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Disinfection by-product

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644912/biofilm-formation-and-disinfectant-resistance-of-salmonella-spp-in-mono-and-dual-species-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
Xinyi Pang, Yishan Yang, Hyun-Gyun Yuk
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the biofilm formation and disinfectant resistance of Salmonella cells in mono- and dual-species biofilms with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and to investigate the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in protection of biofilms against disinfection treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: The populations of Salmonella in mono- or dual-species biofilms with P. aeruginosa on stainless steel (SS) coupons were determined before and after exposure to commercial disinfectant, 50 μg ml(-1) chlorine or 200 μg ml(-1) Ecolab(®) Whisper(™) V (a blend of four effective quaternary ammonium compounds)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643606/origin-of-low-molecular-mass-aldehydes-as-disinfection-by-products-in-beverages
#2
María Serrano, Mercedes Gallego, Manuel Silva
A novel, simple and automatic method based on static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed to determine 10 low-molecular mass aldehydes that can be found in beverages, coming from the treated water used in their production. These aldehydes are the most frequently found in treated water as water disinfection by-products, so they can be used as indicators of the addition of treated water to beverages. The study covered a large number of fruit juices and soft drinks. The presence of the whole array of analytes is related to the contact with treated water during beverage production, mainly by the addition of treated water as ingredient...
June 23, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643277/the-role-of-solubility-on-the-rejection-of-trace-organics-by-nanofiltration-membrane-exemplified-with-disinfection-by-products
#3
Fan-Xin Kong, Xiao-Mao Wang, Hong-Wei Yang, Jin-Fu Chen, Chun-Mei Guo, Tong Zhang, Yuefeng F Xie
Interactions of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) with polymeric nanofiltration (NF) membrane can affect their rejection. It is desirable to investigate whether solubility which depends on the free energy of interaction between these solutes and water correlates with rejection/adsorption and the potential to be incorporated in the partitioning terms of current NF model. A total of ten neutral disinfection by-products (DBPs) were selected as the model compounds for TOrCs to comprehensively investigate the role of solubility on rejection and adsorption...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642746/virucidal-activity-of-fogged-chlorine-dioxide-and-hydrogen-peroxide-based-disinfectants-against-human-norovirus-and-its-surrogate-feline-calicivirus-on-hard-to-reach-surfaces
#4
Naim Montazeri, Clyde Manuel, Eric Moorman, Janak R Khatiwada, Leonard L Williams, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Norovirus is shed in high numbers in the feces and vomitous of infected individuals. Contact surfaces contaminated with bodily fluids harboring infectious virus particles serve as vehicles for pathogen transmission. Environmental stability of NoV and its resistance to many conventional disinfectants necessitate effective inactivation strategies to control the spread of virus. We investigated the efficacy of two commercial disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (7...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640797/rural-and-urban-differences-in-air-quality-2008-2012-and-community-drinking-water-quality-2010-2015-united-states
#5
Heather Strosnider, Caitlin Kennedy, Michele Monti, Fuyuen Yip
PROBLEM/CONDITION: The places in which persons live, work, and play can contribute to the development of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the differences in risk factors in various environments can help to explain differences in the occurrence of these outcomes and can be used to develop public health programs, interventions, and policies. Efforts to characterize urban and rural differences have largely focused on social and demographic characteristics. A paucity of national standardized environmental data has hindered efforts to characterize differences in the physical aspects of urban and rural areas, such as air and water quality...
June 23, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636529/bladder-cancer-and-water-disinfection-by-product-exposures-through-multiple-routes-a-population-based-case-control-study-new-england-usa
#6
Laura E Beane Freeman, Kenneth P Cantor, Dalsu Baris, John R Nuckols, Alison Johnson, Joanne S Colt, Molly Schwenn, Mary H Ward, Jay H Lubin, Richard Waddell, G Monawar Hosain, Chris Paulu, Richard McCoy, Lee E Moore, An-Tsun Huang, Nat Rothman, Margaret R Karagas, Debra T Silverman
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of disinfection byproducts has been associated with bladder cancer in multiple studies. Although associations with other routes of exposure have been suggested, epidemiologic evidence is limited. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship between bladder cancer and total, chlorinated, and brominated trihalomethanes (THMs) through various exposure routes. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in New England ( cases; controls), we estimated lifetime exposure to THMs from ingestion, showering/bathing, and hours of swimming pool use...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624152/simultaneous-determination-of-14-disinfection-by-products-in-meat-products-using-microwave-assisted-extraction-and-static-headspace-coupled-to-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#7
Maria Jose Cardador, Mercedes Gallego
This paper described the first analytical method to simultaneously determine 14 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in meat products using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and static headspace (SHS) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The DBPs included were 4 trihalomethanes, 7 haloacetic acids, 2 haloacetonitriles and trichloronitromethane, which are commonly formed as a consequence of the disinfection process of water. The combination of the MAE and SHS techniques allows meat samples to be analysed in two sequential steps into the same HS vial in spite of the sample's complexity...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620853/effects-of-ozonation-powdered-activated-carbon-adsorption-and-coagulation-on-the-removal-of-disinfection-by-product-precursors-in-reservoir-water
#8
Feng Wang, Baoyu Gao, Qinyan Yue, Fan Bu, Xue Shen
Effects of ozonation and powdered activated carbon on removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and disinfection by-product (DBP) in reservoir water were intensively investigated in this study. Both the formation of carbonaceous DBP (C-DBP) and nitrogenous DBP (N-DBP) as well as their speciation were analyzed. Results exhibited that the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) greatly improved the removal of aromatic protein. Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) were the dominant species in C-DBP and N-DBP...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618281/chlor-am-ination-of-iopamidol-kinetics-pathways-and-disinfection-by-products-formation
#9
Fu-Xiang Tian, Bin Xu, Yi-Li Lin, Chen-Yan Hu, Tian-Yang Zhang, Sheng-Ji Xia, Wen-Hai Chu, Nai-Yun Gao
The degradation kinetics, pathways and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation of iopamidol by chlorine and chloramines were investigated in this paper. The chlorination kinetics can be well described by a second-order model. The apparent second-order rate constants of iopamidol chlorination significantly increased with solution pH. The rate constants of iopamidol with HOCl and OCl(-) were calculated as (1.66 ± 0.09) × 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1) and (0.45± 0.02) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. However, the chloramination of iopamidol fitted well with third-order kinetics and the maximum of the apparent rate constant occurred at pH 7...
