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Disinfection by-product

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334666/bio-refractory-dissolved-organic-matter-and-colorants-in-cassava-distillery-wastewater-characterization-coagulation-treatment-and-mechanisms
#1
Ming Zhang, Zhou Wang, Penghui Li, Hua Zhang, Li Xie
An important portion of organic matter and colorants still remain in the biologically treated distillery wastewater, leaving the dark brown and odorous downstream with the heavy loading of chemical oxygen demand and the potential of forming disinfection byproducts. However, those bio-recalcitrant colorants have not been clearly recognized. The current study investigated the features of the bio-refractory organic matter and colorants in a typical distillery effluent, cassava distillery wastewater; special attention was paid to their change and behaviors in the coagulation treatment following the bio-processes...
March 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324709/improvement-of-virus-removal-using-ultrafiltration-membranes-modified-with-grafted-zwitterionic-polymer-hydrogels
#2
Ruiqing Lu, Chang Zhang, Maria Piatkovsky, Mathias Ulbricht, Moshe Herzberg, Thanh H Nguyen
Potable water reuse has been adopted by cities suffering water scarcity in recent years. The microbial safety in water reuse, especially with respect to pathogenic viruses, is still a concern for water consumers. Membrane filtration can achieve sufficient removal of pathogenic viruses without disinfection byproducts, but the required energy is intensive. In this study, we graft-polymerized zwitterionic SPP ([3-(methacryloylamino) propyl] dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) on a 150 kDa ultrafiltration polyethersulfone membrane to achieve a significantly higher virus removal...
March 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324708/removal-of-haloacetic-acids-from-swimming-pool-water-by-reverse-osmosis-and-nanofiltration
#3
Linyan Yang, Qianhong She, Man Pun Wan, Rong Wang, Victor W-C Chang, Chuyang Y Tang
Recent studies report high concentrations of haloacetic acids (HAAs), a prevalent class of toxic disinfection by-products, in swimming pool water (SPW). We investigated the removal of 9 HAAs by four commercial reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Under typical SPW conditions (pH 7.5 and 50 mM ionic strength), HAA rejections were >60% for NF270 with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) equal to 266 Da and equal or higher than 90% for XLE, NF90 and SB50 with MWCOs of 96, 118 and 152 Da, respectively, as a result of the combined effects of size exclusion and charge repulsion...
March 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319884/sodium-chlorate-induces-dna-damage-and-dna-protein-cross-linking-in-rat-intestine-a-dose-dependent-study
#4
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Hussain Arif, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is widely used in paper and pulp industries and as a non-selective herbicide. It is also a major by-product generated upon disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. In this study, we have investigated the genotoxicity of NaClO3 on the small intestine of rats. Adult male rats were divided into 5 groups: one control and four NaClO3 treated groups. The NaClO3 treated groups were given a single acute oral dose of NaClO3 (100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed 24 h later...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314125/impact-of-chitosan-and-polyacrylamide-on-formation-of-carbonaceous-and-nitrogenous-disinfection-by-products
#5
Zhao Li, Ting Chen, Fuyi Cui, Yuefeng Xie, Wenqing Xu
Coagulation is one of the most commonly used practices in water treatment to remove natural organic matter, which can serve as precursors for disinfection by-products (DBPs). Furthermore, some coagulant aids, particularly amine-based polymers, could foster the formation of both carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs (C-DBPs and N-DBPs, respectively). In this study, we evaluated the formation potentials of 11 C-DBPs and N-DBPs during chloramination when two coagulant aids, chitosan and polyacrylamide (PAM), were used under typical water treatment conditions...
