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Elizabeth M Irungu, Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Kenneth Ngure, Elly Katabira, Nulu Bulya, Elizabeth Bukusi, Josephine Odoyo, Stephen Asiimwe, Edna Tindimwebwa, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduce HIV-1 transmission within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Prioritizing couples at highest HIV-1 transmission risk for ART and PrEP would maximize impact and minimize costs. METHODS: The Partners Demonstration Project is an open-label, delivery study of integrated PrEP and ART for HIV-1 prevention among high risk HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. We evaluated the feasibility of using a validated risk score that weighs a combination of easily measurable factors (age, children, marital status, male circumcision status, condom use, plasma HIV-1 levels) to identify couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission for enrollment...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Paul E Farmer, Joseph J Rhatigan
Shortages of trained health care workers plague low- and middle-income countries around the world. When resources are scarce, the ability to support medical education is severely constrained. While there are many important "building blocks" of health systems that need to be bolstered in low- and middle-income countries, the authors propose that U.S. academic medicine can make unique contributions in the realm of human resource development-specifically, increasing the supply of physicians who directly provide health care to the populations they serve and who often manage and lead these health systems...
October 4, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Clara Chepkirui, Christian Richter, Josphat Clement Matasyoh, Marc Stadler
Eight previously undescribed compounds were isolated and characterised from the supernatant and mycelium of a culture of the basidiomycete Favolaschia calocera originating from Kakamega equatorial rainforest in Kenya. These were: 9- oxostrobilurins A, G, K and I and the four monochlorinated calocerins A, B, C and D. The calocerins extend our knowledge of halogenated compounds obtained from natural sources. Four further known compounds were also identified: strobilurin G, favolon, pterulinic acid and 2,3 -dihydro-1-benzoxepin derivative...
October 13, 2016: Phytochemistry
E Zonabend König, J M K Ojango, J Audho, T Mirkena, E Strandberg, A M Okeyo, J Philipsson
Meat production is the most important trait in the breeding objectives of sheep production in East Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate breed differences in live weight, conformation, carcass traits and economic values for meat production among Red Maasai and Dorper sheep and their crosses. In total, 88 ram lambs, which were reared at the ILRI experimental station, Kapiti plains Estate in Central Kenya, were used for the study. The lambs were slaughtered at Kenya Meat Commission (KMC) at about 1 year of age...
October 14, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Wei Chang, Gabriel Chamie, Daniel Mwai, Tamara D Clark, Harsha Thirumurthy, Edwin D Charlebois, Maya Petersen, Jane Kabami, Emmanuel Ssemmondo, Kevin Kadede, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Norton Sang, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Moses Kamya, Diane V Havlir, James G Kahn
BACKGROUND: In 2013-2014, we achieved 89% adult HIV testing coverage using a hybrid testing approach in 32 communities in Uganda and Kenya (SEARCH: NCT01864603). To inform scalability, we sought to determine: (1) overall cost and efficiency of this approach; and (2) costs associated with point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing, multidisease services, and community mobilization. METHODS: We applied microcosting methods to estimate costs of population-wide HIV testing in 12 SEARCH trial communities...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
L E Higham, W Ongeri, K Asena, M V Thrusfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ken-Ichi Mizuno, Kazuya Takahashi, Kentaro Tominaga, Yuki Nishigaki, Hiroki Sato, Satoshi Ikarashi, Kazunao Hayashi, Takashi Yamamoto, Yutaka Honda, Satoru Hashimoto, Kenya Kamimura, Manabu Takeuchi, Junji Yokoyama, Yuichi Sato, Masaaki Kobayashi, Shuji Terai
Background. Dentures and dental instruments are frequently encountered ingested foreign bodies. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of endoscopically removing ingested dental objects. Methods. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with 29 dental objects who were treated at the Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital from August 2009 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Characteristics of the patients and the ingested dental objects, the clinical features and findings of radiological imaging tests, and outcomes of endoscopic removal were analyzed...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Brett L Bruyere, Jonathan Trimarco, Saruni Lemungesi
BACKGROUND: The Samburu region of northern Kenya is undergoing significant change, driven by factors including greater value on formal education, improvements in infrastructure and development, a shift from community to private ownership of land, increased sedentary lifestyles and global climate change. One outcome of these changes are an increasingly greater likelihood for adolescent boys to be enrolled in school rather than herding livestock on behalf of the family in a landscape shared with numerous native vegetation and wildlife species...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
K J Alcock, Amina Abubakar, Charles R Newton, Penny Holding
BACKGROUND: HIV infection has been associated with impaired language development in prenatally exposed children. Although most of the burden of HIV occurs in sub-Saharan Africa, there have not been any comprehensive studies of HIV exposure on multiple aspects of language development using instruments appropriate for the population. METHODS: We compared language development in children exposed to HIV in utero to community controls (N = 262, 8-30 months) in rural Kenya, using locally adapted and validated communicative development inventories...
