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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922195/the-neuropeptide-cortistatin-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-myocarditis-via-inhibition-of-cardiomyogenic-t-cell-driven-inflammatory-responses
#1
Virginia Delgado-Maroto, Clara P Falo, Irene Forte-Lago, Norma Adan, Maria Morell, Elena Maganto-Garcia, Gema Robledo, Francisco O'Valle, Andrew H Lichtman, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Mario Delgado
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myocarditis is an inflammatory and autoimmune cardiovascular disease that causes dilated myocardiopathy and is responsible of high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cortistatin is a neuropeptide produced by neurons and cells of immune and vascular systems. Besides its action in locomotor activity and sleep, cortistatin inhibits inflammation in different experimental models of autoimmune diseases. However, its role in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders is unexplored...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922186/characterization-of-the-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-il-1%C3%AE-on-butyrate-oxidation-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#2
Megan Johnstone, Natalie Bennett, Cynthia Standifer, Alexis Smith, Anna Han, Ahmed Bettaieb, Jay Whelan, Dallas R Donohoe
Cancer, in part, is driven, by alterations in cellular metabolism that promote cell survival and cell proliferation. Identifying factors that influence this shift in cellular metabolism in cancer cells is important. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been reported to be elevated in colorectal cancer patients. While much is known towards the effect of dietary nutrients on regulating inflammation and the inflammatory response, which includes cytokines such as IL-1β, far less is understood how cytokines impact nutrient fate to alter cancer cell metabolism...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922126/viral-and-bacterial-co-infection-in-severe-pneumonia-triggers-innate-immune-responses-and-specifically-enhances-ip-10-a-translational-study
#3
Jonathan Hoffmann, Daniela Machado, Olivier Terrier, Stephane Pouzol, Mélina Messaoudi, Wilma Basualdo, Emilio E Espínola, Rosa M Guillen, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Valentina Picot, Thomas Bénet, Hubert Endtz, Graciela Russomando, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Mixed viral and bacterial infections are widely described in community-acquired pneumonia; however, the clinical implications of co-infection on the associated immunopathology remain poorly studied. In this study, microRNA, mRNA and cytokine/chemokine secretion profiling were investigated for human monocyte-derived macrophages infected in-vitro with Influenza virus A/H1N1 and/or Streptococcus pneumoniae. We observed that the in-vitro co-infection synergistically increased interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (CXCL10, IP-10) expression compared to the singly-infected cells conditions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922089/elderly-patients-have-an-altered-gut-brain-axis-regardless-of-the-presence-of-cirrhosis
#4
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Vishwadeep Ahluwalia, Joel L Steinberg, Sarah Hobgood, Peter A Boling, Michael Godschalk, Saima Habib, Melanie B White, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Dinesh Ganapathy, Phillip B Hylemon, Karen E Stewart, Raffi Keradman, Eric J Liu, Jessica Wang, Patrick M Gillevet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, F Gerard Moeller, James B Wade
Cognitive difficulties manifested by the growing elderly population with cirrhosis could be amnestic (memory-related) or non-amnestic (memory-unrelated). The underlying neuro-biological and gut-brain changes are unclear in this population. We aimed to define gut-brain axis alterations in elderly cirrhotics compared to non-cirrhotic individuals based on presence of cirrhosis and on neuropsychological performance. Age-matched outpatients with/without cirrhosis underwent cognitive testing (amnestic/non-amnestic domains), quality of life (HRQOL), multi-modal MRI (fMRI go/no-go task, volumetry and MR spectroscopy), blood (inflammatory cytokines) and stool collection (for microbiota)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922077/mast-cell-phenotype-tnf%C3%AE-expression-and-degranulation-status-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
A Shikotra, C M Ohri, R H Green, D A Waller, P Bradding
Mast cell infiltration of tumour islets represents a survival advantage in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phenotype and activation status of these mast cells is unknown. We investigated the mast cell phenotype in terms of protease content (tryptase-only [MCT], tryptase + chymase [MCTC]) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) expression, and extent of degranulation, in NSCLC tumour stroma and islets. Surgically resected tumours from 24 patients with extended survival (ES; mean survival 86.5 months) were compared with 25 patients with poor survival (PS; mean survival 8...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922068/changes-in-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-after-multiple-injections-of-novel-vegf-decoy-receptor-conbercept-for-various-retinal-diseases
#6
Zhihua Zhang, Xiaolu Yang, Huiyi Jin, Yuan Qu, Yuan Zhang, Kun Liu, Xun Xu
Conbercept is a recombinant fusion protein with high affinity for all vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms and placental growth factor. The repeated intravitreal injection of conbercept may cause intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations and long-term suppression of neurotrophic cytokines, which could lead to retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) damage. This retrospective fellow-eye controlled study included 98 eyes of 49 patients. The changes in IOP and RNFL thickness as well as the correlation between RNFL changes and associated factors were evaluated...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922065/detc-based-bacterial-cellulose-bio-curatives-for-topical-treatment-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#7
Fabiana S Celes, Eliane Trovatti, Ricardo Khouri, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Sidney J L Ribeiro, Valeria M Borges, Hernane S Barud, Camila I de Oliveira
