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Liver regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528267/using-mri-to-non-invasively-and-accurately-quantify-preoperative-hepatic-steatosis
#1
Callisia N Clarke, Haesun Choi, Ping Hou, Catherine H Davis, Jingfei Ma, Asif Rashid, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Thomas A Aloia
BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic has significantly increased the incidence and severity of hepatic steatosis in liver surgery patients and liver donors, potentially impacting postoperative liver regeneration and function. Development of a non-invasive means to quantify hepatic steatosis would facilitate selection of candidates for liver resection and transplant donation. METHODS: An IRB-approved protocol prospectively enrolled 28 patients with liver tumors requiring hepatic resection...
May 17, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523536/microenvironment-of-liver-regeneration-in-liver-cancer
#2
Han-Min Li, Zhi-Hua Ye
The occurrence and development of liver cancer are essentially the most serious outcomes of uncontrolled liver regeneration. The progression of liver cancer is inevitably related to the abnormal microenvironment of liver regeneration. The deterioration observed in the microenvironment of liver regeneration is a necessary condition for the occurrence, development and metastasis of cancer. Therefore, the use of a technique to prevent and treat liver cancer via changes in the microenvironment of liver regeneration is a novel strategy...
May 18, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517024/treatment-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-past-present-and-future
#3
REVIEW
Nicolas Lanthier, Peter Stärkel
Alcoholic hepatitis manifests as a clinical syndrome characterized by recent jaundice and liver function deterioration in an actively drinking patient. The principal cause of alcoholic hepatitis is alcoholic steatohepatitis defined histologically by the coexistence of steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning and satellitosis. While non-severe alcoholic hepatitis usually responds to alcohol abstinence, severe alcoholic hepatitis, identified by Maddrey scoring ≥ 32, has a bad prognosis and is traditionally treated by a 28-day course of prednisone therapy...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516292/limax-test-improves-diagnosis-of-chemotherapy-associated-liver-injury-before-resection-of-colorectal-liver-metastases
#4
Johan F Lock, Tilman Westphal, Tom Rubin, Maciej Malinowski, Antje Schulz, Maximilian Jara, Jan Bednarsch, Martin Stockmann
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) prior to liver resection implies the risk of chemotherapy-associated liver injury, leading to increased postoperative morbidity and mortality OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the LiMAx (liver maximum capacity) test for diagnosis of chemotherapy-associated liver injury. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with CLMs, prior to liver resection. We performed preoperative assessment of liver function using biochemical parameters and the LiMAx test...
May 17, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515912/accelerated-carcinogenesis-following-liver-resection-in-chronically-inflamed-livers-a-window-of-opportunity-for-treatment
#5
Amir Sonnenblick, Tamar Zahavi
The long-term prognosis following resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unsatisfactory as a result of a high incidence of recurrence. Prevention of recurrence is the most important strategy to improve the long-term survival results. The role of hepatectomy itself, as an accelerator of carcinogenesis, has not been adequately evaluated in HCC patients. Studies in animal models have revealed a link between liver regeneration under chronic inflammation and hepatic tumorigenesis. Inhibiting different signal transduction pathways during liver regeneration without compromising the ability of the liver to regenerate appears to be a rational strategy and may decrease HCC development and recurrence...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515843/emerging-concepts-in-alcoholic-hepatitis
#6
REVIEW
Phoenix Fung, Nikolaos Pyrsopoulos
Severe alcoholic hepatitis is implicated as a costly, worldwide public health issue with high morbidity and mortality. The one-month survival for severe alcoholic hepatitis is low with mortality rates high as 30%-50%. Abstinence from alcohol is the recommended first-line treatment. Although corticosteroids remain as the current evidence based option for selected patients with discriminant function > 32, improvement of short-term survival rate may be the only benefit. Identification of individuals with risk factors for the development of severe alcoholic hepatitis may provide insight to the diverse clinical spectrum and prognosis of the disease...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515388/nitric-oxide-is-critical-for-avoiding-hepatic-lipid-overloading-via-il6-induction-during-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-mice
#7
Yue Yu, Miho Tamai, Yoh-Ichi Tagawa
Nitric oxide (NO), generated from L-arginine by three different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is a pleiotropic factor to regulate physiological functions in almost every organ and tissue. Each knockout mouse of iNOS or eNOS has been used to suggest that NO has a crucial role in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH), for NO may inhibit caspase 3 activity and is required for EGFR signaling. In previous reports, defective mitochondrial β-oxidation was observed in eNOS KO mice, and hepatic steatosis was often correlated to deficient liver regeneration, so we focused on metabolic perspective and hypothesized that NO depletion in PH mice would affect hepatocytic lipolysis and impair hepatocytes proliferation...