March 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303128/a-high-throughput-screening-platform-of-microbial-natural-products-for-the-discovery-of-molecules-with-antibiofilm-properties-against-salmonella
#6
Sonia Paytubi, Mercedes de La Cruz, Jose R Tormo, Jesús Martín, Ignacio González, Victor González-Menendez, Olga Genilloud, Fernando Reyes, Francisca Vicente, Cristina Madrid, Carlos Balsalobre
In this report, we describe a High-Throughput Screening (HTS) to identify compounds that inhibit biofilm formation or cause the disintegration of an already formed biofilm using the Salmonella Enteritidis 3934 strain. Initially, we developed a new methodology for growing Salmonella biofilms suitable for HTS platforms. The biomass associated with biofilm at the solid-liquid interface was quantified by staining both with resazurin and crystal violet, to detect living cells and total biofilm mass, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302307/bromine-incorporation-into-five-dbp-classes-upon-chlorination-of-water-with-extremely-low-suva-values
#7
Huachang Hong, Xiaoqing Yan, Xuhui Song, Yanyan Qin, Hongjie Sun, Hongjun Lin, Jianrong Chen, Yan Liang
The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of disinfection conditions on bromine incorporation into disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of water with low specific UV absorbance (SUVA). Five classes of DBPs were included: trihalomethanes (THMs), dihaloacetic acids (di-HAAs), trihaloacetic acids (tri-HAAs), dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs) and trihalonitromethanes (THNMs). Results showed that the bromine utilization in DBPs formation was positive related with reaction time, pH and temperature...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296395/chlorination-of-amino-acids-reaction-pathways-and-reaction-rates
#8
Zuo Tong How, Kathryn Linge, Francesco Busetti, Cynthia A Joll
Chlorination of amino acids can result in the formation of organic monochloramines or organic dichloramines, depending on the chlorine to amino acid ratio (Cl:AA). After formation, organic chloramines degrade into aldehydes, nitriles and N-chloraldimines. In this paper, the formation of organic chloramines from chlorination of lysine, tyrosine and valine were investigated. Chlorination of tyrosine and lysine demonstrated that the presence of a reactive secondary group can increase the Cl:AA ratio required for the formation of N,N-dichloramines, and potentially alter the reaction pathways between chlorine and amino acids, resulting in the formation of unexpected by-products...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292679/evaluation-of-cytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-apoptosis-of-wastewater-before-and-after-disinfection-with-performic-acid
#9
Patrizia Ragazzo, Donatella Feretti, Silvano Monarca, Luca Dominici, Elisabetta Ceretti, Gaia Viola, Valentina Piccolo, Nicoletta Chiucchini, Milena Villarini
Disinfection with performic acid (PFA) represents an emerging technology in wastewater treatment. Many recent studies indicate its effectiveness and suitability as a disinfectant for different applications; several have demonstrated its reliability as an alternative to chlorine for disinfecting secondary effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Some disinfection technologies, in relation to their oxidative power, lead to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are of concern for their toxic and carcinogenic potential...
March 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286083/water-quality-compliance-and-health-outcomes-among-utilities-implementing-water-safety-plans-in-france-and-spain
#10
Karen E Setty, Georgia L Kayser, Michael Bowling, Jerome Enault, Jean-Francois Loret, Claudia Puigdomenech Serra, Jordi Martin Alonso, Arnau Pla Mateu, Jamie Bartram
Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, seek to proactively identify potential risks to drinking water supplies and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. To evaluate the outcomes of WSP application in large drinking water systems in France and Spain, we undertook analysis of water quality and compliance indicators between 2003 and 2015, in conjunction with an observational retrospective cohort study of acute gastroenteritis incidence, before and after WSPs were implemented at five locations...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284551/characterization-of-the-reactivity-and-chlorinated-products-of-carbazole-during-aqueous-chlorination
#11
Xiong Xu, Donghong Wang, Chunmei Li, Hongru Feng, Zijian Wang
Carbazole in source water is a potential precursor for toxic chlorocarbazoles in drinking water when chlorine is used as a disinfection agent in drinking water treatment plants. However, the reactivity of carbazole and the specific structures and predominant analogues of chlorocarbazoles produced during aqueous chlorination remain unknown. In this study, the aqueous chlorination of carbazole was performed to characterize its reactivity and the chlorinated products. Chlorocarbazoles generated from carbazole were identified by a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, and their molecular structures were predicted by the Fukui index of electrophilic attack, f(-1)(r)...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261951/susceptibility-to-disinfectants-in-antimicrobial-resistant-and-susceptible-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-from-poultry-esbl-ampc-phenotype-of-escherichia-coli-is-not-associated-with-resistance-to-a-quaternary-ammonium
#12
Nadine Wieland, Julia Boss, Sarah Lettmann, Barbara Fritz, Karin Schwaiger, Johann Bauer, Christina S Hölzel
AIMS: The spread of bacteria that are simultaneously resistant to disinfectants and antimicrobials would constitute an unsettling scenario. In order to explore an association between antimicrobial resistance and reduced susceptibility to biocides / microbicides like disinfectants in agriculture, we investigated Escherichia (E.) coli (n = 438) and enterococci (n = 120) isolated from six different flocks of the same poultry farm with known history of antimicrobial treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Susceptibility to disinfectants (formic acid and a quaternary ammonium compound, didecyldimethlyammoniumchloride - DDAC) was assessed by macrodilution (German Veterinary Society)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258225/antimicrobial-resistance-in-healthcare-agriculture-and-the-environment-the-biochemistry-behind-the-headlines
#13
REVIEW
Henrietta Venter, Michael L Henningsen, Stephanie L Begg
The crisis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most serious issues facing us today. The scale of the problem is illustrated by the recent commitment of Heads of State at the UN to coordinate efforts to curb the spread of AMR infections. In this review, we explore the biochemistry behind the headlines of a few stories that were recently published in the public media. We focus on examples from three different issues related to AMR: (i) hospital-acquired infections, (ii) the spread of resistance through animals and/or the environment and (iii) the role of antimicrobial soaps and other products containing disinfectants in the dissemination of AMR...
February 28, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252454/ingested-nitrate-disinfection-by-products-and-kidney-cancer-risk-in-older-women
#14
Rena R Jones, Peter J Weyer, Curt T Dellavalle, Kim Robien, Kenneth P Cantor, Stuart Krasner, Laura E Beane Freeman, Mary H Ward
BACKGROUND: N-nitroso compounds formed endogenously after nitrate/nitrite ingestion are animal renal carcinogens. Previous epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate did not evaluate other potentially toxic water contaminants, including the suspected renal carcinogen chloroform. METHODS: In a cohort of postmenopausal women in Iowa (1986-2010), we used historical measurements to estimate long-term average concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and disinfection byproducts (DBP) in public water supplies...