The treatment of leishmaniasis still relies on drugs with potentially serious adverse effects. Herein, we tested a topical formulation of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes containing Diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), a superoxide dismutase 1 inhibitor. Leishmania-infected macrophages exposed to BC-DETC resulted in parasite killing, without pronounced toxic effects to host cells. This outcome was associated with lower SOD1 activity and higher production of superoxide and cytokine mediators. Topical application of BC-DETC significantly decreased lesion size, parasite load and the inflammatory response at the infection site, as well as the production of both IFN-γ and TNF...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921437/-adaptation-of-adipose-tissue-to-weight-reduction-energy-restricted-diet-in-obese-individuals
#8
Vladimír Štich
Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic disorders that lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and ultimately cardiovascular diseases. An important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders accompanying obesity is probably played by the alterations of adipose tissue characteristics: metabolic, endocrine and immune functions. The key component of obesity treatment, the weight-reduction energy-restricted diet, leads not only to the reduction of weight (specifically fat mass), but also to correction of obesity accompanying metabolic disorders...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921406/house-dust-mites-confer-a-distinct-immunological-feature-among-dermatitis
#9
Safa Baris, Ahmet Ozen, Tuba Akdeniz, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Ovgu Aydin, Hulya Ercan, Ismail Ogulur, Yildiz Camcioglu, Reha Cengizlier, Cuyan Demirkesen, Deniz Yucelten, Gulderen Demirel, Isil B Barlan
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous disease with regard to clinical phenotype and natural history. We investigated T cell subtypes and cytokine responses in peripheral blood and skin lesions of AD patients with various sensitivities. Immunological studies were performed in 27 subjects: 9 house dust mite (HDM)-sensitized; 6 subjects with sensitizations other than HDM; 7 non-allergic AD patients and 5 healthy controls. Among those, skin biopsy samples of 13 subjects were evaluated for immunohistochemical analyses, as well...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921405/thrombolytic-therapy-up-regulates-inflammatory-mediators-compared-to-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-pci
#10
Alireza Garjani, Bahram Sohrabi, Ali Akbar Movassaghpour, Sina Andalib, Mehriar Shokri, Bahar Taherkhanchi, Bahador Bagheri
The important role of reperfusion therapies in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction is well documented. However, reperfusion therapies can initiate inflammatory response and may damage the myocardium. The purpose of current study was to compare the effects of percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombolytic therapy on inflammatory markers in the setting of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Eighty three patients with STEMI were enrolled in this study. 40 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and 43 patients received streptokinase (1...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921401/effects-of-soybean-isoflavone-on-intestinal-antioxidant-capacity-and-cytokines-in-young-piglets-fed-oxidized-fish-oil
#11
Lin Huang, Xian-Yong Ma, Zong-Yong Jiang, You-Jun Hu, Chun-Tian Zheng, Xue-Fen Yang, Li Wang, Kai-Guo Gao
To investigate the effect of glycitein, a synthetic soybean isoflavone (ISF), on the intestinal antioxidant capacity, morphology, and cytokine content in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil, 72 4-d-old male piglets were assigned to three treatments. The control group was fed a basal diet containing fresh fish oil, and the other two groups received the same diet except for the substitution with the same dosage of oxidized fish oil alone or with ISF (oxidized fish oil plus ISF). After 21 d of feeding, supplementation of oxidized fish oil increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO, and Caspase-3 in jejunal mucosa, and decreased the villous height in duodenum and the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IL-4 in the jejunal mucosa compared with supplementation with fresh oil...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921375/visceral-adiposity-and-cancer-survival-a-review-of-imaging-studies
#12
REVIEW
J Xiao, V C Mazurak, T A Olobatuyi, B J Caan, C M Prado
Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for cancer, the association between obesity and cancer survival remains controversial. This is partially due to the inability of conventional obesity measures to directly assess adiposity or adipose tissue distribution. As a metabolic organ, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) secrets a variety of cytokines and cytokine-like factors, potentially affecting cancer survival. The objective of this review was to investigate the influence of imaging-assessed VAT on cancer survival...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921358/low-methoxyl-lemon-pectin-attenuates-inflammatory-responses-and-improves-intestinal-barrier-integrity-in-caerulein-induced-experimental-acute-pancreatitis
#13
Yajun Sun, Yue He, Fei Wang, Hao Zhang, Paul de Vos, Jia Sun
SCOPE: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common clinical acute abdominal disease. The intestinal injury associated with AP will aggravate the condition retroactively. This study investigates whether the low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) isolated from lemon could attenuate AP and associated intestinal injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Experimental AP was induced in BALB/c mice by caerulien (CAE) hyperstimulation. Nutritional prophylactic group was pre-fed with 5% LMP supplemented forage three days before AP induction...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921309/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-induced-interleukin-33-expression-in-intestinal-epithelia-contributes-to-mucosal-homeostasis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
M Sun, C He, W Wu, G Zhou, F Liu, Y Cong, Z Liu
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), an important barrier to gut microbiota, are subject to low oxygen tension, particularly during intestinal inflammation. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is expressed highly in the inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functions as a key regulator in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, how IEC-derived HIF-1α regulates intestinal immune responses in IBD is still not understood completely. We report here that the expression of HIF-1α and IL-33 was increased significantly in the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients as well as mice with colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)...
