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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791950/global-health-neurology-hiv-aids
#1
Payal B Patel, Serena S Spudich
With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapies, the mortality rate from HIV has declined, while the prevalence of long-term HIV-related neurologic complications continues to rise. Thirty-six million individuals are living with HIV around the world, many of whom reside in resource-limited settings. The majority of studies have focused on individuals residing in the developed world, while the impact of HIV disproportionately affects people living in developing countries. This review focuses on recent domestic and international studies regarding neurologic complications related to HIV, including opportunistic infections, peripheral neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, in light of the growing population affected by these conditions...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791452/validity-and-reliability-of-two-alternate-versions-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-hong-kong-version-for-screening-of-mild-neurocognitive-disorder
#2
Adrian Wong, Stanley Yiu, Ziad Nasreddine, Kam-Tat Leung, Alexander Lau, Yannie O Y Soo, Lawrence Ka-Sing Wong, Vincent Mok
OBJECTIVE: Repeated testing using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) increases risks for practice effects which may bias measurements of cognitive change. The objective of this study is to develop two alternate versions of the MoCA (Hong Kong version; HK-MoCA) and to investigate the validity and reliability of the alternate versions in patients with DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (Mild NCD) and cognitively healthy controls. METHODS: Concurrent validity and inter-scale agreement were examined by Pearson correlation of the total scores between the original and alternate versions and the Bland-Altman Method...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791013/frontline-science-buprenorphine-decreases-ccl2-mediated-migration-of-cd14-cd16-monocytes
#3
Matias Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Lillie Lopez, Joan W Berman
HIV infection of the CNS causes neuroinflammation and damage that contributes to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in greater than 50% of HIV-infected individuals, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). Opioid abuse is a major risk factor for HIV infection. It has been shown that opioids can contribute to increased HIV CNS pathogenesis, in part, by modulating the function of immune cells. HIV enters the CNS within two weeks after peripheral infection by transmigration of infected monocytes across the blood brain barrier (BBB)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790971/brain-activity-associated-with-attention-deficits-following-chemotherapy-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#4
Slim Fellah, Yin T Cheung, Matthew A Scoggins, Ping Zou, Noah D Sabin, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Robert J Ogg, Kevin R Krull
Background: The impact of contemporary chemotherapy treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia on central nervous system activity is not fully appreciated. Methods: Neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were obtained in 165 survivors five or more years postdiagnosis (average age = 14.4 years, 7.7 years from diagnosis, 51.5% males). Chemotherapy exposure was measured as serum concentration of methotrexate following high-dose intravenous injection...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790726/minimally-invasive-approaches-to-craniosynostosis
#5
Arjun V Pendharkar, Maryam N Shahin, Claudio Cavallo, Xiaochun Zhao, Allen L Ho, Eric S Sussman, Gerald A Grant
Craniosynostosis (CS) is defined as the premature fusion of one or more calvarial sutures. This carries several consequences, including abnormal/asymmetric cranial vault development, increased intracranial pressure, compromised neurocognitive development, and craniofacial deformity. Definitive management is surgical with the goal of protecting cerebral development by re-establishing normal cranial vault expansion and correcting cosmetic deformity. In today's practice, CS surgery has advanced radically from simple craniectomies to major cranial vault reconstructive (CVR) procedures...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790237/towards-a-new-classification-of-stable-phase-schizophrenia-into-major-and-simple-neuro-cognitive-psychosis-results-of-unsupervised-machine-learning-analysis
#6
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sira Sriswasdi, Supaksorn Thika, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes
RATIONALE: Deficit schizophrenia, as defined by the Schedule for Deficit Syndrome, may represent a distinct diagnostic class defined by neurocognitive impairments coupled with changes in IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). Adequate classifications should be based on supervised and unsupervised learning rather than on consensus criteria. METHODS: This study used machine learning as means to provide a more accurate classification of patients with stable phase schizophrenia...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789033/the-neurological-examination-adapted-for-neuropsychiatry
#7
Sheldon Benjamin, Margo D Lauterbach
The neuropsychiatric examination includes standard neurological and cognitive examination techniques with several additional observations and tasks designed to capture abnormalities common among patients with neuropsychiatric disorders or neurocognitive complaints. Although useful as a screening tool, a single standardized rating scale such as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is insufficient to establish a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. Extra attention is paid to findings commonly seen in the setting of psychiatric disorders, dementias, movement disorders, or dysfunction of cortical or subcortical structures...
