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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353455/the-interplay-between-apolipoprotein-e4-and-the-autophagic-endocytic-lysosomal-axis
#1
REVIEW
E Schmukler, D M Michaelson, R Pinkas-Kramarski
Since its discovery as a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, the APOE4 allele has been linked to the majority of the pathological findings associated with the disease progression. These include abnormalities of the endocytic, autophagic, and lysosomal machineries, which begin at the most early stages of Alzheimer's disease development. Considering that these three vesicular systems share common features and, in fact, comprise an interconnected cargo-trafficking and degradation network, some of the effects of APOE4 are interrelated, while others are system-specific...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353443/role-of-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization-cholangioscopic-biopsies-and-eus-fna-in-the-evaluation-of-biliary-strictures
#2
Christian Brooks, Valerie Gausman, Chanthel Kokoy-Mondragon, Khushboo Munot, Sunil P Amin, Amit Desai, Claudine Kipp, John Poneros, Amrita Sethi, Frank G Gress, Michel Kahaleh, Vundavalli V Murty, Reem Sharaiha, Tamas A Gonda
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our goal was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of FISH in the detection of malignancy compared with other standard diagnostic modalities, including brush cytology and biopsy specimens over a 10-year period of prospective data collection. METHODS: We conducted a review of all consecutive biliary strictures evaluated between 2006 and 2016. Patients with a final pathologic diagnosis or conclusive follow-up were included. We evaluated the performance of FISH polysomy (CEP 3, 7, and 17) and 9p21 deletion as well as cholangioscopic biopsy (CBx) and EUS-FNA...
January 20, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353438/examination-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-as-a-potential-biomarker-in-heart-failure-patients
#3
Zsolt Sarszegi, Dora Szabo, Balazs Gaszner, Attila Konyi, Dora Reglodi, Jozsef Nemeth, Beata Lelesz, Beata Polgar, Adel Jungling, Andrea Tamas
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic and multifunctional neuropeptide having neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and general cytoprotective actions in a variety of tissues based on its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Several studies have demonstrated its cardioprotective effects in vitro and in various animal models. However, few data are available on the presence of PACAP in human cardiac tissues and its role in the pathomechanism and progression of different cardiac disorders, particularly heart failure...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353355/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-profile-of-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#4
REVIEW
Tommaso Schirinzi, Giulia Maria Sancesario, Giulia Di Lazzaro, Alessio D'Elia, Paola Imbriani, Simona Scalise, Antonio Pisani
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a disabling neurological disorder whose potential treatability is significantly limited by diagnostic uncertainty. In fact, typical clinical presentation occurs at late phases of disease, when CSF shunting could be ineffective. In recent years, measurement of different CSF proteins, whose concentration directly reflects neuropathological changes of CNS, has significantly improved both diagnostic timing and accuracy of neurodegenerative disease. Unfortunately iNPH lacks neuropathological hallmarks allowing the identification of specific disease biomarkers...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353344/safety-study-of-intravitreal-and-suprachoroidal-laponite-clay-in-rabbit-eyes
#5
Esther Prieto, Eugenio Vispe, Alba De Martino, Miriam Idoipe, María J Rodrigo, Elena Garcia-Martin, José M Fraile, Vicente Polo-Llorens, José A Mayoral
PURPOSE: To study the safety and biocompatibility of Laponite clay (LAP) within an intravitreal and suprachoroidal administration in rabbit eyes. METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into two experimental groups to test intravitreal (IVT group) and suprachoroidal (SCS group) administration of a 100-μl and 50-μl Laponite suspension respectively. Following injection, the eyes were monitored by ocular tonometry, slit-lamp eye examination and indirect ophthalmoscopy, at 24 h, 1, 4, 12, and 14 weeks post administration...
January 20, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353314/robot-assisted-post-chemotherapy-retroperitoneal-lymph-node-dissection-in-germ-cell-tumor-is-the-single-docking-with-lateral-approach-relevant
#6
C Overs, J B Beauval, L Mourey, P Rischmann, M Soulié, M Roumiguié, Nicolas Doumerc
INTRODUCTION: Surgical treatment of post-chemotherapy residual mass of germ cell tumor (GCT) may be performed in various techniques. We assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of single-docking with lateral approach robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (R-RPLND) in residual mass of GCT in our center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients undergoing R-RPLND for residual mass of CGT was performed between January 2014 and April 2017...
January 20, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353301/the-efficacy-of-motivational-intervention-and-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-pathological-gambling
#7
Anna Garcia-Caballero, Marina Torrens-Lluch, Isabel Ramírez-Gendrau, Gemma Garrido, Vicenç Vallès, Núria Aragay
The aim of the current study is to determine the effectiveness of an individual psychological intervention based on the motivational interview and cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of pathological gambling. A sample of 18 participants, diagnosed of pathological gambling and without any other associated comorbidity, were assessed, attended at the publicly-funded Gambling and Behavioral Addictions Unit (Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa). Median age was 46 years (SD = 12). All the patients achieved abstinence and completed follow-up...
