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Liver regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212278/the-effect-of-the-human-peptide-ghk-on-gene-expression-relevant-to-nervous-system-function-and-cognitive-decline
#1
Loren Pickart, Jessica Michelle Vasquez-Soltero, Anna Margolina
Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions...
February 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210629/cellular-mechanisms-of-liver-regeneration-and-cell-based-therapies-of-liver-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Irina V Kholodenko, Konstantin N Yarygin
The emerging field of regenerative medicine offers innovative methods of cell therapy and tissue/organ engineering as a novel approach to liver disease treatment. The ultimate scientific foundation of both cell therapy of liver diseases and liver tissue and organ engineering is delivered by the in-depth studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration. The cellular mechanisms of the homeostatic and injury-induced liver regeneration are unique. Restoration of the mass of liver parenchyma is achieved by compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the differentiated parenchymal cells, hepatocytes, while expansion and differentiation of the resident stem/progenitor cells play a minor or negligible role...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209134/first-clinical-experience-in-14-patients-treated-with-advos-a-study-on-feasibility-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-new-type-of-albumin-dialysis
#3
Wolfgang Huber, Benedikt Henschel, Roland Schmid, Ahmed Al-Chalabi
BACKGROUND: Liver failure (LF) is associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased cost and substantial mortality. Due to the limited number of donor organs, extracorporeal liver support is suggested as an appealing concept to "bridge to transplant" or to avoid transplant in case of recovery. ADVanced Organ Support (ADVOS) is a new type of albumin dialysis, that provides rapid regeneration of toxin-binding albumin by two purification circuits altering the binding capacities of albumin by biochemical (changing of pH) and physical (changing of temperature) modulation of the dialysate...
February 16, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201844/the-role-of-akt-in-chronic-liver-disease-and-liver-regeneration
#4
Manuel Morales-Ruiz, Ansgar Santel, Jordi Ribera, Wladimiro Jiménez
The liver is continuously exposed to diverse insults, which may culminate in pathological processes causing liver disease. An effective therapeutic strategy for chronic liver disease should control the causal factors of the disease and stimulate functional liver regeneration. Preclinical studies have shown that interventions aimed at maintaining Akt activity in a dysfunctional liver meet most of the criteria. Although the central function of Akt is cell survival, other cellular aspects such as glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, cell-cycle progression, and lipid metabolism have been shown to be prominent functions of Akt in the context of hepatic physiology...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197212/herbal-compound-jiedu-huayu-reduces-liver-injury-in-rats-via-regulation-of-il-2-tlr4-and-pcna-expression-levels
#5
Minggang Wang, Qinglan Shi, Rongzhen Zhang, Hua Qiu, Dewen Mao, Fuli Long
Aim of the Study. To investigate the preventative effects of Jiedu Huayu (JDHY) on D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure (ALF) and to evaluate the possible mechanisms of action. Materials and Methods. ALF was induced in Wistar rats by administrating D-GalN (900 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/kg). After treatment with JDHY granules, the levels of blood alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, and prothrombin time were determined. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry staining...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195307/effect-of-obeticholic-acid-on-liver-regeneration-following-portal-vein-embolization-in-an-experimental-model
#6
P B Olthof, F Huisman, F G Schaap, K P van Lienden, R J Bennink, R F van Golen, M Heger, J Verheij, P L Jansen, S W Olde Damink, T M van Gulik
BACKGROUND: The bile salt-activated transcription factor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key mediator of proliferative bile salt signalling, which is assumed to play a role in the early phase of compensatory liver growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a potent FXR agonist (obeticholic acid, OCA) on liver growth following portal vein embolization (PVE). METHODS: Rabbits were allocated to receive daily oral gavage with OCA (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (control group) starting 7 days before PVE (n = 18 per group), and continued until 7 days after PVE...
February 13, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193994/predictive-role-of-intraoperative-plasma-fibrinogen-for-postoperative-portal-venous-flow-in-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#7
Min Suk Chae, Chul Soo Park, Su A Oh, Sang Hyun Hong
BACKGROUND Previous studies have reported poor graft regeneration after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to inappropriate portal venous flow (PVF). In this study, we investigated the perioperative factors affecting postoperative PVF after LDLT. MATERIAL AND METHODS The perioperative data of 366 LDLT patients were retrospectively reviewed. The average PVF on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5 was measured and dichotomized at a cut-off value for patient survival of 1,477 mL/min. Perioperative variables, including coagulation profiles, were compared between high and low postoperative PVF groups...
