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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526680/decrease-in-numbers-of-naive-and-resting-b-cells-in-hiv-infected-kenyan-adults-leads-to-a-proportional-increase-in-total-and-plasmodium-falciparum-specific-atypical-memory-b-cells
#1
Anne E Frosch, Oludare A Odumade, Justin J Taylor, Kathleen Ireland, George Ayodo, Bartholomew Ondigo, David L Narum, John Vulule, Chandy C John
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with B cell activation and exhaustion, and hypergammaglobulinemia. How these changes influence B cell responses to coinfections such as malaria is poorly understood. To address this, we compared B cell phenotypes and Abs specific for the Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate apical membrane Ag-1 (AMA1) in HIV-infected and uninfected adults living in Kenya. Surprisingly, HIV-1 infection was not associated with a difference in serum AMA1-specific Ab levels...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521748/contextualizing-willingness-to-participate-recommendations-for-engagement-recruitment-enrolment-of-kenyan-msm-in-future-hiv-prevention-trials
#2
Monika Doshi, Lisa Avery, Ronnie P Kaddu, Mary Gichuhi, Gloria Gakii, Elsabé du Plessis, Sumit Dutta, Shamshad Khan, Joshua Kimani, Robert R Lorway
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) continues to expand globally. The addition of an efficacious, prophylactic vaccine to combination prevention offers immense hope, particularly in low- and middle- income countries which bear the greatest global impact. However, in these settings, there is a paucity of vaccine preparedness studies that specifically pertain to MSM. Our study is the first vaccine preparedness study among MSM and female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya...
May 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492085/self-managing-hiv-aids-cultural-competence-and-health-among-women-in-nairobi-kenya
#3
Toni Copeland
Despite recent efforts to supply antiretroviral therapy, many in Africa are not receiving medication, instead relying on self-management in their attempts to remain healthy. In Kenya, the majority of those infected are women who are below the extreme poverty level. Building on research demonstrating a link between knowledge of HIV/AIDS management and the length of time HIV-positive women have lived in Nairobi, this article uses a cognitive anthropological approach that conceives of culture as shared models and explores the relationship between how well women know a cultural model of self-managing HIV/AIDS and health among women who are not receiving biomedical treatment...
May 11, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489730/improved-hiv-1-viral-load-monitoring-capacity-using-pooled-testing-with-marker-assisted-deconvolution
#4
Tao Liu, Joseph W Hogan, Michael J Daniels, Mia Coetzer, Yizhen Xu, Gerald Bove, Allison K Delong, Lauren Ledingham, Millicent Orido, Lameck Diero, Rami Kantor
OBJECTIVE: Improve pooled viral load (VL) testing to increase HIV treatment monitoring capacity, particularly relevant for resource-limited settings. DESIGN: We developed mMPA (marker-assisted mini-pooling with algorithm), a new VL pooling deconvolution strategy that utilizes information from low-cost, routinely-collected clinical markers to determine an efficient order of sequential individual VL testing and dictates when the sequential testing can be stopped. METHODS: We simulated the use of pooled testing to ascertain virological failure status on 918 participants from three studies conducted at the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) in Eldoret, Kenya, and estimated the number of assays needed when using mMPA and other pooling methods...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479636/nurse-led-hiv-services-and-quality-of-care-at-health-facilities-in-kenya-2014-2016
#5
Miriam Rabkin, Matthew Lamb, Zainab T Osakwe, Peter R Mwangi, Wafaa M El-Sadr, Susan Michaels-Strasser
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel measure to characterize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programme quality at health facilities in Kenya and explore its associations with patient- and facility-level characteristics. METHODS: We developed a composite indicator to measure quality of HIV care, comprising: assessment of eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART); initiation of ART; and retention on ART or in care, if ineligible for ART, for 12 months. We applied the comprehensive retention indicator to routinely collected clinical data from 13 331 patients enrolled in HIV care and treatment at 63 health facilities in the Eastern and Nyanza regions of Kenya from 1 January 2014 to 31 March 2016...
May 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472225/recent-bacterial-vaginosis-is-associated-with-acquisition-of-mycoplasma-genitalium
#6
Erica M Lokken, Jennifer E Balkus, James Kiarie, James P Hughes, Walter Jaoko, Patricia A Totten, R Scott McClelland, Lisa E Manhart
We assessed the association between recent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and incident Mycoplasma genitalium, a sexually transmitted bacterium associated with adverse female reproductive health outcomes. Female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya completed a monthly sexual behavior interview and clinical examination. During February 2005-February 2006, vaginal fluid specimens collected from women every other month were tested for M. genitalium by nucleic acid amplification testing. Vaginal microbiota was assessed monthly and categorized by Nugent score (0-3 normal, 4-6 intermediate microbiota, 7-10 BV)...
