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Disinfection by-product

Lokesh P Padhye
This annual review covers the literature published in 2015 on topics related to the occurrence and fate of emerging environmental pollutants in wastewater. Due to the vast amount of literature published on this topic, I have discussed only a fraction of the quality research publications, up to maximum 20 relevant articles per section, due to limitation of space. The abstract search was carried out using Web of Science, and the abstracts were selected based on their relevance. In few cases, full-text articles were referred to better understand new findings...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Jong-Hyeon Lee
The humidifier disinfectant disaster (HDD) was not a simple poisoning accident by biocides, but a singular disaster in history created by chemicals in household products. This disaster was a result of the failure of a system for the management of chemical and product safety. Since the management authority for chemical usage safety is different from those for chemical safety in products, many blind areas for chemical safety management in products still remain. The 'Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc...
2016: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Chunxia Ma, Haiyan Pei, Wenrong Hu, Yuting Wang, Hangzhou Xu, Yan Jin
This study investigated the effect of a chitosan-aluminium chloride (CTSAC) composite coagulation process on reducing the formation of algal organic matters (AOM) related carbonaceous disinfection by-products (C-DBPs) and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs), by removing or adsorbing their precursors. Compared with aluminium chloride (AC) and chitosan (CTS) alone, CTSAC significantly enhanced the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOC), polysaccharide, protein and humic acids, attaining removals of 64...
December 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Glen Andrew de Vera, Wolfgang Gernjak, Howard Weinberg, Maria José Farré, Jurg Keller, Urs von Gunten
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is an emerging concern in oxidative water treatment because it exerts oxidant demand and may form nitrogenous oxidation/disinfection by-products. In this study, we investigated the reactions of ozone with DON with a special emphasis on the formation of nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)). In batch ozonation experiments, the formation of NO3(-) and NH4(+) was investigated for natural organic matter standards, surface water, and wastewater effluent samples. A good correlation was found between NO3(-) formation and the O3 exposure (R(2) > 0...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
J G Murnane, R B Brennan, O Fenton, M G Healy
Carbon (C) losses from agricultural soils to surface waters can migrate through water treatment plants and result in the formation of disinfection by-products, which are potentially harmful to human health. This study aimed to quantify total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic C losses in runoff after application of dairy slurry, pig slurry, or milk house wash water (MWW) to land and to mitigate these losses through coamendment of the slurries with zeolite (2.36-3.35 mm clinoptilolite) and liquid polyaluminum chloride (PAC) (10% AlO) for dairy and pig slurries or liquid aluminum sulfate (alum) (8% AlO) for MWW...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Providencia González-Hernández, Manuel Hernández-Padrón, Verónica Pino, Ana M Afonso, Juan H Ayala
A simple and efficient method has been developed for the extraction and determination of sixteen common volatile halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) in blending desalinated waters, using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-FID). The DBPs determined included 4 trihalomethanes, 6 haloacetonitriles and 6 halonitromethanes. After the optimization using factorial designs of the HS-SPME parameters (optimum: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, extraction time of 60 min at 30 °C, pH 7, addition of 40% (w/v) of sodium chloride, and desorption time of 2 min at 250 °C), quantification limits ranged from 3...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Technology
Qiwan Chai, Shujuan Zhang, Xiaomao Wang, Hongwei Yang, Yuefeng F Xie
Octyl-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (ODPABA), one of the most commonly used organic UV filters, can undergo considerable transformation in water when entering into the disinfection process. The impacts of bromide on degradation kinetics, formation and speciation of transformation products, regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs) as well as genotoxicity changes during ODPABA chlorination were investigated in this study. Results indicated that the reaction of ODPABA with chlorine followed pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Olya S Keen
Organics in leachate from municipal solid waste landfills are notoriously difficult to treat by biological processes. These organics have high ultraviolet absorbance and can interfere with the ultraviolet disinfection process at the wastewater treatment plant that receives leachate if the leachate flow contribution is large enough. With more wastewater treatment plants switching to ultraviolet disinfection, landfills face increased pressure to treat leachate further. This study used size exclusion chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet/Vis spectrophotometry to characterise the bulk organic matter in raw landfill leachate and the biorecalcitrant organic matter in biologically treated leachate from the same site...
November 24, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Youngbeom Ahn, Jeong Myeong Kim, Ohgew Kweon, Seong-Jae Kim, Richard C Jones, Kellie Woodling, Gonçalo Gamboa da Costa, John J LiPuma, David Hussong, Bernard S Marasa, Carl E Cerniglia
: Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK) cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl), dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl), decyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C10BDMA-Cl), hexyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride was determined by incubation in 1/10-diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB) to determine if BCC bacteria have the ability to survive and inactivate these disinfectants...
November 22, 2016: MBio
Radisti A Praptiwi, Carlos J Pestana, Emma T Sawade, Nick Swain, Gretchen Schroeder, Gayle Newcombe
A bloom of the non-toxic cyanobacterium Romeria elegans in waste stabilisation ponds within Angaston waste water treatment plant (WWTP) has posed an unprecedented treatment challenge for the local water utility. The water from the stabilisation ponds is chlorinated for safety prior to reuse on nearby farmland. Cyanobacteria concentrations of approximately 1.2×10(6) cells mL(-1) increased the chlorine demand dramatically. Operators continuously increased the disinfectant dose up to 50 mg L(-1) to achieve operational guideline values for combined chlorine (0...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Technology
Jennifer L Cadnum, Annette L Jencson, Marguerite C O'Donnell, Elizabeth R Flannery, Michelle M Nerandzic, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND We investigated an increase in the incidence of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that occurred following a change from a bleach disinfectant to a peracetic acid-based disinfectant. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of the peracetic acid-based disinfectant. DESIGN Laboratory-based product evaluation. METHODS The commercial peracetic acid-based product is activated on site by mixing a small volume of concentrated hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid present in a "SmartCap" reservoir with the remaining contents of the container...
