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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346966/factor-xii-contact-activation
#1
Clément Naudin, Elena Burillo, Stefan Blankenberg, Lynn Butler, Thomas Renné
Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively...
March 27, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346919/the-pregnancy-microbiome
#2
Hadar Neuman, Omry Koren
In recent years, microbiome research has revealed multiple essential roles of the microorganisms residing within the human body in host metabolism, immunity, and overall health. Numerous physiological and pathological states, including obesity and the metabolic syndrome, have been correlated with microbial changes, termed dysbiosis. Our microbiomes change in response to our environment, diet, weight, hormones, and other factors. It is, therefore, not surprising that there are also significant changes in the microbiome during pregnancy when dramatic weight gain and metabolic and immunological changes occur...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346806/active-surveillance-in-younger-men-with-prostate-cancer
#3
Michael S Leapman, Janet E Cowan, Hao G Nguyen, Katsuto K Shinohara, Nannette Perez, Matthew R Cooperberg, William J Catalona, Peter R Carroll
Purpose The suitability of younger patients with prostate cancer (PCa) for initial active surveillance (AS) has been questioned on the basis of eventual treatment necessity and concerns of safety; however, the role of age on surveillance outcomes has not been well defined. Patients and Methods We identified men managed with AS at our institution with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. The primary study objective was to examine the association of age with risk of biopsy-based Gleason score upgrade during AS. We also examined the association of age with related end points, including overall biopsy-determined progression, definitive treatment, and pathologic and biochemical outcomes after delayed radical prostatectomy (RP), using descriptive statistics, the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346715/cabergoline-related-impulse-control-disorder-in-an-adolescent-with-a-giant-prolactinoma
#4
C Bulwer, R Conn, A Shankar, F Ferrau, S Kapur, A Ederies, M Korbonits, H A Spoudeas
Giant prolactinomas, rare in children, can have devastating endocrine, neurological and visual sequelae. Dopamine agonists (DA) are effective first-line therapy with few side-effects at doses usually used for prolactinoma treatment(1) , but higher-dose therapy for Parkinson's disease has well-recognized associations with impulse control disorders (ICD) including pathological gambling, impulsive eating, compulsive shopping and hypersexuality. Such associations are not well recognized with prolactinomas; to our knowledge this is the first reported case of hypersexuality in an adolescent receiving cabergoline for a giant prolactinoma...
March 27, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346685/experience-of-shame-mediates-the-relationship-between-pathological-narcissism-and-suicidal-ideation-in-psychiatric-outpatients
#5
Nenad Jaksic, Darko Marcinko, Milena Skocic Hanzek, Blaz Rebernjak, John S Ogrodniczuk
OBJECTIVE: Pathological narcissism, described by 2 dysfunctional phenotypic forms-grandiosity and vulnerability-has often been connected to suicidal tendencies in theoretical and clinical literatures. Furthermore, shame proneness has been implicated as a key mechanism that links these 2 constructs. However, empirical evidence for the presumed relationship between pathological narcissism and suicidal tendencies is sparse, and no prior research has investigated the role of shame proneness in this relationship...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346666/disseminated-peripheral-neuroblastoma-in-a-rhodesian-ridgeback-dog
#6
R W Cook, L A Abraham, C I McCowan
CASE REPORT: A 4-year-old neutered male Rhodesian Ridgeback dog with right-sided Horner's syndrome, bilateral laryngeal paralysis, neck pain and bilateral hindlimb ataxia was euthanased following deterioration of its neurological status. Necropsy examination revealed an off-white retropharyngeal neoplastic mass (100 × 30 × 30 mm) attached to the base of the skull on the right side and macroscopic nodular metastases in the spleen and three vertebral bodies (C6, C7 and T6), including a nodule attached to the dura at C7...
April 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346664/a-cross-sectional-comparison-of-three-guidelines-for-intrapartum-cardiotocography
#7
Meena Bhatia, Kamal R Mahtani, David Nunan, Aparna Reddy
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cardiotocography classification systems outlined by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) in 2015 and the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2007 and 2014. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study of cardiotocography practices at a UK hospital was conducted among labor ward staff (n=21) from November 1 to November 31, 2015. All observers classified ten cardiotocography traces according to the three guidelines using a bespoke form...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346663/management-of-stage-iii-colon-cancer-in-the-elderly-practice-patterns-and-outcomes-in-the-general-population
#8
Shaila J Merchant, Sulaiman Nanji, Kelly Brennan, Safiya Karim, Sunil V Patel, James J Biagi, Christopher M Booth
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have established surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) as the standard management for stage III colon cancer; however, the extent to which these results apply to elderly patients in routine practice is unclear. This article describes the management and outcomes of elderly patients with stage III colon cancer. METHODS: All cases of surgically resected colon cancer from 2002 to 2008 were identified with the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry...
