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Disinfection by-product

Lap-Cuong Hua, Jr-Lin Lin, Ming-Yang Syue, Chihpin Huang, Pei-Chung Chen
Algogenic organic matter (AOM) in eutrophic waters is a well-known precursor to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in drinking water. This purpose of this study is (i) to characterize the optical properties of AOM origins, including intra- (IOM) and extra-cellular organic matter (EOM), derived from Chlorella sp. growth as precursors to two major carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs), trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) and (ii) to correlate these optical properties with THM and HAA formation potential (FP) in order to predict DBP formation...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
R Olsen, E Kudirkiene, I Thøfner, S Pors, P Karlskov-Mortensen, L Li, S Papasolomontos, C Angastiniotou, J Christensen
Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Dmitry S Kosyakov, Nikolay V Ul'yanovskii, Mark S Popov, Tomas B Latkin, Albert T Lebedev
An array of similar halogenated nitrogen-containing compounds with elemental composition CnH2nNO2X, CnH2n-2NO2X and CnH2n-1NOX2 (X = Cl, Br; n = 16, 18, 22) was detected in drinking water with high performance liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) method. Compounds of this type were never mentioned among disinfection by-products. Tandem mass spectrometry allowed referring them to halohydrines or dihalogenated fatty amides, the products of conjugated electrophilic addition of halogens to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty amides...
October 6, 2017: Water Research
Limor Nizri, Dalit Vaizel-Ohayon, Hila Ben-Amram, Yehonatan Sharaby, Malka Halpern, Hadas Mamane
We established a molecular method for quantifying ultraviolet (UV) disinfection efficacy using total bacterial DNA in a water sample. To evaluate UV damage to the DNA, we developed the "DNA damage" factor, which is a novel cultivation-independent approach that reveals UV-exposure efficiency by applying a simple PCR amplification method. The study's goal was to prove the feasibility of this method for demonstrating the efficiency of UV systems in the field using flow-through UV reactors. In laboratory-based experiments using seeded bacteria, the DNA damage tests demonstrated a good correlation between PCR products and UV dose...
October 10, 2017: Water Research
Qiwan Chai, Allen Hu, Yukun Qian, Xiuwei Ao, Wenjun Liu, Hongwei Yang, Yuefeng F Xie
Effluents before disinfection from four wastewater reclamation plants were treated with chlorine (Cl2), ozone (O3), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), medium-pressure ultraviolet (MPUV) and four different combinations of the above, to evaluate the effect of disinfection processes on the genotoxicity removal by the SOS/umu test. Results showed that the genotoxicity increased after MPUV irradiation (10-100 mJ/cm(2)), but declined when adopting other disinfection processes. The effectiveness of genotoxicity reduction by five chemical disinfectants was identified as: O3 > pre-ozonation with Cl2 ≈ ClO2 > combination of ClO2 and Cl2 > Cl2...
October 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Violet V Bumah, Daniela S Masson-Meyers, Janis T Eells, Carol J Hirschmugl, Chukuka S Enwemeka
Disinfectants and biocidal products have been widely used to combat Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in homes and healthcare environments. Although disruption of cytoplasmic membrane integrity has been documented as the main bactericidal effect of biocides, little is known about the biochemical alterations induced by these chemical agents. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools as an alternative non-destructive technique to determine the bactericidal effects of commonly used disinfectants against MRSA USA-300...
2017: PloS One
Bi Xu, Kuixiao Li, Juan Qiao, Zhiqi Liungai, Chao Chen, Yun Lu
As one of the most oestrogenic synthetic compounds in water environment, diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been studied for decades. Some studies showed that DES can be removed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. However, no one has paid attention to the formation of oestrogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the persistence of DES in surface water remains a mystery. In this study, UV was found to be very effective in removing oestrogenic activity regardless of water quality. Three oestrogenic DBPs were specifically isolated by oestrogen receptor-based affinity chromatography and identified as 9,10-diethylphenanthrene-3,6-diol, cis-DES and Z,Z-dienestrol...
October 3, 2017: Water Research
Xinyan Yu, Yue Xu, Yu Gu, Yefei Zhu, Xiaoqiu Liu
Bacteriophage PAXYB1 was recently isolated from wastewater samples. This phage was chosen based on its lytic properties against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). In the present study, characterized PAXYB1, clarified its morphological and lytic properties, and analyzed its complete genome sequence. Based on the morphology of PAXYB1, it is a Podoviridae. The linear GC-rich (62.29%) double-stranded DNA genome of PAXYB1 is 43,337 bp including direct terminal repeats (DTRs) of 468 bp...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
John A Kaufman, J Michael Wright, Amanda Evans, Zorimar Rivera-Núñez, Amy Meyer, Michael G Narotsky
OBJECTIVE: Examine associations between craniofacial birth defects (CFDs) and disinfection by-product (DBP) exposures, including the sum of four trihalomethanes (THM4) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) (i.e., DBP9). METHODS: We calculated first trimester adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for different DBPs in a matched case-control study of 366 CFD cases in Massachusetts towns with complete 1999-2004 THM and HAA data. RESULTS: We detected elevated aORs for cleft palate with DBP9 (highest quintile aOR = 3...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Thomas Caspari, James Dyer, Nathalie Fenner, Christian Dunn, Chris Freeman
Chlorination of drinking water protects humans from water-born pathogens, but it also produces low concentrations of dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), a common disinfectant by-product found in many water supply systems. DBAN is not mutagenic but causes DNA breaks and elevates sister chromatid exchange in mammalian cells. The WHO issued guidelines for DBAN after it was linked with cancer of the liver and stomach in rodents. How this haloacetonitrile promotes malignant cell transformation is unknown. Using fission yeast as a model, we report here that DBAN delays G1-S transition...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
María Serrano, Mercedes Gallego, Manuel Silva
Volatile aldehydes appear in canned vegetables as constituents and some of them can also be present as disinfection by-products (DBPs) because of the contact between vegetables and treated water. This paper describes two static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS) methods to determine 15 aldehydes in both the solid and the liquid phases of canned vegetables. The treatment for both phases of samples was carried out simultaneously into an SHS unit, including the leaching of the aldehydes (from the vegetable), their derivatization and volatilization of the oximes formed...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Mika Sillanpää, Mohamed Chaker Ncibi, Anu Matilainen, Mikko Vepsäläinen
Natural organic matter (NOM) is a complex matrix of organic substances produced in (or channeled to) aquatic ecosystems via various biological, geological and hydrological cycles. Such variability is posing a serious challenge to most water treatment technologies, especially the ones designed to treat drinking water supplies. Lately, in addition to the fluctuating composition of NOM, a substantial increase of its concentration in fresh waters, and also municipal wastewater effluents, has been reported worldwide, which justifies the urgent need to develop highly efficient and versatile water treatment processes...
