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Disinfection byproduct

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229949/predicting-reactivity-of-model-dom-compounds-towards-chlorine-with-mediated-electrochemical-oxidation
#1
Glen Andrew de Vera, Wolfgang Gernjak, Jelena Radjenovic
Chlorine demand of a water sample depends on the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM). It is an important parameter for water utilities used to assess oxidant and/or disinfectant consumption of source waters during treatment and distribution. In this study, model compounds namely resorcinol, tannic acid, vanillin, cysteine, tyrosine, and tryptophan were used to represent the reactive moieties of complex DOM mixtures. The reactivity of these compounds was evaluated in terms of Cl2 demand and electron donating capacity (EDC)...
January 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199792/removal-of-intermediate-aromatic-halogenated-dbps-by-activated-carbon-adsorption-a-new-approach-to-controlling-halogenated-dbps-in-chlorinated-drinking-water
#2
Jingyi Jiang, Xiangru Zhang, Xiaohu Zhu, Yu Li
During chlorine disinfection of drinking water, chlorine may react with natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide ion in raw water to generate halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). To mitigate adverse effects from DBP exposure, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption has been considered as one of the best available technologies for removing NOM (DBP precursor) in drinking water treatment. Recently, we have found that many aromatic halogenated DBPs form in chlorination, and they act as intermediate DBPs to decompose and form commonly known DBPs including trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196675/occurrence-of-brominated-disinfection-byproducts-in-the-air-and-water-of-chlorinated-seawater-swimming-pools
#3
Tarek Manasfi, Brice Temime-Roussel, Bruno Coulomb, Laurent Vassalo, Jean-Luc Boudenne
An undesirable consequence of disinfection is the formation of chemical contaminants known as disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Chronic exposure to DBPs has been linked to adverse health effects. The occurrence of DBPs in chlorinated pools filled with seawater (such as thalassotherapy pools and pools in spas) has received little attention so far. The present study evaluated the speciation and levels of disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pools filled with seawater and treated with chlorine. Water and air samples were collected from three indoor swimming pools located in Southern France...
February 5, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187382/adsorption-of-natural-organic-matter-and-disinfection-byproduct-precursors-from-surface-water-on-tio2-nanoparticles-ph-effects-isotherm-modelling-and-implications-for-using-tio2-for-drinking-water-treatment
#4
Stephanie L Gora, Susan A Andrews
Titanium dioxide is a photocatalyst that can remove organic contaminants of interest to the drinking water treatment industry, including natural organic matter (NOM) and disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors. The photocatalytic reaction occurs in two steps: adsorption of the contaminant followed by degradation of the adsorbed contaminant upon irradiation with UV light. The second part of this process can lead to the formation of reactive intermediates and negative impacts on treated water quality, such as increased DBP formation potential (DBPfp)...
February 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174041/occurrence-origin-and-toxicity-of-disinfection-byproducts-in-chlorinated-swimming-pools-an-overview
#5
REVIEW
Tarek Manasfi, Bruno Coulomb, Jean-Luc Boudenne
Disinfection treatments are critical to conserve the microbiological quality of swimming pool water and to prevent water-borne infections. The formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pools is an undesirable consequence resulting from reactions of disinfectants (e.g. chlorine) with organic and inorganic matter present in pool water, mainly brought by bathers. A considerable body of occurrence studies has identified several classes of DBPs in swimming pools with more than 100 compounds detected, mainly in chlorinated freshwater pools...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171837/efficient-photoreductive-decomposition-of-n-nitrosodimethylamine-by-uv-iodide-process
#6
Zhuyu Sun, Chaojie Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Jing Chen, Qi Zhou
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) has aroused extensive concern as a disinfection byproduct due to its high toxicity and elevated concentration levels in water sources. This study investigates the photoreductive decomposition of NDMA by UV/iodide process. The results showed that this process is an effective strategy for the treatment of NDMA with 99.2% NDMA removed within 10min. The depletion of NDMA by UV/iodide process obeyed pseudo-first-order kinetics with a rate constant (k1) of 0.60±0.03min(-1). Hydrated electrons (eaq(-)) generated by the UV irradiation of iodide were proven to play a critical role...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161516/identification-and-determination-of-disinfection-byproducts-in-chlorine-containing-household-cleansing-products
#7
Ho-Sang Shin, Hyun-Hee Lim
Seven halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) and two haloacetic acids were detected and quantified in 15 household products, including sodium hypochlorite, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chloroform was detected in a range of 0.2-30.2 mg kg(-1) in all products, and carbon tetrachloride was observed in 13 samples in a range of 0.05-352 mg kg(-1). Dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were also detected up to 94 and 146 mg kg(-1) in household products. The estimated human exposures of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were calculated to 0...
