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Disinfection by-product

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812243/a-two-stage-predictive-model-to-simultaneous-control-of-trihalomethanes-in-water-treatment-plants-and-distribution-systems-adaptability-to-treatment-processes
#1
Antonio Domínguez-Tello, Ana Arias-Borrego, Tamara García-Barrera, José Luis Gómez-Ariza
The trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and others disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed in drinking water by the reaction of chlorine with organic precursors contained in the source water, in two consecutive and linked stages, that starts at the treatment plant and continues in second stage along the distribution system (DS) by reaction of residual chlorine with organic precursors not removed. Following this approach, this study aimed at developing a two-stage empirical model for predicting the formation of TTHMs in the water treatment plant and subsequently their evolution along the water distribution system (WDS)...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811032/recent-advancements-and-future-trends-in-environmental-analysis-sample-preparation-liquid-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry
#2
REVIEW
Virginia Pérez-Fernández, Lucia Mainero Rocca, Pierpaolo Tomai, Salvatore Fanali, Alessandra Gentili
Among the thousands of chemicals having potential to enter the environment, the NORMAN network has identified at least 700 substances categorized into 20 classes in the European surface waters. Pesticides, pharmaceuticals, disinfection by-products, wood preservation and industrial chemicals are the prominent classes. Since the impact of these substances on aquatic life and human health might be dramatic, action is urgently required at multiple levels; one of them is just related to the development of more and more sensible and selective analytical methods...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792110/toxicity-of-extracts-from-municipal-wastewater-to-early-life-stages-of-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes-to-evaluate-removals-of-micropollutants-by-wastewater-treatment
#3
Nicholas Maya, Calvin Crispo, Victoria McFarland, Deniz Nasuhoglu, Siavash Isazadeh, Viviane Yargeau, Chris D Metcalfe
Treatment of municipal wastewater reduces the concentrations of some pharmaceuticals and personal care products, hormones and drugs of abuse. However, reduced concentrations of these micropollutants in wastewater may not correlate with reduced toxicity, as transformations of micropollutants and/or the formation of disinfection by-products may generate toxic compounds. In this study, we prepared extracts by solid phase extraction of samples collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) at various stages of treatment and tested these extracts for toxicity to early life stages of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792108/comprehensive-headspace-gas-chromatographic-analysis-of-denaturants-in-denatured-ethanol
#4
Niels van Boxtel, Kris Wolfs, Marta Guillén Palacín, Ann Van Schepdael, Erwin Adams
To discourage consumption, ethanol is often denatured using both volatile (e.g. methyl ethyl ketone and isopropanol) and non-volatile (e.g. denatonium benzoate) chemical substances. As a result, the analysis of denatured ethanol samples is usually performed by multiple techniques such as gas chromatography for the volatile denaturants and liquid chromatography for the non-volatile ones. However, the need for multiple techniques increases the cost of analysis and forms a severe obstruction for on-site product control...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774630/the-chlorination-transformation-characteristics-of-benzophenone-4-in-the-presence-of-iodide-ions
#5
Fan Yang, Dongbin Wei, Ming Xiao, Xuefeng Sun, Qiaorong Guo, Yi Liu, Yuguo Du
Benzophenone-type UV filters are a group of compounds widely used to protect human skin from damage of UV irradiation. Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) was targeted to explore its transformation behaviors during chlorination disinfection treatment in the presence of iodide ions. With the help of ultra performance liquid phase chromatograph and high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, totally fifteen halogenated products were identified, and five out of them were iodinated products. The transformation mechanisms of BP-4 involved electrophilic substitution generating mono- or di-halogenated products, which would be oxidized into esters and further hydrolyzed into phenolic derivatives...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774629/characterization-of-halogenated-dbps-and-identification-of-new-dbps-trihalomethanols-in-chlorine-dioxide-treated-drinking-water-with-multiple-extractions
#6
Jiarui Han, Xiangru Zhang, Jiaqi Liu, Xiaohu Zhu, Tingting Gong
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used alternative disinfectant due to its high biocidal efficiency and low-level formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. A major portion of total organic halogen (TOX), a collective parameter for all halogenated DBPs, formed in ClO2-treated drinking water is still unknown. A commonly used pretreatment method for analyzing halogenated DBPs in drinking water is one-time liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which may lead to a substantial loss of DBPs prior to analysis...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774627/cho-cell-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-analyses-of-disinfection-by-products-an-updated-review
#7
REVIEW
Elizabeth D Wagner, Michael J Plewa
