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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531224/defining-the-vaccination-window-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-using-age-seroprevalence-data-for-children-in-kilifi-kenya
#1
Joyce U Nyiro, Ivy K Kombe, Charles J Sande, James Kipkoech, Patience K Kiyuka, Clayton O Onyango, Patrick K Munywoki, Timothy M Kinyanjui, D James Nokes
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in early life and a target for vaccine prevention. Data on the age-prevalence of RSV specific antibodies will inform on optimizing vaccine delivery. METHODS: Archived plasma samples were randomly selected within age strata from 960 children less than 145 months of age admitted to Kilifi County Hospital pediatric wards between 2007 and 2010. Samples were tested for antibodies to RSV using crude virus IgG ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530634/adsorbate-doping-of-mos2-and-wse2-the-influence-of-na-and-co
#2
Takashi Komesu, Duy Le, Iori Tanabe, Eike Schwier, Yohei Kojima, Mingtian Zheng, Kazuaki Taguchi, Miyamoto Koji, Taichi Okuda, Hideaki Iwasawa, Kenya Shimada, Talat Rahman, Peter Dowben
We have investigated the influence of metal adsorbates (sodium and cobalt) on the occupied and unoccupied electronic structure of MoS2(0001) and WSe2(0001), through a combination of both photoemission and inverse photoemission. The electronic structure is rigidly shifted in both the WSe2 and MoS2 systems, with either Na or Co adsorption, generally as predicted by accompanying density functional theory based calculations. Na adsorption is found to behave as an electron donor (n-type) in MoS2, while Co adsorption acts as an electron acceptor (p-type) in WSe2...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530033/concomitant-contraceptive-implant-and-efavirenz-use-in-women-living-with-hiv-perspectives-on-current-evidence-and-policy-implications-for-family-planning-and-hiv-treatment-guidelines
#3
REVIEW
Rena C Patel, Chelsea Morroni, Kimberly K Scarsi, Tabitha Sripipatana, James Kiarie, Craig R Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Preventing unintended pregnancies is important among all women, including those living with HIV. Increasing numbers of women, including HIV-positive women, choose progestin-containing subdermal implants, which are one of the most effective forms of contraception. However, drug-drug interactions between contraceptive hormones and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce implant effectiveness. We present four inter-related perspectives on this issue. DISCUSSION: First, as a case study, we discuss how limited data prompted country-level guidance against the use of implants among women concomitantly using efavirenz in South Africa and its subsequent negative effects on the use of implants in general...
May 11, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529048/laboratory-based-performance-evaluation-of-pima-cd4-t-lymphocyte-count-point-of-care-by-lay-counselors-in-kenya
#4
Clement Zeh, Charles E Rose, Seth Inzaule, Mitesh A Desai, Fredrick Otieno, Felix Humwa, Benta Akoth, Paul Omolo, Robert T Chen, Yenew Kebede, Taraz Samandri
BACKGROUND: CD4+ T-lymphocyte count testing at the point-of-care (POC) may improve linkage to care of persons diagnosed with HIV-1 infection, but the accuracy of POC devices when operated by lay-counselors in the era of task-shifting is unknown. We examined the accuracy of Alere's Pima™ POC device on both capillary and venous blood when performed by lay-counselors and laboratory technicians. METHODS: In Phase I, we compared the perfomance of POC against FACSCalibur™ for 280 venous specimens by laboratory technicians...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527959/systemic-treatment-patterns-with-advanced-or-recurrent-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-japan-a-retrospective-hospital-administrative-database-study
#5
Feng Wang, Sari Mishina, Shinji Takai, T Kim Le, Kenya Ochi, Kotaro Funato, Shozo Matsuoka, Yuichiro Ohe
PURPOSE: Data on the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in real-world clinical practice in Japan are limited. This large-scale, retrospective cohort study examined data on patients' characteristics and systemic therapies for advanced or recurrent NSCLC in routine practice in Japan. METHODS: This study used an electronic health records-based database of health claims and Diagnosis Procedure Combination data from 215 consenting hospitals in Japan. Records from April 2008 to September 2015 were analyzed...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527687/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-in-five-endemic-low-and-middle-income-settings
#6
