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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329184/the-causal-effect-of-tracing-by-peer-health-workers-on-return-to-clinic-among-patients-who-were-lost-to-follow-up-from-antiretroviral-therapy-in-eastern-africa-a-randomized-natural-experiment-arising-from-surveillance-of-lost-patients
#1
Anna Bershetyn, Thomas A Odeny, Rita Lyamuya, Alice Nakiwogga-Muwanga, Lameck Diero, Mwebesa Bwana, Paula Braitstein, Geoffrey Somi, Andrew Kambugu, Elizabeth Bukusi, Wendy Hartogensis, David V Glidden, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Jeffrey Martin, Elvin H Geng
Background: The effect of tracing HIV patients who are lost to follow-up (LTFU) on re-engagement has not been rigorously assessed. We carried out an ex-post analysis of a surveillance study in which LTFU patients were randomly selected for tracing to identify the effect of tracing on re-engagement. Methods: We evaluated HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy who were LTFU (> 90 days late for last visit) at 14 clinics in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. A random sample of LTFU patients was selected for tracing by peer health workers...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328966/integration-of-family-planning-services-into-hiv-care-clinics-results-one-year-after-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-kenya
#2
Craig R Cohen, Daniel Grossman, Maricianah Onono, Cinthia Blat, Sara J Newmann, Rachel L Burger, Starley B Shade, Norah Bett, Elizabeth A Bukusi
OBJECTIVES: To determine if integration of family planning (FP) and HIV services led to increased use of more effective contraception (i.e. hormonal and permanent methods, and intrauterine devices) and decreased pregnancy rates. DESIGN: Cohort analysis following cluster randomized trial, when the Kenya Ministry of Health led integration of the remaining control (delayed integration) sites and oversaw integrated services at the original intervention (early integration) sites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325068/the-relationship-between-health-worker-stigma-and-uptake-of-hiv-counseling-and-testing-and-utilization-of-non-hiv-health-services-the-experience-of-male-and-female-sex-workers-in-kenya
#3
Laura Nyblade, Aditi Reddy, David Mbote, John Kraemer, Melissa Stockton, Caroline Kemunto, Karol Krotki, Javier Morla, Stella Njuguna, Arin Dutta, Catherine Barker
The barrier HIV-stigma presents to the HIV treatment cascade is increasingly documented; however less is known about female and male sex worker engagement in and the influence of sex-work stigma on the HIV care continuum. While stigma occurs in all spheres of life, stigma within health services may be particularly detrimental to health seeking behaviors. Therefore, we present levels of sex-work stigma from healthcare workers (HCW) among male and female sex workers in Kenya, and explore the relationship between sex-work stigma and HIV counseling and testing...
March 22, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316253/predominance-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-a-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients-experiencing-high-hbv-drug-resistance-in-nairobi-kenya
#4
Sepha Nyatichi Mabeya, Caroline Wangari Ngugi, Raphael W Lihana, Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi, Anthony Kebira Nyamache
HBV/HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance associated mutations among drug experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the partial HBV-pol-reverse trancriptase gene was successfully sequenced from 13 samples. Analysis of the sequences showed that all (13) the sequences belonged to genotype A. Nucleos(t)ide drug resistance mutations were found in six (6) patients...
March 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296798/all-cause-mortality-in-hiv-positive-adults-starting-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-correcting-for-loss-to-follow-up
#5
Nanina Anderegg, Leigh F Johnson, Elizabeth Zaniewski, Keri N Althoff, Eric Balestre, Matthew Law, Denis Nash, Bryan E Shepherd, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Matthias Egger
OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality in HIV-positive patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to discuss different approaches to calculating correction factors to account for loss to follow-up. METHODS: A total of 222 096 adult HIV-positive patients who started ART 2009-2014 in clinics participating in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS collaboration in 43 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and North America were included...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282249/health-provider-views-on-improving-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-coastal-kenya
#6
Murugi Micheni, Bernadette K Kombo, Andrew Secor, Jane M Simoni, Don Operario, Elise M van der Elst, Peter Mugo, Jennifer Kanungi, Eduard J Sanders, Susan M Graham
HIV-positive Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM) are a highly stigmatized group facing barriers to care engagement and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Because care providers' views are important in improving outcomes, we sought the perspective of those serving MSM patients on how to optimize ART adherence in a setting where same-sex behavior is criminalized. We conducted 4 focus group discussions with a total of 29 healthcare workers (HCWs) experienced in providing HIV care to MSM. The semistructured, open-ended topic guide used was based on an access-information-motivation-proximal cues model of adherence, with added focus on trust in providers, stigma, and discrimination...