March 1, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248086/mass-spectrometry-identification-of-n-chlorinated-dipeptides-in-drinking-water
#15
Guang Huang, Ping Jiang, Xing-Fang Li
We report the identification of N-chlorinated dipeptides as chlorination products in drinking water using complementary high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry techniques. First, three model dipeptides, tyrosylglycine (Tyr-Gly), tyrosylalanine (Tyr-Ala), and phenylalanylglycine (Phe-Gly), reacted with sodium hypochlorite, and these reaction solutions were analyzed by QTOF. N-Cl-Tyr-Gly, N,N-di-Cl-Tyr-Gly, N-Cl-Phe-Gly, N,N-di-Cl-Phe-Gly, N-Cl-Tyr-Ala, and N,N-di-Cl-Tyr-Ala were identified as the major products based on accurate masses, (35)Cl/(37)Cl isotopic patterns, and MS/MS spectra...
March 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238434/formation-of-known-and-unknown-disinfection-by-products-from-natural-organic-matter-fractions-during-chlorination-chloramination-and-ozonation
#16
Chunmei Li, Donghong Wang, Xiong Xu, Zijian Wang
Natural organic matter (NOM) is the main precursor of disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment processes. Previous studies of the relationships between DBP formation and NOM fractionation have mainly been focused on currently regulated DBPs and a few certain emerging DBPs. In this work, the Suwannee River NOM solution was fractionated into groups with different hydrophobicities using DAX-8 resins, and volatile and semi-volatile DBPs formed during the chlorination, chloramination and ozonation of the NOM fractions were examined by a nontargeted screening of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry procedure...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238378/behavior-of-non-regulated-disinfection-by-products-in-water-following-multiple-chlorination-points-during-treatment
#17
Alain Marcoux, Geneviève Pelletier, Christelle Legay, Christian Bouchard, Manuel J Rodriguez
In this study, the behavior of regulated (trihalomethanes-THMs, haloacetic acids-HAAs) and non-regulated (haloacetonitriles-HANs, haloketones-HKs, chloropicrin-CPK) disinfection by-products (DBPs) was investigated during treatment and distribution in a municipal drinking water system that adds chlorine at multiple points within the water treatment plant (WTP). Three to eight locations in the WTP and four locations in the distribution network were sampled weekly for DBP measurements during the warmest period of the year...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237594/efficacy-of-a-high-free-iodine-barrier-teat-disinfectant-for-the-prevention-of-naturally-occurring-new-intramammary-infections-and-clinical-mastitis-in-dairy-cows
#18
C M M R Martins, E S C Pinheiro, M Gentilini, M Lopez Benavides, M V Santos
Using a natural exposure trial design, the goal of our study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an iodine teat disinfectant with barrier properties and a high level of free iodine relative to a conventional iodine teat disinfectant with no barrier properties and low levels of free iodine. During the 18 wk of the trial, quarter milk samples were collected every 2 wk from 385 dairy cows from 2 herds. Cows on both farms were assigned in a balanced way according to milk yield, number of lactation, days in milk, somatic cell count (SCC) and microbiology culture pretrial into one of following groups: nonbarrier post milking teat disinfectant (NBAR; n = 195 cows; 747 quarters) or barrier postmilking teat disinfectant (BAR; n = 190 cows; 728 quarters)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236114/methyl-triclosan-and-triclosan-impact-embryonic-development-of-danio-rerio-and-paracentrotus-lividus
#19
Sofia Macedo, Tiago Torres, Miguel M Santos
The presence of emerging pollutants in the environment is of major concern not only because of the potential negative impact in human health, but also due to the potential toxicity to non-target organisms. Within the personal and care products (PCPs), the disinfectant Triclosan (TCS) is one of the most concerning compounds. Once in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), a small part of TCS can be biotransformed into a more persistent by-product: methyl-triclosan (M-TCS). Although several studies have focused on the occurrence of this compound in the water systems, the information on its toxicity to aquatic organisms is very limited...
February 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235562/urate-oxidase-produced-by-lucilia-sericata-medical-maggots-is-localized-in-malpighian-tubes-and-facilitates-allantoin-production
#20
Andre Baumann, Marisa Skaljac, Rüdiger Lehmann, Andreas Vilcinskas, Zdenӗk Franta
Lucilia sericata maggots are the only species currently approved for maggot debridement therapy (MDT), an alternative treatment for chronic and recalcitrant wounds. Maggots promote wound debridement, disinfection and healing by producing a complex mixture of proteins, peptides and low-molecular-weight compounds in their secretions and excretions, but the individual components are not well characterized at the molecular level. Here we investigated the purine catabolism pathway in L. sericata, focusing on the production of allantoin by Urate Oxidase (UO), which is thought to promote wound healing...
February 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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