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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332050/supplemental-retinal-carotenoids-enhance-memory-in-healthy-individuals-with-low-levels-of-macular-pigment-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#1
Rebecca Power, Robert F Coen, Stephen Beatty, Riona Mulcahy, Rachel Moran, Jim Stack, Alan N Howard, John M Nolan
BACKGROUND: There is a biologically plausible rationale whereby the dietary carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP) in the central retina (macula), support the maintenance of cognition via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of supplemental L, Z, and MZ on memory, executive function, and verbal fluency among healthy individuals with low MP levels...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332038/sex-influences-the-accuracy-of-subjective-memory-complaint-reporting-in-older-adults
#2
Erin E Sundermann, Emily C Edmonds, Lisa Delano-Wood, Douglas R Galasko, David P Salmon, Leah H Rubin, Mark W Bondi
Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are required when diagnosing amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), although their relationship with objective memory performance and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology remains unclear. We investigated whether the sex of the patient/participant moderates these associations. Participants were 940 normal control (NC) and aMCI participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. SMC were assessed via the memory scale of the Everyday Cognition questionnaire. Discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-reports and categorized into "overestimates," "comparable estimates", and "underestimates" of SMC...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331931/resting-state-fmri-signals-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-at-the-high-risk-and-ultra-high-risk-stages-and-their-relations-with-cognitive-function
#3
Kangguang Lin, Robin Shao, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Weicong Lu, Ting Li, Jiehua Kong, Kwok-Fai So, Guiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional resting-state brain functioning. However, it is still not known whether the aberrant functioning occurs and predict cognitive functioning before illness onset. AIMS: We examined the resting-state regional and network dysfunctioning, and their correlates with neurocognitive performance, in the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), region homogeneity (ReHo) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based connectivity, we examined resting-state fMRI data of 8- to 25-year-old healthy offspring (HR, n = 28) and offspring with subthreshold syndromes (UHR, n = 22) of a BD parent, and age-matched healthy controls without any personal or family psychopathology (HC, n = 46)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331727/individual-variation-in-working-memory-is-associated-with-fear-extinction-performance
#4
Daniel M Stout, Dean T Acheson, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Dewleen G Baker, Mark A Geyer, Victoria B Risbrough
PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Adjudicating the competition between threat memory and the new inhibitory memory during extinction may rely, in part, on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). Despite significant shared neural circuits and signaling pathways the relationship between WM, fear acquisition, and extinction is poorly understood...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331692/memory-performance-predicts-response-to-psychotherapy-for-depression-in-bipolar-disorder-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-with-exploratory-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Thilo Deckersbach, Amy T Peters, Conor Shea, Aishwarya Gosai, Jonathan P Stange, Andrew D Peckham, Kristen K Ellard, Michael W Otto, Scott L Rauch, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg
OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial compared Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Psychotherapy (SP) for the treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder. We also examined whether exploratory verbal memory, executive functioning, and neural correlates of verbal memory during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicted change in depression severity. METHODS: Thirty-two adults (ages 18-65) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder meeting current criteria for a major depressive episode were randomized to 18 weeks of CBT or SP...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331447/sharp-wave-ripples-as-a-signature-of-hippocampal-prefrontal-reactivation-for-memory-during-sleep-and-waking-states
#6
Wenbo Tang, Shantanu P Jadhav
It is widely believed that memories that are encoded and retrieved during waking behavior are consolidated during sleep. Recent studies on the interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have greatly advanced our understanding of the physiological bases of these memory processes. Although hippocampal-prefrontal network activity differs in many aspects during waking and sleep states, here we review evidence that hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) emerge as a common neurophysiological pattern in both states, facilitating communication between these two regions via coordinated reactivation of stored memory information...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331203/have-we-forgotten-about-forgetting-a-critical-review-of-accelerated-long-term-forgetting-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Anneli Cassel, Michael D Kopelman
Forgetting has been researched for over a century. This literature highlighted how forgetting rates can vary dependent on factors in the design and method. Recent interest in forgetting revived with evidence suggesting that seizures experienced almost immediately after matched learning could accelerate forgetting. This was followed by a growth in forgetting studies in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), including a subset of those with transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). These patients have been described as expressing concerns about memory, yet often perform within 'normal' ranges on standard neuropsychological memory assessments...
