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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913227/assisted-partner-services-for-hiv-in-kenya-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Peter Cherutich, Matthew R Golden, Beatrice Wamuti, Barbra A Richardson, Kristjana H Ásbjörnsdóttir, Felix A Otieno, Ann Ng'ang'a, Peter Maingi Mutiti, Paul Macharia, Betsy Sambai, Matt Dunbar, David Bukusi, Carey Farquhar
BACKGROUND: Assisted partner services for index patients with HIV infections involves elicitation of information about sex partners and contacting them to ensure that they test for HIV and link to care. Assisted partner services are not widely available in Africa. We aimed to establish whether or not assisted partner services increase HIV testing, diagnoses, and linkage to care among sex partners of people with HIV infections in Kenya. METHODS: In this cluster randomised controlled trial, we recruited non-pregnant adults aged at least 18 years with newly or recently diagnosed HIV without a recent history of intimate partner violence who had not yet or had only recently linked to HIV care from 18 HIV testing services clinics in Kenya...
November 29, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909379/-it-is-an-eye-opener-that-there-is-a-relationship-between-rehabilitation-and-hiv-perspectives-of-physiotherapists-and-occupational-therapists-in-kenya-and-zambia-on-the-role-of-rehabilitation-with-adults-and-children-living-with-hiv
#2
Stephanie Nixon, Cathy Cameron, Margaret Mweshi, Esther Munalula Nkandu, Carlius Okidi, Stephen Tattle, Tammy Yates
Purpose: To present the perspectives of rehabilitation providers-physiotherapists and occupational therapists-in Kenya and Zambia on the role of rehabilitation in the care of adults and children living with HIV. Methods: This qualitative, interpretivist study was part of a broader project to adapt a Canadian e-module on HIV-related disability for rehabilitation providers in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Focus groups, demographic questionnaires, and knowledge-attitude-belief surveys were conducted with rehabilitation providers in Kenya and Zambia...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907845/why-do-kenyan-children-live-on-the-streets-evidence-from-a-cross-section-of-semi-rural-maternal-caregivers
#3
Michael L Goodman, Kelli Martinez, Philip H Keiser, Stanley Gitari, Sarah E Seidel
Globally, study of factors contributing to the street-migration of the tens of millions of street-involved children focus almost exclusively on children's perspectives. In this study, we assess household and maternal factors associated with street-migration of children through self-report of 1974 randomly selected women in semi-rural Kenya. Contributing new perspectives on this global phenomenon, data show a statistically significant association between increased maternal childhood adversities and street-migration of children (p<0...
November 28, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907114/rates-and-predictors-of-non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-kenya-results-from-the-second-kenya-aids-indicator-survey-2012
#4
Irene N Mukui, Lucy Ng'ang'a, John Williamson, Joyce N Wamicwe, Shobha Vakil, Abraham Katana, Andrea A Kim
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906910/progress-with-scale-up-of-hiv-viral-load-monitoring-seven-sub-saharan-african-countries-january-2015-june-2016
#5
Shirley Lecher, Jason Williams, Peter N Fonjungo, Andrea A Kim, Dennis Ellenberger, Guoqing Zhang, Christiane Adje Toure, Simon Agolory, Georgette Appiah-Pippim, Suzanne Beard, Marie Yolande Borget, Sergio Carmona, Geoffrey Chipungu, Karidia Diallo, Marie Downer, Dianna Edgil, Holly Haberman, Mackenzie Hurlston, Steven Jadzak, Charles Kiyaga, William MacLeod, Boniface Makumb, Hellen Muttai, Christina Mwangi, Jane W Mwangi, Michael Mwasekaga, Mary Naluguza, Lucy W Ng'Ang'A, Shon Nguyen, Souleymane Sawadogo, Katrina Sleeman, Wendy Stevens, Joel Kuritsky, Shannon Hader, John Nkengasong
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends viral load testing as the preferred method for monitoring the clinical response of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to antiretroviral therapy (ART) (1). Viral load monitoring of patients on ART helps ensure early diagnosis and confirmation of ART failure and enables clinicians to take an appropriate course of action for patient management. When viral suppression is achieved and maintained, HIV transmission is substantially decreased, as is HIV-associated morbidity and mortality (2)...
