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Han-Joon Kim, Sang-Won Jeon, Ho-Kyoung Yoon
Human influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. The influenza vaccination is recommended annually, but several adverse effects related to allergic reactions have been reported. Panic attacks are also known to occur, but no case of a panic attack adverse effect has been reported in South Korea. We present two cases of panic disorder patients whose symptoms were aggravated by the influenza vaccination. We assumed that dysregulation of T-lymphocytes in panic disorder patients could have a role in activating various kinds of cytokines and chemokines, which then can lead to panic attack aggravation...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Annamaria Cattaneo, Nadia Cattane, Samantha Galluzzi, Stefania Provasi, Nicola Lopizzo, Cristina Festari, Clarissa Ferrari, Ugo Paolo Guerra, Barbara Paghera, Cristina Muscio, Angelo Bianchetti, Giorgio Dalla Volta, Marinella Turla, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Michele Gennuso, Alessandro Prelle, Orazio Zanetti, Giulia Lussignoli, Dario Mirabile, Daniele Bellandi, Simona Gentile, Gloria Belotti, Daniele Villani, Taoufiq Harach, Tristan Bolmont, Alessandro Padovani, Marina Boccardi, Giovanni B Frisoni
The pathway leading from amyloid-β deposition to cognitive impairment is believed to be a cornerstone of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, what drives amyloid buildup in sporadic nongenetic cases of AD is still unknown. AD brains feature an inflammatory reaction around amyloid plaques, and a specific subset of the gut microbiota (GMB) may promote brain inflammation. We investigated the possible role of the GMB in AD pathogenesis by studying the association of brain amyloidosis with (1) GMB taxa with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity; and (2) peripheral inflammation in cognitively impaired patients...
August 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Ranjit Singh, Ranju Bansal
Neuroinflammatory mechanisms mediated by activated glial and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) might contribute neuronal degeneration leading to Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an inflammogen derived from the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, which promotes neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegeneration. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone have been reported as neuroprotective steroids useful for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, several 16-arylidene steroidal derivatives have been evaluated as neuroprotective agents in LPS-treated animal models...
October 24, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Yanfen Li, Malavika K Adur, Athilakshmi Kannan, Juanmahel Davila, Yuechao Zhao, Romana A Nowak, Milan K Bagchi, Indrani C Bagchi, Quanxi Li
Endometriosis, defined as growth of the endometrial cells outside the uterus, is an inflammatory disorder that is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility in women of childbearing age. Although the estrogen-dependence of endometriosis is well known, the role of progesterone in development of this disease remains poorly understood. In this study, we developed a disease model in which endometriosis was induced in the peritoneal cavities of immunocompetent female mice, and maintained with exogenous estrogen...
2016: PloS One
Akimasa Someya, Takako Ikegami, Koji Sakamoto, Isao Nagaoka
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the major joint diseases, and the synovial inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of OA. Glucosamine (GlcN) is widely used as a dietary supplement for OA, and is expected to exert the antiinflammatory action in OA. However, the detailed mechanism for the antiinflammatory action of GlcN remains poorly understood. In this study, to elucidate the molecular mechanism involved in the GlcN-medicated regulation of synovial cell activation, we comprehensively analyzed the effect of GlcN on the gene expression using a human synovial cell line MH7A by DNA microarray...
2016: PloS One
Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Anne Buttgereit, Iva Lelios, Xueyang Yu, Melissa Vrohlings, Natalie R Krakoski, Emmanuel L Gautier, Ryuichi Nishinakamura, Burkhard Becher, Melanie Greter
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Gene expression profiling has identified Sall1, which encodes a transcriptional regulator, as a microglial signature gene. We found that Sall1 was expressed by microglia but not by other members of the mononuclear phagocyte system or by other CNS-resident cells. Using Sall1 for microglia-specific gene targeting, we found that the cytokine receptor CSF1R was involved in the maintenance of adult microglia and that the receptor for the cytokine TGF-β suppressed activation of microglia...
