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Learning and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779169/-keeping-in-mind-the-gender-stereotype-the-role-of-need-for-closure-in-the-retrieval-induced-forgetting-of-female-managers-qualities
#1
Gennaro Pica, Antonio Pierro, Valerio Pellegrini, Valeria De Cristofaro, Annamaria Giannini, Arie W Kruglanski
The present research addressed the question of whether need for closure (NFC; Kruglanski in The psychology of closed mindedness, Psychology Press, New York, 2004) biases individuals' memory of female leaders. Merging research on role congruity theory of leadership (Koenig et al. in Psychol Bull 4:616-642, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023557 ) and research on retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF, Anderson et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cognit 20:1063-1087, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.5.861 ), we hypothesized and found that high-NFC participants show (1) a higher RIF of dimensions commonly associated with the leadership prototype (agentic/masculine) ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved dimensions commonly associated with the female prototype (communal/feminine) were ascribed to the same target; and (2) a lessened RIF of female stereotypical dimensions ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved prototypical leadership dimensions were ascribed to the same target...
May 19, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778777/modeling-the-dynamics-of-recognition-memory-testing-with-an-integrated-model-of-retrieval-and-decision-making
#2
Adam F Osth, Anna Jansson, Simon Dennis, Andrew Heathcote
A robust finding in recognition memory is that performance declines monotonically across test trials. Despite the prevalence of this decline, there is a lack of consensus on the mechanism responsible. Three hypotheses have been put forward: (1) interference is caused by learning of test items (2) the test items cause a shift in the context representation used to cue memory and (3) participants change their speed-accuracy thresholds through the course of testing. We implemented all three possibilities in a combined model of recognition memory and decision making, which inherits the memory retrieval elements of the Osth and Dennis (2015) model and uses the diffusion decision model (DDM: Ratcliff, 1978) to generate choice and response times...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778761/preferential-stabilization-of-newly-formed-dendritic-spines-in-motor-cortex-during-manual-skill-learning-predicts-performance-gains-but-not-memory-endurance
#3
Taylor A Clark, Min Fu, Andrew K Dunn, Yi Zuo, Theresa A Jones
Previous findings that skill learning is associated with the formation and preferential stabilization of new dendritic spines in cortex have raised the possibility that this preferential stabilization is a mechanism for lasting skill memory. We investigated this possibility in adult mice using in vivo two-photon imaging to monitor spine dynamics on superficial apical dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons in motor cortex during manual skill learning. Spine formation increased over the first 3 days of training on a skilled reaching task, followed by increased spine elimination...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#4
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777493/transgenic-mice-carrying-glud2-as-a-tool-for-studying-the-expressional-and-the-functional-adaptation-of-this-positive-selected-gene-in-human-brain-evolution
#5
Andreas Plaitakis, Dimitra Kotzamani, Zoe Petraki, Maria Delidaki, Vagelis Rinotas, Ioannis Zaganas, Eleni Douni, Kyriaki Sidiropoulou, Cleanthe Spanaki
Human evolution is characterized by brain expansion and up-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism and synaptic transmission, including the glutamate signaling pathway. Glutamate is the excitatory transmitter of neural circuits sub-serving cognitive functions, with glutamate-modulation of synaptic plasticity being central to learning and memory. GLUD2 is a novel positively-selected human gene involved in glutamatergic transmission and energy metabolism that underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation concomitantly with prefrontal cortex enlargement...
