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Disinfection by-product

Marie Christine Uwamahoro, Richard Massicotte, Yves Hurtubise, François Gagné-Bourque, Akier Assanta Mafu, L'Hocine Yahia
Spore-forming pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium difficile , are associated with nosocomial infection, leading to the increased use of sporicidal disinfectants, which impacts socioeconomic costs. However, C. difficile can be prevented using microorganisms such as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , a prophylactic agent that has been proven to be effective against it in recent tests or it can be controlled by sporicidal disinfectants. These disinfectants against spores should be evaluated according to a known and recommended standard...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Hyunkyung Ban, Ji Young Park, Daeyeop Lee, Kiyoung Lee
Deterministic exposure assessment has uncertainty about the selection of input parameters on the resulting estimates. The purpose of this study was to compare inhalation exposures estimated by a specific percentile of each of the three exposure factors in deterministic assessment with population exposure. Exposure to nine household care products, namely a deodorizer, six cleaning products, and two disinfectants were investigated. The population exposures were individually calculated for three exposure factors (frequency of use, amount of use, and duration of use) from an existing database of 3333 participants representing the national population...
February 12, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Ebtissam M Almadi, Amal A Almohaimede
Herbal remedies are used throughout the world, either in earlier or in recent times. The number of studies on this alternative therapeutic system increased in the last decades. In this paper, the relevant literature on the use of natural products in root canal therapy is revised from a MEDLINE database search. The uses of medicinal plants in endodontics include cleaning and disinfection of root canals, intracanal medicaments between appointments, sealer cements, and for removal of obturation material. Other studies showed the effect of natural products in pulpal and dentin repair...
February 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
P Y Chen, X N Chu, L Liu, J Y Hu
The problem of biological invasions attributed to ballast water release is an ongoing problem that threatens ecosystems and human health. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been increasingly used for ballast water treatment mainly due to the advantages of short contact time and minimized harmful disinfection by products. In this study, the impact of salinity on the inactivation of Vibrio cholerae (NCTC 7253) was examined, and comparison of inactivation level and disinfection kinetics after medium-pressure (MP) (1 kW) and low-pressure (LP) (10 W) UV irradiation was made...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
J L Banach, L S van Overbeek, M N Nierop Groot, P S van der Zouwen, H J van der Fels-Klerx
Controlling water quality is critical in preventing cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Process wash water (PWW) quality can be controlled by implementing chemical disinfection strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pilot-scale efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) during processing on the reduction of Escherichia coli in the PWW and on processed fresh-cut 'Lollo Rossa' lettuce. The objective was to have a residual target concentration of either 5 or 3 mg/L ClO2 in the washing tank (3...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jihyun Lee, Wonjin Sim, Youngkeun Im, Euntae Hwang, Jinju Heo
This study assessed the methods for analyzing disinfection by-products (DBPs) to determine which were most suitable for ballast water in an approval test according to the Procedure for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems that make use of Active Substances (G9). The existing analysis methods are optimized for drinking water. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of ballast water, which has high levels of total residual oxidants (TROs) and salinity, prior to applying the existing methods...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Ana Kasradze, Diana Echeverria, Khatuna Zakhashvili, Christian Bautista, Nicholas Heyer, Paata Imnadze, Veriko Mitrskhulava
INTRODUCTION: Anthrax is endemic in the country of Georgia. The most common cutaneous anthrax form accounts for 95% of anthrax cases and often is self-resolving. Humans are infected from processing contaminated animal products, contacting sick animals, or by insect bites. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the burden of human cutaneous anthrax and associated risk factors using the national surveillance data. METHODS: We extracted all human cutaneous anthrax cases from Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2015...
