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Elise Cornelis, Ellen Gorus, Karen Van Weverbergh, Ingo Beyer, Patricia De Vriendt
BACKGROUND: Several methods have been developed to evaluate activities of daily living (ADLs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia. This study evaluated the convergent and concurrent validity between (1) two report-based methods (the advanced (a)- and instrumental (i)-ADL tools) and (2) a performance-based method (the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT)) to check if their ability to differentiate between cognitively healthy comparisons (HCs), persons with MCI, and persons with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) are comparable to each other...
March 22, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Alessandra Moletto, Irene Bagnasco, Patrizia Dassi, Piernanda Vigliano
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term neurocognitive changes of a right-handed girl with intractable epilepsy after late right hemispherectomy and compare them with data in the literature. METHOD: The girl was affected by an epileptic encephalopathy associated with right fronto-temporo-parietal polymicrogyria; she was submitted to right hemispherectomy at the age of 5 and examined with cognitive and neuropsychological tests at the age of 17 years. The girl took advantage of neurocognitive rehabilitation for several years; she is currently seizure-free and off therapy...
March 21, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Shihui Han
Racial discrimination in social behavior, although disapproved of by many contemporary cultures, has been widely reported. Because empathy plays a key functional role in social behavior, brain imaging researchers have extensively investigated the neurocognitive underpinnings of racial ingroup bias in empathy. This research has revealed consistent evidence for increased neural responses to the perceived pain of same-race compared with other-race individuals in multiple brain regions and across multiple time-windows...
March 18, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Gabor Erdoes, Dominik E Uehlinger, Beatrice Kobel, Monika P Stucki, Roland Wiest, Frank Stueber, Niklaus Fankhauser, Stephan M Jakob, Joerg C Schefold
BACKGROUND: Microembolism is a frequent pathological event during extracorporeal renal replacement therapy (RRT). Some previous data indicate that microemboli are generated in patients who are undergoing RRT and that these may contribute to increased cerebrovascular and neurocognitive morbidity in patients with end-stage renal disease. The current trial aims to quantify the microembolic load and respective qualitative composition that effectively reaches the intracerebral circulation in critically ill patients treated with different RRT modalities for acute kidney injury (AKI)...
March 21, 2018: Trials
Martine Paquette, Yascara Grisel Luna Saavedra, Judes Poirier, Louise Théroux, Doris Dea, Alexis Baass, Robert Dufour
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for the late-onset form of Alzheimer disease (AD). Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations of PCSK9 and PCSK9 inhibitors lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and have been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PCSK9 LOF variants on risk and age of onset of AD. METHODS: A total of 878 participants (410 controls and 468 AD cases) from the Quebec Founder Population were included in the study...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Francesco Panza, Madia Lozupone, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Rodolfo Sardone, Vittorio Dibello, Luca Di Lena, Francesca D'Urso, Roberta Stallone, Massimo Petruzzi, Gianluigi Giannelli, Nicola Quaranta, Antonello Bellomo, Antonio Greco, Antonio Daniele, Davide Seripa, Giancarlo Logroscino
Frailty, a critical intermediate status of the aging process that is at increased risk for negative health-related events, includes physical, cognitive, and psychosocial domains or phenotypes. Cognitive frailty is a condition recently defined by operationalized criteria describing coexisting physical frailty and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), with two proposed subtypes: potentially reversible cognitive frailty (physical frailty/MCI) and reversible cognitive frailty (physical frailty/pre-MCI subjective cognitive decline)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Chinekwu Anyanwu, Gholam K Motamedi
Despite appropriate trials of at least two antiepileptic drugs, about a third of patients with epilepsy remain drug resistant (intractable; refractory). Epilepsy surgery offers a potential cure or significant improvement to those with focal onset drug-resistant seizures. Unfortunately, epilepsy surgery is still underutilized which might be in part because of the complexity of presurgical evaluation. This process includes classifying the seizure type, lateralizing and localizing the seizure onset focus (epileptogenic zone), confirming the safety of the prospective brain surgery in terms of potential neurocognitive deficits (language and memory functions), before devising a surgical plan...
March 21, 2018: Brain Sciences
Andrea M Byrne, Tal Schechter, Robyn Westmacott
We report the neuropsychological profile of a 6-year-old girl with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, a rare X-linked immunodeficiency disorder associated with thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and malignancy. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males and is extremely rare in females, with no known research focused on cognitive and academic functioning in this population. Our patient was referred due to concerns about her memory and academic functioning. She had a history of progressive thrombocytopenia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at age 15 months...
March 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Kohinoor M Darda, Emily E Butler, Richard Ramsey
Although humans show an involuntary tendency to copy other people's actions, which builds rapport between individuals, we do not copy actions indiscriminately. Instead, copying behaviors are guided by a selection mechanism, which inhibits some actions and prioritizes others. To date, the neural underpinnings of the inhibition of automatic imitation and differences between the sexes in imitation control are not well understood. Previous studies involved small sample sizes and low statistical power, which produced mixed findings regarding the involvement of domain-general and domain-specific neural architectures...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Wolf Osterode, Sandra Schranz, Galateja Jordakieva
Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2)...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
Alexandra Sturm, Michelle Rozenman, John C Piacentini, James J McGough, Sandra K Loo, James T McCracken
Predictors of math achievement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well-known. To address this gap in the literature, we examined individual differences in neurocognitive functioning domains on math computation in a cross-sectional sample of youth with ADHD. Gender and anxiety symptoms were explored as potential moderators. The sample consisted of 281 youth (aged 8-15 years) diagnosed with ADHD. Neurocognitive tasks assessed auditory-verbal working memory, visuospatial working memory, and processing speed...
