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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941415/manganese-in-teeth-and-neurobehavior-sex-specific-windows-of-susceptibility
#1
Julia Anglen Bauer, Birgit Claus Henn, Christine Austin, Silvia Zoni, Chiara Fedrighi, Giuseppa Cagna, Donatella Placidi, Roberta F White, Qiong Yang, Brent A Coull, Donald Smith, Roberto G Lucchini, Robert O Wright, Manish Arora
BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) is an essential element required for growth and development, but higher body burdens have been associated with neurobehavioral decrements in children. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether prenatal or postnatal Mn measured in deciduous teeth was associated with scores on a test of visuospatial learning and memory. METHODS: Deciduous teeth were collected from 142 participants (ages 10-14years) residing near varied ferro‑manganese industry in Italy...
September 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938694/preclinical-evidence-of-ghrelin-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Tongtong Ge, Wei Yang, Jie Fan, Bingjin Li
Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, plays a major role in inhibiting seizures. However, the underlying mechanism of ghrelin's anticonvulsant action is still unclear. Nowadays, there are considerable evidences showing that ghrelin is implicated in various neurophysiological processes, including learning and memory, neuroprotection, neurogenesis, and inflammatory effects. In this review, we will summarize the effects of ghrelin on epilepsy. It may provide a comprehensive picture of the role of ghrelin in epilepsy...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938081/sleep-in-insects
#3
Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Sleep is essential for proper brain function in mammals and insects. During sleep, animals are disconnected from the external world; they show high arousal thresholds and changed brain activity. Sleep deprivation results in a sleep rebound. Research using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has helped us understand the genetic and neuronal control of sleep. Genes involved in sleep control code for ion channels, factors influencing neurotransmission and neuromodulation, and proteins involved in the circadian clock...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937868/multi-day-adaptation-and-savings-in-manual-and-locomotor-tasks
#4
M F L Ruitenberg, Y E De Dios, N E Gadd, S J Wood, P A Reuter-Lorenz, I Kofman, J J Bloomberg, A P Mulavara, R D Seidler
Using an individual differences approach, we evaluated whether manual and locomotor adaptation are associated in terms of adaptation and savings across days, and whether they rely on shared underlying mechanisms involving visuospatial working memory or visual field dependence. Participants performed a manual and a locomotor adaptation task during 4 separate test sessions over a 3-month period. Reliable adaptation and savings were observed for both tasks. It was further found that higher visuospatial working memory performance and lower visual field dependence scores were associated with faster learning in the manual and locomotor tasks, respectively...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937858/our-mother-s-mitochondria-and-our-mind
#5
Peter Kramer, Paola Bressan
Most of the energy we get to spend is furnished by mitochondria, minuscule living structures sitting inside our cells or dispatched back and forth within them to where they are needed. Mitochondria produce energy by burning down what remains of our meal after we have digested it, but at the cost of constantly corroding themselves and us. Here we review how our mitochondria evolved from invading bacteria and have retained a small amount of independence from us; how we inherit them only from our mother; and how they are heavily implicated in learning, memory, cognition, and virtually every mental or neurological affliction...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936164/sodium-arsenite-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-is-associated-with-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis-in-rat-hippocampus
#6
Hongna Sun, Yanmei Yang, Hanwen Shao, Weiwei Sun, Muyu Gu, Hui Wang, Lixin Jiang, Lisha Qu, Dianjun Sun, Yanhui Gao
Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated to cognitive deficits. However, mechanisms remain unknown. The present study investigated the neurotoxic effects of sodium arsenite in drinking water over different dosages and time periods. Based on results from the Morris water maze (MWM) and morphological analysis, an exposure to sodium arsenite could induce neuronal damage in the hippocampus, reduce learning ability, and accelerate memory impairment. Sodium arsenite significantly increased homocysteine levels in serum and brain...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935920/inhibition-of-pde2-reverses-beta-amyloid-induced-memory-impairment-through-regulation-of-pka-pkg-dependent-neuro-inflammatory-and-apoptotic-pathways
#7
Li Wang, Yilixiati Xiaokaiti, Gang Wang, Xiaoxiao Xu, Ling Chen, Xianfeng Huang, Li Liu, Jianchun Pan, Shuqun Hu, Zhuoyou Chen, Ying Xu
Beta amyloid peptides (Aβ) are known risk factors involved in cognitive impairment, neuroinflammatory and apoptotic processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2) inhibitors increase the intracellular cAMP and/or cGMP activities, which may ameliorate cognitive deficits associated with AD. However, it remains unclear whether PDE2 mediated neuroapoptotic and neuroinflammatory events, as well as cognitive performance in AD are related to cAMP/cGMP-dependent pathways. The present study investigated how the selective PDE2 inhibitor BAY60-7550 (BAY) affected Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment in two classic rodent models...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935447/prosocial-effects-of-prolactin-in-male-rats-social-recognition-social-approach-and-social-learning
#8
Mary E Donhoffner, Samar Al Saleh, Olivia Schink, Ruth I Wood
Prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) are pituitary hormones essential for lactation, but also promote sexual behavior. OT stimulates social behaviors, such as recognition, approach, and learning, but less is known about PRL in these behaviors. Since PRL and OT have complementary functions in reproduction, we hypothesized that PRL increases social recognition, approach, and learning. Male Long-Evans rats received ovine PRL (oPRL; 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0mg/kg), the PRL antagonist bromocriptine (0.1, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg) or saline 20 mins before testing for recognition of familiar vs...
