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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915434/differences-in-the-mutational-landscape-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-in-african-americans-and-caucasians
#1
Foluso O Ademuyiwa, Yu Tao, Jingqin Luo, Katherine Weilbaecher, Cynthia X Ma
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) occurs at higher frequency in African Americans compared with Caucasians. It is unclear if the biology of TNBC is different in African American versus Caucasians. In this study, we sought to evaluate racial differences in the molecular pathology of TNBC. METHODS: Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified TNBC patients with information on race. We analyzed differences in clinical characteristics, tumor somatic mutations, and gene expression patterns by race from whole exome and microarray data...
December 3, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915419/necrotizing-meningoencephalitis-caused-by-sarcocystis-falcatula-in-bare-faced-ibis-phimosus-infuscatus
#2
Guilherme Konradt, Matheus Viezzer Bianchi, Ronaldo Viana Leite-Filho, Bruna Zafalon da Silva, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, David Driemeier
The infection by S. falcatula is commonly associated with respiratory disease in captive psittacine birds, with a few case reports of this protozoan causing encephalitis in wild birds. We describe the clinical, pathological, and molecular aspects of an infection by S. falcatula in a bare-faced ibis (Phimosus infuscatus). Clinically, wing paralysis and mild motor incoordination were observed. At necropsy, the telencephalic cortex showed multifocal to coalescing yellowish soft areas. Histologically, multifocal to coalescent nonsuppurative necrotizing meningoencephalitis of telencephalic cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem was observed...
December 3, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915400/the-pathophysiological-role-of-nox2-in-hypertension-and-organ-damage
#3
REVIEW
Maurizio Forte, Cristina Nocella, Elena De Falco, Silvia Palmerio, Leonardo Schirone, Valentina Valenti, Giacomo Frati, Roberto Carnevale, Sebastiano Sciarretta
NADPH oxidases (NOXs) represent one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species in the vascular district. Reactive oxygen species are responsible for vascular damage that leads to several cardiovascular pathological conditions. Among NOX isoforms, NOX2 is widely expressed in many cells types, such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, confirming its pivotal role in vascular pathophysiology. Studies in mice models with systemic deletion of NOX2, as well as in transgenic mice overexpressing NOX2, have demonstrated the undeniable involvement of NOX2 in the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cardiac hypertrophy, platelet aggregation, and aging...
December 3, 2016: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915370/prognostic-significance-of-the-lymphocyte-to-monocyte-ratio-and-the-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocyte-to-tumor-associated-macrophage-ratio-in-patients-with-stage-t3n0m0-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Yingming Zhu, Minghuan Li, Cong Bo, Xuemei Liu, Jianbo Zhang, Zhenxiang Li, Fen Zhao, Li Kong, Jinming Yu
PURPOSE: We assessed the prognostic significance of, and the relationship between, the pretreatment lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and the TILs/tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) ratio, in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) of pathological stage T3N0M0 (pT3N0M0). METHODS: A total of 220 newly diagnosed ESCC patients of stage pT3N0M0 who had not undergone neoadjuvant therapy were included. Densities of CD8+ TILs, CD4+ TILs, CD45RO+ TILs, and CD68+ TAMs were assessed by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarray cores from all 220 pT3N0M0 ESCC patients (who underwent radical resection)...
December 3, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915361/neuroscience-literacy-brain-tells-as-signals-of-brain-dysfunction-affecting-daily-life
#5
Charlotte B Royeen, James R Brašić, Leah Dvorak, Casey Provoziak-O'Brien, Chetna Sethi, S Omar Ahmad
The structures and circuits of the central and the peripheral nervous systems provide the basis for thinking, speaking, experiencing sensations, and performing perceptual and motor activities in daily life. Healthy people experience normal functioning without giving brain functions a second thought, while dysfunction of the neural circuits may lead to marked impairments in cognition, communication, sensory awareness, and performing perceptual and motor tasks. Neuroscience literacy provides the knowledge to associate the deficits observed in patients with the underlying deficits in the structures and circuits of the nervous system...
