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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145454/reduction-of-hiv-associated-excess-mortality-by-antiretroviral-treatment-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-kenya
#1
Dickens O Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Kevin P Cain, Faith Ngari, Enos O Masini, Martien W Borgdorff
BACKGROUND: Mortality from TB continues to be a global public health challenge. TB ranks alongside Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the leading infectious causes of death globally. HIV is a major driver of TB related morbidity and mortality while TB is the leading cause of mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We sought to determine excess mortality associated with HIV and the effect of antiretroviral therapy on reducing mortality among tuberculosis patients in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of Kenya national tuberculosis program data of patients enrolled from 2013 through 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143644/the-effects-of-family-planning-and-other-factors-on-fertility-abortion-miscarriage-and-stillbirths-in-the-spectrum-model
#2
John Stover, William Winfrey
BACKGROUND: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) estimates the effects of maternal and child health interventions on mortality rates and the number of deaths. The family planning module in Spectrum interacts with LiST by providing estimates of the effects of scaling up family planning use on the number of live births, miscarriages, abortions, and stillbirths. METHODS: We use the proximate determinants of fertility framework to estimate the effects of changes in contraceptive use, proportion married, postpartum insusceptibility, abortion and sterility on the total fertility rate...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143625/trends-in-hepatitis-b-virus-testing-practices-and-management-in-hiv-clinics-across-sub-saharan-africa
#3
REVIEW
Patrick A Coffie, Matthias Egger, Michael J Vinikoor, Marcel Zannou, Lameck Diero, Akouda Patassi, Mark H Kuniholm, Moussa Seydi, Guillaume Bado, Ponsiano Ocama, Monique I Andersson, Eugène Messou, Albert Minga, Philippa Easterbrook, Kathryn Anastos, François Dabis, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of HIV-infected individuals are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Knowledge of HBV status is important to guide optimal selection of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and monitor/prevent liver-related complications. We describe changes in testing practices and management of HBV infection over a 3-year period in HIV clinics across SSA. METHODS: A medical chart review was conducted in large urban HIV treatment centers in Côte d'Ivoire (3 sites), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa, Togo, Uganda and Zambia (1 site each)...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143618/using-the-missed-opportunity-tool-as-an-application-of-the-lives-saved-tool-list-for-intervention-prioritization
#4
Yvonne Tam, Luwei Pearson
BACKGROUND: The Missed Opportunity tool was developed as an application in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to allow users to quickly compare the relative impact of interventions. Global Financing Facility (GFF) investment cases have been identified as a potential application of the Missed Opportunity analyses in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania, to use 'lives saved' as a normative factor to set priorities. METHODS: The Missed Opportunity analysis draws on data and methods in LiST to project maternal, stillbirth, and child deaths averted based on changes in interventions' coverage...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143187/multi-locus-sequence-typing-of-african-swine-fever-viruses-from-endemic-regions-of-kenya-and-eastern-uganda-2011-2013-reveals-rapid-b602l-central-variable-region-evolution
#5
C K Onzere, A D Bastos, E A Okoth, J K Lichoti, E N Bochere, M G Owido, G Ndambuki, M Bronsvoort, R P Bishop
The central variable region (CVR) within the B602L gene of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) is highly polymorphic within the 23 ASFV genotypes defined by sequencing of the C-terminal end of the p72 locus. Sequencing the p54 gene further discriminates ASFV genotypes that are conserved at the p72 locus. Variation in the thymidine kinase locus is a novel additional tool for ASFV genotyping whose application for this purpose is described for the first time herein. We evaluated genetic variation at these four polymorphic loci in 39 ASFV isolates obtained from outbreaks in Kenya and a region of Eastern Uganda between 2011 and 2013...