November 21, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
B D Zhan, S Q Wang, S M Lai, Y Lu, X G Shi, G P Cao, X L Hu, C J Zheng, Z Y Yu, J M Zhang, C F Fang, Z Y Gong
Brucellosis is an occupational disease affecting workers in butcher shops, the milking and dairy product industry, causing more than 500 000 new cases around the world. As a national statutory B infectious disease in China, morbidity of brucellosis is rapidly increasing in recent years. We report an occupational outbreak of brucellosis infection in a pharmaceutical factory. Exposure was a result of manual operation in the process line, close contact with sheep placentas, insufficient disinfection and repeated using of protective suits and infected by aerosol dissemination...
November 12, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Chiara Rossi, Clemencia Chaves-López, Annalisa Serio, Elisa Goffredo, Beniamino Terzo Cenci Goga, Antonello Paparella
In this study, biofilm formation of 64 Pseudomonas fluorescens strains isolated from milk, dairy products and dairy plants was compared. The strains were grown on Tryptic Soy Broth supplemented with 0.2% of glucose, on polystyrene microplates at 10 and 30°C for 48 h. In general, 57/64 P. fluorescens strains formed biofilm, although with great variability at both tested temperatures. Moreover, our results evidenced that the biofilm-forming ability of the strains was temperature- and strain-dependent. Interestingly, the ability of several isolates to form biofilms was associated with the low temperature after 48 h...
June 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Anton Gomà, Rosó de Lluis, Jordi Roca-Ferrer, Javier Lafuente, César Picado
BACKGROUND: Chlorine by-products may irritate the eyes, nose, skin and airways of swimmers and may cause chronic airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the salutary effects on swimmers health of a new method of water disinfection. METHODS: Recreational (n=320) and competitive swimmers (n=53) participated in the study. The first part of the study (Phase A) was carried out while using the current standard method. The second part (Phase B) began 8 weeks after the new method had been introduced...
January 2017: Environmental Research
John Awad, John van Leeuwen, Christopher W K Chow, Ronald J Smernik, Sharolyn J Anderson, Jim W Cox
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters used for drinking purposes can vary markedly in character depending on its source within catchments and the timing and intensity of rainfall events. Here we report the findings of a study on the character and concentration of DOM in waters collected during different seasons from Myponga River and Reservoir, South Australia. The character of DOM was assessed in terms of its treatability by enhanced coagulation and potential for disinfection by-product i.e. trihalomethane (THM) formation...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
Xiaoqin Zhou, Zifu Li, Juanru Lan, Yichang Yan, Nan Zhu
Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is highly recommended owing to its high disinfection efficiency and disinfection by-products free, and UV Light-Emitting Diodes (UV LEDs) is increasingly becoming an alternative of mercury UV lamps for water disinfection owing to its long lifetime, low input power, and absence of problems on disposal. However, renovation of existing UV lamps faces the challenges for UV disinfection associated with disinfection efficiency and photoreactivation, and modified UV disinfection process is required for practical application...
March 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Lei Lei, Meiying Shao, Yan Yang, Mengying Mao, Yingming Yang, Tao Hu
Objective: Enterococcus faecalis is the dominant microbial species responsible for persistent apical periodontitis with ability to deeply penetrate into the dentin. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) contribute to the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance of E. faecalis. Our aim was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide (CH), camphorated parachlorophenol (CMCP), and chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis in dentinal tubules. Material and Methods: Decoronated single-canal human teeth and semicylindrical dentin blocks were incubated with E...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Laura M Coughlan, Paul D Cotter, Colin Hill, Avelino Alvarez-Ordóñez
Biofilms are microbial communities characterized by their adhesion to solid surfaces and the production of a matrix of exopolymeric substances, consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA and lipids, which surround the microorganisms lending structural integrity and a unique biochemical profile to the biofilm. Biofilm formation enhances the ability of the producer/s to persist in a given environment. Pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species capable of forming biofilms are a significant problem for the healthcare and food industries, as their biofilm-forming ability protects them from common cleaning processes and allows them to remain in the environment post-sanitation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhe Yang, Ying-Xue Sun, Tao Ye, Na Shi, Fang Tang, Hong-Ying Hu
Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) has been extensively applied to replenish the limited freshwater resources. One concern of such technology is the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the pre-chlorination process. For the SWRO tested in this study, the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and haloacetonitriles (HANs) increased by 35.1, 23.7 and 4.9μg/L, respectively, after a seawater sample (with UV254/DOC of 3.7L/mg·m and Br(-) of 50.9mg/L) was pre-chlorinated (1-2mg-Cl2/L)...
October 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Maximilian Mora, Alexander Mahnert, Kaisa Koskinen, Manuela R Pausan, Lisa Oberauner-Wappis, Robert Krause, Alexandra K Perras, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Gabriele Berg, Christine Moissl-Eichinger
Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS) are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room), product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms), or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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