The disinfection of drinking water is an important public health service that generates high quality, safe and palatable tap water. The disinfection of drinking water to reduce waterborne disease was an outstanding public health achievement of the 20th century. An unintended consequence is the reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants and bromide/iodide to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). A large number of DBPs are cytotoxic, neurotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774625/halogen-specific-total-organic-halogen-analysis-assessment-by-recovery-of-total-bromine
#8
Markus Langsa, Sebastien Allard, Ina Kristiana, Anna Heitz, Cynthia A Joll
Determination of halogen-specific total organic halogen (TOX) is vital for studies of disinfection of waters containing bromide, since total organic bromine (TOBr) is likely to be more problematic than total organic chlorine. Here, we present further halogen-specific TOX method optimisation and validation, focusing on measurement of TOBr. The optimised halogen-specific TOX method was validated based on the recovery of model compounds covering different classes of disinfection by-products (haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, halophenols and halogenated benzenes) and the recovery of total bromine (mass balance of TOBr and bromide concentrations) during disinfection of waters containing dissolved organic matter and bromide...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774623/control-of-aliphatic-halogenated-dbp-precursors-with-multiple-drinking-water-treatment-processes-formation-potential-and-integrated-toxicity
#9
Yimeng Zhang, Wenhai Chu, Dechang Yao, Daqiang Yin
The comprehensive control efficiency for the formation potentials (FPs) of a range of regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) (including carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs), nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs), and iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs)) with the multiple drinking water treatment processes, including pre-ozonation, conventional treatment (coagulation-sedimentation, pre-sand filtration), ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) advanced treatment, and post-sand filtration, was investigated. The potential toxic risks of DBPs by combing their FPs and toxicity values were also evaluated...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774621/zebrafish-embryo-toxicity-of-15-chlorinated-brominated-and-iodinated-disinfection-by-products
#10
David Hanigan, Lisa Truong, Michael Simonich, Robert Tanguay, Paul Westerhoff
Disinfection to protect human health occurs at drinking water and wastewater facilities through application of non-selective oxidants including chlorine. Oxidants also transform organic material and form disinfection by-products (DBPs), many of which are halogenated and cyto- and genotoxic. Only a handful of assays have been used to compare DBP toxicity, and researchers are unsure which DBP(s) drive the increased cancer risk associated with drinking chlorinated water. The most extensive data set employs an in vitro model cell, Chinese hamster ovary cells...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774619/total-organic-halogen-tox-in-human-urine-a-halogen-specific-method-for-human-exposure-studies
#11
Susana Y Kimura, Weiwei Zheng, Taylor N Hipp, Joshua M Allen, Susan D Richardson
Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are a complex mixture of compounds unintentionally formed as a result of disinfection processes used to treat drinking water. Effects of long-term exposure to DBPs are mostly unknown and were the subject of recent epidemiological studies. However, most bioanalytical methods focus on a select few DBPs. In this study, a new comprehensive bioanalytical method has been developed that can quantify mixtures of organic halogenated compounds, including DBPs, in human urine as total organic chlorine (TOCl), total organic bromine (TOBr), and total organic iodine (TOI)...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774618/showering-in-flint-mi-is-there-a-dbp-problem
#12
Joshua M Allen, Amy A Cuthbertson, Hannah K Liberatore, Susana Y Kimura, Anurag Mantha, Marc A Edwards, Susan D Richardson
Lead contamination in the City of Flint, MI has been well documented over the past two years, with lead levels above the EPA Action Level until summer 2016. This resulted from an ill-fated decision to switch from Detroit water (Lake Huron) with corrosion control, to Flint River water without corrosion control. Although lead levels are now closer to normal, reports of skin rashes have sparked questions surrounding tap water in some Flint homes. This study investigated the presence of contaminants, including disinfection by-products (DBPs), in the hot tap water used for showering in the homes of residents in Flint...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774616/gene-expression-changes-in-blood-rna-after-swimming-in-a-chlorinated-pool
#13
Lucas A Salas, Laia Font-Ribera, Mariona Bustamante, Lauro Sumoy, Joan O Grimalt, Sarah Bonnin, Maria Aguilar, Heidi Mattlin, Manuela Hummel, Anna Ferrer, Manolis Kogevinas, Cristina M Villanueva
Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THM) in swimming pools has been linked to adverse health effects in humans, but their biological mechanisms are unclear. We evaluated short-term changes in blood gene expression of adult recreational swimmers after swimming in a chlorinated pool. Volunteers swam 40min in an indoor chlorinated pool. Blood samples were drawn and four THM (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) were measured in exhaled breath before and after swimming...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774614/investigation-of-nuclear-enzyme-topoisomerase-as-a-putative-molecular-target-of-monohaloacetonitrile-disinfection-by-products
#14
Yukako Komaki, Michael J Plewa