November 15, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142953/absence-of-hiv-associated-nephropathy-among-antiretroviral-naive-adults-with-persistent-albuminuria-in-western-kenya
#6
M K Koech, M O G Owiti, W D Owino-Ong'or, A K Koskei, M J Karoney, V D D'Agati, C M Wyatt
Introduction: HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) has been strongly linked to African ancestry. However, studies have demonstrated wide variability in the prevalence of HIVAN in different sub-Saharan African populations. Accurate assessment of the disease burden is important because antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly available and may prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Methods: We prospectively screened ART-naïve, afebrile, nonhypertensive, and nondiabetic adults attending a large HIV care program in Western Kenya for the presence of albuminuria (dipstick albumin ≥ trace or urine albumin to creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥ 30 mg/g)...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142587/factors-associated-with-the-high-prevalence-of-oesophageal-cancer-in-western-kenya-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Gabriel Kigen, Naftali Busakhala, Zipporah Kamuren, Hillary Rono, Wilfred Kimalat, Evangeline Njiru
Oesophageal carcinoma (OC) is highly prevalent in Western Kenya especially among the members of the Kalenjin community who reside in the Northern and Southern areas of the Rift Valley. Previous authors have suggested potential association of environmental and genetic risk factors with this high prevalence. The environmental factors that have been suggested include contamination of food by mycotoxins and/or pesticides, consumption of traditional alcohol (locally referred to "Busaa" and "Chan'gaa"), use of fermented milk ("Mursik"), poor diet, tobacco use and genetic predisposition...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141612/individual-level-and-community-level-determinants-of-cervical-cancer-screening-among-kenyan-women-a-multilevel-analysis-of-a-nationwide-survey
#8
Fentanesh Nibret Tiruneh, Kun-Yang Chuang, Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Ying-Chih Chuang
BACKGROUND: Studies on the determinants of cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa have focused mostly on individual-level characteristics of cervical cancer screening. Therefore, in this study, we included both individual- and community-level indicators to examine the determinants of cervical cancer screening among Kenyan women. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys. Our analysis focused on 9016 married women of reproductive age (15-49 years)...
November 15, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141606/trends-in-bednet-ownership-and-usage-and-the-effect-of-bednets-on-malaria-hospitalization-in-the-kilifi-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-khdss-2008-2015
#9
Alice Kamau, Victoria Nyaga, Evasius Bauni, Benjamin Tsofa, Abdisalan M Noor, Philip Bejon, J Anthony G Scott, Laura L Hammitt
BACKGROUND: Use of bednets reduces malaria morbidity and mortality. In Kilifi, Kenya, there was a mass distribution of free nets to children < 5 years in 2006. In 2009, a new policy was implemented to offer bednets to pregnant women and children < 5 years free of charge. Nets were again distributed to children and adults through national mass campaigns in 2012 and 2015. We aimed to evaluate trends in bednet ownership and usage, and the effect of bednets on the incidence of malaria hospitalization in children < 5 years within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS)...
November 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140932/characteristics-of-treatment-experienced-hiv-infected-african-children-and-adolescents-initiating-darunavir-and-or-etravirine-based-antiretroviral-treatment
#10
Bethany Corrigan, Irene Mukui, Lloyd Mulenga, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Mosilinyane Letsie, Stephanie Bruno, Natella Rakhmanina
BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the selection and sequencing of second and third-line pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to evaluate characteristics of African pediatric patients initiated on darunavir (DRV) and/or etravirine (ETR) through a specific drug donation program. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of baseline immunologic, virologic and demographic characteristics of children and adolescents initiating DRV- and/or ETR-based ART...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140577/herbivory-and-drought-generate-short-term-stochasticity-and-long-term-stability-in-a-savanna-understory-community
#11
Corinna Riginos, Lauren M Porensky, Kari E Veblen, Truman P Young
Rainfall and herbivory are fundamental drivers of grassland plant dynamics, yet few studies have examined long-term interactions between these factors in an experimental setting. Understanding such interactions is important, as rainfall is becoming increasingly erratic and native wild herbivores are being replaced by livestock. Livestock grazing and episodic low rainfall are thought to interact, leading to greater community change than either factor alone. We examined patterns of change and stability in herbaceous community composition through four dry periods, or droughts, over 15 years of the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE), which consists of six different combinations of cattle, native wild herbivores (e...
November 15, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139206/periodically-arranged-arrays-of-dendritic-pt-nanospheres-using-cage-type-mesoporous-silica-as-a-hard-template
#12
Kenya Kani, Victor Malgras, Bo Jiang, Md Shahriar A Hossain, Saad M Alshehri, Tansir Ahamad, Rahul R Salunkhe, Zhenguo Huang, Yusuke Yamauchi
Dendritic Pt nanospheres of 20 nm diameter are synthesized by using highly concentrated surfactant assembly within the large-sized cage-type mesopores of mesoporous silica (LP-FDU-12). After diluting the surfactant solution with ethanol, the lower viscosity lead to an improved penetration inside the mesopores. After Pt deposition followed by template removal, the arrangement of the Pt nanospheres is a replication from that of the mesopores in the original LP-FDU-12 template. Although it is well known that ordered LLCs can form on flat substrates, confined space inside the mesopores hinders surfactant self-organization...