October 12, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Oluwasola Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi Banke-Thomas, Charles Anawo Ameh
BACKGROUND: Many Kenyan adolescents die following pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal health services (MHS) utilisation is key to averting such poor outcomes. Our objectives were to understand the characteristics of adolescent mothers in Kenya, describe their MHS utilisation pattern and explore factors that influence this pattern. METHODS: We collected demographic and MHS utilisation data of all 301 adolescent mothers aged 15-19 years included in the Kenya Demographic Health Survey 2008/2009 (KDHS)...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Sujha Subramanian, Florence Tangka, Patrick Edwards, Sonja Hoover, Maggie Cole-Beebe
BACKGROUND: This article reports on the methods and framework we have developed to guide economic evaluation of noncommunicable disease registries. METHODS: We developed a cost data collection instrument, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) International Registry Costing Tool (IntRegCosting Tool), based on established economics methods We performed in-depth case studies, site visit interviews, and pilot testing in 11 registries from multiple countries including India, Kenya, Uganda, Colombia, and Barbados to assess the overall quality of the data collected from cancer and cardiovascular registries...
October 7, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Daniel Chai, Christine M Bassis, Ingrid L Bergin, Jason D Bell, Atunga Nyachieo, Peter K Gathumbi
Papio hamadryas papillomavirus (PhPV) 1, 2, and 3, are Alphapapillomaviruses that have been detected in Kenyan Olive baboons but the distribution is unknown. Therefore, cervical screening for PhPV1 was performed in baboons from various areas in Kenya using a nested polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence rate was 33%.
October 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Primatology
Shanti L Eswaran, William D Chey, Theresa Han-Markey, Sarah Ball, Kenya Jackson
OBJECTIVES: There has been an increasing interest in the role of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We report results from the first randomized controlled trial of the low FODMAP diet in US adults with IBS and diarrhea (IBS-D). The objectives were to compare the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet vs. a diet based upon modified National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (mNICE) on overall and individual symptoms in IBS-D patients...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
D Tollefson, F Ngari, M Mwakala, D Gethi, H Kipruto, K Cain, E Bloss
BACKGROUND: Although an estimated three million tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide are missed by national TB programs annually, the level of under-reporting of diagnosed cases in high TB burden settings is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To quantify and describe under-reporting of sputum smear-positive TB cases in Kenya. DESIGN: A national-level retrospective TB inventory study was conducted. All sputum smear-positive TB cases diagnosed by public or private laboratories during 1 April-30 June 2013 were extracted from laboratory registers in 73 randomly sampled subcounties and matched to TB cases in the national TB surveillance system (TIBU)...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
W M Macharia, C M Muteshi, S Z Wanyonyi, A M Mukaindo, A Ismail, H Ekea, A Abdallah, J M Tole, A K Ngugi
BACKGROUND: Information on adverse events (AEs) in hospitalised patients in developing countries is scanty. OBJECTIVE: To compare the magnitude and characteristics of inpatient AEs in a tertiary, not-for-profit healthcare facility in Kenya, using medical records review and incident reporting. METHODS: Estimation of prevalence was done using incidents reported in 2010 from a random sample of medical records for hospital admissions. Nurse reviewers used 18 screening criteria, followed by physician reviewers to confirm occurrence...
September 8, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Maria I Rodriguez, Armando Seuc, Lale Say, Michelle J Hindin
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between type of episiotomy and obstetric outcomes among 6,187 women with type 3 Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of women presenting in labor to 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan between November 2001 and March 2003. Data were analysed using cross tabulations and multivariable logistic regression to determine if type of episiotomy by FGM classification had a significant impact on key maternal outcomes...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Health
J O Amimo, T F Otieno, E Okoth, J O Onono, B Bett
We analysed data that were previously collected for molecular characterisation of rotavirus (RV) groups A and C in pigs from Teso and Busia subcounties in Kenya to determine risk factors for its infection. The data included records from 239 randomly selected piglets aged between 1 and 6 months raised in free range and backyard production systems. RV infection was confirmed by screening of fresh faecal samples by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); selected positive samples were subsequently sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis...
October 8, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Helge Bruns Chair, Hans-Rudolf Raab Chair, Kenya Yamanaka, Kestutis Strupas, Peter Schemmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Visc Med
O K Koech, R N Kinuthia, G N Karuku, S M Mureithi, R Wanjogu
BACKGROUND: Production of range grasses under irrigation has been widely adopted in the arid environments of Kenya as a strategy for seasonal forage supply gap. However, their productivity has only been done under conventional methods without an evaluation of their performance at varied soil moisture conditions. This information is needed for making sustainable management of irrigation water and also increased pasture productivity at the current intensification of the production systems...
2016: SpringerPlus
Leigh Jones, Wen Qi Ho, Sze Ying, Lakshmi Ramakrishna, Kandhadayar G Srinivasan, Marina Yurieva, Wan Pei Ng, Sharrada Subramaniam, Nur H Hamadee, Sabrina Joseph, Jayashree Dolpady, Koji Atarashi, Kenya Honda, Francesca Zolezzi, Michael Poidinger, Juan J Lafaille, Maria A Curotto de Lafaille
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
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