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Disinfection by-product

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223782/the-influence-of-precursors-and-treatment-process-on-the-formation-of-iodo-thms-in-canadian-drinking-water
#1
Anca-Maria Tugulea, Rocio Aranda-Rodriguez, Denis Bérubé, Michèle Giddings, France Lemieux, Joan Hnatiw, Luda Dabeka, François Breton
The National Survey of Disinfection By-Products and Selected Emerging Contaminants investigated the formation of various disinfection by-products and contaminants in 65 water treatment systems (WTSs) across Canada. Results for six iodo-trihalomethanes (iodo-THMs) are reported in this paper. The participating water treatment systems included large, medium and small systems using water sources and treatment processes which were representative of Canadian drinking water. Five water samples (source water, treated water and three water samples along the distribution system) were collected from each treatment system, both under winter and summer conditions...
November 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223090/oxidation-of-iopamidol-with-ferrate-fe-vi-kinetics-and-formation-of-toxic-iodinated-disinfection-by-products
#2
Huiyu Dong, Zhimin Qiang, Shaogang Liu, Jin Li, Jianwei Yu, Jiuhui Qu
Presence of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs) in source water is of high concern, because of their potential to form highly toxic iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs). This study investigated kinetics, mechanisms and products for oxidation of one ICMs, iopamidol (IPM) by ferrate (Fe(VI)). The obtained apparent second-order rate constants for oxidation of IPM by Fe(VI) ranged from 0.7 M-1 s-1 to 74.6 M-1 s-1 at pH 6.0-10.0, which were highly dependent on pH. It was found that the oxidation of IPM by Fe(VI) led to the formation of highly toxic I-DBPs...
December 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223084/wetlands-receiving-water-treated-with-coagulants-improve-water-quality-by-removing-dissolved-organic-carbon-and-disinfection-byproduct-precursors
#3
Angela M Hansen, Tamara E C Kraus, Sandra M Bachand, William R Horwath, Philip A M Bachand
Constructed wetlands are used worldwide to improve water quality while also providing critical wetland habitat. However, wetlands have the potential to negatively impact drinking water quality by exporting dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that upon disinfection can form disinfection byproducts (DBPs) like trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). We used a replicated field-scale study located on organic rich soils in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to test whether constructed flow-through wetlands which receive water high in DOC that is treated with either iron- or aluminum-based coagulants can improve water quality with respect to DBP formation...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223046/cohort-friendly-protocol-for-a-sensitive-and-fast-method-for-trihalomethanes-in-urine-using-gas-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry
#4
Pantelis Charisiadis, Konstantinos C Makris
A cohort-friendly biomonitoring protocol has been developed for measuring biomarkers of exposure to disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes, THM) in urine using small initial volume (3mL) and short analysis time (∼10min) that facilitates the throughput of a large number of samples. The objective of this study was to optimise a cohort-friendly biomonitoring protocol for the determination of four THM analytes in human urine using gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221567/iodine-in-dairy-milk-sources-concentrations-and-importance-to-human-health
#5
REVIEW
Olivia L van der Reijden, Michael B Zimmermann, Valeria Galetti
Milk and dairy products are major iodine sources in industrialized countries. However, consumption of milk and dairy, as well as their iodine concentrations, vary widely, making them an unpredictable iodine source. Milk iodine concentrations in industrialized countries range from 33 to 534 μg/L and are influenced by the iodine intake of dairy cows, goitrogen intake, milk yield, season, teat dipping with iodine-containing disinfectants, type of farming and processing. We estimate milk and dairy contribute ≈13-64% of the recommended daily iodine intake based on country-specific food intake data...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211907/evaluation-of-the-hygienogram-scores-and-related-data-obtained-after-cleaning-and-disinfection-of-poultry-houses-in-flanders-during-the-period-2007-to-2014
#6
H Maertens, K De Reu, S Van Weyenberg, E Van Coillie, E Meyer, H Van Meirhaeghe, F Van Immerseel, V Vandenbroucke, M Vanrobaeys, J Dewulf
Cleaning and disinfection (C&D) of poultry houses is an essential aspect in farm hygiene management. Adequate performance of the different steps of a C&D protocol and the use of suitable products are key to prevent and control zoonoses and animal diseases. Hygiene monitoring on total aerobic flora through sampling with agar contact plates at different locations of the poultry house results in a hygienogram score that is used to evaluate the proper execution of C&D.This study analyzed the hygienogram scores of 19,739 poultry flocks in Flanders after C&D...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206963/occupational-exposure-to-alcohol-based-hand-sanitizers-the-diagnostic-role-of-alcohol-biomarkers-in-hair