September 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934526/mechanisms-of-memory-retrieval-in-slow-wave-sleep
#9
Scott A Cairney, Justyna M Sobczak, Shane Lindsay, M Gareth Gaskell
Study Objectives: Memories are strengthened during sleep. The benefits of sleep for memory can be enhanced by re-exposing the sleeping brain to auditory cues; a technique known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). Prior studies have not assessed the nature of the retrieval mechanisms underpinning TMR: the matching process between auditory stimuli encountered during sleep and previously encoded memories. We carried out two experiments to address this issue. Methods: In Experiment 1, participants associated words with verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli before an overnight interval in which subsets of these stimuli were replayed in slow-wave sleep...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934393/neurofibromatosis-type-1-alternative-splicing-is-a-key-regulator-of-ras-erk-signaling-and-learning-behaviors-in-mice
#10
Hieu T Nguyen, Melissa N Hinman, Xuan Guo, Alok Sharma, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Guangbin Luo, Hua Lou
Appropriate activation of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) protein signaling cascade within the brain is crucial for optimal learning and memory. One key regulator of this cascade is the Nf1 Ras GTPase activating protein (RasGAP), which attenuates Ras/ERK signaling by converting active Ras is bound to guanosine triphosphate, activating Ras into inactive Ras is bound to guanosine diphosphate, inactivating Ras. A previous study using embryonic stem cells and embryonic stem cell-derived neurons indicated that Nf1 RasGAP activity is modulated by the highly regulated alternative splicing of Nf1 exon 23a...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934222/endogenous-rgs14-is-a-cytoplasmic-nuclear-shuttling-protein-that-localizes-to-juxtanuclear-membranes-and-chromatin-rich-regions-of-the-nucleus
#11
Mary Rose Branch, John R Hepler
Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that integrates G protein and H-Ras/MAPkinase signaling pathways to regulate synaptic plasticity important for hippocampal learning and memory. However, to date, little is known about the subcellular distribution and roles of endogenous RGS14 in a neuronal cell line. Most of what is known about RGS14 cellular behavior is based on studies of tagged, recombinant RGS14 ectopically overexpressed in unnatural host cells. Here, we report for the first time a comprehensive assessment of the subcellular distribution and dynamic localization of endogenous RGS14 in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934194/arginine-vasopressin-ameliorates-spatial-learning-impairments-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-v1a-receptor-and-autophagy-signaling-partially
#12
C Yang, X Zhang, J Gao, M Wang, Z Yang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a major factor contributing to neurological disorders and cognitive decline. Autophagy activation is believed to provide both beneficial and detrimental roles during hypoxic/ischemic cellular injury. Although arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been strongly involved in many behaviors, especially in learning and memory, the effects of AVP on CCH and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, to investigate whether there was neuroprotective effects of AVP on CCH through V1a receptor (an AVP receptor) signaling, permanent bilateral carotid arteries occlusion (two vessel occlusion, 2VO) was used to establish a rat model of CCH, and hypertonic saline (5...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934108/markers-of-microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-predict-cognitive-processing-speed-in-heavy-drinking-men-living-with-hiv
#13
Mollie A Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone, Ronald A Cohen, Bharat Ramratnam
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934055/do-reading-and-spelling-share-orthographic-representations-evidence-from-developmental-dysgraphia
#14
Christopher Hepner, Michael McCloskey, Brenda Rapp
Both spelling and reading depend on knowledge of the spellings of words. Despite this commonality, observed dissociations between spelling and reading in cases of acquired and developmental deficits suggest some degree of independence between the cognitive mechanisms involved in these skills. In this paper, we examine the relationship between spelling and reading in two children with developmental dysgraphia. For both children, we identified significant deficits in spelling that affected the processing of orthographic long-term memory representations of words...