June 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617275/cost-comparison-of-full-scale-water-reclamation-technologies-with-an-emphasis-on-membrane-bioreactors
#10
Raquel Iglesias, Pedro Simón, Lucas Moragas, Augusto Arce, Ignasi Rodriguez-Roda
The paper assesses the costs of full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operating expenses (OPEX) of Spanish MBR facilities have been verified and compared to activated sludge plants (CAS) using water reclamation treatment (both conventional and advanced). Spanish MBR facilities require a production of 0.6 to 1.2 kWh per m(3), while extended aeration (EA) and advanced reclamation treatment require 1.2 kWh per m(3). The energy represents around 40% of the OPEX in MBRs. In terms of CAPEX, the implementation costs of a CAS facility followed by conventional water reclamation treatment (physical-chemical + sand filtration + disinfection) ranged from 730 to 850 €...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614742/transformation-of-halobenzoquinones-with-the-presence-of-amino-acids-in-water-products-pathways-and-toxicity
#11
Penghui Du, He Zhao, Hongbin Cao, Ching-Hua Huang, Wen Liu, Yao Li
The transformation and detoxification of halobenzoquinones (HBQs), a class of emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs), was studied in the presence of amino acids (AAs). The reaction activity of three HBQs with AAs generally ranked as 2-chlorobenzoquinone (CBQ) < 2,6-dichlorobezoquinone (DCBQ) < tetrachloroquinone (TCBQ), consistent with their halogenation degree and the calculated electron affinity (EA) results. According to mass spectrometry and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, AAs can easily covalently incorporate into HBQs via nucleophilic addition (CBQ and DCBQ) or substitution (TCBQ) through CNC or CSC linkages...
June 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609731/degradation-of-sulfamethoxazole-using-ozone-and-chlorine-dioxide-compound-specific-stable-isotope-analysis-transformation-product-analysis-and-mechanistic-aspects
#12
Sarah Willach, Holger V Lutze, Kevin Eckey, Katja Löppenberg, Michelle Lüling, Jens Terhalle, Jens-Benjamin Wolbert, Maik A Jochmann, Uwe Karst, Torsten C Schmidt
The sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a widely detected micropollutant in surface and groundwaters. Oxidative treatment with e.g. ozone or chlorine dioxide is regularly applied for disinfection purposes at the same time exhibiting a high potential for removal of micropollutants. Especially for nitrogen containing compounds such as SMX, the related reaction mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we systematically investigated reaction stoichiometry, product formation and reaction mechanisms in reactions of SMX with ozone and chlorine dioxide...
June 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603970/microbots-decorated-with-silver-nanoparticles-kill-bacteria-in-aqueous-media
#13
Diana Vilela, Morgan M Stanton, Jemish Parmar, Samuel Sanchez
Water contamination is one of the most persistent problems in public health. The resistance of some pathogens to conventional disinfectants can require the combination of multiple disinfectants or increased disinfectant dosages which may produce harmful by-products. Here, we describe an efficient disinfection and removal method of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from contaminated water by using water self-propelled Janus microbots decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The spherical Janus microbot's structure consists of a magnesium (Mg) microparticle as a template that also functions as propulsion source by producing hydrogen bubbles while in contact with water, an inner iron (Fe) magnetic layer for their remote guidance and collection, and an outer AgNP coated gold (Au) layer for bacteria adhesion and bactericidal properties...
