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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101789/prevalence-and-predictors-of-uncircumcised-kenyan-men-s-desire-for-circumcision-for-their-infant-sons
#1
F Parker Hudson, William C Miller, Samwel Rao, Kawango Agot, Harsha Thirumurthy
Men are key decision makers for their son's circumcision, so understanding their beliefs is important for the uptake of early infant male circumcision in countries in sub-Saharan Africa that have high HIV prevalence. We analyzed men's preferences for circumcising their sons using data from a population-representative survey of 1501 uncircumcised men aged 25-49 years in western Kenya. Most men (59%) reported they would "definitely" want their son circumcised if a son was born to them within the next year. However, only 25% intended to become circumcised themselves...
January 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100210/prevalence-of-psychiatric-morbidity-in-a-community-sample-in-western-kenya
#2
Edith Kwobah, Steve Epstein, Ann Mwangi, Debra Litzelman, Lukoye Atwoli
BACKGROUND: About 25% of the worldwide population suffers from mental, neurological and substance use disorders but unfortunately, up to 75% of affected persons do not have access to the treatment they need. Data on the magnitude of the mental health problem in Kenya is scarce. The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence and the socio-demographic factors associated with mental and substance use disorders in Kosirai division, Nandi County, Western Kenya. METHODS: This was a cross sectional descriptive study in which participants were selected by simple random sampling...
January 18, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099724/costs-of-integrating-cervical-cancer-screening-at-an-hiv-clinic-in-kenya
#3
Elisabeth L Vodicka, Joseph B Babigumira, Marita R Mann, Rose J Kosgei, Fan Lee, Nelly R Mugo, Timothy C Okech, Samah R Sakr, Louis P Garrison, Michael H Chung
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the societal-level costs of integrating cervical cancer screening into HIV clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: A cross-sectional micro-costing study was performed at Coptic Hope Center for Infectious Diseases and Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya, between July 1 and October 31, 2014. To estimate direct medical, non-medical, and indirect costs associated with screening, a time-and-motion study was performed, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with women aged at least 18 years attending the clinic for screening during the study period and with clinic staff who had experience relevant to cervical cancer screening...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098543/increasing-antibiotic-resistance-in-shigella-spp-from-infected-new-york-city-residents-new-york-usa
#4
Kenya Murray, Vasudha Reddy, John S Kornblum, HaeNa Waechter, Ludwin F Chicaiza, Inessa Rubinstein, Sharon Balter, Sharon K Greene, Sarah L Braunstein, Jennifer L Rakeman, Catherine M Dentinger
Approximately 20% of Shigella isolates tested in New York City, New York, USA, during 2013-2015 displayed decreased azithromycin susceptibility. Case-patients were older and more frequently male and HIV infected than those with azithromycin-susceptible Shigella infection; 90% identified as men who have sex with men. Clinical interpretation guidelines for azithromycin resistance and outcome studies are needed.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097617/rates-and-covariates-of-recent-sexual-and-physical-violence-against-hiv-infected-outpatient-drinkers-in-western-kenya
#5
Rebecca K Papas, Benson N Gakinya, Michael M Mwaniki, Hana Lee, Stella W Kiarie, Steve Martino, Michelle P Loxley, Alfred K Keter, Debra A Klein, John E Sidle, Joyce B Baliddawa, Stephen A Maisto
Victimization from physical and sexual violence presents global health challenges. Partner violence is higher in Kenya than Africa. Violence against drinkers and HIV-infected individuals is typically elevated, so dual vulnerabilities may further augment risk. Understanding violence risks can improve interventions. Participants were 614 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya enrolled in a randomized trial to reduce alcohol use. At baseline, past 90-day partner physical and sexual violence were examined descriptively and in gender-stratified regression models...
January 17, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079830/geographic-coverage-of-male-circumcision-in-western-kenya
#6
Adam Akullian, Mathews Onyango, Daniel Klein, Jacob Odhiambo, Anna Bershteyn
Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention has scaled up rapidly among young men in western Kenya since 2008. Whether the program has successfully reached uncircumcised men evenly across the region is largely unknown. Using data from two cluster randomized surveys from the 2008 and 2014 Kenyan Demographic Health Survey (KDHS), we mapped the continuous spatial distribution of circumcised men by age group across former Nyanza Province to identify geographic areas where local circumcision prevalence is lower than the overall, regional prevalence...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078495/economic-context-and-hiv-vulnerability-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-living-in-urban-slums-in-kenya-a-qualitative-analysis-based-on-scarcity-theory
#7
Larissa Jennings, Muthoni Mathai, Sebastian Linnemayr, Antonio Trujillo, Margaret Mak'anyengo, Brooke E E Montgomery, Deanna L Kerrigan
Urban slum adolescents and young adults have disproportionately high rates of HIV compared to rural and non-slum urban youth. Yet, few studies have examined youth's perceptions of the economic drivers of HIV. Informed by traditional and behavioral economics, we applied a scarcity theoretical framework to qualitatively examine how poverty influences sexual risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Focus group discussions with one hundred twenty youth in Kenyan's urban slums were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology...