May 3, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467163/perspectives-on-hiv-pre-and-post-exposure-prophylaxes-prep-and-pep-among-female-and-male-sex-workers-in-mombasa-kenya-implications-for-integrating-biomedical-prevention-into-sexual-health-services
#7
Arjee J Restar, Jack Ume Tocco, Joanne E Mantell, Yves Lafort, Peter Gichangi, Tsitsi B Masvawure, Sophie Vusha Chabeda, Theo G M Sandfort
Pre- and post-exposure prophylaxes (PrEP and PEP) can reduce the risk of HIV acquisition, yet often are inaccessible to and underutilized by most-vulnerable populations, including sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on in-depth interviews with 21 female and 23 male HIV-negative sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, we found that awareness and knowledge of PrEP and PEP were low, although willingness to use both was high. Participants felt PrEP would be empowering and give added protection against infection, although some expressed concerns about side effects...
April 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461779/the-capacity-of-diagnostic-laboratories-in-kenya-for-detecting-infectious-diseases
#8
H-C Slotved, Kennedy K Yatich, Shem Otoi Sam, Edwardina Otieno Ndhine
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to present data of the diagnostic capacity of Kenyan laboratories to diagnose a number of human pathogens. The study is based on the data obtained from a biosecurity survey conducted in Kenya in 2014/2015 and data from the Statistical Abstract of Kenya for 2015. The biosecurity survey has previously been published; however, the survey also included information on laboratory capacity to handle a number of pathogens, which have not been published. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the survey on 86 laboratory facilities...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441458/evidence-that-promotion-of-male-circumcision-did-not-lead-to-sexual-risk-compensation-in-prioritized-sub-saharan-countries
#9
Chyun-Fung Shi, Michael Li, Jonathan Dushoff
BACKGROUND: WHO and UNAIDS prioritized 14 eastern and southern African countries with high HIV and low male circumcision prevalence for a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) scale-up in 2007. Because circumcision provides only partial protection against HIV infection to men, the issue of possible risk compensation in response to VMMC campaigns is of particular concern. In this study, we looked at population-level survey data from the countries prioritized by WHO for a VMMC scale-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431108/investments-in-children-s-health-and-the-kenyan-cash-transfer-for-orphans-and-vulnerable-children-evidence-from-an-unconditional-cash-transfer-scheme
#10
Carolyn Huang, Kavita Singh, Sudhanshu Handa, Carolyn Halpern, Audrey Pettifor, Harsha Thirumurthy
Child mortality is one of the most pressing global health and policy issues in the developing world. The leading drivers of death-pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria-are preventable and treatable. However, these illnesses are exacerbated by a lack of accessible nutrition, water, basic and preventive health services, and sanitary living conditions-all factors which are more likely to disproportionately impact the poor. We examine whether Kenya's largest social protection impacts children's incidence of upper respiratory illness...
April 18, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424253/identification-of-acute-hiv-1-infection-by-hologic-aptima-hiv-1-rna-qualitative-assay
#11
Mark M Manak, Leigh Anne Eller, Jennifer Malia, Linda L Jagodzinski, Rapee Trichavaroj, Joseph Oundo, Cornelia Lueer, Fatim Cham, Mark de Souza, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Sheila A Peel
The Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Qualitative RNA assay was used in a rigorous screening approach designed to identify individuals at the earliest stage of HIV-1 infection for enrollment into subsequent studies of cellular and viral events in early infection (RV217/Early Capture HIV Cohort - ECHO Study). Volunteers at high risk of HIV-1 infection were recruited from study sites in Thailand, Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya with high HIV-1 prevalence rates among the populations examined. Small volume blood samples were collected by finger-stick at twice-weekly intervals and tested by Aptima...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424189/diagnostic-criteria-for-severe-acute-malnutrition-among-infants-aged-under-6-mo
#12
Martha Mwangome, Moses Ngari, Greg Fegan, Neema Mturi, Mohammed Shebe, Evasius Bauni, James A Berkley
Background: There is an increasing recognition of malnutrition among infants under 6 mo of age (U6M). Current diagnosis criteria use weight-for-length z scores (WLZs), but the 2006 WHO standards exclude infants shorter than 45 cm. In older children, midupper arm circumference (MUAC) predicts mortality better than does WLZ. Outcomes may also be influenced by exposure to HIV and size or gestational age at birth. Diagnostic thresholds for WLZ, MUAC, and other indexes have not been fully evaluated against mortality risk among U6M infants...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409013/lay-beliefs-about-hypertension-among-hiv-infected-adults-in-kenya
#13
Tecla M Temu, Ehete Bahiru, Fredrick Bukachi, Gerald S Bloomfield, Peter Muiruri, Carey Farquhar
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension affects 23% of Kenyans and is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite this, hypertension awareness and treatment adherence is very low. We conducted a qualitative study to explore lay beliefs about hypertension among HIV-infected adults to inform the development of culture sensitive hypertension prevention and control program. METHODS: Eight focus group discussions were held for 53 HIV-infected adults at the HIV clinic in Kenya...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403211/the-potential-impact-and-cost-of-focusing-hiv-prevention-on-young-women-and-men-a-modeling-analysis-in-western-kenya