September 21, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933956/relationship-between-reading-and-long-term-storage-and-retrieval-glr-in-college-students
#15
Maria Jesus Avitia, Alan S Kaufman, Melissa Bray, James C Kaufman
The purpose of this study was to (a) identify the relationship between specific types of reading ability, different forms of learning, and long-term memory and retrieval (Glr); and then (b) to determine the degree to which self-assessed reading ability and a Glr measure could predict objective reading ability. College students were administered three different reading assessments from the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition (KTEA-II): word reading, reading comprehension, and nonsense word decoding...
September 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933907/generating-lies-produces-lower-memory-predictions-and-higher-memory-performance-than-telling-the-truth-evidence-for-a-metacognitive-illusion
#16
Miri Besken
Manipulations that induce disfluency during encoding generally produce lower memory predictions for the disfluent condition than for the fluent condition. Similar to other manipulations of disfluency, generating lies takes longer and requires more mental effort than does telling the truth; hence, a manipulation of lie generation might produce patterns similar to other types of fluency for memory predictions. The current study systematically investigates the effect of a lie-generation manipulation on both actual and predicted memory performance...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933906/neural-bases-of-automaticity
#17
Mathieu Servant, Peter Cassey, Geoffrey F Woodman, Gordon D Logan
Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this prediction, however, these experiments did not use the canonical paradigms used to study automaticity. Specifically, automaticity is typically studied using practice regimes with consistent mapping between targets and distractors and spaced practice with individual targets, features that these previous studies lacked...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933901/motivation-to-avoid-loss-improves-implicit-skill-performance
#18
Danbee Chon, Kelsey R Thompson, Paul J Reber
Implicit learning reflects learning from experience that occurs without intention or awareness of the information acquired and is hypothesized to contribute to skill acquisition by improving performance with practice. The role of motivation has not been examined because this kind of memory is represented outside awareness. We manipulated motivation (approach/avoidance) and type of feedback (positive/negative) to measure how these affected a well-studied task of implicit sequence learning. Across 2 experiments, we found a consistent effect that motivation to avoid loss led to much higher levels of sequence-specific task performance...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933261/pharmacological-treatment-of-cognitive-symptoms-in-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Zihang Pan, Radu C Grovu, Danielle S Cha, Nicole E Carmona, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Margarita Shekotikhina, Carola Rong, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre
: Background: Cognitive dysfunction is a core transdiagnostic domain of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and is a principal determinant of functional recovery. However, it has been insufficiently targeted within the current therapeutic framework for MDD. OBJECTIVE: To highlight these unmet cognitive needs in MDD. METHODS: An article search was conducted using PubMed from inception to November 2016: Major Depressive Disorder (and/or variant) was cross-referenced with the following terms: antidepressants, augmentation, cognition, cognitive deficits, cognitive dysfunction, functional outcomes, mechanism of action, and treatment...
September 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933048/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-%C3%A2-9-thc-induce-neurogenesis-and-improve-cognitive-performances-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#20
Noor Azuin Suliman, Che Norma Mat Taib, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Rusliza Basir
Neurogenesis is influenced by various external factors such as enriched environments. Some researchers had postulated that neurogenesis has contributed to the hippocampal learning and memory. This project was designed to observe the effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9)-THC) in cognitive performance that influenced by the neurogenesis. Different doses of ∆(9)-THC were used for observing the neurogenesis mechanism occurs in the hippocampus of rats. The brains were stained with antibodies, namely BrdU, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and class III β-tubulin (TuJ-1)...
September 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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