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Disinfection byproduct

Sai Zheng, Jiachen Shi, Jing Zhang, Yi Yang, Jianying Hu, Bing Shao
Bisphenol S (BPS), an alternative product to bisphenol A (BPA), has been the focus of increasing public concern due to its potential endocrine disrupting effect and its adverse effects related to metabolic disorders such as obesity. The detection of its residue in drinking water supply systems suggests that BPS can be chlorinated; however, whether its endocrine disrupting effect can be disrupted by this chlorination remains unclear. In the present study, we identified the byproducts of the reaction of BPS with chlorine and assessed the effect of the main byproducts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)...
January 5, 2018: Water Research
Cheng Liu, Meiqi Zhao, Siyuan He, Zhen Cao, Wei Chen
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) has drawn more attention from research into drinking water treatment because of its potential to form nitrogenous disinfection byproducts. Amino acids are important DON constituents that are difficult to remove by conventional water treatment. The permanganate/hydrogen sulfite (PM/BS) system, a novel oxidation process, is used to remove a typical amino acid, glutamate. The factors that affect removal mechanism and the degradation pathways were studied. The results show that the rates of DON and glutamate removal in the PM/BS system within 10 min were 55% and 90%, respectively...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Technology
Xing-Fang Li, William A Mitch
While drinking water disinfection has effectively prevented water-borne diseases, an unintended consequence is the generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Epidemiological studies have consistently observed an association between consumption of chlorinated drinking water with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Out of the >600 DBPs identified, regulations focus on a few classes, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), whose concentrations were hypothesized to correlate with the DBPs driving the toxicity of disinfected waters, but the DBPs responsible for the bladder cancer association remain unclear...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Stephanie Gängler, Pantelis Charisiadis, Ratanesh Seth, Saurabh Chatterjee, Konstantinos C Makris
Non-persistent environmental chemicals (NOPEC) are xenobiotics with short half-lives of elimination (<7h). Similar to chronopharmacokinetics, NOPEC metabolism may follow diurnal patterns of cytochrome P450 activity. The role of circadian liver clock in shaping NOPEC metabolism and their concomitant measurements of biomarkers of exposure and effect remains poorly understood in real-life human settings. Metabolic activation (toxication) by CYP2E1 converts trihalomethanes (THM) to harmful metabolites. We investigated the diurnal variation of urinary THM exposures and their metabolism patterns as catalyzed by CYP2E1 redox activity, using the surrogate marker of 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE)...
December 13, 2017: Environment International
Bineyam Mezgebe, George A Sorial, E Sahle-Demessie, Ashraf Aly Hassan, Jingrang Lu
The objective of this research was to evaluate the biodegradation of chloroform by using biotrickling filter (BTF) and determining the dominant bacteria responsible for the degradation. The research was conducted in three phases under anaerobic condition, namely, in the presence of co-metabolite (Phase I), in the presence of co-metabolite and surfactant (Phase II) and in the presence of surfactant but no co-metabolite (Phase III). The results showed that the presence of ethanol as a co-metabolite provided 49% removal efficiency...
November 1, 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Angela M Hansen, Tamara E C Kraus, Sandra M Bachand, William R Horwath, Philip A M Bachand
Constructed wetlands are used worldwide to improve water quality while also providing critical wetland habitat. However, wetlands have the potential to negatively impact drinking water quality by exporting dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that upon disinfection can form disinfection byproducts (DBPs) like trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). We used a replicated field-scale study located on organic rich soils in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to test whether constructed flow-through wetlands which receive water high in DOC that is treated with either iron- or aluminum-based coagulants can improve water quality with respect to DBP formation...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Chao Qin, Chaoqi Chen, Chao Shang, Kang Xia
Existing water disinfection practices often produce harmful disinfection byproducts. The antibacterial activity of Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite was investigated mechanistically using municipal wastewater effluents. Bacterial deactivation efficiency (bacteria viability loss) was 92±0.64% when a secondary wastewater effluent was mixed with Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite for 30min, and further enhanced to 97±0.61% after 4h. This deactivation efficiency was similar to that when the same effluent was UV-disinfected before it exited a wastewater treatment plant...
December 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Huiyu Dong, Zhimin Qiang, Junfeng Lian, Jin Li, Jianwei Yu, Jiuhui Qu
Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) is considered as one of iodine sources for formation of toxic iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) during disinfection. This study investigated transformation of a typical ICM, iopamidol (IPM) by zero valent iron (ZVI) and the effect of transformation on the formation of I-DBPs during chloramination. It was found that the presence of ZVI could deiodinate IPM into I(-) and the transformation of IPM exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Acidic circumstance, SO4(2-), Cl(-) and monochloramine could promote the transformation of IPM by ZVI, while SiO3(2-) inhibited the transformation of IPM...
November 14, 2017: Water Research
Jian Zheng, Tao Lin, Wei Chen
N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is one of the emerging nitrogenous disinfection byproducts with probable cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. Its potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention but remain to be poorly understood. In this study, changes in NDEA precursors in drinking water treatment process were studied using the trial of its formation potential (FP), and the toxicity induced by NDEA to adult zebrafish was investigated. NDEA FP in the raw water of Taihu Lake ranged from 46...