January 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153699/detection-formation-and-occurrence-of-13-new-polar-phenolic-chlorinated-and-brominated-disinfection-byproducts-in-drinking-water
#8
Yang Pan, Ying Wang, Aimin Li, Bin Xu, Qiming Xian, Chendong Shuang, Peng Shi, Qing Zhou
Recently, 13 new polar phenolic chlorinated and brominated disinfection byproducts (Cl- and Br-DBPs) were identified and quantified in simulated chlorinated drinking water by adopting product ion scan, precursor ion scan, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analyses using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-tqMS). The 13 new DBPs have been drawing increasing concern not only because they possess significantly higher growth inhibition, developmental toxicity, and chronic cytotoxicity than commonly known aliphatic DBPs, but also because they act as intermediate DBPs that can decompose to form the U...
January 24, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118976/analysis-of-haloacetic-acids-bromate-and-dalapon-in-natural-waters-by-ion-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
Shimin Wu, Tarun Anumol, Jay Gandhi, Shane A Snyder
The addition of oxidants for disinfecting water can lead to the formation of potentially carcinogenic compounds referred to as disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are one of the most widely detected DBPs in US water utilities and some of them are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The present study developed a method to analyze all the compounds in the USEPA method 557 (nine HAAs, bromate and dalapon) plus four potentially more toxic iodinated HAAs in water by coupling ion chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS)...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110142/characteristics-of-water-obtained-by-dewatering-cyanobacteria-containing-sludge-formed-during-drinking-water-treatment-including-c-n-disinfection-byproduct-formation
#10
Hangzhou Xu, Haiyan Pei, Yan Jin, Hongdi Xiao, Chunxia Ma, Jiongming Sun, Hongmin Li
This is the first study to systematically investigate the characteristics of the water obtained by dewatering cyanobacteria-containing sludge generated in the drinking water treatment plant, including formation of C- and N-disinfection by-products (DBPs). Results showed that this 'dewatering water' (DW) had different properties when the sludge was stored at different times. The content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microcystins (MCs) in the DW were low when the sludge was treated or disposed of within 4 days; correspondingly, the C-, N-DBP production was also low...
January 13, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098448/new-insights-into-trihalomethane-and-haloacetic-acid-formation-potentials-correlation-with-the-molecular-composition-of-natural-organic-matter-in-source-water
#11
Xin Wang, Haifeng Zhang, Yahe Zhang, Quan Shi, Juan Wang, Jianwei Yu, Min Yang
Natural organic matter (NOM) represents the major source of precursors for disinfection byproducts (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), formed during disinfection of drinking water, but the molecular composition and reactivity of NOM remain not well understood. In this study, electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize the molecular composition of NOM of 20 source waters taken across China for the purpose of determining the major precursors of THMs and HAAs at molecular level...
February 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092936/effect-of-ozonation-and-biological-activated-carbon-treatment-of-wastewater-effluents-on-formation-of-n-nitrosamines-and-halogenated-disinfection-byproducts
#12
Yi-Hsueh Chuang, William A Mitch
Ozonation followed by biological activated carbon (O3/BAC) is being considered as a key component of reverse osmosis-free advanced treatment trains for potable wastewater reuse. Using a laboratory-scale O3/BAC system treating two nitrified wastewater effluents, this study characterized the effect of different ozone dosages (0-1.0 mg O3/mg dissolved organic carbon) and BAC empty bed contact times (EBCT; 15-60 min) on the formation after chlorination or chloramination of 35 regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), 8 N-nitrosamines, and bromate...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062359/mechanism-of-synergistic-dna-damage-induced-by-the-hydroquinone-metabolite-of-brominated-phenolic-environmental-pollutants-and-cu-ii-formation-of-dna-cu-complex-and-site-specific-production-of-hydroxyl-radicals
#13
Bo Shao, Li Mao, Na Qu, Ya-Fen Wang, Hui-Ying Gao, Feng Li, Li Qin, Jie Shao, Chun-Hua Huang, Dan Xu, Lin-Na Xie, Chen Shen, Xiang Zhou, Ben-Zhan Zhu
2,6-Dibromohydroquinone (2,6-DBrHQ) has been identified as an reactive metabolite of many brominated phenolic environmental pollutants such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), bromoxynil and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, and was also found as one of disinfection byproducts in drinking water. In this study, we found that the combination of 2,6-DBrHQ and Cu(II) together could induce synergistic DNA damage as measured by double strand breakage in plasmid DNA and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation, while either of them alone has no effect...
January 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032509/molecular-and-spectroscopic-characterization-of-water-extractable-organic-matter-from-thermally-altered-soils-reveal-insight-into-disinfection-byproduct-precursors
#14
Kaelin M Cawley, Amanda K Hohner, David C Podgorski, William T Cooper, Julie A Korak, Fernando L Rosario-Ortiz
To characterize the effects of thermal-alteration on water extractable organic matter (WEOM), soil samples were heated in a laboratory at 225, 350, and 500 °C. Next, heated and unheated soils were leached, filtered, and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, optical properties, molecular size distribution, molecular composition, and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation following the addition of chlorine. The soils heated to 225 °C leached the greatest DOC and had the highest C- and N-DBP precursor reactivity per unit carbon compared to the unheated material or soils heated to 350 or 500 °C...