May 18, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777319/what-does-sex-have-to-do-with-it-the-role-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Sara L Kornfield, Liisa Hantsoo, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777133/selective-improvements-in-balancing-associated-with-offline-periods-of-spaced-training
#7
Antonino Casabona, Maria Stella Valle, Carlo Cavallaro, Gabriele Castorina, Matteo Cioni
Benefits from post-training memory processing have been observed in learning many procedural skills. Here, we show that appropriate offline periods produce a performance gain during learning to stand on a multiaxial balance board. The tilt angle and the area of sway motion of the board were much more reduced in participants performing a training spaced by an interval of one day with respect to participants executing the same amount of practice over a concentrated period. In particular, offline memory encoding was specifically associated with the motion along the anterior-posterior direction, the spatio-temporal dynamics, and the frequency contents of the board sway...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776994/first-demonstration-of-olfactory-learning-and-long-term-memory-in-honey-bee-queens
#8
Zhiwen Gong, Ken Tan, James C Nieh
As the primary source of colony reproduction, social insect queens play a vital role. However, the cognitive abilities of queens are not well understood, although queen learning and memory are essential in multiple species such as honey bees, in which virgin queens must leave the nest and then successful learn to navigate back over repeated nuptial flights. Honey bee queen learning has never been previously demonstrated. We therefore tested olfactory learning in queens and workers and examined the role of DNA methylation, which plays a key role in long term memory formation...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776467/how-memory-replay-in-sleep-boosts-creative-problem-solving
#9
REVIEW
Penelope A Lewis, Günther Knoblich, Gina Poe
Creative thought relies on the reorganisation of existing knowledge. Sleep is known to be important for creative thinking, but there is a debate about which sleep stage is most relevant, and why. We address this issue by proposing that rapid eye movement sleep, or 'REM', and non-REM sleep facilitate creativity in different ways. Memory replay mechanisms in non-REM can abstract rules from corpuses of learned information, while replay in REM may promote novel associations. We propose that the iterative interleaving of REM and non-REM across a night boosts the formation of complex knowledge frameworks, and allows these frameworks to be restructured, thus facilitating creative thought...
June 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776428/evidence-of-the-impact-of-systemic-inflammation-on-neuroinflammation-from-a-non-bacterial-endotoxin-animal-model
#10
Chunxia Huang, Michael Garnet Irwin, Gordon Tin Chun Wong, Raymond Chuen Chung Chang
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation induces neuroinflammation and cellular changes such as tau phosphorylation to impair cognitive function, including learning and memory. This study uses a single model, laparotomy without any pathogen, to characterize these changes and their responses to anti-inflammatory treatment in the intermediate term. METHODS: In a two-part experiment, wild-type C57BL/6N mice (male, 3 month old, 25 ± 2 g) were subjected to sevoflurane anesthesia alone or to a laparotomy...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776417/sinomenine-exerts-anticonvulsant-profile-and-neuroprotective-activity-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-rats-involvement-of-inhibition-of-nlrp1-inflammasome
#11
Bo Gao, Yu Wu, Yuan-Jian Yang, Wei-Zu Li, Kun Dong, Jun Zhou, Yan-Yan Yin, Da-Ke Huang, Wen-Ning Wu
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder and is not well controlled by available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Inflammation is considered to be a critical factor in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Sinomenine (SN), a bioactive alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effect, exerts neuroprotective activity in many nervous system diseases. However, little is known about the effect of SN on epilepsy. METHODS: The chronic epilepsy model was established by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775775/knowledge-and-learning-of-verb-biases-in-amnesia
#12
Rachel Ryskin, Zhenghan Qi, Natalie V Covington, Melissa Duff, Sarah Brown-Schmidt
Verb bias-the co-occurrence frequencies between a verb and the syntactic structures it may appear with-is a critical and reliable linguistic cue for online sentence processing. In particular, listeners use this information to disambiguate sentences with multiple potential syntactic parses (e.g., Feel the frog with the feather.). Further, listeners dynamically update their representations of specific verbs in the face of new evidence about verb-structure co-occurrence. Yet, little is known about the biological memory systems that support the use and dynamic updating of verb bias...
May 15, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775623/unsupervised-visual-discrimination-learning-of-complex-stimuli-accuracy-bias-and-generalization
#13
Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Mauricio Toro, Pedro E Maldonado, María de la L Aylwin
Through same-different judgements, we can discriminate an immense variety of stimuli and consequently, they are critical in our everyday interaction with the environment. The quality of the judgements depends on familiarity with stimuli. A way to improve the discrimination is through learning, but to this day, we lack direct evidence of how learning shapes the same-different judgments with complex stimuli. We studied unsupervised visual discrimination learning in 42 participants, as they performed same-different judgments with two types of unfamiliar complex stimuli in the absence of labeling or individuation...
