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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923267/sleep-and-processing-of-trauma-memories
#1
Ihori Kobayashi, Thomas A Mellman, Duaa Altaee, Mary Katherine Howell, Joseph Lavela
Sleep has been implicated in learning processes that appear to underlie recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The importance of quality and timing of sleep following exposure-based therapies has been suggested. The present study evaluated relationships between sleep and adaptive emotional processing following written narrative exposure (WNE) to memories of traumatic events experienced by participants with clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Participants included 21 urban-residing nontreatment-seeking adults with full or subthreshold symptoms of PTSD who completed 4 sessions of 30-min WNE with the first session either in the evening or the morning...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923202/structure-based-optimization-of-salt-bridge-network-across-the-complex-interface-of-ptpn4-pdz-domain-with-its-peptide-ligands-in-neuroglioma
#2
Xian Xiao, Qiang-Hua He, Li-Yan Yu, Song-Qing Wang, Yang Li, Hua Yang, Ai-Hua Zhang, Xiao-Hong Ma, Yu-Jie Peng, Bing Chen
The PTP non-receptor type 4 (PTPN4) is an important regulator protein in learning, spatial memory and cerebellar synaptic plasticity; targeting the PDZ domain of PTPN4 has become as attractive therapeutic strategy for human neuroglioma. Here, we systematically examined the complex crystal structures of PTPN4 PDZ domain with its known peptide ligands; a number of charged amino acid residues were identified in these ligands and in the peptide-binding pocket of PDZ domain, which can constitute a complicated salt-bridge network across the complex interface...
November 30, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923162/comparison-of-different-osmotic-therapies-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Vinoth K M Khandelwal, Prabhakar Singh, Tatiana Ravingerova, Marslin Gregory, Hardik Gandhi, Manu Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in the affected region, increased intracranial pressure, consequent oedema and congestion contribute to the negative outcome of traumatic brain injury. Osmotic therapies are recommended for improvement in cognitive and motor functions. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of osmotic therapies in a mice model of traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Experimental closed head injury was performed in adult Swiss albino mice by the weight-drop method...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923160/adolescent-and-adult-mice-display-differential-sensitivity-to-the-effects-of-bupropion-on-the-acquisition-of-a-water-maze-task
#4
Carmen Gómez, Carmen Carrasco, Rosa Redolat
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is characterized by major neurobiological changes, and the effects of some psychoactive drugs seem to differ between adolescents and adults. Bupropion, an antidepressant that is also used to treat nicotine addiction, induces behavioral actions in both adolescent and adult rodents. However, the effects of this drug on spatial ability have not been compared in animals at different stages of their development. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of bupropion on spatial learning and memory in adolescent and adult mice...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922638/enhancing-dopaminergic-signaling-and-histone-acetylation-promotes-long-term-rescue-of-deficient-fear-extinction
#5
N Whittle, V Maurer, C Murphy, J Rainer, D Bindreither, M Hauschild, A Scharinger, M Oberhauser, T Keil, C Brehm, T Valovka, J Striessnig, N Singewald
Extinction-based exposure therapy is used to treat anxiety- and trauma-related disorders; however, there is the need to improve its limited efficacy in individuals with impaired fear extinction learning and to promote greater protection against return-of-fear phenomena. Here, using 129S1/SvImJ mice, which display impaired fear extinction acquisition and extinction consolidation, we revealed that persistent and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction in these mice was associated with enhanced expression of dopamine-related genes, such as dopamine D1 (Drd1a) and -D2 (Drd2) receptor genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, but not hippocampus...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922595/memories-of-opiate-withdrawal-emotional-states-correlate-with-specific-gamma-oscillations-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#6
Cyril Dejean, Mathieu Sitko, Paul Girardeau, Amine Bennabi, Stéphanie Caillé, Martine Cador, Thomas Boraud, Catherine Le Moine
Affective memories associated with the negative emotional state experienced during opiate withdrawal are central in maintaining drug-taking, seeking and relapse. Nucleus accumbens (NAC) is a key structure both for acute withdrawal and withdrawal memories reactivation, however NAC neuron coding properties underpinning the expression of these memories remain largely unknown. Here we aimed at deciphering the role of NAC neurons in the encoding and retrieval of opiate withdrawal memory. Chronic single neuron and local field potentials recordings were performed in morphine-dependent rats and placebo-controls...