Disinfection by-products occur widely as the unintended effect of water disinfection and are associated with toxicity and adverse human health effects. Yet the molecular mechanisms of their toxicity are not well understood. To investigate the molecular basis of hyperploidy induction by monohaloacetonitriles, the interaction of monohaloacetonitriles with topoisomerase II in Chinese hamster ovary cells was examined. We showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA decatenation activity of topoisomerase under acellular conditions while in vitro monohaloacetonitrile treatment expressed mixed results...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774611/tic-tox-a-preliminary-discussion-on-identifying-the-forcing-agents-of-dbp-mediated-toxicity-of-disinfected-water
#15
Michael J Plewa, Elizabeth D Wagner, Susan D Richardson
The disinfection of drinking water is a major public health achievement; however, an unintended consequence of disinfection is the generation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Many of the identified DBPs exhibit in vitro and in vivo toxicity, generate a diversity of adverse biological effects, and may be hazards to the public health and the environment. Only a few DBPs are regulated by several national and international agencies and it is not clear if these regulated DBPs are the forcing agents that drive the observed toxicity and their associated health effects...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774610/organic-chloramines-in-chlorine-based-disinfected-water-systems-a-critical-review
#16
REVIEW
Zuo Tong How, Ina Kristiana, Francesco Busetti, Kathryn L Linge, Cynthia A Joll
This paper is a critical review of current knowledge of organic chloramines in water systems, including their formation, stability, toxicity, analytical methods for detection, and their impact on drinking water treatment and quality. The term organic chloramines may refer to any halogenated organic compounds measured as part of combined chlorine (the difference between the measured free and total chlorine concentrations), and may include N-chloramines, N-chloramino acids, N-chloraldimines and N-chloramides...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774608/occurrence-and-formation-of-disinfection-by-products-in-the-swimming-pool-environment-a-critical-review
#17
REVIEW
Rhys A A Carter, Cynthia A Joll
Disinfection of water for human use is essential to protect against microbial disease; however, disinfection also leads to formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are of health concern. From a chemical perspective, swimming pools are a complex matrix, with continual addition of a wide range of natural and anthropogenic chemicals via filling waters, disinfectant addition, pharmaceuticals and personal care products and human body excretions. Natural organic matter, trace amounts of DBPs and chlorine or chloramines may be introduced by the filling water, which is commonly disinfected distributed drinking water...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774607/case-study-approach-to-modeling-historical-disinfection-by-product-exposure-in-iowa-drinking-waters
#18
Stuart W Krasner, Kenneth P Cantor, Peter J Weyer, Mariana Hildesheim, Gary Amy
In the 1980s, a case-control epidemiologic study was conducted in Iowa (USA) to analyze the association between exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) and bladder cancer risk. Trihalomethanes (THMs), the most commonly measured and dominant class of DBPs in drinking water, served as a primary metric and surrogate for the full DBP mixture. Average THM exposure was calculated, based on rough estimates of past levels in Iowa. To reduce misclassification, a follow-up study was undertaken to improve estimates of past THM levels and to re-evaluate their association with cancer risk...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774606/the-impact-of-iodinated-x-ray-contrast-agents-on-formation-and-toxicity-of-disinfection-by-products-in-drinking-water
#19
Clara H Jeong, Edward J Machek, Morteza Shakeri, Stephen E Duirk, Thomas A Ternes, Susan D Richardson, Elizabeth D Wagner, Michael J Plewa
The presence of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) in source waters is of high concern to public health because of their potential to generate highly toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of ICM in source waters and the type of disinfectant on the overall toxicity of DBP mixtures and to determine which ICM and reaction conditions give rise to toxic by-products. Source waters collected from Akron, OH were treated with five different ICMs, including iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, diatrizoate and iomeprol, with or without chlorine or chloramine disinfection...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774605/concentrations-of-disinfection-by-products-in-swimming-pool-following-modifications-of-the-water-treatment-process-an-exploratory-study
#20
Robert Tardif, Manuel Rodriguez, Cyril Catto, Ginette Charest-Tardif, Sabrina Simard
The formation and concentration of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in pool water and the ambient air vary according to the type of water treatment process used. This exploratory study was aimed at investigating the short-term impact of modifications of the water treatment process on traditional DBP levels (e.g., trihalomethanes (THMs), chloramines) and emerging DBPs (e.g., Halonitromethanes, Haloketones, NDMA) in swimming pool water and/or air. A sampling program was carried to understand the impact of the following changes made successively to the standard water treatment process: activation of ultraviolet (UV) photoreactor, halt of air stripping with continuation of air extraction from the buffer tank, halt of air stripping and suppression of air extraction from the buffer tank, suppression of the polyaluminium silicate sulfate (PASS) coagulant...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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