March 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346582/rates-and-characteristics-of-paid-malpractice-claims-among-us-physicians-by-specialty-1992-2014
#9
Adam C Schaffer, Anupam B Jena, Seth A Seabury, Harnam Singh, Venkat Chalasani, Allen Kachalia
Importance: Although physician concerns about medical malpractice are substantial, national data are lacking on the rate of claims paid on behalf of US physicians by specialty. Objective: To characterize paid malpractice claims by specialty. Design, Setting, and Participants: A comprehensive analysis was conducted of all paid malpractice claims, with linkage to physician specialty, from the National Practitioner Data Bank from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2014, a period including an estimated 19...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346578/association-of-plasma-neurofilament-light-with-neurodegeneration-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease
#10
Niklas Mattsson, Ulf Andreasson, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow
Importance: Existing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or imaging (tau positron emission tomography) biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive or expensive. Biomarkers based on standard blood test results would be useful in research, drug development, and clinical practice. Plasma neurofilament light (NFL) has recently been proposed as a blood-based biomarker for neurodegeneration in dementias. Objective: To test whether plasma NFL concentrations are increased in AD and associated with cognitive decline, other AD biomarkers, and imaging evidence of neurodegeneration...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346481/edaravone-protects-against-hyperosmolarity-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-primary-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#11
Yanwei Li, Haifeng Liu, Wei Zeng, Jing Wei
An increase in the osmolarity of tears induced by excessive evaporation of the aqueous tear phase is a major pathological mechanism behind dry eye. Exposure of epithelial cells on the surface of the human eye to hyperosmolarity leads to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. Edaravone, a hydroxyl radical scavenging agent, is clinically used to reduce neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In this study, we found that treatment with hyperosmotic media at 400 and 450 mOsM increased the levels of ROS and mitochondrial oxidative damage, which were ameliorated by edaravone treatment in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346430/il-17c-mediates-the-recruitment-of-tumor-associated-neutrophils-and-lung-tumor-growth
#12
C Jungnickel, L H Schmidt, L Bittigkoffer, L Wolf, A Wolf, F Ritzmann, A Kamyschnikow, C Herr, M D Menger, T Spieker, R Wiewrodt, R Bals, C Beisswenger
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer and an aberrant microbiota of the lung. Microbial colonization contributes to chronic neutrophilic inflammation in COPD. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is frequently found in lungs of stable COPD patients and is the major pathogen triggering exacerbations. The epithelial cytokine interleukin-17C (IL-17C) promotes the recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of IL-17C in the pulmonary tumor microenvironment...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346397/the-process-and-regulatory-components-of-inflammation-in-brain-oncogenesis
#13
REVIEW
A G M Mostofa, Surendra R Punganuru, Hanumantha Rao Madala, Mohammad Al-Obaide, Kalkunte S Srivenugopal
Central nervous system tumors comprising the primary cancers and brain metastases remain the most lethal neoplasms and challenging to treat. Substantial evidence points to a paramount role for inflammation in the pathology leading to gliomagenesis, malignant progression and tumor aggressiveness in the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment. This review summarizes the salient contributions of oxidative stress, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenases, and transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) and the associated cross-talks to the inflammatory signaling in CNS cancers...
March 27, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346371/modulation-of-trp-channel-activity-by-hydroxylation-and-its-therapeutic-potential
#14
REVIEW
Yagnesh Nagarajan, Grigori Y Rychkov, Daniel J Peet
Two transient receptor potential (TRP) channels-TRPA1 and TRPV3-are post-translationally hydroxylated, resulting in oxygen-dependent regulation of channel activity. The enzymes responsible are the HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) and the asparaginyl hydroxylase factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). The PHDs and FIH are well characterized for their hydroxylation of the hypoxic inducible transcription factors (HIFs), mediating their hypoxic regulation. Consequently, these hydroxylases are currently being targeted therapeutically to modulate HIF activity in anemia, inflammation, and ischemic disease...
