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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150992/accelerated-aging-and-aging-process-in-the-brain
#1
Nickolay K Isaev, Elisaveta E Genrikhs, Maria V Oborina, Elena V Stelmashook
One of the approaches to the research of the problem of aging is the study of genetic pathologies leading to accelerated aging, such as the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Down syndrome. Probably, this approach can be used in an attempt to understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying normal and pathological brain aging. The analysis of the current state of scientific knowledge about these pathologies shows that in the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria and Werner syndrome, the rate of brain aging is significantly lower than the rate of whole body aging, whereas in Down syndrome, the brain ages faster than other organs due to amyloid-beta accumulation and chronic oxidative stress in the brain tissue...
November 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150981/systematic-proteomic-analysis-of-protein-methylation-in-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes-revealed-distinct-substrate-specificity
#2
Min Zhang, Jun-Yu Xu, Hao Hu, Bang-Ce Ye, Minjia Tan
The studies of protein methylation mainly focus on lysine and arginine residues due to their diverse roles in essential cellular processes from gene expression to signal transduction. Nevertheless, atypical protein methylation occurring on amino acid residues, such as glutamine and glutamic acid, was largely neglected until recently. In addition, the systematic analysis for the distribution of methylation on different amino acids in various species is still lacking, which hinders our understanding of its functional roles...
November 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150951/inflammasome-its-role-in-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Keywan Mortezaee, Neda Khanlarkhani, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) are pathological events that lead to neuropathological conditions which have in consequence the initiation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the secondary phase of both TBI and SCI after initial cell death. Activation of cytoplasmic inflammasome complexes is regarded as the essential step of neuroinflammation and a key trigger for neuronal death called pyroptosis. Inflammasome complexes are involved in activation of caspase-1 which catalyzes the cleavage of pro-interleukins into their active forms (including interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-1β)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150946/lncrna-tcons_00034812-in-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-and-its-mechanism
#4
Yun Liu, Zengxian Sun, Jinquan Zhu, Bingxin Xiao, Jie Dong, Xiaomin Li
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered to be playing important role in various biological processes. However, the contribution of lncRNAs to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) remains largely unknown. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is an important pathological feature of PAH, leading to increased vascular resistance and reduced compliance. Here, we investigated the biological role of lncRNAs in PAH. Differences in the lncRNAs and mRNAs between hypoxia PAH rats and normoxia rats were screened using microarray analysis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150945/development-of-an-in-vivo-mouse-model-of-discogenic-low-back-pain
#5
Changgui Shi, Vaskar Das, Xin Li, Ranjan Kc, Sujun Qiu, InSug O-Sullivan, Richard L Ripper, Jeffrey S Kroin, Fackson Mwale, Atiyayein A Wallace, Bingqian Zhu, Lan Zhao, Andre J van Wijnen, Mingliang Ji, Jun Lu, Gina Votta-Velis, Wen Yuan, Hee-Jeong Im
Discogenic Low back pain (DLBP) is extremely common and costly. Effective treatments are lacking due to DLBP's unknown pathogenesis. Currently, there are no in vivo mouse models of DLBP, which restricts research in this field. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable DLBP model in mouse that captures the pathological changes in the disc and allows longitudinal pain testing. The model was generated by puncturing the mouse lumbar discs (L4/5, L5/6, and L6/S1) and removing the nucleus pulposus using a microscalpel under the microscope...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150919/a-focus-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-alpha-synuclein-and-a-re-appraisal-of-synucleinopathies
#6
Larisa Ryskalin, Carla L Busceti, Fiona Limanaqi, Francesca Biagioni, Stefano Gambardella, Francesco Fornai