June 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600317/efficacy-of-neutral-electrolyzed-water-for-inactivation-of-human-norovirus
#14
Eric Moorman, Naim Montazeri, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Persistence on surfaces and resistance to many conventional disinfectants contribute to widespread transmission of norovirus. We examined the efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW, pH 7) for inactivation of human NoV GII.4 Sydney in suspension (ASTM method 1052-11) and on stainless steel surfaces (ASTM method 1053-11), with and without an additional soil load. The impact of the disinfectant on viral capsid was assessed using RT-qPCR preceded with an RNase pre-treatment as well as by SDS-PAGE, transmission electron microscopy, and histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptor-binding assay...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598341/effect-of-trihalomethanes-chloroform-and-bromoform-on-human-haematological-count
#15
Asna Lodhi, Imran Hashmi, Habib Nasir, Romana Khan
With the increasing concerns about the harmful effects of disinfection products, the process of chlorination is becoming questionable. Bromoform and chloroform are among the most frequently occurring disinfection by-products. Haematological parameters are an important indicator of human well-being which is why the prime objective of the current study was to conduct a dose-response assessment to investigate the effects of trihalomethanes on human haematological count. Blood samples of healthy subjects were exposed to different concentrations (10, 30 and 50 μg/mL) of chloroform and bromoform in vitro to analyse how these compounds affected the haematological count with increasing dose concentrations...
June 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594930/evaluation-of-an-enhanced-cleaning-and-disinfection-protocol-in-salmonella-contaminated-pig-holdings-in-the-united-kingdom
#16
Francesca Martelli, Mark Lambert, Paul Butt, Tanya Cheney, Fabrizio Antonio Tatone, Rebecca Callaby, André Rabie, Rebecca J Gosling, Steve Fordon, Graham Crocker, Robert H Davies, Richard Piers Smith
Salmonella is the second most commonly reported zoonotic gastrointestinal pathogen in the European Union, and a significant proportion of the cases are linked to the consumption of contaminated pork. Reduction of Salmonella at the farm level helps to mininimise the contamination pressure at the slaughterhouse, and therefore the number of Salmonella bacteria entering the food chain. Cleaning and disinfection (C&D) between batches of pigs is an intervention measure that has potential to reduce the transmission of Salmonella contamination within farms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594071/inhibition-strategies-of-listeria-monocytogenes-biofilms-current-knowledge-and-future-outlooks
#17
REVIEW
Sandra F Oloketuyi, Fazlurrahman Khan
There is an increasing trend in the food industry on the Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation and inhibition. This is attributed to its easy survival on contact surfaces, resistance to disinfectants or antibiotics and growth under the stringent condition used for food processing and preservation thereby leading to food contamination products by direct or indirect exposure. Though, there is a lack of conclusive evidences about the mechanism of biofilm formation, in this review, the concept of biofilm formation and various chemical, physical, and green technology approaches to prevent or control the biofilm formed is discussed...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590235/chlorhexidine-whole-body-washing-of-patients-reduces-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-has-a-direct-effect-on-the-distribution-of-the-st5-mrsa-ii-new-york-japan-clone
#18
Maria Elena Velázquez-Meza, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Michel Fernando Martínez-Reséndez, Vanessa Valero-Moreno, Elvira Garza-González
PURPOSE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizes the skin of hospitalized patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To prevent colonization and infection by S. aureus, better disinfection practices are required. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of chlorhexidine whole-body washing on hospital-acquired S. aureus infections among intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a tertiary hospital in Mexico. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted over 18 months to evaluate the effect of 2 % chlorhexidine gluconate (CXG) whole-body washing of ICU adult patients on chlorhexidine and antibiotic resistance, biofilm production and clonal distribution of S...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588767/effectiveness-of-various-cleaning-and-disinfectant-products-on-clostridium-difficile-spores-of-pcr-ribotypes-010-014-and-027
#19
N Kenters, E G W Huijskens, S C J de Wit, I G J M Sanders, J van Rosmalen, E J Kuijper, A Voss
BACKGROUND: In healthcare facilities, Clostridium difficile infections spread by transmission of bacterial spores. Appropriate sporicidal disinfectants are needed to prevent development of clusters and outbreaks. In this study different cleaning/disinfecting wipes and sprays were tested for their efficacy against spores of distinctive C. difficile PCR ribotypes. METHODS: Four different products were tested; 1) hydrogen peroxide 1.5%; 2) glucoprotamin 1.5%; 3) a mixture of ethanol, propane and N-alkyl amino propyl glycine; and 4) a mixture of didecyldimonium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, polyaminopropyl, biguanide and dimenthicone as active ingredients...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573247/in-vitro-study-of-concentration-effect-and-time-course-pattern-of-white-alum-on-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-growth
#20
Reza Shahriari, Saeed Salari, Saeed Shahriari
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the demand for antibacterial fabrics has increased. White alum is used for oral aphthous ulcers treatment in traditional medicine of Sistan city, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran, and also as a flocculent for water purification. This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of concentration and time on antibacterial activity of white alum on Escherichia coli O157:H7. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations of white alum were added to 10(8) CFU of Escherichia coli O157:H7...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
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