May 15, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775564/the-antibody-rhigm22-facilitates-hippocampal-remyelination-and-ameliorates-memory-deficits-in-the-cuprizone-mouse-model-of-demyelination
#14
Charlene Cui, Jing Wang, Ariana P Mullin, Anthony O Caggiano, Tom J Parry, Raymond W Colburn, Elias Pavlopoulos
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. In addition to motor, sensory and visual deficits, MS is also characterized by hippocampal demyelination and memory impairment. We recently demonstrated that a recombinant human-derived monoclonal IgM antibody, which is designated rHIgM22 and currently in clinical development for people with MS, accelerates remyelination of the corpus callosum in the brains of cuprizone-treated mice. Here, we investigated the effects of rHIgM22 in the hippocampus and on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in the same mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination and spontaneous remyelination...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773980/anatomical-inputs-from-the-sensory-and-value-structures-to-the-tail-of-the-rat-striatum
#15
Haiyan Jiang, Hyoung F Kim
The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS), is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773978/effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-mid-pregnancy-on-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-rats-beneficial-effects-of-maternal-exercise
#16
Ziyi Wu, Xingyue Li, Yi Zhang, Dongyi Tong, Lili Wang, Ping Zhao
Fetal exposure to general anesthetics may pose significant neurocognitive risks but methods to mitigate against these detrimental effects are still to be determined. We set out, therefore, to assess whether single or repeated in utero exposure to sevoflurane triggers long-term cognitive impairments in rat offspring. Since maternal exercise during pregnancy has been shown to improve cognition in offspring, we hypothesized that maternal treadmill exercise during pregnancy would protect against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773974/orexin-a-differentially-influences-the-extinction-retention-of-recent-and-remote-fear-memory
#17
Le Shi, Wenhao Chen, Jiahui Deng, Sijing Chen, Ying Han, Muhammad Z Khan, Jiajia Liu, Jianyu Que, Yanping Bao, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Recently the role of the orexin system in the learning and memory, especially orexin A, which could enhance fear memory through regulating the activity of amygdala, has drawn considerable attention. However, the relationship between orexin A and extinction memory remains unclear. To investigate the effect of orexin A on extinction memory in humans, we recruited 43 male subjects and divided them into a recent group and remote group. After acquiring Pavlovian fear conditioning, individuals in recent group experienced fear extinction 24 h after acquisition, and remote group underwent extinction 2 weeks later...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773221/are-there-distinct-forms-of-accelerated-forgetting-and-if-so-why
#18
Andrew R Mayes, Nicola M Hunkin, Claire Isaac, Nils Muhlert
Whether accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) and classic organic amnesia, particularly hippocampal-amnesia, differ qualitatively or merely quantitatively is disputed. Qualitative difference accounts postulate that ALF patients show normal recall memory for at least minutes, during which hippocampal-amnesics already show accelerated forgetting and impaired recall but, thereafter, ALF patients show accelerated forgetting and impaired delayed recall. These delayed impairments may be more severe than those shown by hippocampal-amnesics...
April 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772960/is-music-a-memory-booster-in-normal-aging-the-influence-of-emotion
#19
Stéphie Ratovohery, Alexia Baudouin, Aude Gachet, Juliette Palisson, Pauline Narme
Age-related differences in episodic memory have been explained by a decrement in strategic encoding implementation. It has been shown in clinical populations that music can be used during the encoding stage as a mnemonic strategy to learn verbal information. The effectiveness of this strategy remains equivocal in older adults (OA). Furthermore, the impact of the emotional valence of the music used has never been investigated in this context. Thirty OA and 24 young adults (YA) learned texts that were either set to music that was positively or negatively valenced, or spoken only...
May 17, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772957/brain-machine-interfaces-powerful-tools-for-clinical-treatment-and-neuroscientific-investigations
#20
Marc W Slutzky
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have exploded in popularity in the past decade. BMIs, also called brain-computer interfaces, provide a direct link between the brain and a computer, usually to control an external device. BMIs have a wide array of potential clinical applications, ranging from restoring communication to people unable to speak due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or a stroke, to restoring movement to people with paralysis from spinal cord injury or motor neuron disease, to restoring memory to people with cognitive impairment...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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