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Disinfection byproduct

ShihChi Weng, Nathan Dunkin, Kellogg J Schwab, James McQuarrie, Kati Bell, Joseph G Jacangelo
Peracetic acid (PAA) is a strong oxidant/bactericide that has been applied in various industries (e.g., food processing, pharmaceuticals, medical device sterilization, etc.) as a disinfectant. There is increasing interest in using PAA for wastewater disinfection because it does not form halogenated byproducts, and no post-treatment quenching is required. Previous studies have demonstrated good efficiency in controlling bacteria in wastewater, but limited information is available for viruses, especially those hosted by mammals (e...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yanan Shao, Zihan Pan, Chuan Rong, Yinghui Wang, Hongxiang Zhu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Kefu Yu
During chlorine disinfection process, reactions between the disinfectant and 17β-estradiol (E2) lead to the formation of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) which can be a risk to both ecosystem and human health. The degradation and transformation products of E2 in sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) disinfection processes of different water samples were investigated. The reaction kinetics research showed that the degradation rates of E2 were considerably dependent on the initial pH value and the types of water samples...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jiajian Liu, Li Ling, Yi Li, Chao Wang, Chii Shang
Adsorbable organic halogen is a mean to quantify total organic halogen, which is an important toxicity indicator in disinfection byproduct studies. However, quantification of low concentrations of adsorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) formation in seawater chlorination using the USEPA Method 9020B was found inaccurate due to the presence of high concentrations of chloride. In this study, a dialysis-based pretreatment technique was proposed, optimized and adopted to eliminate the interference of chloride in quantifying low concentrations of AOCl in seawater...
May 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jiwon On, Heesoo Pyo, Seung-Woon Myung
The aim of this study was to optimize the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) parameters for simultaneous analysis through DLLME-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of six iodo-trihalomethanes, four haloacetonitriles, and one halonitromethane, which are residual disinfection products found in drinking water. Eleven disinfection by-product (DBPs) remaining in aqueous samples were extracted and concentrated using a simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly DLLME method, and then analyzed simultaneously by GC-MS...
May 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Achille De Battisti, Paolo Formaglio, Sergio Ferro, Mustafa Al Aukidy, Paola Verlicchi
Lab-scale experiments using real groundwater were carried out using the CabECO® reactor system in order to evaluate its suitability for producing safe water, acceptable for civil purposes. Trials were carried out in discontinuous and in continuous mode, analyzing the influence of electrical and hydraulic process parameters on the quality of treated water. The use of highly boron-doped diamond electrodes in the reactor allowed the electrosynthesis of considerable amounts of ozone. Because of the relatively high amount of chloride in the groundwater samples, a mixture of HOCl/ClO- was also synthesized...
May 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Yingying Zhao, Y Jeffrey Yang, Yu Shao, Jill Neal, Tuqiao Zhang
Simultaneous chlorine decay and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation have been discussed extensively because of their regulatory and operational significance. This study further examines chemical reaction variability in the water quality changes under various hydrodynamic conditions in drinking water distribution. The variations of kinetic constant for overall chlorine decay (kE ) and trihalomethane (THM) formation were determined under stagnant to turbulent flows using three devices of different wall demand and two types of natural organic matters (NOM) in water...
April 27, 2018: Water Research
Jinhua Li, Birget Moe, Yanming Liu, Xing-Fang Li
Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that effectively induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage in vitro. However, impacts of HBQs on oxidative stress related gene expression have not been investigated. In this study, we examined alteration in the expression of 44 genes, related to oxidative stress-induced signaling pathways, in human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC-1) upon exposure to six HBQs. The results show structure-dependent effects of HBQs on the studied gene expression...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Tingting Gong, Xiangru Zhang, Wenqing Liu, Yun Lv, Jiarui Han, Ka Chun Choi, Wanxin Li, Qiming Xian
There are two types of wastewater in Hong Kong, non-saline and saline wastewaters. When it comes to disinfection, iodide is an important inorganic ion in concern because it may involve in the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts, which show significantly higher toxicity than their brominated and chlorinated analogues. In this study, it was found that a non-saline wastewater in Hong Kong contained an unexpected high level of iodine. To trace the iodine sources of this non-saline wastewater, the information of the corresponding area was collected to find the possible iodine sources; then, the water samples from the possible iodine sources were collected; the concentrations of iodine species (iodide, iodate and organic iodine) in these collected water samples were determined; finally, the contribution percentages of iodine species from different sources were calculated...
April 24, 2018: Chemosphere
Juan Wang, Zhineng Hao, Fengqiong Shi, Yongguang Yin, Dong Cao, Ziwei Yao, Jing-Fu Liu
Although brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) have been reported to form from reactions between bromide, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and disinfectants, their formation during the disinfection of aquaculture seawater via chlorination has been rarely studied. Herein, after 5 days of disinfection of raw aquiculture seawater samples with sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDDC), trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2), 181, 179 and 37 Br-DBPs were characterized by ultra-high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS)...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
James Grellier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Urs von Gunten
Chemical oxidants have been applied in water treatment for more than a century, first as disinfectants and later to abate inorganic and organic contaminants. The challenge of oxidative abatement of organic micropollutants is the formation of transformation products with unknown (eco)toxicological consequences. Four aspects need to be considered for oxidative micropollutant abatement: (i) Reaction kinetics, controlling the efficiency of the process, (ii) mechanisms of transformation product formation, (iii) extent of formation of disinfection byproducts from the matrix, (iv) oxidation induced biological effects, resulting from transformation products and/or disinfection byproducts...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Weiying Li, Junpeng Zhang, Feng Wang, Lin Qian, Yanyan Zhou, Wanqi Qi, Jiping Chen
Public health is threatened by deteriorated water quality due to bacterial regrowth and uncontrolled growth-related problems in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). To investigate the scope of this problem, a two-year field study was conducted in south China. The amount of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), total cell concentrations (TCC), and intact cell concentrations (ICC) of water samples were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated that ICC was significantly correlated to AOC concentration when the chlorine concentration was less than 0...