May 18, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510115/application-of-decellularized-tissue-scaffolds-in-ovarian-tissue-transplantation
#8
Enes Taylan, Kutluk Oktay
In tissue engineering, decellularized scaffolds have been proved to have remarkable capacity to promote regeneration in various organs such as kidney, heart, lung, and liver. Marrying the field of cryobiology and reproductive medicine resulted in considerable progress and breakthroughs, which led to the emergence of ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation as a promising option for fertility preservation. Here we describe an innovative application of decellularized tissue scaffolds as a regenerative platform for reconstruction of ovarian grafts for auto-transplantation...
May 17, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507071/characterization-of-the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-lmprl-1-secreted-by-leishmania-major-via-the-exosome-pathway
#9
Sabine Leitherer, Joachim Clos, Elisabeth M Liebler-Tenorio, Ulrike Schleicher, Christian Bogdan, Didier Soulat
Similar to other intracellular pathogens, Leishmania parasites are known to evade the antimicrobial effector functions of host immune cells. To date, however, only few virulence factors have been described for Leishmania (L.) major, one of the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, we characterized the expression and function of a L. major phosphatase which we termed LmPRL-1. This enzyme shows a strong structural similarity to the human phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRL-1, -2, and -3) that are regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of cells...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506765/augmenter-of-liver-regeneration-alr-exhibits-a-dual-signaling-impact-on-hepatic-acute-phase-response
#10
Rania Dayoub, Leonhard Buerger, Sara Ibrahim, Michael Melter, Thomas S Weiss
The acute-phase response (APR) is an inflammatory process triggered mainly by IL-6 in response to neoplasm, tissue injury, infection or inflammation. Signaling of IL-6 is transduced by activating STAT3 which rapidly results in production of acute-phase proteins (APPs) such as fibrinogen β (FGB) and haptoglobin (HP). Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a hepatotrophic factor supporting liver regeneration, was reported to be upregulated after liver damage. In this study we analyzed the role of ALR for IL-6 signaling and APR...
May 12, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506372/hepatic-progenitor-cells-an-update
#11
REVIEW
Matthias Van Haele, Tania Roskams
Liver regeneration is a fascinating and complex process with many medical implications. An important component of this regenerative process is the hepatic progenitor cell (HPC). These appealing cells are able to participate in the renewal of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes when the normal homeostatic regeneration is exhausted. Moreover, the HPC niche is of vital importance toward the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of the HPC. This niche provides a rich microenvironment for the regulation of the HPC, thanks to the intercellular secretion of molecules...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501476/endothelial-cells-are-not-required-for-specification-of-respiratory-progenitors
#12
Jamie A Havrilak, Kristin R Melton, John M Shannon
Crosstalk between mesenchymal and epithelial cells influences organogenesis in multiple tissues, such as lung, pancreas, liver, and the nervous system. Lung mesenchyme comprises multiple cell types, however, and precise identification of the mesenchymal cell type(s) that drives early events in lung development remains unknown. Endothelial cells have been shown to be required for some aspects of lung epithelial patterning, lung stem cell differentiation, and regeneration after injury. Furthermore, endothelial cells are involved in early liver and pancreas development...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501131/microrna-203-promotes-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-cirrhotic-rats
#13
Xiao-Bo Chen, Xiao-Bo Zheng, Zhen-Xing Cai, Xian-Jian Lin, Ming-Qing Xu
BACKGROUND: Liver resection or partial hepatectomy (PH) is still the most commonly used therapeutic option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at present. However, the impaired regenerative ability induced by the accompanied liver cirrhosis is an important risk factor of posthepatectomy liver failure, and posthepatectomy liver failure is a feared complication that accounts for up to 75% of mortality after extensive liver resection. MicroRNA(miR)-203 is a tumor suppressor of HCC and may act as a positive intermediary in A20-enhanced interleukin (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pro-proliferative signals, which may promote liver regeneration after PH...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499323/-cmv-associated-acute-liver-failure-in-a-patient-receiving-tocilizumab-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#14
Sophie Fromhold-Treu, Andreas Erbersdobler, Manuela Turan, Gunther Neeck, Georg Lamprecht
A 41-year-old female patient was admitted because of febrile jaundice and acute liver failure. The quick and the bilirubin were 21 % and 258 µmol/l, and there was hepatic encephalopathy I°. AST and AP had a maximum of 612 and 215 U/l. Despite a strong left shift in the differential, the CRP had a maximum of 15 mg/l. Because of an atypically presenting systemic lupus erythematosus, she had been treated with Azathioprine, steroids and Tocilizumab until 12 days before admission. The diagnostic workup revealed CMV hepatitis and necrotizing hepatopathy, which was interpreted as toxic hepatitis...