Marina Antillón, Joke Bilcke, A David Paltiel, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries. Programmatic use of existing vaccines is limited, but upcoming typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) could warrant wider use. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of five TCV delivery strategies in three urban areas (Delhi and Kolkata, India and Nairobi, Kenya) and two rural settings (Lwak, Kenya and Dong Thap, Vietnam) with varying incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated routine infant vaccination with and without catch-up campaigns among older individuals...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526680/decrease-in-numbers-of-naive-and-resting-b-cells-in-hiv-infected-kenyan-adults-leads-to-a-proportional-increase-in-total-and-plasmodium-falciparum-specific-atypical-memory-b-cells
#7
Anne E Frosch, Oludare A Odumade, Justin J Taylor, Kathleen Ireland, George Ayodo, Bartholomew Ondigo, David L Narum, John Vulule, Chandy C John
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with B cell activation and exhaustion, and hypergammaglobulinemia. How these changes influence B cell responses to coinfections such as malaria is poorly understood. To address this, we compared B cell phenotypes and Abs specific for the Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate apical membrane Ag-1 (AMA1) in HIV-infected and uninfected adults living in Kenya. Surprisingly, HIV-1 infection was not associated with a difference in serum AMA1-specific Ab levels...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526075/testing-times-trends-in-availability-price-and-market-share-of-malaria-diagnostics-in-the-public-and-private-healthcare-sector-across-eight-sub-saharan-african-countries-from-2009-to-2015
#8
Kara Hanson, Catherine Goodman
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization guidelines have recommended that all cases of suspected malaria should receive a confirmatory test with microscopy or a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), however evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) illustrates that only one-third of children under five with a recent fever received a test. The aim of this study was to evaluate availability, price and market share of microscopy and RDT from 2009/11 to 2014/15 in 8 SSA countries, to better understand barriers to improving access to malaria confirmatory testing in the public and private health sectors...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522690/resistance-to-malaria-through-structural-variation-of-red-blood-cell-invasion-receptors
#9
Ellen M Leffler, Gavin Band, George B J Busby, Katja Kivinen, Quang Si Le, Geraldine M Clarke, Kalifa A Bojang, David J Conway, Muminatou Jallow, Fatoumatta Sisay-Joof, Edith C Bougouma, Valentina D Mangano, David Modiano, Sodiomon B Sirima, Eric Achidi, Tobias O Apinjoh, Kevin Marsh, Carolyne M Ndila, Norbert Peshu, Thomas N Williams, Chris Drakeley, Alphaxard Manjurano, Hugh Reyburn, Eleanor Riley, David Kachala, Malcolm Molyneux, Vysaul Nyirongo, Terrie Taylor, Nicole Thornton, Louise Tilley, Shane Grimsley, Eleanor Drury, Jim Stalker, Victoria Cornelius, Christina Hubbart, Anna E Jeffreys, Kate Rowlands, Kirk A Rockett, Chris C A Spencer, Dominic P Kwiatkowski
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum invades human red blood cells via interactions between host and parasite surface proteins. By analyzing genome sequence data from human populations, including 1269 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa, we identify a diverse array of large copy number variants affecting the host invasion receptor genes GYPA and GYPB We find that a nearby association with severe malaria is explained by a complex structural rearrangement involving the loss of GYPB and gain of two GYPB-A hybrid genes, which encode a serologically distinct blood group antigen known as Dantu...
May 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521748/contextualizing-willingness-to-participate-recommendations-for-engagement-recruitment-enrolment-of-kenyan-msm-in-future-hiv-prevention-trials
#10
Monika Doshi, Lisa Avery, Ronnie P Kaddu, Mary Gichuhi, Gloria Gakii, Elsabé du Plessis, Sumit Dutta, Shamshad Khan, Joshua Kimani, Robert R Lorway
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) continues to expand globally. The addition of an efficacious, prophylactic vaccine to combination prevention offers immense hope, particularly in low- and middle- income countries which bear the greatest global impact. However, in these settings, there is a paucity of vaccine preparedness studies that specifically pertain to MSM. Our study is the first vaccine preparedness study among MSM and female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya...