May 23, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789032/neuropsychological-correlates-of-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-in-neurocognitive-disorders-a-possible-role-for-executive-dysfunction-and-mood-changes
#8
Martina Amanzio, Sara Palermo, Milena Zucca, Rosalba Rosato, Elisa Rubino, Daniela Leotta, Massimo Bartoli, Innocenzo Rainero
ABSTRACTSince baseline executive dysfunction predicts worsening Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (i-ADL) over time and progression to Alzheimer's Disease (AD), we aimed to analyze the role of neuropsychological variables to outline which factors can contribute to functional impairment. Specific attention to executive functions (EFs) has been given.A total of 144 subjects complaining of different cognitive deficits - ranging from "MCI likely due to AD" to "mild AD patients" - underwent an overall neuropsychological assessment...
May 23, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788039/frailty-neurocognitive-impairment-or-both-in-predicting-poor-health-outcomes-among-adults-living-with-hiv
#9
Kristine M Erlandson, Jeremiah Perez, Mona Abdo, Kevin Robertson, Ronald J Ellis, Susan L Koletar, Robert Kalayjian, Babafemi Taiwo, Frank J Palella, Katherine Tassiopoulos
Background: Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is strongly associated with frailty in people living with HIV (PLWH); the overlap of frailty and NCI, and the impact on health outcomes in PLWH is unknown. Methods: PLWH in a longitudinal, observational study of aging completed entry evaluations for frailty and NCI. Outcomes were falls (recurrent), increased limitations in independent activities of daily living, or mortality and were combined. Poisson regression models estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for ≥1 outcome over 2 years...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786852/evolution-of-lobar-abnormalities-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-41-children-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#10
Tuhina Govil-Dalela, Ajay Kumar, Michael E Behen, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed long-term changes of lobar glucose metabolic abnormalities in relation to clinical seizure variables and development in a large group of children with medically refractory epilepsy. METHODS: Forty-one children (25 males) with drug-resistant epilepsy had a baseline positron emission tomography (PET) scan at a median age of 4.7 years; the scans were repeated after a median of 4.3 years. Children with progressive neurological disorders or space-occupying lesion-related epilepsy and those who had undergone epilepsy surgery were excluded...
May 22, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785673/the-impact-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-bipolar-depression-mania-and-euthymia-a-systematic-review-of-preliminary-data
#11
Clément Dondé, Nicholas H Neufeld, Pierre A Geoffroy
The neurobiological basis of bipolar disorders (BD) has received increased attention and several brain regions and brain circuits have been correlated with clinical symptoms. These brain regions and circuits may represent targets for neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). We systematically reviewed the literature to explore the risks and benefits of tDCS in BD and examined all mood states. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search using several databases was performed from April 2002 to June 2017...
May 21, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785582/altered-cerebro-cerebellum-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-hiv-infected-male-patients
#12
Huijuan Wang, Ruili Li, Yawen Zhou, Yanming Wang, Jin Cui, Benedictor Alexander Nguchu, Bensheng Qiu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hongjun Li
In addition to the role of planning and executing movement, the cerebellum greatly contributes to cognitive process. Numerous studies have reported structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellum for HIV-infected patients, but little is known about the altered functional connectivity of particular cerebellar subregions and the cerebrum. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the cerebellum and further analyze the relationship between the rsFC changes and the neuropsychological evaluation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781883/cytomegalovirus-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-and-cmv-igg-levels-are-associated-with-neurocognitive-impairment-in-people-living-with-hiv
#13
Susanne Dam Nielsen, Vibe Ballegaard, Karin Kaereby Pedersen, Maria Pedersen, Peter Brændstrup, Nikolai Kirkby, Anette Stryhn Buus, Lars P Ryder, Jan Gerstoft
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms leading to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) on stable antiretroviral therapy (cART) remain unknown. We investigated the association between CMV immunity, HIV-specific variables and NCI in PLWHIV on stable cART and with low comorbidity. METHODS: 52 PLWHIV on stable cART and 31 HIV-uninfected controls matched on age, gender, education and comorbidity were tested with a neurocognitive test-battery and CMV-immunoglobulin G (CMV-IgG) levels were measured...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781879/cognitive-burden-of-common-non-antiretroviral-medications-in-hiv-infected-women
#14
Leah H Rubin, Kendra K Radtke, Seenae Eum, Bani Tamraz, Krithika N Kumanan, Gayle Springer, Pauline M Maki, Kathryn Anastos, Daniel Merenstein, Roksana Karim, Kathleen M Weber, Deborah Gustafson, Ruth M Greenblatt, Jeffrey R Bishop