March 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278210/sexual-learning-among-east-african-adolescents-in-the-context-of-generalized-hiv-epidemics-a-systematic-qualitative-meta-synthesis
#7
Amelia S Knopf, Kim R McNealy, Halima Al-Khattab, Lisa Carter-Harris, Ukamaka Marian Oruche, Violet Naanyu, Claire Burke Draucker
BACKGROUND: AIDS-related illness is the leading cause of mortality for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Together, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda account for 21% of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The United Nations framework for addressing the epidemic among adolescents calls for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education. These HIV prevention efforts could be informed by a synthesis of existing research about the formal and informal sexual education of adolescents in countries experiencing generalized epidemics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274904/gender-specific-combination-hiv-prevention-for-youth-in-high-burden-settings-the-mp3-youth-observational-pilot-study-protocol
#8
Jasmine Buttolph, Irene Inwani, Kawango Agot, Charles M Cleland, Peter Cherutich, James N Kiarie, Alfred Osoti, Connie L Celum, Jared M Baeten, Ruth Nduati, John Kinuthia, Timothy B Hallett, Ramzi Alsallaq, Ann E Kurth
BACKGROUND: Nearly three decades into the epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the region most heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with nearly 70% of the 34 million people living with HIV globally residing in the region. In SSA, female and male youth (15 to 24 years) are at a disproportionately high risk of HIV infection compared to adults. As such, there is a need to target HIV prevention strategies to youth and to tailor them to a gender-specific context. This protocol describes the process for the multi-staged approach in the design of the MP3 Youth pilot study, a gender-specific, combination, HIV prevention intervention for youth in Kenya...
March 8, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274744/performance-of-the-samba-i-and-ii-hiv-1-semi-q-tests-for-viral-load-monitoring-at-the-point-of-care
#9
Neha Goel, Allyson V Ritchie, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Clement Zeh, Tetiana Stepchenkova, Jesse Lehga, Annemiek De Ruiter, Laura E Farleigh, Daniel Edemaga, Rosario So, Hiroshi Sembongi, Craig Wisniewski, Lourdes Nadala, Marco Schito, Helen Lee
Although access to antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection is increasing in resource-poor countries, viral load testing for monitoring of treatment efficacy remains limited, expensive, and confined to centralized laboratories. The SAMBA HIV-1 Semi-Q Test is a nucleic acid-based amplification assay developed for viral load monitoring performed on either the semi-automated SAMBA I system for laboratory use or the fully automated SAMBA II system for point-of care use. We have assessed the performance characteristics of the SAMBA HIV-1 Semi-Q Test on SAMBA I and SAMBA II systems according to the Common Technical Specifications of the European Community's 98/79 In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices Directive...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273003/male-engagement-in-women-s-microbicide-use-in-kenya-navigating-gender-norms
#10
Sidney Ruth Schuler, Elizabeth Bukusi
The success of women's microbicide use for HIV/AIDS prevention may hinge on health programs' ability to engage men to support it. In this qualitative study in Kenya, most women did not or would not tell their partners prior to initiating use, and/or would use despite their objections. Men generally did not agree with this, yet male partners of trial participants who discovered that their partners were using microbicides without their knowledge did not seem concerned. Findings suggest that efforts to engage men in microbicide use should avoid "awakening" patriarchal gender norms, and support women to use microbicides without involving their partners...
February 7, 2017: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271846/non-communicable-disease-syndemics-poverty-depression-and-diabetes-among-low-income-populations
#11
REVIEW
Emily Mendenhall, Brandon A Kohrt, Shane A Norris, David Ndetei, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
The co-occurrence of health burdens in transitioning populations, particularly in specific socioeconomic and cultural contexts, calls for conceptual frameworks to improve understanding of risk factors, so as to better design and implement prevention and intervention programmes to address comorbidities. The concept of a syndemic, developed by medical anthropologists, provides such a framework for preventing and treating comorbidities. The term syndemic refers to synergistic health problems that affect the health of a population within the context of persistent social and economic inequalities...