March 27, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346329/cardiac-computed-tomography-radiomics-a-comprehensive-review-on-radiomic-techniques
#15
Márton Kolossváry, Miklós Kellermayer, Béla Merkely, Pál Maurovich-Horvat
Radiologic images are vast three-dimensional data sets in which each voxel of the underlying volume represents distinct physical measurements of a tissue-dependent characteristic. Advances in technology allow radiologists to image pathologies with unforeseen detail, thereby further increasing the amount of information to be processed. Even though the imaging modalities have advanced greatly, our interpretation of the images has remained essentially unchanged for decades. We have arrived in the era of precision medicine where even slight differences in disease manifestation are seen as potential target points for new intervention strategies...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346327/development-of-a-new-outcome-prediction-model-in-early-stage-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-oral-cavity-based-on-histopathologic-parameters-with-multivariate-analysis-the-aditi-nuzhat-lymph-node-prediction-score-anlps-system
#16
Aditi Arora, Nuzhat Husain, Ankur Bansal, Azfar Neyaz, Ritika Jaiswal, Kavitha Jain, Arun Chaturvedi, Nidhi Anand, Kiranpreet Malhotra, Saumya Shukla
The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic parameters that predict lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to design a new assessment score on the basis of these parameters that could ultimately allow for changes in treatment decisions or aid clinicians in deciding whether there is a need for close follow-up or to perform early lymph node dissection. Histopathologic parameters of 336 cases of OSCC with stage cT1/T2 N0M0 disease were analyzed. The location of the tumor and the type of surgery used for the management of the tumor were recorded for all patients...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346326/sarcomas-with-cic-rearrangements-are-a-distinct-pathologic-entity-with-aggressive-outcome-a-clinicopathologic-and-molecular-study-of-115-cases
#17
Cristina R Antonescu, Adepitan A Owosho, Lei Zhang, Sonja Chen, Kemal Deniz, Joseph M Huryn, Yu-Chien Kao, Shih-Chiang Huang, Samuel Singer, William Tap, Inga-Marie Schaefer, Christopher D Fletcher
CIC-DUX4 gene fusion, resulting from either a t(4;19) or t(10;19) translocation, is the most common genetic abnormality detected in EWSR1-negative small blue round cell tumors. Following their discovery it was debated if these tumors should be classified as variants of Ewing sarcoma (ie, atypical Ewing sarcoma) or as a stand-alone pathologic entity. As such the WHO classification temporarily grouped the CIC-rearranged tumors under undifferentiated sarcomas with round cell phenotype, until further clinical evidence was available...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346285/effect-of-early-revascularization-on-outcomes-in-diabetic-patients-with-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-and-previous-myocardial-infarction-in-the-bypass-angioplasty-investigation-2-diabetes-trial
#18
Matthew J Chung, Eric Novak, David L Brown
BACKGROUND: Survivors of a myocardial infarction (MI) are at a considerable risk of developing further cardiovascular events, including recurrent MI, heart failure, stroke, and death. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) have worse outcomes than their nondiabetic counterparts, and those with previous MI may be at particularly high risk. Yet, little is known about the effect of adding early revascularization to intensive medical therapy in this high-risk group...
March 24, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346246/analysis-of-a-patient-intervention-to-reduce-patients-who-leave-without-being-seen-in-an-ophthalmology-dedicated-emergency-room
#19
Alice C Lorch, Maureen Martinez, Matthew Gardiner
Patients who leave without being seen (LWBS) by a medical provider in emergency care settings are a concern because their urgent complaints remain unaddressed. This study aims to characterize the LWBS population in an ophthalmology-dedicated emergency room and to evaluate an intervention designed to decrease the number of these patients. A program of rounding and patient contact in the waiting room of our emergency room was initiated to this end. A patient database was used retrospectively to review 13,124 charts and collect clinical and demographic data on 71 LWBS patients...
March 24, 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346227/reducing-expression-of-synapse-restricting-protein-ephexin5-ameliorates-alzheimer-s-like-impairment-in-mice
#20
Gabrielle L Sell, Thomas B Schaffer, Seth S Margolis
Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein may cause synapse degeneration and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by reactivating expression of the developmental synapse repressor protein Ephexin5 (also known as ARHGEF15). Here, we have reported that Aβ is sufficient to acutely promote the production of Ephexin5 in mature hippocampal neurons and in mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP mice), a model for familial AD that produces high brain levels of Aβ. Ephexin5 expression was highly elevated in the hippocampi of human AD patients, indicating its potential relevance to AD...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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