December 2, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906029/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898566/antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-is-not-associated-with-risky-sexual-behavior-among-heterosexual-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-persons-in-serodiscordant-partnerships
#7
Andrew Mujugira, Connie Celum, Kenneth Ngure, Katherine K Thomas, Elly Katabira, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have assessed whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) use is associated with changes in sexual risk behavior of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in known HIV-serodiscordant partnerships. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of HIV-infected persons with known uninfected partners enrolled in the Partners Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Study in Kenya and Uganda. Antiretroviral therapy use and self-reported sexual behavior were ascertained every 3 months...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895697/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893488/pregnancy-and-hiv-disease-progression-in-an-early-infection-cohort-from-five-african-countries
#9
Kristin M Wall, Wasima Rida, Lisa Haddad, Anatoli Kamali, Etienne Karita, Shabir Lakhi, William Kilembe, Susan Allen, Mubiana Inambao, Annie H Yang, Mary H Latka, Omu Anzala, Eduard J Sanders, Linda-Gail Bekker, Vinodh A Edward, Matt A Price
BACKGROUND: Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to providing appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. METHODS: From 2006-2011, women under age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement <200 cells/μL, percent CD4 <14%, or category C event, with censoring at antiretroviral (ART) initiation for reasons other than prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT)...
November 22, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887669/couple-interdependence-impacts-hiv-related-health-behaviours-among-pregnant-couples-in-southwestern-kenya-a-qualitative-analysis
#10
Anna Joy Rogers, Lillian Achiro, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Abigail M Hatcher, Zachary Kwena, Pamela L Musoke, Janet M Turan, Elly Weke, Lynae A Darbes
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection is frequently transmitted within stable couple partnerships. In order to prevent HIV acquisition in HIV-negative couples, as well as improve coping in couples with an HIV-positive diagnosis, it has been suggested that interventions be aimed at strengthening couple relationships, in addition to addressing individual behaviours. However, little is known about factors that influence relationships to impact joint decision-making related to HIV. METHODS: We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 40 pregnant women and 40 male partners in southwestern Kenya, an area of high HIV prevalence...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879430/factors-that-can-influence-feelings-towards-and-interactions-with-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-rural-central-kenya
#11
Caroline Kingori, Zelalem T Haile, Peter Ngatia, Ruth Nderitu
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, HIV incidence and prevalence have declined. HIV rates are lower in rural areas than in urban areas. However, HIV infection is reported higher in men in rural areas (4.5%) compared to those in urban areas (3.7%). OBJECTIVES: This study examined HIV knowledge, feelings, and interactions towards HIV-infected from 302 participants in rural Central Kenya. METHODS: Chi square tests and multivariable logistic regression analyzed variables of interest...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875361/high-mobility-and-hiv-prevalence-among-female-market-traders-in-east-africa-in-2014
#12
Carol S Camlin, Alison M El Ayadi, Zachary A Kwena, Willi McFarland, Mallory O Johnson, Torsten B Neilands, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen
BACKGROUND: The contribution of women's mobility to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa is poorly understood, despite women's high mobility and evidence that it is associated with higher-risk sexual behavior. We sought to measure levels of mobility, HIV prevalence, and related risk behaviors among female traders in Kisumu, Kenya. METHODS: We used GPS mapping to develop a probability-based sample and recruited 305 female market traders for participation in a survey and voluntary HIV counseling and testing in 2014...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849369/understanding-barriers-to-scaling-up-hiv-assisted-partner-services-in-kenya
#13
Marielle Goyette, Beatrice Muthoni Wamuti, Mercy Owuor, David Bukusi, Peter Mutiti Maingi, Felix Abuna Otieno, Peter Cherutich, Anne Ng'ang'a, Carey Farquhar
Assisted partner services (APS) are more effective than passive referral in identifying new cases of HIV in many settings. Understanding the barriers to the uptake of APS in sub-Saharan Africa is important before its scale up. In this qualitative study, we explored client, community, and healthcare worker barriers to APS within a cluster randomized trial of APS in Kenya. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with clients who declined enrollment in the APS study and 9 focus group discussions with health advisors, HIV testing and counseling (HTC) counselors, and the general HTC client population...
