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Disinfection by-product

Xin Zhong, Chongwei Cui, Shuili Yu
Ozonation of fulvic acid (FA) can result in diverse intermediate oxidation by-products, significantly affecting disinfection by-product (DBP) formation following chlorination. The objective of this study was to provide insight into ozone reaction intermediates and reveal the possible formation pathway of DBPs from ozonation of FA due to the formation of intermediate oxidation by-products. Aldehydes, aromatic acids, short-chain acids, chloroform, and dichloroacetic acid were detected at various ozone dosage additions...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
A A Adjet, D Kouame, G Fokou
This study aims to describe the plants and recipes proposed by traditional healers against Buruli ulcer in Côte d'Ivoire and to analyze their symbolic aspects. Buruli ulcer is an increasingly serious health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. The ivorian state through the National Buruli Ulcer Control Programme and its partners, has developed various actions to fight that disease. Medical and surgical treatments are offered free of charge to patients. Hundreds of health centers in different health districts have been converted into Buruli ulcer management centers...
November 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Anaïs Overney, Joséphine Jacques-André-Coquin, Patricia Ng, Brigitte Carpentier, Laurent Guillier, Olivier Firmesse
The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to adhere to and persist on surfaces for months or even years may be responsible for its transmission from contaminated surfaces to food products. Hence the necessity to find effective means to prevent the establishment of L. monocytogenes in food processing environments. The aim of this study was to assess, through a fractional experimental design, the environmental factors that could affect the survival of L. monocytogenes cells on surfaces to thereby prevent the persistence of this pathogen in conditions mimicking those encountered in food processing plants: culture with smoked salmon juice or meat exudate, use of two materials with different hygiene status, biofilm of L...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
M Homolková, P Hrabák, N Graham, M Černík
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a persistent pollutant which has been widely used as a pesticide and a wood preservative. As PCP is toxic and is present in significant quantities in the environment, there is considerable interest in elimination of PCP from waters. One of the promising methods is the application of ferrate. Ferrate is an oxidant and coagulant. It can be applied as a multi-purpose chemical for water and wastewater treatment as it degrades a wide range of environmental pollutants. Moreover, ferrate is considered a green oxidant and disinfectant...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Wenhai Chu, Dechang Yao, Yang Deng, Minghao Sui, Naiyun Gao
Microcystins (MCs) in drinking water have gained much attention due to their adverse health effects. However, little is known about the impact of pre-oxidation in the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the downstream chlorination of MCs. The present study examined the formation of both carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs from chlorination of MC-LR (the most abundant MC species) and evaluated the impact of permanganate (PM), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) pre-oxidation on the DBP formation in chlorination...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
B Barrero Domínguez, I Luque, A Maldonado, B Huerta, M Sánchez, J Gomez Laguna, R Astorga
The aim of the present transversal descriptive study was to determine the exposure and risk factors associated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in southern Spain. A total of 3,312 serum samples were collected from goat belonging to three different breeds coming from 48 flocks located in different geographic areas from southern Spain. In addition, health and productive parameters were surveyed during the visit to the herds. Serum samples were analysed by INgezim Maedi Screening (Ingenasa®) ELISA kit...
January 6, 2017: Veterinary Record
Bo Shao, Li Mao, Na Qu, Ya-Fen Wang, Hui-Ying Gao, Feng Li, Li Qin, Jie Shao, Chun-Hua Huang, Dan Xu, Lin-Na Xie, Chen Shen, Xiang Zhou, Ben-Zhan Zhu
2,6-Dibromohydroquinone (2,6-DBrHQ) has been identified as an reactive metabolite of many brominated phenolic environmental pollutants such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), bromoxynil and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, and was also found as one of disinfection byproducts in drinking water. In this study, we found that the combination of 2,6-DBrHQ and Cu(II) together could induce synergistic DNA damage as measured by double strand breakage in plasmid DNA and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation, while either of them alone has no effect...