Alpha synuclein (α-syn) belongs to a class of proteins which are commonly considered to play a detrimental role in neuronal survival. This assumption is based on the occurrence of a severe neuronal degeneration in patients carrying a multiplication of the α-syn gene (SNCA) and in a variety of experimental models, where overexpression of α-syn leads to cell death and neurological impairment. In these conditions, a higher amount of normally structured α-syn produces a damage, which is even worse compared with that produced by α-syn owing an abnormal structure (as occurring following point gene mutations)...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150918/central-role-of-transforming-ggrowth-factor-type-beta-1-in-skeletal-muscle-dysfunctions-an-update-on-therapeutic-strategies
#7
Johanna Abrigo, Felipe Simon, Daniel Cabrera, Gonzalo Cordova, Capucine Trollet, Claudio Cabello Verrugio
Among the soluble factors that regulate skeletal muscle function, Transforming Growth Factor type Beta 1 (TGF-b1) is one of the most studied. This factor inhibits myogenesis and regeneration by regulating the activity and function of satellite cells (SCs). Indeed, TGF-b has a central role in muscle pathologies in which there is development of fibrosis and/or atrophy of skeletal muscle. Thus, in this review we present the critical and recent antecedents regarding the mechanisms and cellular targets involved in the effects of TGF-b1 in the muscle, in pathological processes such as the inhibition of regeneration, fibrosis and atrophy...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150834/il-22-neutralizing-autoantibodies-impair-fungal-clearance-in-murine-oropharyngeal-candidiasis-model
#8
Rudolf Bichele, Jaanika Kärner, Kai Truusalu, Imbi Smidt, Reet Mändar, Heather R Conti, Sarah L Gaffen, Pärt Peterson, Martti Laan, Kai Kisand
Protection against mucocutaneous candidiasis depends on the T helper (Th)17 pathway, as gene defects affecting its integrity result in inability to clear Candida albicans infection on body surfaces. Moreover, autoantibodies neutralizing Th17 cytokines have been related to chronic candidiasis in a rare inherited disorder called autoimmune polyendocriopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) caused by mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. However, the direct pathogenicity of these autoantibodies has not yet been addressed...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150811/alk-expression-plays-different-roles-in-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphomas-and-outcome-of-crizotinib-use-in-relapsed-refractory-alk-patients-in-a-chinese-population
#9
Ling Huang, Fen Zhang, Jialong Zeng, Hanguo Guo, Sichu Liu, Xiaojuan Wei, Feili Chen, Xinmiao Jiang, Zhanli Liang, Yanhui Liu, Wenyu Li
The prognostic value of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression in patients with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) remains controversial. Data on the clinical features of ALCL in a Chinese population are limited. We retrospectively reviewed 1293 patients with pathologically diagnosed lymphoma at Guangdong General Hospital from June 2007 through August 2016. We evaluated the incidence of ALCL, clinical characteristics, survival status, and outcome of crizotinib use in four relapsed/refractory ALK-positive patients...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150779/perioperative-transesophageal-echocardiography-for-non-cardiac-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Ashraf Fayad, Sasha K Shillcutt
PURPOSE: The use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has evolved to include patients undergoing high-risk non-cardiac procedures and patients with significant cardiac disease undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Implementation of basic TEE education in training programs has increased across a broad spectrum of procedures in the perioperative arena. This paper describes the use of perioperative TEE in non-cardiac surgery and provides an overview of the basic TEE examination. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perioperative TEE is used to monitor hemodynamic parameters in non-cardiac procedures where there is a high risk of hemodynamic instability...
November 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150742/associations-between-nucleus-size-and-immunohistochemical-galectin-3-cytokeratine-19-and-hbme-1-markers-in-thyroid-papillary-carcinoma-a-morphometric-analyze
#11
Hatice Toy, Ozlem Etli, Zeliha Esin Celik, Arsenal Sezgin Alikanoglu
This study aimed to evaluate the morphometric measurements in cases with papillary thyroid carcinoma, and determine a cut-off value to support diagnosis. Fifty cases with a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were included in the study with their Galectine-3, CK-19 and HBME-1 immunohistochemical staining results. Demographic and clinical data gathered from pathology reports, which included demographic information such as patients' sex, age, macroscopic tumor size, number of tumor focuses; prognostic parameters such as lenfovascular invasion, perineural invasion, thyroid capsule invasion; and results of immunohistochemical CK- 19, Galectin-3 and HBME-1 staining...