September 25, 2017: Chemosphere
M A C Wilkinson, K Ormandy, C R Bradley, J Hines
BACKGROUND: Hand rubs containing alcohols such as isopropanol (IPA) or ethanol (EtOH) are widely used for hygienic hand disinfection and are presented in different formats i.e. liquid, gel or foam. AIM: This study was designed to determine if there is any difference in efficacy between these two active ingredients in the three formats. In addition, an assessment of the drying time was carried out. Two non-commercial, 'standard' formulations were tested in each format, one containing 60% IPA, the other 80% EtOH...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
Ziqiang Yin, Michael Hoffmann, Sunny Jiang
Electrical heating has been proposed as a potential method for pathogen inactivation in human waste sludge, especially in decentralized wastewater treatment systems. In this study, we investigated the heat production and E. coli inactivation in wastewater sludge using electrical thermal treatment. Various concentrations of NaCl and NH4Cl were tested as electrolyte to enhance conductivity in sludge mixtures. At same voltage input (18V), sludge treated with direct current (DC) exhibited slower ascent of temperature and lower energy efficiencies for heat production comparing to that using alternate current (AC)...
September 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
An-Qi Wang, Yi-Li Lin, Bin Xu, Chen-Yan Hu, Min-Sheng Zhang, Sheng-Ji Xia, Tian-Yang Zhang, Wen-Hai Chu, Nai-Yun Gao
Acrylamide is a monomer of polyacrylamide, which is widely used in the water treatment process as a flocculant. The degradation kinetics and formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during acrylamide chlorination were investigated in this study. The reaction between chlorine and acrylamide followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. A kinetic model regarding acrylamide chlorination was established and the rate constants of each predominant elementary reaction (i.e., the base-catalyzed reaction of acrylamide with ClO(-) as well as the reactions of acrylamide with HOCl and ClO(-)) were calculated as 7...
September 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Patricia P Wright, Bill Kahler, Laurence J Walsh
Endodontic irrigating solutions may interact chemically with one another. This is important, because even when solutions are not admixed, they will come into contact with one another during an alternating irrigation technique, forming unwanted by-products, which may be toxic or irritant. Mixing or alternating irrigants can also reduce their ability to clean and disinfect the root canal system of teeth by changing their chemical structure with subsequent loss of the active agent, or by inducing precipitate formation in the root canal system...
September 29, 2017: Materials
Rahul Kumar, Lokesh P Padhye
This annual review covers the literature published in 2016 on topics related to the occurrence and fate of emerging environmental pollutants in wastewater. Due to the vast amount of literature published on this topic, we have discussed only a portion of the quality research publications, due to limitation of space. The abstract search was carried out using Web of Science, and the abstracts were selected based on their relevance. In few cases, fulltext articles were referred to better understand new findings...
October 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Kelly D Good, Jeanne M VanBriesen
Coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have been implicated in increasing bromide levels and subsequent increases in disinfection byproducts at downstream drinking water plants. Bromide was not included as a regulated constituent in the recent steam electric effluent limitations guidelines and standards (ELGs) since the U.S. EPA analysis suggested few drinking water facilities would be affected by bromide discharges from power plants. The present analysis uses a watershed approach to identify Pennsylvania drinking water intakes downstream of wet FGD discharges and to assess the potential for bromide discharge effects...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Runmiao Xue, Honglan Shi, Yinfa Ma, John Yang, Bin Hua, Enos C Inniss, Craig D Adams, Todd Eichholz
Free chlorine is a commonly used disinfectant in drinking water treatment. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed during water disinfection. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) are two major groups of DBPs. Iodo-HAAs and iodo-THMs (I-HAAs and I-THMs) are formed during the disinfection of the water containing high levels of iodide and are much more toxic than their chlorinated and brominated analogs. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a strong antimicrobial disinfectant that is expected to reduce the formation of HAAs and THMs during disinfection...
September 15, 2017: Chemosphere
Shuai Wang, Tao Lin, Wei Chen, Han Chen
The process parameters of the up-flow biological activated carbon filter (UBACF) were optimized in a pilot-scale trial for controlling the precursor of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), an emerging nitrogenous disinfection by-product. The experiments were performed using a central composite design (CCD) with the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the removal efficiencies of formation potentials (FP) of DCAN increased from 28.9% to 64.4% with the optimized ozone dose, expansion rate of BAC and backwashing cycle, being scheduled to 1...
September 15, 2017: Chemosphere
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