December 26, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330686/attentional-influences-on-memory-formation-a-tale-of-a-not-so-simple-story
#8
J Ortiz-Tudela, B Milliken, L Jiménez, J Lupiáñez
Is there a learning mechanism triggered by mere expectation violation? Is there some form of memory enhancement inherent to an event mismatching our predictions? Across seven experiments, we explore this issue by means of a validity paradigm. Although our manipulation clearly succeeded in generating an expectation and breaking it, the memory consequences of that expectation mismatch are not so obvious. We report here evidence of a null effect of expectation on memory formation. Our results (1) show that enhanced memory for unexpected events is not easily achieved and (2) call for a reevaluation of previous accounts of memory enhancements based on prediction error or difficulty of processing...
January 12, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330372/non-estrogenic-xanthohumol-derivatives-mitigate-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-impairment-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#9
Cristobal L Miranda, Lance A Johnson, Oriane de Montgolfier, Valerie D Elias, Lea S Ullrich, Joshua J Hay, Ines L Paraiso, Jaewoo Choi, Ralph L Reed, Johana S Revel, Chrissa Kioussi, Gerd Bobe, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner, Benita S Katzenellenbogen, John A Katzenellenbogen, Paul R Blakemore, Adrian F Gombart, Claudia S Maier, Jacob Raber, Jan F Stevens
Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid from hops, improves dysfunctional glucose and lipid metabolism in animal models of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, its metabolic transformation into the estrogenic metabolite, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), poses a potential health concern for its use in humans. To address this concern, we evaluated two hydrogenated derivatives, α,β-dihydro-XN (DXN) and tetrahydro-XN (TXN), which showed negligible affinity for estrogen receptors α and β, and which cannot be metabolically converted into 8-PN...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330349/pharmacologic-inhibition-of-phospholipase-c-in-the-brain-attenuates-early-memory-formation-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera-l
#10
Shota Suenami, Shiori Iino, Takeo Kubo
Although the molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory in insects have been studied intensively, the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved in early memory formation are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that phospholipase C epsilon (PLCe), whose product is involved in calcium signaling, is almost selectively expressed in the mushroom bodies, a brain structure important for learning and memory in the honeybee. Here, we pharmacologically examined the role of phospholipase C (PLC) in learning and memory in the honeybee...
January 12, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330097/learning-situated-emotions
#11
Lauren A M Lebois, Christine D Wilson-Mendenhall, W Kyle Simmons, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Lawrence W Barsalou
From the perspective of constructivist theories, emotion results from learning assemblies of relevant perceptual, cognitive, interoceptive, and motor processes in specific situations. Across emotional experiences over time, learned assemblies of processes accumulate in memory that later underlie emotional experiences in similar situations. A neuroimaging experiment guided participants to experience (and thus learn) situated forms of emotion, and then assessed whether participants tended to experience situated forms of the emotion later...
January 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330003/effects-of-5-ht5a-receptor-blockade-on-amnesia-or-forgetting
#12
L Aparicio-Nava, L A Márquez-García, A Meneses
Previously the effects (0.01-3.0 mg/kg) of post-training SB-699551 (a 5-HT5A receptor antagonist) were reported in the associative learning task of autoshaping, showing that SB-699551 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased lever-press conditioned responses (CR) during short-term (STM; 1.5-h) or (3.0 mg/kg) long-term memory (LTM; 24-h); relative to the vehicle animals. Moreover, as pro-cognitive efficacy of SB-699551 was reported in the ketamine-model of schizophrenia. Hence, firstly aiming improving performance (conditioned response, CR), in this work autoshaping lever-press vs...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329984/infralimbic-dopamine-d2-receptors-mediate-glucocorticoid-induced-facilitation-of-auditory-fear-memory-extinction-in-rats
#13
Masoumeh Dadkhah, Payman Raise Abdullahi, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Hamid Reza Sameni, Abbas Ali Vafaei
The infralimbic (IL) cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the extinction of fear memory. Also, it has been showed that both brain glucocorticoid and dopamine receptors are involved in many processes such as fear extinction that drive learning and memory; however, the interaction of these receptors in the IL cortex remains unclear. We examined a putative interaction between the effects of glucocorticoid and dopamine receptors stimulation in the IL cortex on fear memory extinction in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm in male rats...