November 14, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138660/use-of-cellular-phone-contacts-to-increase-return-rates-for-immunization-services-in-kenya
#13
Evans Mokaya, Isaac Mugoya, Jane Raburu, Lora Shimp
Introduction: In Kenya, failure to complete immunization schedules by children who previously accessed immunization services is an obstacle to ensuring that children are fully immunized. Home visit approaches used to track defaulting children have not been successful in reducing the drop-out rate. Methods: This study tested the use of phone contacts as an approach for tracking immunization defaulters in twelve purposively-selected facilities in three districts of western Kenya...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138657/community-health-worker-interventions-are-key-to-optimal-infant-immunization-coverage-evidence-from-a-pretest-posttest-experiment-in-mwingi-kenya
#14
Japheth Mativo Nzioki, James Ouma, James Hebert Ombaka, Rosebella Ongutu Onyango
Introduction: Immunization is a powerful and cost-effective health intervention which averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year. Kenya has a high infant and under five mortality and morbidity rates. Increasing routine child immunization coverage is one way of reducing child morbidity and mortality rates in Kenya. Community Health Workers (CHWs) have emerged as critical human resources for health in developing countries. The Community Strategy (CS) is one of the CHW led interventions promoting Maternal and Child Health (MCH) in Kenya...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138653/the-incidence-of-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-changes-and-related-factors-among-hiv-infected-sex-workers-in-nairobi-kenya
#15
Frank Ndaks Ndakala, Julius Otieno Oyugi, Margaret Ng'wono Oluka, Joshua Kimani, Georg Martin Norbert Behrens
Introduction: In many settings, several factors including adverse drug reactions and clinical failure can limit treatment choices for combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of the study was to describe the incidence of first-line cART changes and associated factors in a cohort of Kenyan sex workers. Methods: This was a retrospective review of medical records collected from 2009 to 2013. The review included records of HIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years, who received either stavudine or zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based regimens...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138640/prevalence-of-soil-transmitted-helminthiases-and-schistosomiasis-in-preschool-age-children-in-mwea-division-kirinyaga-south-district-kirinyaga-county-and-their-potential-effect-on-physical-growth
#16
Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari, Amos K Mbugua, Gerald M Mkoji
Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC) through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138211/transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber-and-identification-of-hypoxia-tolerance-genes
#17
Bang Xiao, Li Li, Chang Xu, Shanmin Zhao, Lifang Lin, Jishuai Cheng, Wenjing Yang, Wei Cong, Guanghan Kan, Shufang Cui
The naked mole rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is a small rodent species found in regions of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. It has a high tolerance for hypoxia and is thus, considered one of the most important natural models for studying hypoxia tolerance mechanisms. The various mechanisms underlying the NMR's hypoxia tolerance are beginning to be understood at different levels of organization, and next-generation sequencing methods promise to expand this understanding to the level of gene expression. In this study, we examined the sequence and transcript abundance data of the muscle transcriptome of NMRs exposed to hypoxia using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system to clarify the possible genomic adaptive responses to the hypoxic underground surroundings...
November 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137678/disentangling-regional-trade-agreements-trade-flows-and-tobacco-affordability-in-sub-saharan-africa
#18
Adriana Appau, Jeffrey Drope, Ronald Labonté, Michal Stoklosa, Raphael Lencucha
BACKGROUND: In principle, trade and investment agreements are meant to boost economic growth. However, the removal of trade barriers and the provision of investment incentives to attract foreign direct investments may facilitate increased trade in and/or more efficient production of commodities considered harmful to health such as tobacco. We analyze existing evidence on trade and investment liberalization and its relationship to tobacco trade in Sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: We compare tobacco trading patterns to foreign direct investments made by tobacco companies...
November 14, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137506/measuring-the-impact-of-cash-transfers-and-behavioral-nudges-on-maternity-care-in-nairobi-kenya
#19
Jessica Cohen, Claire Rothschild, Ginger Golub, George N Omondi, Margaret E Kruk, Margaret McConnell
Many patients in low-income countries express preferences for high-quality health care but often end up with low-quality providers. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya, to analyze whether cash transfers, enhanced with behavioral "nudges," can help women deliver in facilities that are consistent with their preferences and are of higher quality. We tested two interventions. The first was a labeled cash transfer (LCT), which explained that the cash was to help women deliver where they wanted...
November 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136226/testing-the-financial-capability-framework-findings-from-youthsave-impact-study-kenya
#20
Njeri Kagotho, Fred M Ssewamala, Michele Patak-Pietrafesa, William Byansi
In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), youths (23 years or younger)-who account for almost half the population-are particularly vulnerable to poverty and exclusion from financial markets and intermediaries. In addition, a significant factor in the financial instability of the region appears to be the economic functioning of its youths. In recent years, social work interventions throughout the region have focused on investing in the economic functioning of youths. This study looked at baseline data from one such intervention in Kenya (N = 3,965), using the financial capabilities framework to evaluate the factors related to youths' saving behaviors...
November 9, 2017: Social Work
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