October 24, 2016: Nature Immunology
Guojian Yin, Guoyong Hu, Rong Wan, Ge Yu, Xiaofeng Cang, Jie Xiong, Jianbo Ni, Yanling Hu, Miao Xing, Yuting Fan, Wenqin Xiao, Lei Qiu, Maochun Tang, Yan Zhao, Shaofeng Wang, Xingpeng Wang
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown an obvious protective effect on acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of bone marrow MSC-derived microvesicles (bmMSC-MVs) on AP and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Bone marrow MSCs and bmMSC-MVs were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. Cerulein-induced mild AP (MAP) and sodium taurocholate-induced severe AP (SAP) were used as AP models in vivo and in vitro...
October 2016: Pancreas
Sukanta Das, Jaswinder Singh Maras, Shabir Hussain, Shvetank Sharma, Paul David, S Sukriti, Shasthry S M, Rakhi Maiwall, Nirupama Trehanpati, T P Singh, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Albumin is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, modifications in albumin structure may reduce its antioxidant properties and modulate its immune-regulatory functions. We examined alterations in circulating albumin in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) patients and its contribution in neutrophil activation, intracellular stress plus alteration in associated molecular-pathways. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Albumin modifications and plasma oxidative-stress were assessed in SAH (n=90), alcoholic cirrhosis (AC, n=60) and healthy control (HC, n=30) using LC/MS and spectrophotometry...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
S Feng, X M Chen, J F Wang, X Q Xu
Cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors, which is a serious threat to human life. However, the etiology of cancer is not entirely clear. Under the action of tumorigenic factors, tissue cells lose normal regulation, resulting in abnormal proliferation and differentiation, so as to form a tumor. Cytokines promote the development of chronic inflammation, which may affect the development of cancer, and Th17 cells are a kind of immune cells which are closely related to the tumor. Therefore, this article focused on the role of Th17 cells and its related cytokines in tumor, which is very important for understanding the mechanism of tumor development...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Kelly D Moynihan, Cary F Opel, Gregory L Szeto, Alice Tzeng, Eric F Zhu, Jesse M Engreitz, Robert T Williams, Kavya Rakhra, Michael H Zhang, Adrienne M Rothschilds, Sudha Kumari, Ryan L Kelly, Byron H Kwan, Wuhbet Abraham, Kevin Hu, Naveen K Mehta, Monique J Kauke, Heikyung Suh, Jennifer R Cochran, Douglas A Lauffenburger, K Dane Wittrup, Darrell J Irvine
Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity...
October 24, 2016: Nature Medicine
Zhi-Dan Fan, Ya-Yuan Zhang, Yi-Hong Guo, Na Huang, Hui-Hui Ma, Hui Huang, Hai-Guo Yu
Interleukin (IL)-17 producing T helper (Th17) cells are major effector cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has emerged as a potential site in the regulation of inflammation in RA but little is known of its functional role on the differentiation of Th17 cells. This study investigates the in vitro and in vivo effects of P2X7R on Th17 cell differentiation during type II collagen (CII) induced experimental arthritis model. In CII-treated dendritic cells (DCs) and DC/CD4(+) T coculture system, pretreatment with pharmacological antagonists of P2X7R (Suramin and A-438079) caused strong inhibition of production of Th17-promoting cytokines (IL-1β, TGF-β1, IL-23p19 and IL-6)...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Handan Tan, Bolin Deng, Hongsong Yu, Yi Yang, Lin Ding, Qi Zhang, Jieying Qin, Aize Kijlstra, Rui Chen, Peizeng Yang
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) family play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of IL-1 and IL-1R family genes with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) and Behcet's disease (BD) in Han Chinese. The case-control study was divided into two stages and included 419 VKH cases, 1063 BD cases and 1872 healthy controls. The MassARRAY platform (Sequenom), iPLEX Gold Assay and TaqMan SNP assays were used to score genotypes of 24 SNPs...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Aijuan Yan, Tingting Zhang, Xiao Yang, Jiaxiang Shao, Ningzhen Fu, Fanxia Shen, Yi Fu, Weiliang Xia
Thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2R) activation is thought to be involved in thrombosis/hemostasis and inflammation responses. We have previously shown that TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 attenuates BV2 microglia activation by suppression of ERK pathway, but its effect is not tested in vivo. The present study aims to explore the role of TXA2R on microglia/macrophages activation after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in mice. Adult male ICR mice underwent 90-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Immediately and 24 h after reperfusion, SQ29548 was administered twice to the ipsilateral ventricle (10 μl, 2...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jia Sun, Jintang Sun, Bingfeng Song, Lin Zhang, Qianqian Shao, Yanguo Liu, Daoying Yuan, Yun Zhang, Xun Qu
