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Learning and memory

Diane VonBehren, Molly M Killion, Carol Burke, Betsy Finkelmeier, Brigit Zamora
Three teams of perinatal expert nurses participated in planning and designing a new maternity unit, operationalizing the move to the new space, and evaluating care processes and workflows after the move. The hospitals involved were University of California, San Francisco Benioff Children's Hospital, Prentice Women's Hospital of Northwestern Memorial Healthcare in Chicago, IL, and Florida Hospital Orlando, Florida Hospital for Women. Although each team discussed specific details and lessons learned, there is remarkable consistency among the experiences of these teams and with the discussion of the process by the team at Mercy Hospital St...
November 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Adam I Ramsaran, Hollie R Sanders, Mark E Stanton
Since the seminal report on novel object recognition in the rat (Ennaceur & Delacour, 1988), novelty recognition paradigms have become increasingly prevalent in learning and memory research. Novelty recognition tasks do not require extensive training or complex behaviors, and thus are especially suitable for studying the ontogeny of various forms of memory (e.g., object, spatial, and contextual memory). However, relatively little is known about the determinants of recognition memory during development. The present study extends our recent research on the development of recognition memory by further characterizing the ontogeny of contextual recognition (Ramsaran, Westbrook, & Stanton, 2016)...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Rachel Barr, Alecia Moser, Sylvia Rusnak, Laura Zimmermann, Kelly Dickerson, Herietta Lee, Peter Gerhardstein
Early childhood is characterized by memory capacity limitations and rapid perceptual and motor development [Rovee-Collier (1996). Infant Behavior & Development, 19, 385-400]. The present study examined 2-year olds' reproduction of a sliding action to complete an abstract fish puzzle under different levels of memory load and perceptual feature support. Experimental groups were compared to baseline controls to assess spontaneous rates of production of the target actions; baseline production was low across all experiments...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Jeffrey Fagen, Phyllis Ohr, Kimberly Boller
In this article, we reflect upon Carolyn Rovee-Collier's pioneering research on learning and memory in infants, especially that using the mobile conjugate reinforcement task, for our understanding of (a) cognitive development in infants born prematurely and those with Down's syndrome and (b) her prediction that infants' performance in the mobile conjugate reinforcement and similar operant tasks would predict later intellectual functioning. We then examine the implications of her research on time windows (the integration of new information into a memory) and memory reactivation (the retrieval of a forgotten memory as a result of the re-exposure to a component of the original learning experience) for early intervention programs and clinicians treating victims of early trauma...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Rayna B Hirst, Kaitlyn R Young, Louise M Sodos, Robert E Wickham, Mitch Earleywine
INTRODUCTION: While many studies suggest that regular cannabis use leads to deficits in cognitive functioning, particularly in memory, few have measured effort put forth during testing, and none have examined this as a potential mediator. Both age of onset of regular cannabis use and frequency of use have been linked to increased risk of memory deficits. The present study sought to determine whether effort mediated the relationship between frequency or age of onset of cannabis use and learning and memory performance...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Saurabh Khemka, Athina Tzovara, Samuel Gerster, Boris B Quednow, Dominik R Bach
Pavlovian fear conditioning is widely used as a laboratory model of associative learning in human and nonhuman species. In this model, an organism is trained to predict an aversive unconditioned stimulus from initially neutral events (conditioned stimuli, CS). In humans, fear memory is typically measured via conditioned autonomic responses or fear-potentiated startle. For the latter, various analysis approaches have been developed, but a systematic comparison of competing methodologies is lacking. Here, we investigate the suitability of a model-based approach to startle eyeblink analysis for assessment of fear memory, and compare this to extant analysis strategies...
October 18, 2016: Psychophysiology
David R Shanks
Many studies of unconscious processing involve comparing a performance measure (e.g., some assessment of perception or memory) with an awareness measure (such as a verbal report or a forced-choice response) taken either concurrently or separately. Unconscious processing is inferred when above-chance performance is combined with null awareness. Often, however, aggregate awareness is better than chance, and data analysis therefore employs a form of extreme group analysis focusing post hoc on participants, trials, or items where awareness is absent or at chance...
October 17, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yanan Cao, Xiangyi Cao, Zhenzhu Yue, Ling Wang
Behavioral and recent neuroimaging findings have shown reversal of interference effects due to manipulating proportion congruency (PC), which suggests that task-irrelevant stimulus-response (S-R) associations are strengthened and applied to predict responses. However, it is unclear how the strengthened S-R associations are represented and applied in the brain. We investigated with a between-subjects PC paradigm of the Hedge and Marsh task using electroencephalography (EEG). The behavioral results showed the reversal of the conflict effects, suggesting that task-irrelevant S-R associations were strengthened and used to prepare responses...
October 17, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Yiye Shao, Yonghao Feng, Yangmei Xie, Qiong Luo, Long Chen, Bing Li, Yinghui Chen
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive monomer extracted from black seed (Nigella sativa) oil, which has anti-inflammatory properties in the context of various diseases. This study explored the protective effects of TQ in SE and used a lithium-pilocarpine model of SE to investigate the underlying mechanism, which was related to inflammation mediated by the NF-κB signaling pathway. In the present study, latency to SE increased in the TQ-pretreated group compared with the SE group, and the incidence of SE was significantly reduced...