2018: PloS One
E Paluch, A Piecuch, E Obłąk, Ł Lamch, K A Wilk
The studies were aimed to contribute to the elucidation of the relationships between structure of the double-headed cationic surfactants - N,N-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamine)propyl]alkylamide dihydrochlorides and N,N-bis[3,3'-(trimethylammonio)propyl]alkylamide dibromides (alkyl: n-C9H19, n-C11H23, n-C13H27, n-C15H31), which are of particular interest, as they contain a labile amide group in the molecule and their antifungal activity. Therefore, the minimal inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC and MFC) of dicephalic surfactants against various fungi were tested using standardized methods...
January 31, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Rosimara Gonçalves Leite Vieira, Thaís da Silva Moraes, Larissa de Oliveira Silva, Thamires Chiquini Bianchi, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Regina Helena Pires, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
Background: Patients submitted to hemodialysis therapy are more susceptible to infection, especially to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. Various research works have attempted to discover new antimicrobial agents from plant extracts and other natural products. Methods: The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activities of Copaifera duckei, C. reticulata, and C. oblongifolia oleoresins; sodium hypochlorite; and peracetic acid against clinical and environmental isolates recovered from a Hemodialysis Unit...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Christopher Holladay Jones, Elizabeth G Shilling, Karl G Linden, Sherri Michelle Cook
Small drinking water systems serve a fifth of the U.S. population and rely heavily on disinfection. While chlorine disinfection is common, there is interest in minimizing chemical addition, especially due to carcinogenic disinfection byproducts and chlorine-resistant pathogens, by using ultraviolet technologies; however, the relative, broader environmental impacts of these technologies are not well established, especially in the context of small (<10,000 people) water systems. The objective of this study was to identify environmental trade-offs between chlorine and ultraviolet disinfection via comparative life cycle assessment...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Aziz Kinani, Hacène Sa Lhi, Stéphane Bouchonnet, Said Kinani
Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) is an analytical parameter of considerable interest since it allows to evaluate the amount of organohalogen disinfection by-products (OXBPs) present in a water sample. Halogen speciation of AOX into adsorbable organic chlorine, bromine and iodine, respectively AOCl, AOBr and AOI, is extremely important since it has been shown that iodinated and brominated organic by-products tend to be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. Chemical speciation of AOX can be performed by combustion-ion chromatography (C-IC)...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Mariam Taha, Carissa Kohnen, Shruti Mallya, Yuntong Kou, Adriana Zapata, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos
PURPOSE: Staphylococcus epidermidis is the predominant contaminant of platelet concentrates (PCs), a blood product used to treat patients with platelet deficiencies. This microorganism is able to form surface-attached aggregates (biofilms) in human skin. Herein, the abundance of S. epidermidis biofilm-producers in contaminated PCs compared to skin isolates was explored. Furthermore, the potential positive selection of S. epidermidis biofilm-producers during the blood donation process and PC manufacturing was investigated...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Daeyeop Lee, Joo-Hyon Kim, Taksoo Kim, Hyojung Yoon, Areum Jo, Byeongwoo Lee, Hyunwoo Lim, Pilje Kim, Jungkwan Seo
Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine health risks posed by chemicals in consumer products. We analyzed five risk-concerned product categories (anti-fogging, dye, disinfectant, repellent, and preservative products) for 13 products (three car anti-fogging products, a lens anti-fogging product, two car dye products, two drain disinfectants, an air conditioner disinfectant, a chlorine-based disinfectant, a fabric repellent, an insect repellent for food, and a wood preservative) considered to be of high risk in order to determine exposure factors via web surveys and estimation of amount of product...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jacqueline A Malvestiti, Enelton Fagnani, Débora Simão, Renato F Dantas
The objective of this study was to optimize UV/H2O2 and ozonation systems by means of experimental design using as response the efficiency of the operational conditions to remove methylene blue dye. Two classes of experimental planning were used, the Doehlert matrix and the central composite design. The most important variables for each process were: hydrogen peroxide concentration, the ratio of illuminated volume/total volume of the reactor and recirculation flow rate for UV/H2O2, and ozone flow rate, consumed ozone and methylene blue concentration for the ozonation...