January 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077588/first-in-human-evaluation-of-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-an-intranasally-administered-replication-competent-sendai-virus-vectored-hiv-type-1-gag-vaccine-induction-of-potent-t-cell-or-antibody-responses-in-prime-boost-regimens
#8
Julien Nyombayire, Omu Anzala, Brian Gazzard, Etienne Karita, Philip Bergin, Peter Hayes, Jakub Kopycinski, Gloria Omosa-Manyonyi, Akil Jackson, Jean Bizimana, Bashir Farah, Eddy Sayeed, Christopher L Parks, Makoto Inoue, Takashi Hironaka, Hiroto Hara, Tsugumine Shu, Tetsuro Matano, Len Dally, Burc Barin, Harriet Park, Jill Gilmour, Angela Lombardo, Jean-Louis Excler, Patricia Fast, Dagna S Laufer, Josephine H Cox
BACKGROUND:  We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. METHODS:  Sixty-five HIV-1-uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35-vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (SLA); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (SHA); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (ASH); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (SHSH)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070215/multiple-hpv-infections-in-female-sex-workers-in-western-kenya-implications-for-prophylactic-vaccines-within-this-sub-population
#9
Sonia Menon, Davy van den Broeck, Rodolfo Rossi, Emilomo Ogbe, Hillary Mabeya
BACKGROUND: Whilst the imputed role of High Risk (HR) HPV infection in the development of cervical lesions and cancer has been established, the high number of HPV genotypes that Female Sex workers (FSW) harbour warrants that the synergistic effects of potential HR (pHR) and HR HPV genotypes be elucidated to assess the potential impact of prophylactic vaccines. This population in Kenya also harbours a number of other vaginal infections and STIs, including bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and candida spp...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068781/complex-subtype-diversity-of-hiv-1-among-drug-users-in-major-kenyan-cities
#10
Kamini Gounder, Micah Oyaro, Nagavelli Padayachi, Thando Mbali Zulu, Tulio de Oliveira, John Wylie, Thumbi Ndung'u
Drug users are increasingly recognized as a key population driving HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine HIV-1 subtypes circulating in this population group and explore possible geographic differences, we analyzed HIV-1 sequences among drug users from Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu in Kenya. We sequenced gag and env from 55 drug users. Subtype analysis from 220 gag clonal sequences from 54/55 participants (median=4/participant) showed that 44.4% were A, 16.7% were C, 3.7% were D and 35.2% were intersubtype recombinants...
January 9, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066878/safety-and-effectiveness-of-sodium-stibogluconate-and-paromomycin-combination-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-eastern-africa-results-from-a-pharmacovigilance-programme
#11
Robert Kimutai, Ahmed M Musa, Simon Njoroge, Raymond Omollo, Fabiana Alves, Asrat Hailu, Eltahir A G Khalil, Ermias Diro, Peninah Soipei, Brima Musa, Khalid Salman, Koert Ritmeijer, Francois Chappuis, Juma Rashid, Rezika Mohammed, Asfaw Jameneh, Eyasu Makonnen, Joseph Olobo, Lawrence Okello, Patrick Sagaki, Nathalie Strub, Sally Ellis, Jorge Alvar, Manica Balasegaram, Emilie Alirol, Monique Wasunna
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, WHO recommended a new first-line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Eastern Africa. The new treatment, a combination of intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and IM paromomycin (PM) was an improvement over SSG monotherapy, the previous first-line VL treatment in the region. To monitor the new treatment's safety and effectiveness in routine clinical practice a pharmacovigilance (PV) programme was developed. METHODS: A prospective PV cohort was developed...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060225/association-between-menopause-and-unprotected-sex-in-high-risk-hiv-positive-women-in-mombasa-kenya
#12
Marielle S Goyette, Kate S Wilson, Ruth Deya, Linnet N Masese, Juma Shafi, Barbra A Richardson, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, Walter Jaoko, R Scott McClelland
OBJECTIVE: Many HIV-positive women now live well beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women are no longer at risk for pregnancy, and some studies suggest they may use condoms less often than premenopausal women. This study tests the hypothesis that, in HIV-positive women who report trading sex for cash or in-kind payment, unprotected sex is more common at postmenopausal visits compared to premenopausal visits. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of HIV-positive women ≥16 years old in Mombasa, Kenya...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056524/venous-thromboembolism-requiring-extended-anticoagulation-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-a-rural-resource-constrained-setting-in-western-kenya
#13
John Kanyi, Rakhi Karwa, Sonak Dinesh Pastakia, Imran Manji, Simon Manyara, Collins Saina
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients are at an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), and minimal data are available to describe the need for extended treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of and determine predictive risk factors for extended anticoagulation of VTE in HIV-infected patients in rural, western Kenya. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at the Anticoagulation Monitoring Service affiliated with Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital and the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare...