May 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520771/quality-of-maternity-care-and-its-determinants-along-the-continuum-in-kenya-a-structural-equation-modeling-analysis
#11
Patrick Opiyo Owili, Miriam Adoyo Muga, Bomar Rojas Mendez, Bradley Chen
BACKGROUND: Improving access to delivery services does not guarantee access to quality obstetric care and better survival, and therefore, concerns for quality of maternal and newborn care in low- and middle-income countries have been raised. Our study explored characteristics associated with the quality of initial assessment, intrapartum, and immediate postpartum and newborn care, and further assessed the relationships along the continuum of care. METHODS: The 2010 Service Provision Assessment data of Kenya for 627 routine deliveries of women aged 15-49 were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520182/intraductal-papillary-neoplasm-of-the-bile-duct-a-rare-liver-tumor-complicated-by-malignancy
#12
Kentaro Tominaga, Kenya Kamimura, Akira Sakamaki, Shuji Terai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517969/prevalence-and-determinants-of-depression-among-patients-under-the-care-of-traditional-health-practitioners-in-a-kenyan-setting-policy-implications
#13
Christine W Musyimi, Victoria N Mutiso, Abednego M Musau, Lydia K Matoke, David M Ndetei
In Kenya, there is paucity of information on depression among traditional health practitioner (THP) patients, particularly in rural areas. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence and identify determinants of major depressive disorder (MDD) among patients of THP in rural Kenya using the World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guideline (mhGAP-IG). All adult patients seeking care from trained THPs (either traditional healers such as diviners and herbalists or faith healers, who use treatments such as prayers, laying hands on patients, or providing holy water and ash to their patients) over a period of 3 months (September 2014 to November 2014) were screened for depression using mhGAP-IG and their sociodemographic characteristics recorded...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515181/measuring-ability-to-assess-claims-about-treatment-effects-the-development-of-the-claim-evaluation-tools
#14
Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Daniel Semakula, Allen Nsangi, Andrew David Oxman, Iain Chalmers, Sarah Rosenbaum, Øystein Guttersrud
OBJECTIVES: To describe the development of the Claim Evaluation Tools, a set of flexible items to measure people's ability to assess claims about treatment effects. SETTING: Methodologists and members of the community (including children) in Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, Norway, the UK and Australia. PARTICIPANTS: In the iterative development of the items, we used purposeful sampling of people with training in research methodology, such as teachers of evidence-based medicine, as well as patients and members of the public from low-income and high-income countries...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513837/maternal-near-miss-in-low-resource-areas
#15
Robert L Goldenberg, Sarah Saleem, Sumera Ali, Janet L Moore, Adrien Lokangako, Antoinette Tshefu, Musaku Mwenechanya, Elwyn Chomba, Ana Garces, Lester Figueroa, Shivaprasad Goudar, Bhalachandra Kodkany, Archana Patel, Fabian Esamai, Paul Nsyonge, Margo S Harrison, Melissa Bauserman, Carl L Bose, Nancy F Krebs, K Michael Hambidge, Richard J Derman, Patricia L Hibberd, Edward A Liechty, Dennis D Wallace, Jose M Belizan, Menachem Miodovnik, Marion Koso-Thomas, Waldemar A Carlo, Alan H Jobe, Elizabeth M McClure
OBJECTIVE: To describe the Global Network Near-Miss Maternal Mortality System and its application in seven sites. METHODS: In a population-based study, pregnant women eligible for enrollment in the Maternal and Newborn Health Registry at seven sites (Democratic Republic of the Congo; Guatemala; Belagavi and Nagpur, India; Kenya; Pakistan; and Zambia) between January 2014 and April 2016 were screened to identify those likely to have a near-miss event. The WHO maternal near-miss criteria were modified for low-resource settings...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511721/socioeconomic-status-and-dietary-patterns-in-children-from-around-the-world-different-associations-by-levels-of-country-human-development
#16
Taru Manyanga, Mark S Tremblay, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Rebecca Kuriyan, Anura Kurpad, Estelle V Lambert, Carol Maher, Jose Maia, Victor Matsudo, Timothy Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Pei Zhao, Vera Mikkila, Stephanie T Broyles
BACKGROUND: Although 'unhealthy' diet is a well-known risk factor for non-communicable diseases, its relationship with socio-economic status (SES) has not been fully investigated. Moreover, the available research has largely been conducted in countries at high levels of human development. This is the first study to examine relationships among dietary patterns and SES of children from countries spanning a wide range of human development. METHODS: This was a multinational cross-sectional study among 9-11 year-old children (n = 6808) from urban/peri-urban sites across 12 countries...