2016: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915236/alcohol-and-alzheimer-s-disease-does-alcohol-dependence-contribute-to-beta-amyloid-deposition-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Ashwin Venkataraman, Nicola Kalk, Gavin Sewell, Craig W Ritchie, Anne Lingford-Hughes
AIMS: To investigate the underlying neurobiology between alcohol use, misuse and dependence and cognitive impairment, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Review of the literature using searches of Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and meeting abstracts and presentations. RESULTS: The role of alcohol as a risk factor and contributor for cognitive decline associated with AD has received little attention. This is despite the high prevalence of alcohol use, the potential reversibility of a degree of cognitive impairment and the global burden of AD...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915213/case-report-of-cholelithiasis-in-a-patient-with-type-1-gaucher-disease
#7
Afrim Avdaj, Naim Fanaj, Mirsade Osmani, Agron Bytyqi, Anila Cake
INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 1 Gaucher disease have been reported to be more likely to have cholelithiasis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A case of cholelithiasis in a patient with type 1 Gaucher disease; which is very intriguing to show this comorbidity. The case was the only known case with this pathology in time of diagnosis in our country (Kosovo). The patient is a 21-year old girl a known case of type 1 Gaucher disease, at the age of 8 years. The patient underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915170/optimization-of-substituted-imidazobenzodiazepines-as-novel-asthma-treatments
#8
Rajwana Jahan, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Gloria S Forkuo, Revathi Kodali, Margaret L Guthrie, Amanda N Nieman, Nina Y Yuan, Nicolas M Zahn, Michael M Poe, Guanguan Li, Olivia B Yu, Gene T Yocum, Charles W Emala, Douglas C Stafford, James M Cook, Leggy A Arnold
We describe the synthesis of analogs of XHE-III-74, a selective α4β3γ2 GABAAR ligand, shown to relax airway smooth muscle ex vivo and reduce airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine asthma model. To improve properties of this compound as an asthma therapeutic, a series of analogs with a deuterated methoxy group in place of methoxy group at C-8 position was evaluated for isotope effects in preclinical assays; including microsomal stability, cytotoxicity, and sensorimotor impairment. The deuterated compounds were equally or more metabolically stable than the corresponding non-deuterated analogs and increased sensorimotor impairment was observed for some deuterated compounds...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915160/histone-deacetylase-9-plays-a-role-in-the-antifibrogenic-effect-of-astaxanthin-in-hepatic-stellate-cells
#9
Yue Yang, Minkyung Bae, Young-Ki Park, Yoojin Lee, Tho X Pham, Swetha Rudraiah, José Manautou, Sung I Koo, Ji-Young Lee
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is critical for liver fibrosis development. Previously, we showed that astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, has antifibrogenic effects in LX-2 cells, a human HSC cell line. We sought to determine the effect of ASTX on HSC activation, and to identify molecular mediators that are critically involved in the processes. ASTX prevented the activation of mouse primary HSCs, as evidenced by attenuated induction of procollagen type I α1. In human primary HSCs, ASTX also inhibited transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)-induced fibrogenic gene expression...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915122/effects-of-a-training-in-mental-imagery-on-worry-a-proof-of-principle-study
#10
Timo Skodzik, Alexandra Leopold, Thomas Ehring
Worry is characterized by a predominance of verbal thinking and relatively little mental imagery. This cognitive bias of verbal and abstract processing has been found to impair emotional processing of worry topics so that worrisome thoughts are maintained. On the other hand, engaging in mental imagery during the worry process fosters emotional processing of worry themes. In the present study, we examined whether training high worriers (n=71) to use more mental imagery in their everyday lives is an effective intervention to reduce pathological worry...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915119/neural-correlates-of-pupil-dilation-during-human-fear-learning
#11
Laura Leuchs, Max Schneider, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning and extinction are prevailing experimental and etiological models for normal and pathological anxiety. Pupil dilations in response to conditioned stimuli are increasingly used as a robust psychophysiological readout of fear learning, but their neural correlates remain unknown. We aimed at identifying the neural correlates of pupil responses to threat and safety cues during a fear learning task. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy subjects underwent a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm with simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and pupillometry...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915116/7t-mr-of-intracranial-pathology-preliminary-observations-and-comparisons-to-3t-and-1-5t
#12
Emmanuel C Obusez, Mark Lowe, Se-Hong Oh, Irene Wang, M S Jennifer Bullen, Paul Ruggieri, Virginia Hill, Daniel Lockwood, Todd Emch, Doksu Moon, Gareth Loy, Jonathan Lee, Matthew Kiczek, D O Manoj Massand, Volodymyr Statsevych, Todd Stultz, Stephen E Jones
PURPOSE: There have been an increasing number of studies involving ultra-high-field 7T of intracranial pathology, however, comprehensive clinical studies of neuropathology at 7T still remain limited. 7T has the advantage of a higher signal-to-noise ratio and a higher contrast-to-noise ratio, compared to current low field clinical MR scanners. We hypothesized 7T applied clinically, may improve detection and characterization of intracranial pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an IRB-approved 7T prospective study of patients with neurological disease who previously had lower field 3T and 1...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915065/assessment-of-white-matter-transgression-during-neuroendoscopic-procedures-using-dti-fiber-tracking
#13
Sergio García, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Arnau Benet, Laura Oleaga, José Juan González Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Presurgical planning allows anticipating intraoperative difficulties, increasing efficiency, and reducing risks. Neuroendoscopy is a minimally invasive technique whose related complications have been focused on cortical function and surface vessels injury. However, white matter disruption has been insufficiently acknowledged. OBJECTIVE: To present a new surgical planning method based on diffusion tensor image that allows quantifying subcortical transgression and optimizing neuroendoscopic trajectories...