December 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921139/reduced-inattention-and-hyperactivity-and-improved-cognition-after-marine-oil-extract-pcso-524%C3%A2-supplementation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-clinical-and-subclinical-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo
#7
James D Kean, Jerome Sarris, Andrew Scholey, Richard Silberstein, Luke A Downey, Con Stough
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the effects of a marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) on inattention, hyperactivity, mood and cognition in children and adolescents. PCSO-524® is a standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel and is an inflammatory modulator that inhibits the 5'-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways and decreases concentrations of the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA). METHODS: PCSO-524® or a matched placebo was administered for 14 weeks to 144 participants (123 males/21 females; mean age 8...
December 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920794/dance-experience-and-associations-with-cortical-gray-matter-thickness-in-the-aging-population
#8
Shai Porat, Naira Goukasian, Kristy S Hwang, Theodore Zanto, Triet Do, Jonathan Pierce, Shantanu Joshi, Ellen Woo, Liana G Apostolova
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effect dance experience may have on cortical gray matter thickness and cognitive performance in elderly participants with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: 39 cognitively normal and 48 MCI elderly participants completed a questionnaire regarding their lifetime experience with music, dance, and song. Participants identified themselves as either dancers or nondancers. All participants received structural 1.5-tesla MRI scans and detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluations...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920146/selectivity-in-post-encoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#9
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems level consolidation. While high reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for those experiences prioritizes high value information. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that post-encoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of post-encoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919830/newly-acquired-and-reactivated-contextual-fear-memories-are-more-intense-and-prone-to-generalize-after-activation-of-prelimbic-cortex-nmda-receptors
#10
Ana C Vanvossen, Marina A M Portes, Rafael Scoz-Silva, Hugo B Reichmann, Cristina A J Stern, Leandro J Bertoglio
Activity in the rodent prelimbic (PL) cortex contributes to consolidation, retrieval and reconsolidation of learned fear. The PL cortex is considered homologous to the primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the dACC is often reported to be hyperactive after acquisition and/or around the retrieval of the traumatic memory. It is still unknown, however, whether there is a relationship between altered dACC functioning at these time points and PTSD-associated behavioral outcomes, such as fear overgeneralization...
December 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919829/training-induced-elevations-in-extracellular-lactate-in-hippocampus-and-striatum-dissociations-by-cognitive-strategy-and-type-of-reward
#11
Lori A Newman, Claire J Scavuzzo, Paul E Gold, Donna L Korol
Recent evidence suggests that astrocytes convert glucose to lactate, which is released from the astrocytes and supports learning and memory. This report takes a multiple memory perspective to test the role of astrocytes in cognition using real-time lactate measurements during learning and memory. Extracellular lactate levels in the hippocampus or striatum were determined with lactate biosensors while rats were learning place (hippocampus-sensitive) or response (striatum-sensitive) versions of T-mazes. In the first experiment, rats were trained on the place and response tasks to locate a food reward...