January 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
D M Mazur, O V Polyakova, V B Artaev, A T Lebedev
The most common mass spectrometry approach analyzing contamination of the environment deals with targeted analysis, i.e. detection and quantification of the selected (priority) pollutants. However non-targeted analysis is becoming more often the method of choice for environmental chemists. It involves implementation of modern analytical instrumentation allowing for comprehensive detection and identification of the wide variety of compounds of the environmental interest present in the sample, such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, musks, nanomaterials, perfluorinated compounds, hormones, disinfection by-products, flame retardants, personal care products, and many others emerging contaminants...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
F Valeriani, C Protano, M Vitali, V Romano Spica
BACKGROUND: The association between asthma and swimming pool attendance has not been demonstrated and contrasting results emerged. In order to clarify the association between asthma diagnosis in children and swimming pool attendance, and to assess the consistency of findings of the available epidemiological studies, we completed a literature analysis focusing on literature about the relationship between the exposure to disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pool during childhood and asthma diagnosis...
December 29, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
B Kramer, J Wunderlich, P Muranyi
Non-thermal disinfection technologies are gaining increasing interest in the field of minimally processed food in order to improve the microbial safety or to extend the shelf life. Especially fresh-cut produce or meat and fish products are vulnerable to microbial spoilage but due to their sensitivity, they require gentle preservation measures. The application of intense light pulses (PL) of a broad spectral range comprising ultraviolet, visible and near infrared irradiation is currently investigated as a potentially suitable technology to reduce microbial loads on different food surfaces or in beverages...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Guocheng Huang, Tsz Wai Ng, Taicheng An, Guiying Li, Dehua Xia, Ho Yin Yip, Huijun Zhao, Po Keung Wong
Photocatalysis provides a "green" and effective strategy for water disinfection. During the photocatalytic disinfection process, intracellular organic matter (IOM) from bacterial cells may be released into the bulk solution. In this study, the role of released IOM in the photocatalytic bacterial inactivation was investigated by fractionation procedure and fluorescence excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) approaches. The normal bacterial cells treated by TiO2-UVA in the presence and absence with fractionated IOM results implied that the released IOM would be either absorbed on the surface of the photocatalysts or reacted by the photo-generated reactive species, and thereby affecting the kinetics of photocatalytic bacterial inactivation...
December 21, 2016: Water Research
Fu-Xiang Tian, Xiao-Jun Hu, Bin Xu, Tian-Yang Zhang, Yu-Qiong Gao
The photodegradation of IO3(-) at 254nm and the formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) during subsequent chlorination or chloramination in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) were investigated in this study. The thermodynamically stable IO3(-) can be degraded by UV irradiation with pseudo-first order kinetics and the quantum yield was calculated as 0.0591moleinstein(-1). Solution pH posed no remarkable influence on the photolysis rate of IO3(-). The UV phototransformation of IO3(-) was evidenced by the determination of iodide (I(-)) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) in solution...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Waqas A Cheema, Kamilla M S Kaarsholm, Henrik R Andersen
Both UV treatment and ozonation are used to reduce different types of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools. UV treatment is the most common approach, as it is particularly efficient at removing combined chlorine. However, the UV treatment of pool water increases chlorine reactivity and the formation of chloro-organic DBPs such as trihalomethanes. Based on the similar selective reactivity of ozone and chlorine, we hypothesised that the created reactivity to chlorine, as a result of the UV treatment of dissolved organic matter in swimming pool water, might also be expressed as increased reactivity to ozone...