OBJECTIVE: The aging HIV population has increased comorbidity burden and consequently non-antiretroviral (ARV) medication utilization. Many non-ARV medications have known neurocognitive-adverse effects ("NC-AE medications"). We assessed the cognitive effects of NC-AE medications in HIV+ and HIV- women. METHODS: 1558 participants (1037 HIV+; mean age 46) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study completed a neuropsychological test battery between 2009 and 2011...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781717/white-matter-microstructure-and-information-processing-at-the-completion-of-chemotherapy-only-treatment-for-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#15
Simone J Darling, Cinzia De Luca, Vicki Anderson, Maria McCarthy, Stephen Hearps, Marc L Seal
Little is known about white matter microstructure and its role in information processing abilities of children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) early posttreatment. Twenty-one survivors of ALL and 18 controls (7-16 years) underwent neurocognitive assessment. A subsample underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The ALL group performed poorer on measures of processing capacity, and had widespread areas of decreased fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity. Significant group by white matter microstructure interactions was found when predicting processing speed...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781658/rapid-instruction-based-task-learning-ritl-in-schizophrenia
#16
Julia M Sheffield, Hannes Ruge, Sridhar Kandala, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate broad impairments in neurocognitive functioning as measured through laboratory-based tasks. Neuropsychological measures depend on rapid instruction-based task learning (RITL), the ability to rapidly translate task instruction into goal-directed behavior. Here, the authors present the first known investigation of RITL in schizophrenia and aim to test whether RITL deficits exist in schizophrenia, are associated with abnormal brain activation, and contribute to the generalized cognitive deficit...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781647/autonomic-regulation-in-response-to-stress-the-influence-of-anticipatory-emotion-regulation-strategies-and-trait-rumination
#17
Selene Nasso, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Ineke Demeyer, Rudi De Raedt
According to the neurocognitive framework for regulation expectation, adaptively regulating emotions in anticipation of a stressful event should help individuals deal with the stressor itself. The goal of this study was twofold: first, the authors compared the influence of adaptive versus maladaptive anticipatory emotion regulation (ER) on the autonomic system during anticipation of, confrontation with, and recovery from a stressor; second, they explored whether trait rumination moderated this relationship...
May 21, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781392/adolescent-athletes-with-learning-disability-display-atypical-maturational-trajectories-on-concussion-baseline-testing-implications-based-on-a-finnish-sample
#18
Kati Peltonen, Matti Vartiainen, Tiina Laitala-Leinonen, Sanna Koskinen, Teemu Luoto, Jon Pertab, Laura Hokkanen
Previous research has reported lower cognitive test scores on baseline testing in athletes reporting multiple previous concussions or a history of learning disability (LD). Age also has an important influence on cognitive performance. While these factors have been considered individually in previous studies, the present study is the first to explore the interaction of age, self-reported LD, and history of concussion on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT®) in a nationwide study of adolescent athletes...
May 21, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780970/three-challenges-for-future-research-on-cochlear-implants
#19
REVIEW
David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Michael S Harris, Aaron C Moberly
Cochlear implants (CIs) often work very well for many children and adults with profound sensorineural (SNHL) hearing loss. Unfortunately, while many CI patients display substantial benefits in recognizing speech and understanding spoken language following cochlear implantation, a large number of patients achieve poor outcomes. Understanding and explaining the reasons for poor outcomes following implantation is a very challenging research problem that has received little attention despite the pressing clinical significance...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780967/visual-working-memory-span-in-adults-with-cochlear-implants-some-preliminary-findings
#20
Aaron C Moberly, David B Pisoni, Michael S Harris
Objective: Neurocognitive functions, specifically verbal working memory (WM), contribute to speech recognition in postlingual adults with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal-hearing (NH) listener shearing degraded speech. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) WM accuracy as assessed using three visual span measures - digits, objects, and symbols - would correlate with recognition scores for spectrally degraded speech (through a CI or when noise-vocoded); (2) WM accuracy would be best for digit span, intermediate for object span, and lowest for symbol span, due to the increasing cognitive demands across these tasks...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
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