March 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Mayara Arnold, Jacimaria Batista, Eric Dickenson, Daniel Gerrity
The purpose of this research was to investigate the impacts of ozone dose and empty bed contact time (EBCT) in ozone-biofiltration systems on disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential. The data were used to evaluate the possibility of using DBP formation potential as an alternative guideline for total organic carbon (TOC) removal in potable reuse applications. A pilot-scale ozone-biofiltration system was operated with O3 /TOC ratios ranging from 0.1 to 2.25 and EBCTs ranging from 2 to 20 min. The biofiltration columns contained anthracite or biological activated carbon (BAC)...
March 13, 2018: Chemosphere
Megumi Akiyama, Yoshihiko Matsui, Junki Kido, Taku Matsushita, Nobutaka Shirasaki
The probability distributions of total potential doses of disinfection byproducts and volatile organic compounds via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure were estimated with Monte Carlo simulations, after conducting physiologically based pharmacokinetic model simulations to takes into account the differences in availability between the three exposures. If the criterion that the 95th percentile estimate equals the TDI (tolerable daily intake) is regarded as protecting the majority of a population, the drinking water criteria would be 140 (trichloromethane), 66 (bromodichloromethane), 157 (dibromochloromethane), 203 (tribromomethane), 140 (dichloroacetic acid), 78 (trichloroacetic acid), 6...
June 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Huihui Han, Hengfeng Miao, Yajing Zhang, Minfeng Lu, Zhenxing Huang, Wenquan Ruan
Disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors in wastewater during the reversed anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2 /O) process, as well as their molecular weight (MW) and polarity-based fractions, were characterized with UV scanning, fluorescence excitation emission matrix, Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Their DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs) after chlorination were further tested. Results indicated that the reversed A2 /O process could not only effectively remove the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved total nitrogen in the wastewater, but also affect the MW distribution and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM)...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Kai He, Erika Okuta, José Andres Cordero, Shinya Echigo, Yasuhiro Asada, Sadahiko Itoh
Anthropogenic compounds accidentally released to the environment could be important precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water treatment processes. In this study, the haloacetic acid formation potentials (HAAFPs) of 155 anthropogenic compounds listed on the Japanese pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR) system were evaluated. The results showed that phenolic and aromatic amine compounds were important HAA precursors, and chlorinated phenols showed high HAAFPs (>400 μg/mgC)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Daisuke Minakata, Erica Coscarelli
Nitrosamines are a group of carcinogenic chemicals that are present in aquatic environments that result from byproducts of industrial processes and disinfection products. As indirect and direct potable reuse increase, the presence of trace nitrosamines presents challenges to water infrastructures that incorporate effluent from wastewater treatment. Ultraviolet (UV) photolysis or UV-based advanced oxidation processes that produce highly reactive hydroxyl radicals are promising technologies to remove nitrosamines from water...
February 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Guang Huang, Ping Jiang, Lindsay K Jmaiff Blackstock, Dayong Tian, Xing-Fang Li
Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) are highly toxic, but few precursors of I-DBPs have been investigated. Tyrosine-containing biomolecules are ubiquitous in surface water. Here we investigated the formation of I-DBPs from the chloramination of seven tyrosyl dipeptides (tyrosylglycine, tyrosylalanine, tyrosylvaline, tyrosylhistidine, tyrosylglutamine, tyrosylglutamic acid, and tyrosylphenylalanine) in the presence of potassium iodide. High resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses of the benchtop reaction solutions found that all seven precursors formed both I- and Cl-substituted tyrosyl dipeptide products...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Phanwatt Phungsai, Futoshi Kurisu, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai
Molecular changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from treatment processes at two drinking water treatment plants in Japan were investigated using unknown screening analysis by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. DOM formulas with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO-DOM) were the most abundant class in water samples, and over half of them were commonly found at both plants. Among the treatment processes, ozonation induced the most drastic changes to DOM. Mass peak intensities of less saturated CHO-DOM (positive (oxygen subtracted double bond equivalent per carbon (DBE-O)/C)) decreased by ozonation, while more saturated oxidation byproducts (negative (DBE-O)/C) increased and new oxidation byproducts (OBPs) were detected...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Haifeng Zhang, Min Yang
To date, study on the speciation of brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs), which have higher cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than their analogous chlorinated DBPs (Cl-DBPs), formed in chloramination is still limited. In this study, the previous unknown Br-DBPs formed during chloramination of artificial drinking water were explored with electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS). In total, 193 formulae of one bromine containing Br-DBPs and 5 formulae of two bromine containing Br-DBPs were detected in the chloraminated artificial drinking water sample...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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