January 15, 2018: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353274/postoperative-immobilization-following-occipitocervical-fusion-in-the-pediatric-population-outcome-evaluation-and-review-of-literature
#8
Alexandre R Pingarilho, Paulo M Porto de Melo, Samer K Elbabaa
The scientific literature does not have a consensus about the role and method of postoperative immobilization after occipitocervical fusion in the pediatric population. The primary goal of this study is to review the medical literature and evaluate different immobilization methods and their impact on fusion, following the surgical management of craniocervical instability in children. It started with an extensive research of randomized controlled trials, series of cases and case reports, describing occipitocervical junction pathologies, clinical, epidemiological characteristics, and treatment...
January 20, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353268/non-invasive-diagnostic-criteria-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hepatitis-b-virus-endemic-areas-is-cirrhosis-indispensable
#9
Xiao-Wen Huang, Bing Liao, Yang Huang, Jin-Yu Liang, Quan-Yuan Shan, Shun-Li Shen, Xiao-Yan Xie, Ming-de Lu, Li-da Chen, Wei Wang
AIM: To confirm whether cirrhosis is indispensable for the non-invasive diagnostic criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-endemic areas. METHODS: Between January 2014 and December 2014, a total of 409 patients with pathologically proven focal liver lesions who underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) were recruited from our institution. Clinical liver cirrhosis, HBV/HCV infection and HCC-typical vascular pattern of the targeted lesion on CEUS were evaluated...
January 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353163/time-interval-between-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-and-surgery-for-oesophageal-or-junctional-cancer-a-nationwide-study
#10
L R van der Werf, J L Dikken, E M van der Willik, M I van Berge Henegouwen, G A P Nieuwenhuijzen, B P L Wijnhoven
INTRODUCTION: The optimal time between end of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) and oesophagectomy is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the association between this interval and pathologic complete response rate (pCR), morbidity and 30-day/in-hospital mortality. METHODS: Patients with oesophageal cancer treated with nCRT and surgery between 2011 and 2016 were selected from a national database: the Dutch Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Audit (DUCA). The interval between end of nCRT and surgery was divided into six periods: 0-5 weeks (n = 157;A), 6-7 weeks (n = 878;B), 8-9 weeks (n = 972;C), 10-12 weeks (n = 720;D), 13-14 weeks (n = 195;E) and 15 or more weeks (n = 180;F)...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353121/tau-pet-imaging-with-18f-av-1451-in-primary-progressive-apraxia-of-speech
#11
Rene L Utianski, Jennifer L Whitwell, Christopher G Schwarz, Matthew L Senjem, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Val J Lowe, Keith A Josephs
Apraxia of speech is a motor speech disorder characterized by combinations of slow speaking rate, abnormal prosody, distorted sound substitutions, and trial-and-error articulatory movements. Apraxia of speech is due to abnormal planning and/or programming of speech production. It is referred to as primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) when it is the only symptom of a neurodegenerative condition. Past reports suggest an association of PPAOS with primary 4-repeat (4R) tau (e.g., progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), rather than amyloid, pathology...
January 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353102/aging-african-green-monkeys-manifest-transcriptional-pathological-and-cognitive-hallmarks-of-human-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Paige E Cramer, Renee C Gentzel, Keith Q Tanis, Joshua Vardigan, Yi Wang, Brett Connolly, Philip Manfre, Kenneth Lodge, John J Renger, Celina Zerbinatti, Jason M Uslaner
While many preclinical models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been reported, none fully recapitulate the disease. In an effort to identify an appropriate preclinical disease model, we characterized age-related changes in 2 higher order species, the African green monkey (AGM) and the rhesus macaque. Gene expression profiles in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the visual cortex showed age-related changes in AGMs that are strikingly reminiscent of AD, whereas aged rhesus were most similar to healthy elderly humans...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353101/amyloid-pathology-in-the-progression-to-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Philip S Insel, Oskar Hansson, R Scott Mackin, Michael Weiner, Niklas Mattsson
The objective of this study was to determine the cognitive and functional decline and development of brain injury in individuals progressing from preclinical (β-amyloid positive cognitively normal) to prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) (β-amyloid positive mild cognitive impairment [MCI]), and compare this with individuals who progress to MCI in the absence of significant amyloid pathology. Seventy-five cognitively healthy participants who progressed to MCI were followed for 4 years on average and up to 10 years...
December 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353071/effects-of-warfarin-on-biological-processes-other-than-haemostasis-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Aleksandra Popov Aleksandrov, Ivana Mirkov, Marina Ninkov, Dina Mileusnic, Jelena Demenesku, Vesna Subota, Dragan Kataranovski, Milena Kataranovski
Warfarin is the world's most widely used anticoagulant drug. Its anticoagulant activity is based on the inhibition of the vitamin K-dependent (VKD) step in the complete synthesis of a number of blood coagulation factors that are required for normal blood coagulation. Warfarin also affects synthesis of VKD proteins not related to haemostasis including those involved in bone growth and vascular calcification. Antithrombotic activity of warfarin is considered responsible for some aspects of its anti-tumour activity of warfarin...