February 14, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186674/mechanism-of-impairment-on-liver-regeneration-in-elderly-patients-the-role-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-function
#8
REVIEW
Yu Saito, Yuji Morine, Mitsuo Shimada
Japan, along with most other countries in the world, is facing an increasingly aging population with a prolonged life expectancy. Concurrently, the need for medical intervention including hepatectomy, has also increased for the elderly. Though surgical outcomes for older patients are reported to be comparable with those for younger patients, additional care in the selection of older patients for hepatectomy is considered necessary. Although the effect of aging on human liver regeneration is not fully understood, the regeneration of liver tissue after hepatectomy in elderly patients is shown to be generally worse than in younger patients and to date the mechanisms involved in the impairment of liver regeneration have not been fully clarified...
February 10, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186089/adenovirus-mediated-tipe2-overexpression-inhibits-gastric-cancer-metastasis-via-reversal-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#9
H Yin, X Huang, M Tao, Q Hu, J Qiu, W Chen, J Wu, Y Xie
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TNFAIP8L2; also termed TIPE2) has been shown to be involved in both the immune-negative modulation and cancer. We previously found that TIPE2 is lost in human gastric cancer, and TIPE2 restoration suppresses gastric cancer growth by induction of apoptosis and impairment of protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. However, its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric cancer is largely elusive...
February 10, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178387/transient-von-willebrand-factor-mediated-platelet-influx-stimulates-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-mice
#10
Marc Kirschbaum, Craig N Jenne, Zwanida J Veldhuis, Klaas A Sjollema, Peter J Lenting, Ben N G Giepmans, Robert J Porte, Paul Kubes, Cécile V Denis, Ton Lisman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In addition to their function in thrombosis and hemostasis, platelets play an important role in the stimulation of liver regeneration. It has been suggested that platelets deliver mitogenic cargo to the regenerating liver, and accumulation of platelets in the regenerating liver has been demonstrated. We studied kinetics of platelet influx in the regenerating liver and investigated the signal that initiates platelet influx. METHODS: We visualized platelets in the liver remnant after partial hepatectomy in mice using intravital microscopy and assessed liver regeneration by examination of liver/body weight ratio and the number of proliferating hepatocytes examined by immunohistochemistry...
February 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174669/cell-therapy-for-liver-disease-using-bioimaging-rats
#11
REVIEW
Junko Haga, Shin Enosawa, Eiji Kobayashi
Advances in stem cell research suggest that cell therapy is a potential alternative to liver transplantation. The use of individualized and minimally invasive cell therapy is desirable to avoid rejection and reduce patient burden. While allo-hepatocyte transplantation has been performed for metabolic hepatic disease, auto-bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has shifted toward mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation for liver cirrhosis. In this article, an overview of cell transplantation research for liver disease is provided through our recent rat studies...
January 8, 2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153386/structure-and-biochemistry-of-phenylacetaldehyde-dehydrogenase-from-the-pseudomonas-putida-s12-styrene-catabolic-pathway
#12
Anders G Crabo, Baljit Singh, Tim Nguyen, Shahram Emami, George T Gassner, Matthew H Sazinsky
Phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of phenylactealdehyde to phenylacetic acid in the styrene catabolic and detoxification pathway of Pseudomonas putida (S12). Here we report the structure and mechanistic properties of the N-terminally histidine-tagged enzyme, NPADH. The 2.83 Å X-ray crystal structure is similar in fold to sheep liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1), but has unique set of intersubunit interactions and active site tunnel for substrate entrance...
January 30, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151798/modulating-portal-hemodynamics-with-vascular-ring-allows-efficient-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-a-porcine-model
#13
Petru O Bucur, Mohamed Bekheit, Chloe Audebert, Amnah Othman, Seddik Hammad, Mylene Sebagh, Marc-Antoine Allard, Benoît Decante, Adrian Friebel, Elodie Miquelestorena-Standley, Dirk Drasdo, Jan G Hengstler, Irene E Vignon-Clementel, Eric Vibert
OBJECTIVE: To investigate safety and efficacy of temporary portal hemodynamics modulation with a novel percutaneously adjustable vascular ring (MID-AVR) onto a porcine model of 75% hepatectomy. BACKGROUND: Postoperative liver failure is a leading cause of mortality after major hepatectomy. Portal flow modulation is an increasingly accepted concept to prevent postoperative liver failure. Nonetheless, the current strategies have shortcomings. METHODS: Resection was performed under hemodynamic monitoring in 17 large, white pigs allocated into 2 groups...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143833/the-senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype-induces-cellular-plasticity-and-tissue-regeneration
#14
Birgit Ritschka, Mekayla Storer, Alba Mas, Florian Heinzmann, Mari Carmen Ortells, Jennifer P Morton, Owen J Sansom, Lars Zender, William M Keyes
Senescence is a form of cell cycle arrest induced by stress such as DNA damage and oncogenes. However, while arrested, senescent cells secrete a variety of proteins collectively known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which can reinforce the arrest and induce senescence in a paracrine manner. However, the SASP has also been shown to favor embryonic development, wound healing, and even tumor growth, suggesting more complex physiological roles than currently understood. Here we uncover timely new functions of the SASP in promoting a proregenerative response through the induction of cell plasticity and stemness...