March 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238994/can-incentives-reduce-the-barriers-to-use-of-antenatal-care-and-delivery-services-in-kenya-results-of-a-qualitative-inquiry
#12
Eleanor Fleming, Joanna Gaines, Katherine O'Connor, Judith Ogutu, Nancy Atieno, Salimah Atieno, Mary L Kamb, Robert Quick
A qualitative inquiry was used to assess if incentives consisting of a hygiene kit, protein-fortified flour, and delivery kit reduced barriers to antenatal care and delivery services in Nyanza Province, Kenya. We conducted 40 interviews (baseline: five nurses, six mothers, one focus group of five mothers; follow-up: nine nurses, 19 mothers) to assess perceptions of these services. Mothers and nurses identified poor quality of care, fear of HIV diagnosis and stigma, inadequate transport, and cost of care as barriers...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225342/outcomes-from-the-first-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-programme-in-kenya
#13
H Huerga, M Bastard, M Kamene, S Wanjala, A Arnold, N Oucho, I Chikwanha, F Varaine
SETTING: In March 2006, the first multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment programme was implemented in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To describe patients' treatment outcomes and adverse events. DESIGN: A retrospective case note review of patients started on MDR-TB treatment at two Médecins Sans Frontières-supported sites and the national referral hospital of Kenya was undertaken. Sites operated an ambulatory model of care. Patients were treated for a minimum of 24 months with at least 4-5 drugs for the intensive phase of treatment, including an injectable agent...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225338/potential-biomarkers-associated-with-discrimination-between-latent-and-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#14
R Kamakia, S Kiazyk, J Waruk, A Meyers, J Ochanda, T B Ball, J Oyugi
SETTING: A third of the world's population has latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). Current TB diagnostics used in developing countries are ineffective and are unable to distinguish LTBI from active TB. Identifying biomarkers that could aid in the early detection of TB and in distinguishing TB states could be a major breakthrough in global TB control. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential immune biomarkers to distinguish active TB from LTBI. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 19 active TB patients, 8 TB-negative individuals (controls) and 16 LTBI non-human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals in Nairobi, Kenya...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225335/integrating-tuberculosis-screening-in-kenyan-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-programs
#15
L M Cranmer, A Langat, K Ronen, C J McGrath, S LaCourse, J Pintye, B Odeny, B Singa, A Katana, L Nganga, J Kinuthia, G John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) screening in Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) programs is important to improve TB detection, prevention and treatment. METHODS: As part of a national PMTCT program evaluation, mother-infant pairs attending 6-week and 9-month immunization visits were enrolled at 141 maternal and child health clinics throughout Kenya. Clinics were selected using population-proportion-to-size sampling with oversampling in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence region...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219991/impacts-on-global-health-from-nursing-research
#16
Kimberly Baltzell, Monica McLemore, Mona Shattell, Sally Rankin
Infectious disease continues to adversely affect populations in low- and middle-income countries. Investments in solutions often focus on technology, yet health-care workers remain in short supply. Nurses are the largest cadre of health-care workers and are largely responsible for patient care around the world. In fact, it is estimated that nurses care for nine out of every 10 patients seen. Importantly, sound nursing science contributes to solutions that directly impact patient care, especially, those that pertain to infectious disease...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212643/vertical-hiv-transmission-in-perinatally-exposed-infants-in-south-rift-region-of-kenya-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#17
Everline Ashiono, Dunstan Achwoka, Jamlick Mutugi, Joel Rakwar, Andrew Wafula, Otto Nzapfurundi Chabikuli
BACKGROUND: Despite proven efficacy of the prevention mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategy, its adoption in Africa has remained slow. In Kenya, its effectiveness remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in Kenya. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed 2,642 records of HIV-exposed infants who had a deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction test done...
February 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207516/economic-evaluation-of-mobile-phone-text-message-interventions-to-improve-adherence-to-hiv-therapy-in-kenya
#18
Anik R Patel, Jason Kessler, R Scott Braithwaite, Kimberly A Nucifora, Harsha Thirumurthy, Qinlian Zhou, Richard T Lester, Carlo A Marra
BACKGROUND: A surge in mobile phone availability has fueled low cost short messaging service (SMS) adherence interventions. Multiple systematic reviews have concluded that some SMS-based interventions are effective at improving antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and they are hypothesized to improve retention in care. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SMS-based adherence interventions and explore the added value of retention benefits. METHODS: We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of weekly SMS interventions compared to standard care among HIV+ individuals initiating ART for the first time in Kenya...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198789/sustained-responses-to-measles-revaccination-at-24-months-in-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-kenya
#19
Laura P Newman, Anne Njoroge, Amalia Magaret, Bhavna H Chohan, Veronicah W Gitomea, Anna Wald, Jonathan Gorstein, Julie Overbaugh, Dalton Wamalwa, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Ruth Nduati, Carey Farquhar
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on whether HIV-infected children in resource-limited countries who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are able to produce sustained, protective levels of measles antibody after multiple measles vaccinations. METHODS: We administered an additional measles vaccine to HIV-infected children 15 months to 12 years of age receiving ART in Nairobi, Kenya. Measles antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at enrollment, one month, 12 months, and 24 months post revaccination...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196085/what-device-would-be-best-for-early-infant-male-circumcision-in-east-and-southern-africa-provider-experiences-and-opinions-with-three-different-devices-in-kenya
#20
Robert C Bailey, Irene Nyaboke, Fredrick O Otieno
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces risk of HIV acquisition in heterosexual men by approximately 60%. As some countries approach targets for proportions of adolescents and adults circumcised, some are considering early infant male circumcision (EIMC) as a means to achieve sustainability of VMMC for long term reduction of HIV incidence. Evaluations of specialized devices for EIMC are important to provide programs with information required to make informed decisions about how to design safe, effective EIMC programs...
2017: PloS One
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