November 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846074/implementation-and-operational-research-active-referral-of-children-of-hiv-positive-adults-reveals-high-prevalence-of-undiagnosed-hiv
#14
Anjuli D Wagner, Cyrus Mugo, Irene N Njuguna, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Kenneth Sherr, Irene W Inwani, James P Hughes, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart, Jennifer A Slyker
OBJECTIVES: Few routine systems exist to test older, asymptomatic children for HIV. Testing all children in the population has high uptake but is inefficient, whereas testing only symptomatic children increases efficiency but misses opportunities to optimize outcomes. Testing children of HIV-infected adults in care may efficiently identify previously undiagnosed HIV-infected children before symptomatic disease. METHODS: HIV-infected parents in HIV care in Nairobi, Kenya were systematically asked about their children's HIV status and testing history...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843487/invasive-cervical-cancers-in-the-united-states-botswana-and-kenya-hpv-type-distribution-and-health-policy-implications
#15
Aaron Ermel, Brahim Qadadri, Yan Tong, Omenge Orang'o, Benson Macharia, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Nicola M Zetola, Darron R Brown
BACKGROUND: More deaths occur in African women from invasive cervical cancer (ICC) than from any other malignancy. ICC is caused by infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accelerates the natural history of ICC, and may influence the HPV type distribution. Because HPV vaccines are available, this malignancy is theoretically preventable, but the vaccines are largely type-specific in protection against infection...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836587/hiv-aids-and-contraceptive-use-factors-associated-with-contraceptive-use-among-sexually-active-hiv-positive-women-in-kenya
#16
Monica A Magadi, Winnie A Magadi
OBJECTIVES: With increased availability of anti-retroviral therapy and improved survival for people living with HIV, more HIV-positive women are leading full reproductive lives. However, HIV-positive women have special contraceptive needs/concerns. This paper examines the individual and community-level HIV/AIDS factors associated with contraceptive use and compares predictors of contraceptive uptake between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: The study is based on secondary analysis of cross-sectional data of a sample of 9132 sexually-active women of reproductive age from the Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys collected in 2003 and 2008...
November 8, 2016: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836494/associations-between-vaginal-infections-and-potential-high-risk-and-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-genotypes-in-female-sex-workers-in-western-kenya
#17
Sonia Menon, Davy Vanden Broeck, Rodolfo Rossi, Emiliono Ogbe, Stacy Harmon, Hillary Mabeya
PURPOSE: Infection with and persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Little is known about the prevalence and role of concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) found in HPV-infected female sex workers (FSW) in Africa. This study purports to test our a priori hypotheses that STIs are associated with genotypes pertaining to the α-group species 9. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida spp in FSW, the association between these STIs and the prevalence of any potential HR and HR HPV genotypes in FSWs...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831951/use-of-via-pap-smear-or-hr-hpv-testing-in-women-living-with-hiv-aids-for-post-treatment-cervical-cancer-screening-same-tests-different-priorities
#18
Omenge Orang'o, Tao Liu, Astrid Christoffersen-Deb, Peter Itsura, John Oguda, Sierra Washington, David Chumba, Latha Pisharodi, Susan Cu-Uvin, Anne F Rositch
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have addressed optimal follow-up for HIV-infected women after cervical treatment. This study aimed to compare performance of three available tests to detect post-treatment cervical disease in HIV-infected women in Kenya. DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study. METHODS: At least six months following cryotherapy, 517 HIV-infected women were evaluated concurrently with VIA, Pap smear, and HR-HPV testing. Women positive by any test (≥LSIL for Pap) were scheduled for colposcopy and biopsy...
November 7, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828872/sexual-behavior-and-vaginal-practices-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum-implications-for-hiv-prevention-strategies
#19
John Kinuthia, Barbra A Richardson, Alison L Drake, Daniel Matemo, Jennifer A Unger, R Scott McClelland, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Understanding sexual behaviors and vaginal practices of pregnant and breastfeeding women in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to inform HIV prevention strategies during these periods. METHODS: HIV-uninfected women presenting for antenatal care in western Kenya were enrolled and followed through 36 weeks postpartum. Sexual behavior and vaginal practices were ascertained by structured questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of unprotected sex, vaginal washing, and vaginal drying...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824882/promoting-partner-testing-and-couples-testing-through-secondary-distribution-of-hiv-self-tests-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Samuel H Masters, Kawango Agot, Beatrice Obonyo, Sue Napierala Mavedzenge, Suzanne Maman, Harsha Thirumurthy
BACKGROUND: Achieving higher rates of partner HIV testing and couples testing among pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination HIV prevention, including the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We aimed to determine whether providing multiple HIV self-tests to pregnant and postpartum women for secondary distribution is more effective at promoting partner testing and couples testing than conventional strategies based on invitations to clinic-based testing...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
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