December 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919700/exposure-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-during-development-does-not-impair-aspects-of-attention-during-adulthood-in-rats
#12
Kathy L Murphy, Jill McGaughy, Paula L Croxson, Mark G Baxter
Exposure to general anesthetic agents during development has been associated with neurotoxicity and long-term behavioral impairments in rodents and non-human primates. The phenotype of anesthetic-induced cognitive impairment has a robust learning and memory component, however less is known about other psychological domains. Data from retrospective human patient studies suggest that children undergoing multiple procedures requiring general anesthesia are at increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919482/the-association-of-cognitive-impairment-with-gray-matter-atrophy-and-cortical-lesion-load-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#13
Sevda Diker, Arzu Ceylan Has, Aslı Kurne, Rahşan Göçmen, Kader Karlı Oğuz, Rana Karabudak
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis can impair cognition from the early stages and has been shown to be associated with gray matter damage in addition to white matter pathology. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the profile of cognitive impairment in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and the contribution of cortical inflammation, cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, and white matter lesions to cognitive decline. METHODS: Thirty patients with clinically isolated syndrome and twenty demographically- matched healthy controls underwent neuropsychologic assessment through the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery, and brain magnetic resonance imaging with double inversion recovery using a 3T scanner...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919318/new-learning-while-consolidating-memory-during-sleep-is-actively-blocked-by-a-protein-synthesis-dependent-process
#14
Roi Levy, David Levitan, Abraham J Susswein
Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918874/effects-of-the-natural-%C3%AE-carboline-alkaloid-harmine-a-main-constituent-of-ayahuasca-in-memory-and-in-the-hippocampus-a-systematic-literature-review-of-preclinical-studies
#15
Rafael G Dos Santos, Jaime E C Hallak
Harmine is a natural β-carboline alkaloid found in several botanical species, such as the Banisteriopsis caapi vine used in the preparation of the hallucinogenic beverage ayahuasca and the seeds of Syrian rue (Peganum harmala). Preclinical studies suggest that harmine may have neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects, and retrospective/observational investigations of the mental health of long-term ayahuasca users suggest that prolonged use of this harmine-rich hallucinogen is associated with better neuropsychological functioning...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918598/sighted-and-visually-impaired-students-perspectives-of-illustrations-diagrams-and-drawings-in-school-science
#16
Celia McDonald, Susan Rodrigues
Background In this paper we report on the views of students with and without visual impairments on the use of illustrations, diagrams and drawings (IDD) in science lessons. Method Our findings are based on data gathered through a brief questionnaire completed by a convenience sample of students prior to trialling new resource material. The questionnaire sought to understand the students' views about using IDD in science lessons. The classes involved in the study included one class from a primary school, five classes from a secondary school and one class from a school for visually impaired students...
2016: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918284/context-specificity-of-both-acquisition-and-extinction-of-a-pavlovian-conditioned-response
#17
Sarah Starosta, Metin Uengoer, Isabelle Bartetzko, Sara Lucke, Onur Güntürkün, Maik C Stüttgen
It is widely held that the extinction of a conditioned response is more context specific than its initial acquisition. One proposed explanation is that context serves to disambiguate the meaning of a stimulus. Using a procedure that equated the learning histories of the contexts, we show that the memory of an appetitive Pavlovian association can be highly context specific despite being unambiguous. This result is inconsistent with predictions of the Rescorla-Wagner model of learning but in line with configural accounts of contextual control of behavior...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918283/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-act-in-synergy-to-facilitate-learning-and-memory
#18
Katherine Leaderbrand, Helen J Chen, Kevin A Corcoran, Anita L Guedea, Vladimir Jovasevic, Jurgen Wess, Jelena Radulovic
Understanding how episodic memories are formed and retrieved is necessary if we are to treat disorders in which they malfunction. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the hippocampus and cortex underlie memory formation, but there is conflicting evidence regarding their role in memory retrieval. Additionally, there is no consensus on which mAChR subtypes are critical for memory processing. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that (1) encoding and retrieval of contextual memory requires mAChR in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), (2) memory formation requires hippocampal M3 and cooperative activity of RSC M1 and M3, and (3) memory retrieval is more impaired by inactivation of multiple M1-M4 mAChR in DH or RSC than inactivation of individual receptor subtypes...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918280/lateral-not-medial-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-punishment-and-aversive-instrumental-learning
#19
Philip Jean-Richard-Dit-Bressel, Gavan P McNally
Aversive outcomes punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in punishment learning and behavior, although the exact roles for different PFC regions in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the role of the orbitofrontal (OFC), rostral agranular insular (RAIC), prelimbic (PL), and infralimbic (IL) cortex in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making. Rats that pressed two individually presented levers for pellet rewards rapidly suppressed responding to one lever if it also caused mild punishment (punished lever) but continued pressing the other lever that did not cause punishment (unpunished lever)...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918278/pi3-kinase-cascade-has-a-differential-role-in-acquisition-and-extinction-of-conditioned-fear-memory-in-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#20
Ilana Slouzkey, Mouna Maroun
The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit, plays a crucial role in acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Extinction of aversive memories is mediated, at least in part, by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in adult rats. There is recent interest in the neural mechanisms that mediate fear and extinction in juvenile animals and whether these mechanisms are distinctive from those in adult animals. In the present study, we examined (1) changes in phosphorylation of Akt in the BLA and mPFC after fear conditioning and extinction in juvenile and adult rats and (2) the effect of BLA and mPFC localized inhibition of the PI3K following acquisition and extinction of contextual fear memory...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
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