November 17, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150718/re-educating-immunity-in-respiratory-allergies-the-potential-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mediated-gene-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Jeremy F Brooks, Janet M Davies, James W Wells, Raymond J Steptoe
Respiratory allergies represent a significant disease burden worldwide affecting up to 300 million people globally. Medication and avoidance of known triggers do not address the underlying pathology. Traditional immunotherapies for allergy aim to reinstate immune homeostasis but require years of treatment and have poor long-term efficacy. Novel approaches, such as gene-engineered hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, induce profound antigen-specific tolerance in autoimmunity. Recent evidence shows this approach may also have therapeutic utility for allergy...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150671/urothelial-cancer-proteomics-provides-both-prognostic-and-functional-information
#13
Guillermo de Velasco, Lucia Trilla-Fuertes, Angelo Gamez-Pozo, Maria Urbanowicz, Gustavo Ruiz-Ares, Juan M Sepúlveda, Guillermo Prado-Vazquez, Jorge M Arevalillo, Andrea Zapater-Moros, Hilario Navarro, Rocio Lopez-Vacas, Ray Manneh, Irene Otero, Felipe Villacampa, Jesus M Paramio, Juan Angel Fresno Vara, Daniel Castellano
Traditionally, bladder cancer has been classified based on histology features. Recently, some works have proposed a molecular classification of invasive bladder tumors. To determine whether proteomics can define molecular subtypes of  muscle invasive urothelial cancer (MIUC) and allow evaluating the status of biological processes and its clinical value. 58 MIUC patients who underwent curative surgical resection at our institution between 2006 and 2012 were included. Proteome was evaluated by high-throughput proteomics in routinely archive FFPE tumor tissue...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150644/therapeutic-effects-of-hepatocyte-growth-factor-overexpressing-dental-pulp-stem-cells-on-liver-cirrhosis-in-a-rat-model
#14
Xiao-Fang Cao, Shi-Zhu Jin, Liang Sun, Yuan-Bo Zhan, Feng Lin, Ying Li, Ying-Lian Zhou, Xiu-Mei Wang, Li Gao, Bin Zhang
Cirrhosis is the terminal stage of hepatic diseases and is prone to develop into hepatocyte carcinoma. Increasing evidence suggests that the transplantation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) may promote recovery from cirrhosis, but the key regulatory mechanisms involved remain to be determined. In this study, we overexpressed human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) in primary rat DPSCs and evaluated the effects of HGF overexpression on the biological behaviors and therapeutic efficacy of grafted DPSCs in cirrhosis...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150624/semiquantative-visual-assessment-of-sub-solid-pulmonary-nodules-%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-cm-in-differentiation-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-spectrum
#15
Fu-Zong Wu, Po-An Chen, Carol C Wu, Pei-Lun Kuo, Shu-Ping Tsao, Chu-Chun Chien, En-Kuei Tang, Ming-Ting Wu
We aimed to analyze CT features of persistent subsolid nodules (SSN) ≦3 cm diagnosed pathologically as adenocarcinoma spectrum to investigate whether parameters enable distinction between invasive pulmonary adenocarcinomas (IPAs) and pre-invasive lesions. A total of 129 patients with 141 SSNs confirmed with surgically pathologic proof were retrospectively reviewed. Of 141 SSNs, there were 57 pure ground-glass nodules (GGNs), 22 heterogeneous GGNs, and 62 part-solid nodules. SSN subclassification showed a significant linear trend with invasive degree of the adenocarcinoma spectrum (pure GGNs 7%; heterogeneous GGNs 36...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150616/nmr-metabolomics-for-stem-cell-type-discrimination
#16
Franca Castiglione, Monica Ferro, Evangelos Mavroudakis, Rosalia Pellitteri, Patrizia Bossolasco, Damiano Zaccheo, Massimo Morbidelli, Vincenzo Silani, Andrea Mele, Davide Moscatelli, Lidia Cova