November 30, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915062/rosette-forming-glioneuronal-tumor-originating-from-the-spinal-cord-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#14
Lian Duan, Yunkun Zhang, Weilun Fu, Sumin Geng
Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) is a recently recognized and rarely encountered tumor occurring in the fourth ventricle. Histologically, it is composed by two distinct features: a glial component, resembling pilocytic astrocytoma, and a neurocytic component forming neurocytic rosettes and/or perivascular rosettes. The authors describe two extremely rare cases of RGNT arising from the spinal cord, which were misdiagnosed as ependymoma and astrocytoma preoperatively. Symptoms included dissociated sensory disturbance, episodic pain and fatigue, as well as motor disturbance, had been presented for two years and two months, respectively...
November 30, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915042/non-coding-rnas-and-berberine-a-new-mechanism-of-its-anti-diabetic-activities
#15
REVIEW
Wenguang Chang
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease with high mortality and morbidity. Non-coding RNAs, including small and long non-coding RNAs, are a novel class of functional RNA molecules that regulate multiple biological functions through diverse mechanisms. Studies in the last decade have demonstrated that non-coding RNAs may represent compelling therapeutic targets and play important roles in regulating the course of insulin resistance and T2D. Berberine, a plant-based alkaloid, has shown promise as an anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic agent against T2D...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915032/reelin-expression-is-up-regulated-in-mice-colon-in-response-to-acute-colitis-and-provides-resistance-against-colitis
#16
Ana E Carvajal, María D Vázquez-Carretero, Pablo García-Miranda, María J Peral, María L Calonge, Anunciación A Ilundain
Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein first known for its key role in neuronal migration. Studies in rodent small intestine suggested that reelin protects the organism from intestinal pathology. Here we determined in mice colon, by real time-PCR and immunological assays, the expression of the reelin signalling system; its response to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) and the response of wild-type and reeler mice to DSS. DNA methylation was determined by bisulfite modification and sequencing of genomic DNA. In the colon mucosa reelin expression is restricted to the myofibroblasts, whereas both epithelial cells and myofibroblasts express reelin receptors (ApoER2 and VLDLR) and its effector protein Dab1...
November 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914975/techniques-for-chronic-monitoring-of-brain-activity-in-freely-moving-sheep-using-wireless-longitudinal-eeg-recording
#17
N Perentos, A U Nicol, A Q Martins, J E Stewart, P Taylor, A J Morton
BACKGROUND: Large mammals with complex central nervous systems offer new possibilities for translational research into basic brain function. Techniques for monitoring brain activity in large mammals, however, are not as well developed as they are in rodents. NEW METHOD: We have developed a method for chronic monitoring of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in unrestrained sheep. We describe the methods for behavioural training prior to implantation, surgical procedures for implantation, a protocol for reliable anaesthesia and recovery, methods for EEG data collection, as well as data pertaining to suitability and longevity of different types of electrodes...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#18
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914866/co-signaling-molecules-in-maternal-fetal-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Yuan-Yuan Xu, Song-Cun Wang, Da-Jin Li, Mei-Rong Du
Physiologically, a successful pregnancy requires the maternal immune system to recognize and tolerate the semiallogeneic fetus, and allow for normal invasion of trophoblasts. Thus, pregnancy complications are considered to be associated with dysfunctional maternal-fetal crosstalk. Co-signaling molecules are a group of cell surface molecules that positively or negatively modulate the immune response. Well studied in the fields of oncology and transplantation, they are also suggested to be involved in maternal-fetal crosstalk...
November 30, 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914823/rapamycin-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-endothelial-cells-in-hemangioma-by-blocking-the-mtor-fabp4-pathway
#20
Ying Wang, Jiarui Chen, Weiqing Tang, Yanping Zhang, Xiaoyan Li
FABP4 is widely expressed in both normal and pathologic tissues. It promotes cell proliferation, survival and migration of endothelial cells, and therefore, angiogenesis. However, the role of FABP4 in hemangioma or hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs) has not been explored. In this study, we investigated whether FABP4 directly regulates the proliferation of HemECs. The expression of cell cycle checkpoint genes was analyzed with the microarray data of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDVECs) and infantile hemangioma endothelial cells...
November 30, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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