January 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353063/dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-which-probably-plays-important-roles-in-alzheimer-disease-ad-pathology-is-upregulated-in-ad-brain-neurons-and-associates-with-amyloid-plaques
#15
Hans-Gert Bernstein, Henrik Dobrowolny, Gerburg Keilhoff, Johann Steiner
There is evidence from in vitro experiments that dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) might play role(s) in amyloid formation. However, nothing is known about the localization of the enzyme in brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease. We herein show that in comparison to non-demented controls DPP IV is upregulated in AD brain neurons and occurs in multiple amyloid plaques.
January 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353059/ask-family-kinases-are-required-for-optimal-nlrp3-inflammasome-priming
#16
David E Place, Parimal Samir, Rajendra Karki, Benoit Briard, Peter Vogel, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Activation of the multimeric inflammasome complex leads to inflammatory responses to biotic and abiotic triggers. The inflammasome sensor, Nod-like receptor family Pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), is activated by a range of stimuli and is tightly regulated to restrict excessive inflammation. Because NLRP3 responds broadly to cellular insults and regulates cell death similar to the stress-activated apoptosis signal-regulating kinases 1 and 2 (ASK1/2), we hypothesized that ASK1/2 may regulate NLRP3 activity...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353045/functionally-compromised-synovium-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-charcot-neuroarthropathy
#17
Reed Mitchell, Jeremy Molligan, Sydney Rooney, Young Cho, Lew Schon, Zijun Zhang
Charcot neuroarthropathy (CNA) often presents as a diabetic foot complication. The role of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (syn-MSCs) in the pathogenesis of CNA is unclear. Synovial samples were collected, for isolation of syn-MSCs, from diabetic patients with CNA (n=7) and non-diabetic patients with intra-articular fracture or normal joints (non-CNA; n=7) during foot surgery. The syn-MSCs in the CNA and non-CNA groups were characterized comparatively. The average number of colonies formed in the CNA group was 6±3...
January 15, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353032/clinical-assessment-and-brain-findings-in-a-cohort-of-mothers-fetuses-and-infants-infected-with-zika-virus
#18
Magdalena Sanz Cortes, Ana Maria Rivera, Mayel Yepez, Carolina V Guimaraes, Israel Diaz Yunes, Alexander Zarutskie, Ivan Davila, Anil Shetty, Arun Mahadev, Saray Maria Serrano, Nicolas Castillo, Wesley Lee, Gregory Valentine, Michael Belfort, Guido Parra, Carrie Mohila, Kjersti Aagaard, Miguel Parra
BACKGROUND: Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can be detected in both the presence and absence of microcephaly, and manifests as a number of signs and symptoms detected clinically and by neuroimaging. However, to date, qualitative and quantitative measures for the purpose of diagnosis and prognosis are limited. OBJECTIVES: Main objectives of this study conducted on fetuses and infants with confirmed congenital ZIKV infection and detected brain abnormalities are: 1) To assess the prevalence of microcephaly and the frequency of the anomalies including a detailed description based on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses and ultrasound, MRI and computed tomography imaging postnatally; 2) To provide quantitative measures of fetal and infant brain findings by MRI using volumetric analyses and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI); 3) To obtain additional information from placental and fetal histopathological assessments and postnatal clinical evaluations...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353019/induction-by-innate-defence-regulator-peptide-1018-of-pro-angiogenic-molecules-and-endothelial-cell-migration-in-a-high-glucose-environment
#19
Paulina Marin-Luevano, Valentin Trujillo, Adrian Rodriguez-Carlos, Irma González-Curiel, Jose A Enciso-Moreno, Robert E W Hancock, Bruno Rivas-Santiago
Synthetic innate defence regulator (IDR) peptides such as IDR-1018 modulate immunity to promote key protective functions including chemotaxis, wound healing, and anti-infective activity, while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses to non-pathological levels. Here we demonstrated that IDR-1018 induced, by up to 75-fold, pro-angiogenic VEGF-165 in keratinocytes but suppressed this isoform in endothelial cells. It also induced early angiogenin and prolonged anti-inflammatory TGFβ expression on endothelial cells, while suppressing early pro-inflammatory IL-1β expression levels...
January 15, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352998/two-weeks-of-variable-stress-increases-gamma-h2ax-levels-in-the-mouse-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#20
Brendan D Hare, Tina M Thornton, Mercedes Rincon, Borivoj Golijanin, S Bradley King, Diane M Jaworski, William A Falls
Recent reports demonstrate that DNA damage is induced, and rapidly repaired, in circuits activated by experience. Moreover, stress hormones are known to slow DNA repair, suggesting that prolonged stress may result in persistent DNA damage. Prolonged stress is known to negatively impact physical and mental health; however, DNA damage as a factor in stress pathology has only begun to be explored. Histone H2A-X phosphorylated at serine 139 (γH2AX) is a marker of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), a type of damage that may lead to cell death if unrepaired...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
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