October 10, 2017: Chemosphere
Roberta C H M Hofman-Caris
At first it seemed that UV processes for disinfection and advanced oxidation were "harmless", as they didn't involve the addition of "dangerous" chemicals nor seemed to result in the formation of toxic byproducts. However, recently it has become clear that also during UV processes mutagentic/genotoxic byproducts may be formed. It was found that these are nitrogen containing aromatic compounds, which are formed by the reaction of photolysis products of nitrate with (photolysis products of) natural organic matter...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tarek Manasfi, Bruno Coulomb, Sylvain Ravier, Jean-Luc Boudenne
Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are used in sunscreens and other personal-care products to protect against harmful effects of exposure to UV solar radiation. Little is known about the fate of UV filters in seawater swimming pools disinfected with chlorine. The present study investigated the occurrence and fate of five commonly used organic UV filters, namely dioxybenzone, oxybenzone, avobenzone, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate, and octocrylene, in chlorinated seawater swimming pools. Pool samples were collected to monitor the variation of UV filter concentrations during pool opening hours...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Changyong Zhang, Di He, Jinxing Ma, Wangwang Tang, T David Waite
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is considered to be one of the most promising technologies for the desalination of brackish water with low to medium salinity. In practical applications, Faradaic redox reactions occurring in CDI may have both negative and positive effects on CDI performance. In this review, we present an overview of the types and mechanisms of Faradaic reactions in CDI systems including anodic oxidation of carbon electrodes, cathodic reduction of oxygen and Faradaic ion storage and identify their apparent negative and positive effects on water desalination...
October 31, 2017: Water Research
Irina Levchuk, Juan José Rueda Márquez, Mika Sillanpää
Natural organic matter (NOM) is present in underground and surface waters. The main constituents of NOM are humic substances, with a major fraction of refractory anionic macromolecules of various molecular weights. The NOM concentration in drinking water is typically 2-10 ppm. Both aromatic and aliphatic components with carboxylic and phenolic functional groups can be found in NOM, leading to negatively charged humic substances at the pH of natural water. The presence of NOM in drinking water causes difficulties in conventional water treatment processes such as coagulation...
October 19, 2017: Chemosphere
Lin-Na Xie, Chun-Hua Huang, Dan Xu, Feng Li, Jun-Ge Zhu, Chen Shen, Bo Shao, Hui-Ying Gao, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Ben-Zhan Zhu
Pyridinium aldoximes, which are best-known as therapeutic antidotes for organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve-agents and pesticides, have been found to markedly detoxify polyhalogenated quinones which are a class of carcinogenic intermediates and recently identified disinfection byproducts in drinking water. However, the exact chemical mechanism underlying this detoxication remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that pralidoxime can remarkably facilitate the dechlorination/hydroxylation of the highly toxic tetrachloro-1, 4-benzoquinone in two-consecutive steps to generate the much less toxic 2, 5-dichloro-3, 6-dihydroxy-1, 4-benzoquonine, with rate enhancements of up to 180,000-times...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ji-Hyoung Ha, Sung Hyun Kim, Hee-Min Lee, Su-Ji Kim, Hae-Won Lee
In recent years, fresh vegetables have frequently been associated with the foodborne transmission of enteric viruses, such as human norovirus (NoV). Therefore, several studies have focused on developing methods to inactivate foodborne viruses for preventing outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is commonly used as a disinfectant, but results in undesirable effects on the appearance and taste of foods and can generate toxic byproducts when it exceeds the allowable concentration. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of NaOCl concentrations (50-1000 ppm) for reducing the amounts of human NoV (NoV GII...
October 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Litang Qin, Xin Zhang, Yuhan Chen, Lingyun Mo, Honghu Zeng, Yanpeng Liang
Several hundred disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water have been identified, and are known to have potentially adverse health effects. There are toxicological data gaps for most DBPs, and the predictive method may provide an effective way to address this. The development of an in-silico model of toxicology endpoints of DBPs is rarely studied. The main aim of the present study is to develop predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for the reactive toxicities of 50 DBPs in the five bioassays of X-Microtox, GSH+, GSH-, DNA+ and DNA-...
October 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
F J Vázquez-Armenta, B A Silva-Espinoza, M R Cruz-Valenzuela, G A González-Aguilar, F Nazzaro, F Fratianni, J F Ayala-Zavala
In the present study total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties of grape (Vitis vinifera var. Red Globe) stem extract is reported. Also, the identification of main phenolic compounds was carried out by UPLC-PAD analysis. TPC and TFC of extract were 37.25 g GAE kg(-1) and 98.07 g QE kg(-1), respectively. Extract showed an antioxidant capacity of 132.60 and 317 g TE kg(-1) for DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified were rutin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, catechin and ferulic acid...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Jeff Kuo
A review of the literature published in 2016 on topics relating to disinfection processes is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: disinfection methods, disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and microbiology and microbial communities.
October 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Sophia K Chiu, Nancy C Burton, Kevin H Dunn, Marie A de Perio
In July 2015, a municipal health department in Ohio received complaints of respiratory and ocular symptoms from patrons of an indoor waterpark resort. In response, the health department conducted an online survey in August 2015 through which 19 (68%) patron and employee respondents reported eye burning, nose irritation, difficulty breathing, and vomiting. On August 11, 2015, the health department requested a health hazard evaluation by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to characterize the prevalence of symptoms among employees and determine the etiology of work-related symptoms...
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Hai-Yan Wang, Ming Qin, Lei Dong, Jia-Ying Lv, Xia Wang
N-nitrosamines (NAms), which can arise as byproducts of disinfection agents, are reportedly found in drinking water, and their potential carcinogenicity is a concern; however, little research exists regarding the genotoxicity or carcinogenicity of NAms exposure as a low-dose mixture. The three most common NAms components in China's drinking water are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA). Thus, we measured the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of these compounds and measured the cell cycle and gene expression...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
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