December 1, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007924/impact-of-periodic-presumptive-treatment-for-bacterial-vaginosis-on-the-vaginal-microbiome-among-women-participating-in-the-preventing-vaginal-infections-trial
#14
Jennifer E Balkus, Sujatha Srinivasan, Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani, Chloe Andac, Jane Schwebke, David N Fredricks, R Scott McClelland
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests specific vaginal bacteria that are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase risk of adverse health outcomes in women. Among women participating in a randomized trial, we assessed the effect of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) on detection and concentrations of select vaginal bacteria. METHODS: HIV-uninfected, nonpregnant women from the US and Kenya received intravaginal metronidazole 750mg plus miconazole 200mg or placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003101/formative-hiv-research-with-youth-in-kenya-findings-from-a-psychosocial-needs-assessment
#15
Tiffany Chenneville
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002185/field-evaluation-of-dried-blood-spots-for-hiv-1-viral-load-monitoring-in-adults-and-children-receiving-antiretroviral-treatment-in-kenya-implications-for-scale-up-in-resource-limited-settings
#16
Mary E Schmitz, Simon Agolory, Muthoni Junghae, Laura N Broyles, Muthusi Kimeu, Joseph Ombayo, Mamo Umuro, Irene Mukui, Kennedy Alwenya, Moses Baraza, Kenneth Ndiege, Samuel Mwalili, Emilia Rivadeneira, Lucy Ng'ang'a, Chunfu Yang, Clement Zeh
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends viral load (VL) as the preferred method for diagnosing antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure; however, operational challenges have hampered the implementation of VL monitoring in most resource-limited settings. This study evaluated the accuracy of dried blood spot (DBS) VL testing under field conditions as a practical alternative to plasma in determining virologic failure (VF). METHODS: From May to December 2013, paired plasma and DBS specimens were collected from 416 adults and 377 children on ART ≥6 months at 12 clinics in Kenya...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002084/use-of-visual-inspection-with-acetic-acid-pap-smear-or-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-testing-in-women-living-with-hiv-aids-for-posttreatment-cervical-cancer-screening-same-tests-different-priorities
#17
Elkanah Omenge Orang'o, Tao Liu, Astrid Christoffersen-Deb, Peter Itsura, John Oguda, Sierra Washington, David Chumba, Latha Pisharodi, Susan Cu-Uvin, Anne F Rositch
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have addressed optimal follow-up for HIV-infected women after cervical treatment. This study aimed to compare performance of three available tests to detect posttreatment cervical disease in HIV-infected women in Kenya. DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study. METHODS: At least 6 months following cryotherapy, 517 HIV-infected women were evaluated concurrently with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), papanicolaou (Pap) smear, and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing...
January 14, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992677/mortality-and-clinical-outcomes-in-children-treated-with-antiretroviral-therapy-in-four-african-vertical-programs-during-the-first-decade-of-paediatric-hiv-care-2001-2010
#18
Jihane Ben-Farhat, Birgit Schramm, Nathalie Nicolay, Stephen Wanjala, Elisabeth Szumilin, Suna Balkan, Mar Pujades-Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: To assess mortality and clinical outcomes in children treated with antiretroviral therapy in four African vertical programs between 2001 and 2010. METHODS: Cohort analysis of data from HIV-infected children (<15 years old) initiating ART in 4 sub-Saharan HIV programs in Kenya, Uganda and Malawi, between December 2001 and December 2010. Rates of mortality, program attrition and first-line clinico-immunological failure were calculated by age group (<2, 2-4 and 5-14 years), 1 or 2 years after ART initiation and risk factors were examined...
December 19, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989576/population-levels-and-geographical-distribution-of-hiv-rna-in-rural-ugandan-and-kenyan-communities-including-serodiscordant-couples-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#19
Vivek Jain, Maya L Petersen, Teri Liegler, Dathan M Byonanebye, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Gabriel Chamie, Norton Sang, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Andras Ladai, Albert Plenty, Jane Kabami, Emmanuel Ssemmondo, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Edwin D Charlebois, Moses R Kamya, Diane V Havlir
BACKGROUND: As sub-Saharan Africa transitions to a new era of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART), up-to-date assessments of population-level HIV RNA suppression are needed to inform interventions to optimise ART delivery. We sought to measure population viral load metrics to assess viral suppression and characterise demographic groups and geographical locations with high-level detectable viraemia in east Africa. METHODS: The Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health (SEARCH) study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an HIV test-and-treat strategy in 32 rural communities in Uganda and Kenya, selected on the basis of rural setting, having an approximate population of 10 000 people, and being within the catchment area of a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinic...
December 15, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977561/risk-factors-for-hypoxia-and-tachypnea-among-adolescents-with-vertically-acquired-hiv-in-nairobi
#20
Engi F Attia, Noel S Weiss, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Christine J McGrath, Anthony Cagle, T Eoin West, Neveen G El Antouny, Fr Mena Attwa, Kristina Crothers, Michael H Chung
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung diseases are increasingly recognized complications of vertically-acquired HIV among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and may manifest with hypoxia or tachypnea. We sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for hypoxia and tachypnea among adolescents with vertically-acquired HIV in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 258 adolescents with vertically-acquired HIV who were initiating care at the Coptic Hope Center for Infectious Diseases...
December 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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