January 24, 2018: Environmental Technology
G Romanelli, D Berto, N Calace, M Amici, S Maltese, M Formalewicz, A Campanelli, M Marini, E Magaletti, A Scarpato
Oxidant treatment of ballast water (BW) is commonly used in BW systems in order to minimize the transport of alien species. The release of disinfection by-products (DBPs) associated to the treatment of BW and cross-contamination of butyltin (BT) compounds through BW discharge is a topic of environmental concern. A chemical port baseline survey has been conducted in seven ports of the Adriatic Sea. Analysis have been performed on transplanted mussels, surface sediment, seawater, BW. Results showed an evidence of BT contamination, particularly in sediments, probably related to their illegal usage or to intensive shipping activities...
January 17, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Łukasz Jałowiecki, Joanna Żur, Joanna Chojniak, Helene Ejhed, Grażyna Płaza
The aim of the present study was to determine some properties of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains isolated from onsite wastewater technology in relation to biofilm formation, e.g., autoaggregation and motility. Additionally, biosurfactant production by the isolates was also evaluated. The ability of selected strains to develop a biofilm was assessed by using the crystal violet method, which allows to indirectly quantify the attached bacterial biomass (live, dead cells, and polysaccharides as well). Obtained results showed that 19 of the analyzed strains were able to produce biofilm after 72 h of incubation...
January 20, 2018: Current Microbiology
Armelle Hebert, Cedric Feliers, Caroline Lecarpentier, Peta A Neale, Rita Schlichting, Sylvie Thibert, Beate I Escher
Drinking water can contain low levels of micropollutants, as well as disinfection by-products (DBPs) that form from the reaction of disinfectants with organic and inorganic matter in water. Due to the complex mixture of trace chemicals in drinking water, targeted chemical analysis alone is not sufficient for monitoring. The current study aimed to apply in vitro bioassays indicative of adaptive stress responses to monitor the toxicological profiles and the formation of DBPs in three drinking water distribution systems in France...
January 3, 2018: Water Research
N Mon-On, W Surachetpong, S Mongkolsuk, K Sirikanchana
Streptococcosis is an important bacterial disease in Nile tilapia causing severe economic losses to tilapia aquaculture worldwide. The effects of water quality (low- [LS] and high-level [HS] soiling, to mimic clean or dirty surface conditions and temperatures) and disinfectant application (diluted concentrations and exposure time) were characterized on the inactivation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from diseased tilapia. Five isolates were tested against three commercial disinfectant products with the main ingredients being povidone iodine (Anidine 100™; AD), benzalkonium chloride (Better BKC 80%™; BKC 80), and a mixture of quaternary ammonium compounds and glutaraldehyde (Chloraldehyde™; CR)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Sai Zheng, Jiachen Shi, Jing Zhang, Yi Yang, Jianying Hu, Bing Shao
Bisphenol S (BPS), an alternative product to bisphenol A (BPA), has been the focus of increasing public concern due to its potential endocrine disrupting effect and its adverse effects related to metabolic disorders such as obesity. The detection of its residue in drinking water supply systems suggests that BPS can be chlorinated; however, whether its endocrine disrupting effect can be disrupted by this chlorination remains unclear. In the present study, we identified the byproducts of the reaction of BPS with chlorine and assessed the effect of the main byproducts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)...
January 5, 2018: Water Research
Cheng Liu, Meiqi Zhao, Siyuan He, Zhen Cao, Wei Chen
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) has drawn more attention from research into drinking water treatment because of its potential to form nitrogenous disinfection byproducts. Amino acids are important DON constituents that are difficult to remove by conventional water treatment. The permanganate/hydrogen sulfite (PM/BS) system, a novel oxidation process, is used to remove a typical amino acid, glutamate. The factors that affect removal mechanism and the degradation pathways were studied. The results show that the rates of DON and glutamate removal in the PM/BS system within 10 min were 55% and 90%, respectively...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Technology
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