#7
A Salomone, A Bozzo, D Di Corcia, E Gerace, M Vincenti
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are effective direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion, whose analytical determination can be used to discriminate between chronic and occasional ethanol intake. Ethanol is a compound widely used in some workplaces (e.g., clinics, hospitals) and is present in considerable amounts in mouthwash for oral cleaning, medications, cosmetic products, hydro-alcoholic disinfectants and antiseptics for hands. This study examined the ethyl alcohol exposure derived from hand disinfectants (in gel form) by simulating the typical occupational situation of medical-health workers (healthcare workers, nurses, surgeons, etc...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192403/transformation-of-sulfaquinoxaline-by-chlorine-and-uv-light-in-water-kinetics-and-by-product-identification
#8
Rania Nassar, Samia Mokh, Ahmad Rifai, Fatmeh Chamas, Maha Hoteit, Mohamad Al Iskandarani
Sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) is an antimicrobial of the sulfonamide class, frequently detected at low levels in drinking and surface water as organic micropollutant. The main goal of the present study is the evaluation of SQX reactivity during chlorination and UV irradiations which are two processes mainly used in water treatment plants. The SQX transformation by chlorination and UV lights (254 nm) was investigated in purified water at common conditions used for water disinfection (pH = 7.2, temperature = 25 °C, [chlorine] = 3 mg L-1)...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191692/thermodynamic-properties-of-an-emerging-chemical-disinfectant-peracetic-acid
#9
REVIEW
Chiqian Zhang, Pamela J B Brown, Zhiqiang Hu
Peracetic acid (PAA or CH3COOOH) is an emerging disinfectant with a low potential to form carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). Basic thermodynamic properties of PAA are, however, absent or inconsistently reported in the literature. This review aimed to summarize important thermodynamic properties of PAA, including standard Gibbs energy of formation and oxidation-reduction (redox) potential. The standard Gibbs energies of formation of CH3COOOH(aq), CH3COOOH(g), CH3COOOH(l), and CH3COOO(aq)- are -299...
November 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179034/effects-of-exposure-to-water-disinfection-by-products-in-a-swimming-pool-a-metabolome-wide-association-study
#10
Karin van Veldhoven, Pekka Keski-Rahkonen, Dinesh K Barupal, Cristina M Villanueva, Laia Font-Ribera, Augustin Scalbert, Barbara Bodinier, Joan O Grimalt, Christian Zwiener, Jelle Vlaanderen, Lützen Portengen, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Manolis Kogevinas
BACKGROUND: Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water and chlorinated swimming pools are associated with adverse health outcomes, but biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate short-term changes in metabolic profiles in response to DBP exposure while swimming in a chlorinated pool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PISCINA-II study (EXPOsOMICS project) includes 60 volunteers swimming 40min in an indoor pool...
November 24, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177047/virucidal-efficacy-of-peracetic-acid-for-instrument-disinfection
#11
Britta Becker, Florian H H Brill, Daniel Todt, Eike Steinmann, Johannes Lenz, Dajana Paulmann, Birte Bischoff, Jochen Steinmann
Background: Various peracetic-acid (PAA)-based products for processing flexible endoscopes on the market are often based on a two-component system including a cleaning step before the addition of PAA as disinfectant. The peracetic acid concentrations in these formulations from different manufacturers are ranging from 400 to 1500 ppm (part per million). These products are used at temperatures between 20 °C and 37 °C. Since information on the virus-inactivating properties of peracetic acid at different concentrations and temperature is missing, it was the aim of the study to evaluate peracetic acid solutions against test viruses using the quantitative suspension test, EN 14476...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175960/silver-palladium-catalysts-for-the-direct-synthesis-of-hydrogen-peroxide
#12
Zainab Khan, Nicholas F Dummer, Jennifer K Edwards
A series of bimetallic silver-palladium catalysts supported on titania were prepared by wet impregnation and assessed for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, and its subsequent side reactions. The addition of silver to a palladium catalyst was found to significantly decrease hydrogen peroxide productivity and hydrogenation, but crucially increase the rate of decomposition. The decomposition product, which is predominantly hydroxyl radicals, can be used to decrease bacterial colonies. The interaction between silver and palladium was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR)...