In tumor microenvironment, macrophages as a polarized M2 population promote tumor progression via releasing multiple cytokines and chemokines. A brown seaweed fucose-rich polysaccharide, fucoidan has antitumor activity and immune modulation through affecting tumor cells and lymphocytes. Here, we focused on the effect of fucoidan on macrophages especially M2 subtype. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan down-regulated partial cytokines and chemokines, especially a M2-type chemokine CCL22. Furthermore, fucoidan inhibited tumor cells migration and CD4(+) T lymphocytes, especially Treg cells, recruitment induced by M2 macrophages conditioned medium through suppression of CCL22...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hui Xia, Briony C Strachan, Sean C Gifford, Sergey S Shevkoplyas
Leukocyte reduction of donated blood products substantially reduces the risk of a number of transfusion-related complications. Current 'leukoreduction' filters operate by trapping leukocytes within specialized filtration material, while allowing desired blood components to pass through. However, the continuous release of inflammatory cytokines from the retained leukocytes, as well as the potential for platelet activation and clogging, are significant drawbacks of conventional 'dead end' filtration. To address these limitations, here we demonstrate our newly-developed 'controlled incremental filtration' (CIF) approach to perform high-throughput microfluidic removal of leukocytes from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in a continuous flow regime...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lorenzini Luca, Giuliani Alessandro, Sivilia Sandra, Baldassarro Vito Antonio, Fernandez Mercedes, Lotti Margotti Matteo, Giardino Luciana, Fontani Vania, Rinaldi Salvatore, Calzà Laura
The search for new therapeutic approaches to Alzheimer disease (AD) is a major goal in medicine and society, also due to the impressive economic and social costs of this disease. In this scenario, biotechnologies play an important role. Here, it is demonstrated that the Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC), an innovative technology platform for neuro- and bio-modulation, used according to the neuro-regenerative protocol (RGN-N), significantly increases astroglial reaction around the amyloid plaques in an AD mouse model, as evaluated by GFAP-immunoreactivity, and reduces microglia-associated neuroinflammation markers, as evaluated by Iba1-immunoreactivity and mRNA expression level of inflammatory cytokines TREM...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lulu Jiang, Charles C T Hindmarch, Mark Rogers, Colin Campbell, Christy Waterfall, Jane Coghill, Peter W Mathieson, Gavin I Welsh
Glucocorticoids are steroids that reduce inflammation and are used as immunosuppressive drugs for many diseases. They are also the mainstay for the treatment of minimal change nephropathy (MCN), which is characterised by an absence of inflammation. Their mechanisms of action remain elusive. Evidence suggests that immunomodulatory drugs can directly act on glomerular epithelial cells or 'podocytes', the cell type which is the main target of injury in MCN. To understand the nature of glucocorticoid effects on non-immune cell functions, we generated RNA sequencing data from human podocyte cell lines and identified the genes that are significantly regulated in dexamethasone-treated podocytes compared to vehicle-treated cells...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yingguo Ren, Baochao Zhang, Dongpei Jia, Ke Hu
Objective To investigate the effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) in rats and explore the possible immune regulation mechanism. Methods Lewis rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, EAMG group, TMP low-dose group (TMP-L, 10 mg/kg) and TMP high-dose group (TMP-H, 20 mg/kg). Except the control group, the other 3 groups were subjected to EAMG modeling. The body mass was determined and the symptoms of muscular weakness in rats were scored by Lennon EAMG criteria...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Rong Li, Xiaoxia Yang, Yan Yu, Meilan Zhou, Xiujuan Tian, Shidong Feng, Hanmin Wang
Objective To explore the role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine C1q/tumor necrosis factor related protein 6 (CTRP6) in gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury in rats. Methods SD rats were divided into 5 groups including control group, model group and the other 3 experimental groups. The rats in model group and experimental groups were subcutaneously injected with gentamicin at the dose of 400 mg/(kg.d) for consecutive 2 days to induce acute renal injury. Two days before gentamicin injection, the rats in the 3 experimental groups were given pAd-CTRP6 at the doses of 0...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
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