October 18, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Keith E Pearson, Virginia G Wadley, Leslie A McClure, James M Shikany, Fred W Unverzagt, Suzanne E Judd
Identifying factors that contribute to the preservation of cognitive function is imperative to maintaining quality of life in advanced years. Of modifiable risk factors, diet quality has emerged as a promising candidate to make an impact on cognition. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between empirically derived dietary patterns and cognitive function. This study included 18 080 black and white participants aged 45 years and older from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Steve Majerus, Nelson Cowan
Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Claudia Balducci, Angelisa Frasca, Margherita Zotti, Pietro La Vitola, Emanuela Mhillaj, Emanuele Grigoli, Martina Iacobellis, Federica Grandi, Massimo Messa, Laura Colombo, Monica Molteni, Luigia Trabace, Carlo Rossetti, Mario Salmona, Gianluigi Forloni
[Background] Amyloid-β oligomers (AβO) are species mainly involved in the synaptic and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Although their action has been described mainly at neuronal level, it is now clear that glial cells govern synaptic activity in their resting state, contributing to new learning and memory establishment. In contrast, when activated, they may lead to synaptic and cognitive dysfunction. Using a reliable acute AβO-mediated mouse model of AD, we explored whether the memory alteration AβOs induce relies on the activation of glial cells, and if Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), pivotal in the initiation of an immune response, is involved...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Cong Lu, Zhe Shi, Xiuping Sun, Ruile Pan, Shanguang Chen, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu, Lihua Sun, Haixia Dang, Lanlan Bu, Lingling Chen, Xinmin Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kai Xin San (KXS), a traditional formula of Chinese medicine, has been used to treat dementia. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to investigate its ameliorating effects on Aβ1-40-induced cognitive impairment in rats using a series of novel reward-directed instrumental learning tasks, and to determine its possible mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were pretreated with KXS aqueous extract (0...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Maryam Farahmandfar, Mehdi Kadivar, Sareh Rastipisheh
Behavioral abnormalities associated with opiate addiction include memory and learning deficits, which are the result of some alterations in the neuromodulatory systems. Recently, orexin has shown to influence drug addiction neural circuitry, specifically in mediating reward-related perception and memory. To explore the possible interaction of orexinergic and opioidergic system on modulation of learning and memory, we have investigated the effects of intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) administration of orexin-1 receptor agonist and the competitive orexin-1 antagonist, SB-334867, on morphine-induced memory impairment by using step-down passive avoidance task in mice...
October 11, 2016: Neuropeptides
Philip Kitcher
Wisdom is a special kind of virtue. It is not to be identified with any outstanding cognitive ability-like having a prodigious memory or knowing a lot. Rather it consists in seeing what is most important and most valuable, either within a particular domain or in life as a whole. In the life of a wise person, that insight should be accompanied by traits of character, enabling the person to pursue what is seen as valuable. Viewing wisdom as a capacity for synthetic understanding, I argue for the need for philosophy, even at a time when all of us have much to learn from the sciences...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Natalia A Stefanova, Natalia A Muraleva, Kseniya Yi Maksimova, Ekaterina A Rudnitskaya, Elena Kiseleva, Darya V Telegina, Nataliya G Kolosova
Mitochondrial aberrations are observed in human Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in medical conditions that increase the risk of this disorder, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to pathophysiology of AD. Here, using OXYS rats that simulate key characteristics of sporadic AD, we set out to determine the role of mitochondria in the pathophysiology of this disorder. OXYS rats were treated with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 from age 12 to 18 months, that is, during active progression of AD-like pathology in these animals...
October 6, 2016: Aging
Anthony Holtmaat, Pico Caroni
Learning and memory are associated with the formation and modification of neuronal assemblies: populations of neurons that encode what has been learned and mediate memory retrieval upon recall. Functional studies of neuronal assemblies have progressed dramatically thanks to recent technological advances. Here we discuss how a focus on assembly formation and consolidation has provided a powerful conceptual framework to relate mechanistic studies of synaptic and circuit plasticity to behaviorally relevant aspects of learning and memory...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Nadia Justel, Mariana Psyrdellis, Ricardo M Pautassi
During extinction, the organism learns that a conditioned stimulus or a conditioned response is no longer associated with an unconditioned stimulus, and as a consequence, a decrement in the response is presented. The exposure to novel situations (e.g. exploration of a novel open field) has been used widely to modulate (i.e. either enhance or deteriorate) learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to test whether open-field exposure could modulate consummatory extinction. The results indicated that open-field exposure accelerated the extinction response (i...
October 4, 2016: Neuroreport
Nicolas Fraize, Julien Carponcy, Mickaël Antoine Joseph, Jean-Christophe Comte, Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Paul-Antoine Salin, Gaël Malleret, Régis Parmentier
STUDY OBJECTIVES: It is commonly accepted that sleep is beneficial to memory processes, but it is still unclear if this benefit originates from improved memory consolidation or enhanced information processing. It has thus been proposed that sleep may also promote forgetting of undesirable and non-essential memories, a process required for optimization of cognitive resources. We tested the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) promotes forgetting of irrelevant information, more specifically when processing information in working memory (WM), while REM sleep (REMS) facilitates the consolidation of important information...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Harini C Krishnan, Catherine E Gandour, Joshua L Ramos, Mariah C Wrinkle, Joseph J Sanchez-Pacheco, Lisa C Lyons
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Insufficient sleep in individuals appears increasingly common due to the demands of modern work schedules and technology use. Consequently, there is a growing need to understand the interactions between sleep deprivation and memory. The current study determined the effects of acute sleep deprivation on short- and long-term associative memory using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, a relatively simple model system well known for studies of learning and memory. DESIGN: Aplysia were sleep deprived for 9 h using context changes and tactile stimulation prior to or after training using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI)...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
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