January 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329433/rage-mediates-a%C3%AE-accumulation-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-modulation-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-secretase-activity
#14
Fang Fang, Qing Yu, Ottavio Arancio, Doris Chen, Smruti S Gore, Shi Fang Yan, Shirley ShiDu Yan
Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) has been implicated in amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-induced perturbation relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how RAGE regulates Aβ metabolism remains largely unknown. Aβ formation arises from aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase. To investigate whether RAGE modulates β- and γ-secretase activity potentiating Aβ formation, we generated mAPP mice with genetic deletion of RAGE (mAPP/RO)...
January 10, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329293/cognitive-deficits-and-educational-loss-in-children-with-schistosome-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Amara E Ezeamama, Amaya L Bustinduy, Allan K Nkwata, Leonardo Martinez, Noel Pabalan, Michael J Boivin, Charles H King
BACKGROUND: By means of meta-analysis of information from all relevant epidemiologic studies, we examined the hypothesis that Schistosoma infection in school-aged children (SAC) is associated with educational loss and cognitive deficits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This review was prospectively registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42016040052). Medline, Biosis, and Web of Science were searched for studies published before August 2016 that evaluated associations between Schistosoma infection and cognitive or educational outcomes...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329288/soil-transmitted-helminth-infection-loss-of-education-and-cognitive-impairment-in-school-aged-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Noel Pabalan, Eloisa Singian, Lani Tabangay, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Michael J Boivin, Amara E Ezeamama
BACKGROUND: Evidence of an adverse influence of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections on cognitive function and educational loss is equivocal. Prior meta-analyses have focused on randomized controlled trials only and have not sufficiently explored the potential for disparate influence of STH infection by cognitive domain. We re-examine the hypothesis that STH infection is associated with cognitive deficit and educational loss using data from all primary epidemiologic studies published between 1992 and 2016...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328623/mimicking-biological-synaptic-functionality-with-an-indium-phosphide-synaptic-device-on-silicon-for-scalable-neuromorphic-computing
#17
Debarghya Sarkar, Jun Tao, Wei Wang, Qingfeng Lin, Matthew Yeung, Chenhao Ren, Rehan Kapadia
Neuromorphic or "brain-like" computation is a leading candidate for efficient, fault-tolerant processing of large-scale data, as well as real-time sensing and transduction of complex multivariate systems and networks such as self-driving vehicles or Internet of Things applications. In biology, the synapse serves as an active memory unit in the neural system, and is the component responsible for learning and memory. Electronically emulating this element via a compact, scalable technology which can be integrated in a 3-D architecture is critical for future implementations of neuromorphic processors...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328454/resveratrol-ameliorates-depressive-disorder-through-the-netrin1-mediated-extracellular%C3%A2-signal-regulated-kinase-camp-signal-transduction-pathway
#18
Feifei Wang, Jinhui Wang, Jinghong An, Guoming Yuan, Xiaolei Hao, Yi Zhang
Depressive disorder is a mental health disorder caused by the dysfunction of nerve regeneration, neuroendocrine and neurobiochemistry, which frequently results in cognitive impairments and disorder. Evidence has shown that resveratrol offers benefits for the treatment of depressive disorder. In the present study, the therapeutic effects of resveratrol were investigated and the potential mechanisms mediated by resveratrol were analyzed in hippocampal neuron cells. The anti‑oxidative stress and anti‑inflammatory properties of resveratrol were also examined in vitro and in vivo...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327336/simultaneous-utilization-of-multiple-cues-in-judgments-of-learning
#19
Monika Undorf, Anke Söllner, Arndt Bröder
There is much evidence that metacognitive judgments, such as people's predictions of their future memory performance (judgments of learning, JOLs), are inferences based on cues and heuristics. However, relatively little is known about whether and when people integrate multiple cues in one metacognitive judgment or focus on a single cue without integrating further information. The current set of experiments systematically addressed whether and to what degree people integrate multiple extrinsic and intrinsic cues in JOLs...
January 11, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327279/emotion-recognition-and-psychological-comorbidity-in-friedreich-s-ataxia
#20
Teresa Costabile, Veronica Capretti, Filomena Abate, Agnese Liguori, Francesca Paciello, Chiara Pane, Anna De Rosa, Silvio Peluso, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla, Francesco Saccà
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease presenting with ataxia, corticospinal signs, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac abnormalities. Little effort has been made to understand the psychological and emotional burden of the disease. The aim of our study was to measure patients' ability to recognize emotions using visual and non-verbal auditory hints, and to correlate this ability with psychological, neuropsychological, and neurological variables. We included 20 patients with FRDA, and 20 age, sex, and education matched healthy controls (HC)...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
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