December 29, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011354/ozone-regeneration-of-granular-activated-carbon-for-trihalomethane-control
#15
Xuexiang He, Mark Elkouz, Mandu Inyang, Eric Dickenson, Eric C Wert
Spatial and temporal variations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in distribution systems have challenged water treatment facilities to comply with disinfection byproduct rules. In this study, granular activated carbon (GAC) and modified GAC (i.e., Ag-GAC and TiO2-GAC) were used to treat chlorinated tap water containing CHCl3 (15-21μg/L), CHBrCl2 (13-16μg/L), CHBr2Cl (13-14μg/L), and CHBr3 (3μg/L). Following breakthrough of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), GAC were regenerated using conventional and novel methods...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010927/assessing-the-genotoxicity-of-two-commonly-occurring-byproducts-of-water-disinfection-chloral-hydrate-and-bromal-hydrate
#16
Tarek Manasfi, Michel De Méo, Carole Di Giorgio, Bruno Coulomb, Jean-Luc Boudenne
Water disinfection treatments result in the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that have been linked to adverse human health outcomes including higher incidence of bladder and colorectal cancer. However, data about the genotoxicity of DBPs is limited to only a small fraction of compounds. Chloral hydrate (CH) and bromal hydrate (BH) are two trihaloacetaldehydes commonly detected in disinfected waters, but little is known about their genotoxicity, especially BH. We investigated the genotoxicity of CH and BH using a test battery that includes three in vitro genotoxicity assays...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996252/formation-and-occurrence-of-n-chloro-2-2-dichloroacetamide-a-previously-overlooked-nitrogenous-disinfection-byproduct-in-chlorinated-drinking-waters
#17
Yun Yu, David A Reckhow
Haloacetamides (HAMs) are a class of newly identified nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) whose occurrence in drinking waters has recently been reported in several DBP surveys. As the most prominent HAM species, it is commonly acknowledged that 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAM) is mainly generated from dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) hydrolysis because the concentrations of these two compounds are often well correlated. Instead of DCAM, a previously unreported N-DBP, N-chloro-2,2-dichloroacetamide (N-Cl-DCAM), was confirmed in this study as the actual DCAN degradation product in chlorinated drinking waters...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993038/degradation-of-deet-and-caffeine-under-uv-chlorine-and-simulated-sunlight-chlorine-conditions
#18
Peizhe Sun, Wan-Ning Lee, Ruochun Zhang, Ching-Hua Huang
Photoactivation of aqueous chlorine could promote degradation of chlorine-resistant and photochemically stable chemicals accumulated in swimming pools. This study investigated the degradation of two such chemicals, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) and caffeine, by low pressure ultraviolet (UV) light and simulated sunlight (SS) activated free chlorine (FC) in different water matrices. Both DEET and caffeine were rapidly degraded by UV/FC and SS/FC but exhibited different kinetic behaviors. The degradation of DEET followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, whereas the degradation of caffeine accelerated with reaction...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991774/abatement-of-polychoro-1-3-butadienes-in-aqueous-solution-by-ozone-uv-photolysis-and-advanced-oxidation-processes-o3-h2o2-and-uv-h2o2
#19
Minju Lee, Tony Merle, Daniel Rentsch, Silvio Canonica, Urs von Gunten
The abatement of 9 polychloro-1,3-butadienes (CBDs) in aqueous solution by ozone, UV-C(254 nm) photolysis, and the corresponding advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) (i.e., O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) was investigated. The following parameters were determined for 9 CBDs: second-order rate constants for the reactions of CBDs with ozone (kO3) (<0.1-7.9 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) or with hydroxyl radicals (k(•)OH) (0.9 × 10(9) - 6.5 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)), photon fluence-based rate constants (k') (210-2730 m(2) einstein(-1)), and quantum yields (Φ) (0...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984805/formation-of-2-6-dichloro-1-4-benzoquinone-from-aromatic-compounds-after-chlorination
#20
Koji Kosaka, Takahiko Nakai, Yuta Hishida, Mari Asami, Keiko Ohkubo, Michihiro Akiba
Halobenzoquinones are a group of disinfection byproducts formed by chlorination of certain substances in water. However, to date, the identities of halobenzoquinone precursors remain unknown. In this study, the formation of 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), a typical halobenzoquinone, from 31 aromatic compounds was investigated after 60 min of chlorination. DCBQ was formed from 21 compounds at molar formation yields ranging from 0.0008% to 4.9%. Phenol and chlorinated phenols served as DCBQ precursors, as reported previously...
December 7, 2016: Water Research
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