas of coastal South Carolina were flooded by Hurricane Joaquin. This so-called "thousand-year" rainfall mobilized and flushed large amounts of terrestrial organic matter and associated pollutants (e.g. mercury) into source water, affecting water quality and safety of municipal water supply. To understand the dynamics of water quality and water treatability during this extreme flood, water samples were collected from Waccamaw River (a typical blackwater river in the southeastern US) during rising limb, peak discharge, falling limb, and base flow...
August 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835098/air-emissions-damages-from-municipal-drinking-water-treatment-under-current-and-proposed-regulatory-standards
#7
Daniel B Gingerich, Meagan S Mauter
Water treatment processes present intersectoral and cross-media risk trade-offs that are not presently considered in Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory analyses. This paper develops a method for assessing the air emission implications of common municipal water treatment processes used to comply with recently promulgated and proposed regulatory standards, including concentration limits for, lead and copper, disinfection byproducts, chromium(VI), strontium, and PFOA/PFOS. Life-cycle models of electricity and chemical consumption for individual drinking water unit processes are used to estimate embedded NOx, SO2, PM2...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831656/comparative-study-of-the-formation-of-brominated-disinfection-byproducts-in-uv-persulfate-and-uv-h2o2-oxidation-processes-in-the-presence-of-bromide
#8
Lu Wang, Yuefei Ji, Junhe Lu, Deyang Kong, Xiaoming Yin, Quansuo Zhou
The objective of this research was to compare the transformation of Br(-) and formation of brominated byproducts in UV/persulfate (PS) and UV/H2O2 processes. It was revealed that Br(-) was efficiently transformed to free bromine which reacted with humic acid (HA) or dihydroxybenzoic acid resulting in the formation of brominated byproducts such as bromoacetic acids (BAAs) in UV/PS system. In contrast, no free bromine and brominated byproducts could be detected in UV/H2O2 system, although the oxidization of Br(-) was evident...
August 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828542/application-of-3-d-fluorescence-characterization-of-natural-organic-matter-in-natural-water-and-water-purification-systems
#9
REVIEW
Guocheng Zhu, Yongning Bian, Andrew S Hursthouse, Peng Wan, Katarzyna Szymanska, Jiangya Ma, Xiaofeng Wang, Zilong Zhao
Natural organic matter (NOM) found in water sources is broadly defined as a mixture of polyfunctional organic molecules, characterized by its complex structure and paramount influence on water quality. Because the inevitable release of pollutants into aquatic environments due to an ineffective control of industrial and agricultural pollution, the evaluation of the interaction of NOM with heavy metals, nanoparticles, organic pollutants and other pollutants in the aquatic environment, has greatly increased. Three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence has the potential to reveal the interaction mechanisms between NOM and pollutants as well as the source of NOM pollution...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822343/the-control-of-disinfection-byproducts-and-their-precursors-in-biologically-active-filtration-processes
#10
REVIEW
Chao Liu, Christopher I Olivares, Ameet J Pinto, Chance V Lauderdale, Jess Brown, Meric Selbes, Tanju Karanfil
While disinfection provides hygienically safe drinking water, the disinfectants react with inorganic or organic precursors, leading to the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Biological filtration is a process in which an otherwise conventional granular filter is designed to remove not only fine particulates but also dissolved organic matters (e.g., DBP precursors) through microbially mediated degradation. Recently, applications of biofiltration in drinking water treatment have increased significantly...
August 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806073/transformation-among-aromatic-iodinated-disinfection-byproducts-in-the-presence-of-monochloramine-from-monoiodophenol-to-triiodophenol-and-diiodonitrophenol
#11
Tingting Gong, Yuxian Tao, Xiangru Zhang, Shaoyang Hu, Jinbao Yin, Qiming Xian, Jian Ma, Bin Xu
Aromatic iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are a newly identified category of highly toxic DBPs. Among the identified aromatic iodinated DBPs, 2,4,6-triiodophenol and 2,6-diiodo-4-nitrophenol have shown relatively widespread occurrence and high toxicity. In this study, we found that 4-iodophenol underwent transformation to form 2,4,6-triiodophenol and 2,6-diiodo-4-nitrophenol in the presence of monochloramine. The transformation pathways were investigated, the decomposition kinetics of 4-iodophenol and the formation of 2,4,6-triiodophenol and 2,6-diiodo-4-nitrophenol were studied, the factors affecting the transformation were examined, the toxicity change during the transformation was evaluated, and the occurrence of the proposed transformation pathways during chloramination of source water was verified...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774626/formation-and-control-of-disinfection-byproducts-and-toxicity-during-reclaimed-water-chlorination-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Ye Du, Xiao-Tong Lv, Qian-Yuan Wu, Da-Yin Zhang, Yu-Ting Zhou, Lu Peng, Hong-Ying Hu
Chlorination is essential to the safety of reclaimed water; however, this process leads to concern regarding the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and toxicity. This study reviewed the formation and control strategies for DBPs and toxicity in reclaimed water during chlorination. Both regulated and emerging DBPs have been frequently detected in reclaimed water during chlorination at a higher level than those in drinking water, indicating they pose a greater risk to humans. Luminescent bacteria and Daphnia magna acute toxicity, anti-estrogenic activity and cytotoxicity generally increased after chlorination because of the formation of DBPs...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774622/method-to-assess-component-contribution-to-toxicity-of-complex-mixtures-assessment-of-puberty-acquisition-in-rats-exposed-to-disinfection-byproducts
#13