#14
Ramzi A Alsallaq, Jasmine Buttolph, Charles M Cleland, Timothy Hallett, Irene Inwani, Kawango Agot, Ann E Kurth
OBJECTIVE: We compared the impact and costs of HIV prevention strategies focusing on youth (15-24 year-old persons) versus on adults (15+ year-old persons), in a high-HIV burden context of a large generalized epidemic. DESIGN: Compartmental age-structured mathematical model of HIV transmission in Nyanza, Kenya. INTERVENTIONS: The interventions focused on youth were high coverage HIV testing (80% of youth), treatment at diagnosis (TasP, i.e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399133/establishment-of-reference-intervals-during-normal-pregnancy-through-six-months-postpartum-in-western-kenya
#15
Collins Odhiambo, Paul Omolo, Boaz Oyaro, John Williamson, John Kinuthia, Daniel Matemo, Alison Drake, Grace John-Stewart, Clement Zeh
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is associated with changes in hematological and biochemistry values, yet there are no African reference intervals for clinical management of pregnant women. We sought to 1) develop laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy and up to 24 weeks postpartum and 2) determine the proportion of women in a previous clinical trial who would be misclassified as having out-of-range values using reference intervals from a United States (U.S.) population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a longitudinal sub-study of 120 clinically healthy, HIV-uninfected, self-selected pregnant women seeking antenatal care services at either of two public hospitals in western Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398959/emergence-of-untreatable-multidrug-resistant-hiv-1-in-patients-failing-second-line-therapy-in-kenya
#16
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Irene Mukui, Kennedy Were, Prestone Owiti, Daniel Kwaro, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Clement Zeh
: We performed a countrywide assessment of HIV drug resistance among 123 patients with virological failure on second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenya. The percentage of patients harboring intermediate-to-high-level resistance was 27% for lopinavir-ritonavir, 24% for atazanavir-ritonavir and 7% for darunavir-ritonavir, and 25% had complete loss of activity to all available first- and second-line drugs. Overall, one in four patients failing second-line ART have completely exhausted available antiretrovirals in Kenya, highlighting the need for increased access to third-line drugs...
April 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394821/predictors-of-retention-in-hiv-care-among-youth-15-24-in-a-universal-test-and-treat-setting-in-rural-kenya
#17
Lillian B Brown, James Ayieko, Florence Mwangwa, Asiphas Owaraganise, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Vivek Jain, Theodore Ruel, Tamara Clark, Douglas Black, Gabriel Chamie, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Moses R Kamya, Maya L Petersen, Edwin D Charlebois, Diane V Havlir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391964/associations-between-fathers-and-sons-sexual-risk-in-rural-kenya-the-potential-for-intergenerational-transmission
#18
Ali M Giusto, Eric P Green, Eve S Puffer
PURPOSE: Despite high rates of HIV in areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and men's role in driving the epidemic, little is known about whether or how sexual risk-both behaviors and beliefs-may be passed down through generations of males. This study examined associations between sexual risk behaviors and sex-related beliefs of adolescent males and those of their male caregivers in Kenya, as well as the potential moderating effects of parenting characteristics and father-son relationship quality...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364982/medical-male-circumcision-is-associated-with-improvements-in-pain-during-intercourse-and-sexual-satisfaction-in-kenya
#19
Monica P C Nordstrom, Nelli Westercamp, Walter Jaoko, Timothy Okeyo, Robert C Bailey
BACKGROUND: Two cohort studies using data from randomized controlled trials in Africa offer the best evidence to date on the effects of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) on male sexual function and satisfaction, suggesting no significant impairments in sexual function or satisfaction and some improvements in sexual function after male circumcision. AIM: To assess the effects of VMMC on sexual function and satisfaction in a large population-based cohort of men circumcised as adults and uncircumcised controls in Kenya...
April 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364566/identifying-gaps-in-hiv-service-delivery-across-the-diagnosis-to-treatment-cascade-findings-from-health-facility-surveys-in-six-sub-saharan-countries
#20
Kathryn Church, Kazuyo Machiyama, Jim Todd, Brian Njamwea, Mary Mwangome, Vicky Hosegood, Janet Michel, Samuel Oti, Constance Nyamukapa, Amelia Crampin, Nyaguara Amek, Gertrude Nakigozi, Denna Michael, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Basia Zaba, Alison Wringe
INTRODUCTION: Despite the rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART), challenges remain in ensuring timely access to care and treatment for people living with HIV. As part of a multi-country study to investigate HIV mortality, we conducted health facility surveys within 10 health and demographic surveillance system sites across six countries in Eastern and Southern Africa to investigate clinic-level factors influencing (i) use of HIV testing services, (ii) use of HIV care and treatment and (iii) patient retention on ART...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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