December 10, 2016: Water Research
Zhi-Guang Niu, Xue-Peng Hu, Ying Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Sun
To identify the effect of chlorine dosage in prechlorination on the formation of disinfection by-products during drinking water treatment process, the relationship between chlorine dosage and concentrations of THMs and HAAs was analyzed. Furthermore, the variation about the ratio of THMs/HAAs was also analyzed. The results indicated that concentrations of THMs and HAAs would rise with the increase of chlorine dosage, and TCM was the main product of four THMs, while DCAA and TCAA were the primary products of five HAAs...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shizong Wang, Jianlong Wang, Yuliang Sun
Chlorinated paraben, namely, methyl 3, 5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (MDHB) is the by-product of chlorination disinfection of paraben and frequently detected in the aquatic environments, which exhibited higher persistence and toxicity than paraben itself. In this paper, the combined irradiation and biological treatment process was employed to investigate the removal of MDHB from aqueous solution. The results showed that the removal efficiency of MDHB and total organic carbon (TOC) by irradiation process increased with radiation dose no matter what the initial concentration of MDHB was...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Haruna Ibi, Makoto Hayashi, Fumihiko Yoshino, Muneaki Tamura, Ayaka Yoshida, Yoshimi Kobayashi, Kohei Shimizu, Masaichi-Chang-Il Lee, Kenichi Imai, Bunnai Ogiso
The aim of endodontic root canal treatment is the elimination of bacteria and their products from an infected tooth root canal. To effectively disinfect a root canal, an ultrasonic irrigation system, in which hydroxyl radicals (HO(·)) generated artificially by sonolysis of H2O2, was developed previously for endodontic applications and was demonstrated to have bactericidal efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis. To improve this system, we examined the in vitro bactericidal effects of HO(·) generated from H2O2, activated by simultaneous irradiation with ultrasound for sonolysis and dental LED light for photolysis with a peak wavelength of 405 nm...
December 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yun Yu, David A Reckhow
Haloacetamides (HAMs) are a class of newly identified nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) whose occurrence in drinking waters has recently been reported in several DBP surveys. As the most prominent HAM species, it is commonly acknowledged that 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAM) is mainly generated from dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) hydrolysis because the concentrations of these two compounds are often well correlated. Instead of DCAM, a previously unreported N-DBP, N-chloro-2,2-dichloroacetamide (N-Cl-DCAM), was confirmed in this study as the actual DCAN degradation product in chlorinated drinking waters...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Peizhe Sun, Wan-Ning Lee, Ruochun Zhang, Ching-Hua Huang
Photoactivation of aqueous chlorine could promote degradation of chlorine-resistant and photochemically stable chemicals accumulated in swimming pools. This study investigated the degradation of two such chemicals, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) and caffeine, by low pressure ultraviolet (UV) light and simulated sunlight (SS) activated free chlorine (FC) in different water matrices. Both DEET and caffeine were rapidly degraded by UV/FC and SS/FC but exhibited different kinetic behaviors. The degradation of DEET followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, whereas the degradation of caffeine accelerated with reaction...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Pablo Fernández-Navarro, Cristina M Villanueva, Javier García-Pérez, Elena Boldo, Fernando Goñi-Irigoyen, Enrique Ulibarrena, Panu Rantakokko, Esther García-Esquinas, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Marina Pollán, Nuria Aragonés
Chronic consumption of water, which contains contaminants, may give rise to adverse health effects. The Madrid region, covered by the population-based multicase-control (MCC-Spain) study, includes two drinking water supply areas. The different sources of the water, coupled together with the possible differences in water management, mean that there may be differences in drinking water quality. In the context of the MCC study, our aims were to describe contaminant concentrations in tap water drawn from various sampling points distributed around the region, assess these concentrations by reference to guideline values and study possible differences between the two supply areas...
December 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Euis Nurul Hidayah, Yung-Chen Chou, Hsuan-Hsien Yeh
In this study, natural organic matter (NOM) in source water, as well as the treated water after coagulation with or without potassium permanganate (KMnO4) preoxidation, was characterized by using high performance size exclusion chromatography with organic carbon detector (HPSEC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation emission matrices (F-EEMs) with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis. Bulk parameters, such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet light absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), were also analyzed. The results show that KMnO4 preoxidation caused the breakdown of high molecular weight (MW) organics into low MW organics...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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