May 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511602/evaluation-of-student-handwashing-practices-during-a-school-based-hygiene-program-in-rural-western-kenya-2007
#17
Genevieve La Con, Katharine Schilling, Julie Harris, Bobbie Person, Mercy Owuor, Lorraine Ogange, Sitnah Faith, Robert Quick
Unsafe drinking water and inadequate handwashing facilities in primary schools increase the risk of absenteeism due to diarrhea and respiratory infections. To mitigate these risks, we provided 28 schools in rural Western Kenya with handwashing and drinking water stations (containers with lids and taps on metal stands), bleach for water treatment, soap for handwashing, and educational materials. We observed the use of the water stations and assessed teachers' attitudes toward the intervention. Of 151 total handwashing stations, 69 (59%) were observed to have soap and water and treated drinking water 4 months after implementation; observations of pupils showed an increase in handwashing behavior in water stations located < 10 m, as compared with those >10 m, from latrines ( p < ...
January 2017: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511275/direct-detection-of-leishmania-from-clinical-samples
#18
John N Waitumbi, Joshua Bast, Nancy Nyakoe, Charles Magiri, Miguel Quintana, Ratree Takhampunya, Anthony L Schuster, Marshall T Van de Wyngaerde, James C McAvin, Russell E Coleman
The ability to rapidly and accurately diagnose leishmaniasis is a military priority. Testing was conducted to evaluate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of field-expedient Leishmania genus and visceral Leishmania specific dual-fluorogenic, hydrolysis probe (TaqMan), polymerase chain reaction assays previously established for use in vector surveillance. Blood samples of patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis and controls without the disease from Baringo District, Kenya, were tested. Leishmania genus assay sensitivity was 100% (14/14) and specificity was 84% (16/19)...
January 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508963/hemodiafiltration-for-hepatic-encephalopathy-induced-by-budd-chiari-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-end-stage-kidney-disease
#19
Takuya Wakamatsu, Suguru Yamamoto, Kenya Kamimura, Takeshi Nakatsue, Noriaki Iino, Seitaro Iguchi, Yoshikatsu Kaneko, Shin Goto, Junichiro James Kazama, Ichiei Narita
A 36-year-old woman who was undergoing dialysis for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) was admitted to our hospital with consciousness disorder. She was diagnosed with Budd-Chiari syndrome due to antiphospholipid syndrome at the age of 28 years. Her kidney function and leg edema gradually deteriorated. After initiation of hemodialysis (HD), transient loss of consciousness due to hepatic encephalopathy during HD treatment occurred frequently. Her kidney replacement therapy was changed to online hemodiafiltration (HDF), which dramatically improved her hepatic coma...
November 2016: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505083/family-planning-and-the-samburu-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-thoughts-of-men-on-a-population-health-and-environment-programme-in-rural-kenya
#20
Loren Kock, Audrey Prost
Population Health and Environment (PHE) strategies are argued to improve ecosystem and human health by addressing family size and its effects on natural resource use, food security, and reproductive health. This study investigates men's views on a PHE family planning (FP) programme delivered among the pastoral Samburu tribe in rural northern Kenya. Three focus group discussions and nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 Samburu men. These discussions revealed support for environmentally-sensitised family planning promotion...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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