Shahid Parvez, Glenn E Rice, Linda K Teuschler, Jane Ellen Simmons, Thomas F Speth, Susan D Richardson, Richard J Miltner, E Sidney Hunter, Jonathan G Pressman, Lillian F Strader, Gary R Klinefelter, Jerome M Goldman, Michael G Narotsky
A method based on regression modeling was developed to discern the contribution of component chemicals to the toxicity of highly complex, environmentally realistic mixtures of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Chemical disinfection of drinking water forms DBP mixtures. Because of concerns about possible reproductive and developmental toxicity, a whole mixture (WM) of DBPs produced by chlorination of a water concentrate was administered as drinking water to Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats in a multigenerational study...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774615/effects-of-halobenzoquinone-and-haloacetic-acid-water-disinfection-byproducts-on-human-neural-stem-cells
#14
Katherine Z Fu, Jinhua Li, Sai Vemula, Birget Moe, Xing-Fang Li
Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) are a useful tool to assess the developmental effects of various environmental contaminants; however, the application of hNSCs to evaluate water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is scarce. Comprehensive toxicological results are essential to the prioritization of DBPs for further testing and regulation. Therefore, this study examines the effects of DBPs on the proliferation and differentiation of hNSCs. Prior to DBP treatment, characteristic protein markers of hNSCs from passages 3 to 6 were carefully examined and it was determined that hNSCs passaged 3 or 4 times maintained stem cell characteristics and can be used for DBP analysis...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774613/monohalogenated-acetamide-induced-cellular-stress-and-genotoxicity-are-related-to-electrophilic-softness-and-thiol-thiolate-reactivity
#15
Justin A Pals, Elizabeth D Wagner, Michael J Plewa, Menghang Xia, Matias S Attene-Ramos
Haloacetamides (HAMs) are cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic byproducts of drinking water disinfection. They are soft electrophilic compounds that form covalent bonds with the free thiol/thiolate in cysteine residues through an SN2 reaction mechanism. Toxicity of the monohalogenated HAMs (iodoacetamide, IAM; bromoacetamide, BAM; or chloroacetamide, CAM) varied depending on the halogen substituent. The aim of this research was to investigate how the halogen atom affects the reactivity and toxicological properties of HAMs, measured as induction of oxidative/electrophilic stress response and genotoxicity...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774612/biomarkers-of-end-of-shift-exposure-to-disinfection-byproducts-in-nurses
#16
Solomon Ioannou, Xanthi D Andrianou, Pantelis Charisiadis, Konstantinos C Makris
Increased disinfectant use commonly takes place in hospitals and other health care settings. A cross-sectional study among active nurses in two Cypriot public hospitals (n=179) was conducted to examine the prevalence of exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) using both self-reported information and biomarker measurements. The objectives of this study were to: i) quantify the magnitude and variability of occupational exposure to disinfectants/DBPs in nurses, ii) generate job exposure matrices (JEM) and job task exposure matrices (JTEM) for disinfectants, and iii) assess the major determinants of urinary THMs in nurses...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774609/disinfection-byproduct-regulatory-compliance-surrogates-and-bromide-associated-risk
#17
Chelsea Kolb, Royce A Francis, Jeanne M VanBriesen
Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774602/chloramination-of-wastewater-effluent-toxicity-and-formation-of-disinfection-byproducts
#18
Julien Le Roux, Michael J Plewa, Elizabeth D Wagner, Maolida Nihemaiti, Azra Dad, Jean-Philippe Croué
The reclamation and disinfection of waters impacted by human activities (e.g., wastewater effluent discharges) are of growing interest for various applications but has been associated with the formation of toxic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). Monochloramine used as an alternative disinfectant to chlorine can be an additional source of nitrogen in the formation of N-DBPs. Individual toxicity assays have been performed on many DBPs, but few studies have been conducted with complex mixtures such as wastewater effluents...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772250/formation-and-estimated-toxicity-of-trihalomethanes-haloacetonitriles-and-haloacetamides-from-the-chlor-am-ination-of-acetaminophen
#19
Shunke Ding, Wenhai Chu, Tom Bond, Qi Wang, Naiyun Gao, Bin Xu, Erdeng Du
The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in natural waters, which act as drinking water sources, raises concerns. Moreover, those compounds incompletely removed by treatment have the chance to form toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during subsequent disinfection. In this study, acetaminophen (Apap), commonly used to treat pain and fever, was selected as a model PPCP. The formation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs, namely trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, and haloacetamides, during chlor(am)ination of Apap was investigated...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759794/iodinated-trihalomethane-formation-during-chloramination-of-iodate-containing-waters-in-the-presence-of-zero-valent-iron
#20
Ying Xia, Yi-Li Lin, Bin Xu, Chen-Yan Hu, Ze-Chen Gao, Wen-Hai Chu, Nai-Yun Gao
Iodide (I(-)) and iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) are the primary iodine sources for the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs), and iodate (IO3(-)) is believed to be a desired sink of iodine in water. This study found that highly cytotoxic iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) also can be generated from iodate-containing waters (without any other iodine sources) in the presence of zero valent iron (ZVI) during chloramination, which could be a big issue in the wide usage of iron pipes. The effect of major factors including ZVI dosage, NH2Cl and IO3(-) concentrations, initial pH, Br(-)/IO3(-) molar ratio, phosphate concentration, iron corrosion scales (goethite and hematite) on the formation of I-THMs were investigated...
July 24, 2017: Water Research
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