May 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498793/catheter-directed-intraportal-delivery-of-endothelial-cell-therapy-for-liver-regeneration-a-feasibility-study-in-a-large-animal-model-of-cirrhosis
#15
Kyungmouk Steve Lee, Sara F Santagostino, David Li, Amit Ramjit, Kenneth Serrano, Michael D Ginsberg, Bi-Sen Ding, Shahin Rafii, David C Madoff
Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of imaging-guided catheter-directed delivery of endothelial cell therapy in a porcine model of cirrhosis for liver regeneration. Materials and Methods After approval from the institutional animal care and use committee, autologous liver endothelial cells were grown from core hepatic specimens from swine. Cirrhosis was induced in swine by means of transcatheter infusion of ethanol and iodized oil into the hepatic artery. Three weeks after induction of cirrhosis, the swine were randomly assigned to receive autologous cell therapy (endothelial cells, n = 4) or control treatment (phosphate-buffered saline, n = 4) by means of imaging-guided transhepatic intraportal catheterization...
May 11, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495915/extracellular-glycine-is-necessary-for-optimal-hemoglobinization-of-erythroid-cells
#16
Daniel Garcia-Santos, Matthias Schranzhofer, Richard Bergeron, Alex D Sheftel, Prem Ponka
Vertebrate heme synthesis requires three substrates: succinyl-CoA, which regenerates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, iron and glycine. For each heme molecule synthesized, one atom of iron and eight molecules of glycine are needed. Inadequate delivery of iron to immature erythroid cells leads to a decreased production of heme, but virtually nothing is known about the consequence of an insufficient supply of extracellular glycine on the process of hemoglobinization. To address this issue, we exploited mice in which the gene encoding glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) was disrupted...
May 11, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494557/-clinicopathologic-features-of-drug-induced-vanishing-bile-duct-syndrome
#17
L H Ye, C K Wang, H C Zhang, Z Q Liu, H W Zheng
Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) manifests as progressive destruction and disappearance of the intrahepatic bile duct caused by various factors and cholestasis. VBDS associated with drug-induced liver injury (D-VBDS) is an important etiology of VBDS, and immune disorder or immune imbalance may be the main pathogenesis. According to its clinical symptoms, serological markers, and course of the disease, D-VBDS is classified into major form and minor form, and its clinical features are based on various pathomorphological findings...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494215/potential-ultrastructure-predicting-factors-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hcv-infected-patients
#18
Soheir S Mansy, Eman El-Ahwany, Soheir Mahmoud, Sara Hassan, Mohammed I Seleem, Amr Abdelaal, Ahmed H Helmy, Mona K Zoheiry, Ahmed S AbdelFattah, Moataz H Hassanein
Hepatitis C virus represents one of the rising causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the early diagnosis of HCC is vital for successful curative treatment, the majority of lesions are diagnosed in an irredeemable phase. This work deals with a comparative ultrastructural study of experimentally gradually induced HCC, surgically resected HCC, and potential premalignant lesions from HCV-infected patients, with the prospect to detect cellular criteria denoting premalignant transformation. Among the main detected pathological changes which are postulated to precede frank HCC: failure of normal hepatocyte regeneration with star shape clonal fragmentation, frequent elucidation of hepatic progenitor cells and Hering canals, hepatocytes of different electron density loaded with small sized rounded monotonous mitochondria, increase junctional complexes bordering bile canaliculi and in between hepatocyte membranes, abundant cellular proteinaceous material with hypertrophied or vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), sequestrated nucleus with proteinaceous granular material or hypertrophied RER, formation of lipolysosomes, large autophagosomes, and micro-vesicular fat deposition...
May 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493147/modified-alpps-procedures-more-safety-through-less-invasive-surgery
#19
REVIEW
Kuniya Tanaka
PURPOSE: Although associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) has been advocated for treating advanced liver tumors, increased morbidity and mortality remain serious problems. Many modified procedures have been devised to improve patient safety, but some confusion persists as to benefits and risks. METHODS: Modifications to ALPPS as originally reported were reviewed to clarify their contributions to safety and their clinical relevance...
May 10, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492497/regulation-of-th17-cells-and-associated-cytokines-in-wound-healing-tissue-regeneration-and-carcinogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Leonie Brockmann, Anastasios D Giannou, Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
Wound healing is a crucial process which protects our body against permanent damage and invasive infectious agents. Upon tissue damage, inflammation is an early event which is orchestrated by a multitude of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets including TH17 cells. TH17 cells and TH17 cell associated cytokines can impact wound healing positively by clearing pathogens and modulating mucosal surfaces and epithelial cells. Injury of the gut mucosa can cause fast expansion of TH17 cells and their induction from naïve T cells through Interleukin (IL)-6, TGF-β, and IL-1β signaling...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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