November 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921254/the-impact-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-neurodegeneration-tnf-%C3%AE-concentration-in-hypothalamus-and-csf-to-plasma-ratio-of-insulin-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#15
Ghazaleh Nameni, Ghazaleh Hajiluian, Parviz Shahabi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mehran Mesgari-Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza Hemmati, Seyed Mahdi Vatandoust
There is growing evidence that obesity can lead to neurodegeneration induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Moreover, obesity is associated with reduced transport of insulin through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Insulin deficiency in the brain especially in the hypothalamus region has neurodegenerative and obesity-promoting effects. Because of the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of vitamin D, in the current experimental study, we aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on neurodegeneration, TNF-α concentration in the hypothalamus, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to serum ratio of insulin in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921246/investigation-of-selenium-pretreatment-in-the-attenuation-of-lung-injury-in-rats-induced-by-fine-particulate-matters
#16
Jie Liu, Yingying Yang, Xuejiao Zeng, Liang Bo, Shuo Jiang, Xihao Du, Yuquan Xie, Rongfang Jiang, Jinzhuo Zhao, Weimin Song
Selenium (Se) is vital for health because of its antioxidative and anti-inflammation functions. The aim of this study was to determine if dietary selenium could inhibit the rat lung injury induced by ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated in seven groups (n = 8). The rats in PM2.5 exposure group were intratracheally instilled with 40 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) of PM2.5 suspension. The rats in Se prevention groups were pretreated with 17.5, 35, or 70 μg/kg b...
December 5, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921148/metabolites-deciphering-the-molecular-language-between-dcs-and-their-environment
#17
REVIEW
Lucía Minarrieta, Peyman Ghorbani, Tim Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
Dendritic cells (DCs) determine the outcome of the immune response based on signals they receive from the environment. Presentation of antigen under various contexts can lead to activation and differentiation of T cells for immunity or dampening of immune responses by establishing tolerance, primarily through the priming of regulatory T cells. Infections, inflammation and normal cellular interactions shape DC responses through direct contact or via cytokine signaling. Although it is widely accepted that DCs sense microbial components through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), increasing evidence advocates for the existence of a set of signals that can profoundly shape DC function via PRR-independent pathways...
December 5, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921103/solanesol-induces-the-expression-of-heme-oxygenase-1-via-p38-and-akt-and-suppresses-the-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-raw264-7-cells
#18
Xiangyang Yao, Binyu Lu, Chaotian Lü, Qin Bai, Dazhong Yan, Yanli Wu, Zibing Hong, Hui Xu
The aim of the present study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of solanesol and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in cytoprotection against oxidative stress and inflammation. Solanesol induced HO-1 expression both at the level of mRNA and proteins, resulting in increased HO-1 activity. Solanesol treatment enhanced the level of the phosphorylated form, nuclear translocation, ARE-binding, and transcriptional activity of Nrf2. p38 and Akt contributed to ARE-driven HO-1 expression...
December 6, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920824/cloning-expression-and-molecular-analysis-of-iranian-brucella-melitensis-omp25-gene-for-designing-a-subunit-vaccine
#19
Soheil Yousefi, Mojtaba Tahmoorespur, Mohammad Hadi Sekhavati
Brucellosis is a well-known domestic animal infectious disease, which is caused by Brucella bacterium. The outer membrane protein 25 kDa (Omp25) gene plays an important role in simulating of TNF-α, IFN-α, macrophage, and cytokines cells. In the current study molecular cloning and expression analysis of Omp25 gene for designing a subunit vaccine against Brucella was investigated. Amplifying the full length of candidate gene was performed using specific primers. Sub-cloning of this gene conducted using pTZ57R/T vector in TOP10F strain of Escherichia coli(E...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920777/physical-interaction-of-t-cells-with-dendritic-cells-is-not-required-for-the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-the-edible-mushroom-agaricus-subrufescens
#20
Ruud H P Wilbers, Lotte B Westerhof, Jan van de Velde, Geert Smant, Debbie R van Raaij, Anton S M Sonnenberg, Jaap Bakker, Arjen Schots
Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC's cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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