January 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174975/consumers-perceptions-of-biocidal-products-in-households
#13
Stefanie Wieck, Oliver Olsson, Klaus Kümmerer
Biocidal products are commonly used in households and can pose a risk to human health and the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' use and understanding of biocidal products in order to identify starting points for minimising their exposure to these products and reducing possible emissions to the environment. In a case study, standardised questionnaires were used to interview consumers in 133 households in three neighbourhoods in Northern Germany, representing the urban-rural typologies in Europe: predominantly urban, intermediate and predominantly rural regions...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173639/escherichia-coli-and-cronobacter-sakazakii-in-tommy-atkins-minimally-processed-mangos-survival-growth-and-effect-of-uv-c-and-electrolyzed-water
#14
David Santo, Ana Graça, Carla Nunes, Célia Quintas
These studies were aimed at assessing the growing capacity of Escherichia coli and Cronobacter sakazakii and the effectiveness of Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation, acidic electrolyzed (AEW) and neutral electrolyzed (NEW) waters in the inhibition of these bacteria on minimally processed 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes (MPM). The fruits were contaminated by dip inoculation and kept 10 days at 4, 8, 12 and 20 °C while enumerating bacteria. Contaminated mangoes were disinfected using UV-C (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kJ/m2), AEW, NEW and sodium hypochlorite (SH) and the microorganisms were monitored...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171869/disinfection-by-products-in-baby-lettuce-irrigated-with-electrolyzed-water
#15
Francisco López-Gálvez, Silvia Andújar, Alicia Marín, Juan A Tudela, Ana Allende, María I Gil
BACKGROUND: Irrigation water disinfection reduces the microbial load but it might lead to the formation and accumulation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the crop. If DBPs are present in the irrigation water, they can accumulate in the crop, particularly after the regrowth, and be affected by the postharvest handling such as washing and storage. To evaluate the potential accumulation of DBPs, baby lettuce was grown using irrigation water treated with electrolyzed water (EW) in a commercial greenhouse over three consecutive harvests and regrowths...
November 24, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171860/demonstration-tests-of-irrigation-water-disinfection-with-chlorine-dioxide-in-open-field-cultivation-of-baby-spinach
#16
Francisco López-Gálvez, Maria I Gil, Ana Meireles, Pilar Truchado, Ana Allende
BACKGROUND: Treatments for the disinfection of irrigation water have to be evaluated by demonstration tests carried out under commercial settings taking into account not only their antimicrobial activity but also the potential phytotoxic effects on the crop. The consequences of the treatment of irrigation water with chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) used for sprinkler irrigation of baby spinach in two commercial agricultural fields was assessed. RESULTS: Residual ClO2 levels at the sprinklers in the treated field were always below 1 mg/L...
November 24, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166173/cold-plasma-inactivation-of-salmonella-in-prepackaged-mixed-salads-is-influenced-by-cross-contamination-sequence
#17
Sarah M Hertrich, Glenn Boyd, Joseph Sites, Brendan A Niemira
Customer demand for convenient food products has led to an increased production of prepackaged and ready-to-eat food products. Most of these products rely mainly on surface disinfection and other traditional approaches to ensure shelf life and safety. Novel processing techniques, such as cold plasma, are currently being investigated to enhance the safety and shelf life of prepacked foods. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cold plasma corona discharge on the inactivation of Salmonella on prepackaged, tomato-and-lettuce mixed salads...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161662/deiodination-of-iopamidol-by-zero-valent-iron-zvi-enhances-formation-of-iodinated-disinfection-by-products-during-chloramination
#18
Huiyu Dong, Zhimin Qiang, Junfeng Lian, Jin Li, Jianwei Yu, Jiuhui Qu
Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) is considered as one of iodine sources for formation of toxic iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) during disinfection. This study investigated transformation of a typical ICM, iopamidol (IPM) by zero valent iron (ZVI) and the effect of transformation on the formation of I-DBPs during chloramination. It was found that the presence of ZVI could deiodinate IPM into I(-) and the transformation of IPM exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Acidic circumstance, SO4(2-), Cl(-) and monochloramine could promote the transformation of IPM by ZVI, while SiO3(2-) inhibited the transformation of IPM...
November 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157369/risk-factors-associated-with-the-a2c-resistance-pattern-among-e-coli-isolates-from-broiler-flocks-in-canada
#19
Niamh Caffrey, Omid Nekouei, Sheryl Gow, Agnes Agunos, Sylvia Checkley
The extra-label use of ceftiofur in Canadian hatcheries was cause for concern due to an increased prevalence of ceftiofur resistant Salmonella Heidelberg in chickens and humans in Québec. Due to on-going concerns related to human health the use of ceftiofur was eventually phased out of the poultry production industry in 2014-2015. Simultaneous resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur and cefoxitin, a pattern known as A2C, caused by the presence of blaCMY-2 has become increasingly prevalent in broiler flocks worldwide...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155130/dibromoacetic-acid-induced-cl-ly1-2-9-t-cell-apoptosis-and-activation-of-mapks-signaling-cascades
#20
Xiao-Rong Zhou, Wen-Bo Jiang, Yang-Ting Zhang, Ting-Ting Gong, Shu-Ying Gao
Dibromoacetic acid (DBA), a haloacetic acid by-product of disinfection of drinking water, can cause many adverse effects in test animals, including immunotoxicity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for the immunomodulatory effects remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to help in defining some potential mechanisms for this type of toxicity. Here, Cl.Ly1+2/-9 T-cells were exposed to varying levels of DBA and then several parameters, including cell survival, apoptosis, changes in mitochondrial potentials, and effects on select kinases (i...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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