March 20, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
A-K Reinhold, E Jentho, S T Schäfer, M Bauer, H L Rittner
Epigenetics, i.e. an altered reading of the genome without altering the genes themselves is a growing scientific field. A distinction is made between changes in the DNA by modification of the histones and non-coding RNA that alter the messenger (m)RNAs. Epigenetic modifications can be triggered by personal circumstances or other external factors and therefore influence the occurrence of diseases. Epigenetics are therefore of particular interest to anesthesiologists, pain specialists and intensive care physicians, as anesthetic drugs may have a long-term influence on protein transcription leading for example to alterations in neurocognition after anesthesia, chronification of postoperative pain and immune response in sepsis...
March 20, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Elizabeth I Pierpont, Erin McCoy, Kelly E King, Rich S Ziegler, Ryan Shanley, David Nascene, Gerald V Raymond, Rachel Phelan, Troy C Lund, Paul J Orchard, Weston P Miller
Objective: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only treatment known to slow or halt inflammatory demyelination among boys with the cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD), a devastating childhood condition affecting the central nervous system. HSCT can lead to a range of adverse outcomes including fatality. Previous studies have examined the potential predictors of post-HSCT survival and neurologic functioning. However, little is known about patients' daily-life adaptive functional outcomes (i...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Monica H Breitve, Luiza J Chwiszczuk, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Minna J Hynninen, Bjørn H Auestad, Dag Aarsland, Arvid Rongve
Introduction: There are relatively few longitudinal studies on the differences in cognitive decline between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and the majority of existing studies have suboptimal designs. Aim: We investigated the differences in cognitive decline in AD compared to DLB over 4 years and cognitive domain predictors of progression. Methods: In a longitudinal study, 266 patients with first-time diagnosis of mild dementia were included and followed annually...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Krista M Lisdahl, Kenneth J Sher, Kevin P Conway, Raul Gonzalez, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Sara Jo Nixon, Susan Tapert, Hauke Bartsch, Rita Z Goldstein, Mary Heitzeg
One of the objectives of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study ( is to establish a national longitudinal cohort of 9 and 10 year olds that will be followed for 10 years in order to prospectively study the risk and protective factors influencing substance use and its consequences, examine the impact of substance use on neurocognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes, and to understand the relationship between substance use and psychopathology. This article provides an overview of the ABCD Study Substance Use Workgroup, provides the goals for the workgroup, rationale for the substance use battery, and includes details on the substance use module methods and measurement tools used during baseline, 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessment time-points...
February 21, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Matthew J Farrell, Jehan B Yahya, Catherine Degnin, Yiyi Chen, John M Holland, Mark A Henderson, Jerry J Jaboin, Matthew M Harkenrider, Charles R Thomas, Timur Mitin
PURPOSE: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) is considered the standard of care. Meta-analysis of 7 clinical trials indicates a survival benefit to PCI, but all of these trials were conducted in the pre-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) era. Therefore, routine brain imaging with MRI before PCI-as recommended by National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines-is not directly supported by the evidence. Current US practice patterns for patients with LS-SCLC are unknown...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Nabab Khan, Gaurav Datta, Jonathan D Geiger, Xuesong Chen
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the major carrier protein that mediates the transport and delivery of cholesterol and other lipids in the brain. Three isoforms of ApoE (ApoE2, ApoE3, ApoE4) exist in humans, and their relative expression levels impact HIV-1 infection, HIV-1/AIDS disease progression, and cognitive decline associated with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder. Because HIV-1 Tat, a viral protein essential for HIV-1 replication, can bind to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) that controls ApoE uptake in the brain, we determined the extent to which different isoforms of ApoE affected Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Erin E Morgan, Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Igor Grant, Javier Villalobos
Two factors that influence HIV health behaviors and therefore may contribute to gaps in the HIV treatment continuum are poor health-related self-efficacy and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, the relationship between HAND and self-efficacy has not been assessed. In an HIV sample, 91 individuals with intact cognition (HAND-) and 40 individuals with HAND (HAND+) were administered a measure of self-efficacy for healthcare interactions with providers. Participants with HAND had significantly lower scores on this measure, which were correlated with poorer episodic and semantic memory performance, as well as self-reported memory symptoms in daily life...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Mariachiara Buonocore, Margherita Bechi, Paola Uberti, Marco Spangaro, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Laura Bianchi, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Marta Bosia, Roberto Cavallaro
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive reserve (CR), defined as individual differences in the ability to cope with brain damage, seem to be associated to the several psychopathological features in psychiatric patients, such as the functional outcome. This study aims to identify different profiles of CR by combining intelligence quotient (IQ) and premorbid functioning, two measures independently associated to CR in previous works, as well as to explore CR effect on both Theory of Mind (ToM) baseline performance and improvement after socio-cognitive trainings...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
W Hewer, Bernd Tomandl, Christian Marburger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
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