January 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138254/expression-of-phosphatase-of-regenerating-liver-3-is-associated-with-prognosis-of-wilms-tumor
#15
Fengyin Sun, Wenyi Li, Lie Wang, Changfeng Jiao
OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to explore the clinical and prognostic value of phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) expression in Wilms' tumor. METHODS: Seventy-six patients with Wilms' tumor in Qilu Hospital from January 2003 to July 2009 were enrolled in the study. Protein expression level of PRL-3 was examined by immunohistochemical staining, and the correlation between PRL-3 expression and histopathological parameters, clinical variables, and outcome of patients with Wilms' tumor were analyzed...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135758/the-diversity-and-plasticity-of-adult-hepatic-progenitor-cells-and-their-niche
#16
Jiamei Chen, Long Chen, Mark A Zern, Neil D Theise, Ann Mae Diehl, Ping Liu, Yuyou Duan
The liver is a unique organ for homeostasis with regenerative capacities. Hepatocytes possess a remarkable capacity to proliferate upon injury; however, in more severe scenarios liver regeneration is believed to arise from at least one, if not several facultative hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) compartments. Newly-identified pericentral stem/progenitor cells residing around the central vein is responsible for maintaining hepatocyte homeostasis in the uninjured liver. In addition, HPCs have been reported to contribute to liver fibrosis and cancers...
January 30, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129776/administration-of-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-restores-liver-regeneration-and-improves-liver-function-in-obese-mice-with-hepatic-steatosis-after-partial-hepatectomy
#17
Fernando Ezquer, Javiera Bahamonde, Ya-Lin Huang, Marcelo Ezquer
BACKGROUND: The liver has the remarkable capacity to regenerate in order to compensate for lost or damaged hepatic tissue. However, pre-existing pathological abnormalities, such as hepatic steatosis (HS), inhibits the endogenous regenerative process, becoming an obstacle for liver surgery and living donor transplantation. Recent evidence indicates that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) administration can improve hepatic function and increase the potential for liver regeneration in patients with liver damage...
January 28, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129650/microrna-34a-regulates-liver-regeneration-and-the-development-of-liver-cancer-in-rats-by-targeting-notch-signaling-pathway
#18
Xiao-Ping Wang, Jian Zhou, Ming Han, Chuan-Bao Chen, Yi-Tao Zheng, Xiao-Shun He, Xiao-Peng Yuan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) in regulating liver regeneration (LR) and the development of liver cancer in rats by targeting Notch signaling pathway. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into partial hepatectomy (PH) group and sham hepatectomy (SH) group. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the histological change in liver tissues. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels...
January 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127982/hepatocellular-and-developmental-influences-of-early-postnatal-indomethacin-in-mice
#19
F Nowrouzi, M Azadbakht
OBJECTIVES: The effect of early postnatal indomethacin exposure on hepatocellular and developmental alterations in mice liver was investigated. METHODS: Pups received IP injections of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg indomethacin on P0, then killed at P21 and P60. RESULTS: Indomethacin significantly suppressed body weight at P21, but liver weight significantly decreased only in 25 mg/kg. In contrast, liver weight and liver to body weight ratio significantly increased with increasing dose of indomethacin by P60...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127210/vanishing-bile-duct-syndrome-in-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Mena Bakhit, Thomas R McCarty, Sunhee Park, Basile Njei, Margaret Cho, Raffi Karagozian, AnnMarie Liapakis
Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) has been described in different pathologic conditions including infection, ischemia, adverse drug reactions, autoimmune diseases, allograft rejection, and humoral factors associated with malignancy. It is an acquired condition characterized by progressive destruction and loss of the intra-hepatic bile ducts leading to cholestasis. Prognosis is variable and partially dependent upon the etiology of bile duct injury. Irreversible bile duct loss leads to significant ductopenia, biliary cirrhosis, liver failure, and death...
January 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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