Cell metabolism is a key determinant factor for the pluripotency and fate commitment of Stem Cells (SCs) during development, ageing, pathological onset and progression. We derived and cultured selected subpopulations of rodent fetal, postnatal, adult Neural SCs (NSCs) and postnatal glial progenitors, Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs), respectively from the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the olfactory bulb (OB). Cell lysates were analyzed by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy leading to metabolites identification and quantitation...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150612/health-impact-of-e-cigarettes-a-prospective-3-5-year-study-of-regular-daily-users-who-have-never-smoked
#17
Riccardo Polosa, Fabio Cibella, Pasquale Caponnetto, Marilena Maglia, Umberto Prosperini, Cristina Russo, Donald Tashkin
Although electronic cigarettes (ECs) are a much less harmful alternative to tobacco cigarettes, there is concern as to whether long-term ECs use may cause risks to human health. We report health outcomes (blood pressure, heart rate, body weight, lung function, respiratory symptoms, exhaled breath nitric oxide [eNO], exhaled carbon monoxide [eCO], and high-resolution computed tomography [HRCT] of the lungs) from a prospective 3.5-year observational study of a cohort of nine daily EC users (mean age 29.7 (±6...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150527/transcriptional-regulators-of-redox-balance-and-other-homeostatic-processes-with-the-potential-to-alter-neurodegenerative-disease-trajectory
#18
REVIEW
Scott W Burnside, Giles E Hardingham
Diverse neurodegenerative diseases share some common aspects to their pathology, with many showing evidence of disruption to the brain's numerous homeostatic processes. As such, imbalanced inflammatory status, glutamate dyshomeostasis, hypometabolism and oxidative stress are implicated in many disorders. That these pathological processes can influence each other both up- and downstream makes for a complicated picture, but means that successfully targeting one area may have an effect on others. This targeting requires an understanding of the mechanisms by which homeostasis is maintained during health, in order to uncover strategies to boost homeostasis in disease...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150493/very-late-pathological-responses-to-cobalt-chromium-everolimus-eluting-stainless-steel-sirolimus-eluting-and-cobalt-chromium-bare-metal-stents-in-humans
#19
Hiroyoshi Mori, Dheeraj R Atmakuri, Sho Torii, Ryan Braumann, Samantha Smith, Hiroyuki Jinnouchi, Anuj Gupta, Emanuel Harari, Melsi Shkullaku, Robert Kutys, David Fowler, Maria Romero, Renu Virmani, Aloke V Finn
BACKGROUND: The "very late" clinical outcomes for durable polymer drug-eluting stents and bare metal stents (BMSs) have been shown to be dissimilar in clinical studies. Conceptually, the long-term vascular compatibility of BMSs is still regarded to be superior to drug-eluting stents; however, no pathologic study to date has specifically addressed this issue. We evaluated the very late (≥1 year) pathologic responses to durable polymer drug-eluting stents (cobalt-chromium [CoCr] everolimus-eluting stents [EESs] and stainless steel sirolimus-eluting stents [SS-SESs]) versus BMSs (CoCr-BMSs)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150483/correction-for-de-moraes-et-al-murine-model-for-preclinical-studies-of-var2csa-mediated-pathology-associated-with-malaria-in-pregnancy
#20
Luciana V de Moraes, Sebastien Dechavanne, Patrícia M Sousa, André Barateiro, Sónia F Cunha, Sofia Nunes-Silva, Flávia A Lima, Oscar Murillo, Claudio R F Marinho, Stephane Gangnard, Anand Srivastava, Joanna A Braks, Chris J Janse, Benoit Gamain, Blandine Franke-Fayard, Carlos Penha-Gonçalves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Infection and Immunity
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