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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926945/ear-structures-of-the-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber-and-its-relatives-rodentia-bathyergidae
#1
Matthew J Mason, Hannah L Cornwall, Ewan St J Smith
Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus) were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926911/first-rank-symptoms-in-methamphetamine-psychosis-and-schizophrenia
#2
James Shelly, Anne Uhlmann, Heidi Sinclair, Fleur M Howells, Goodman Sibeko, Don Wilson, Dan J Stein, Henk Temmingh
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine psychosis (MAP) symptomatology has been described as indistinguishable from that of schizophrenia (SZ), yet research comparing these two disorders on specific psychotic symptoms such as schneiderian first-rank symptoms (FRS) is lacking. We aimed to determine and compare the occurrence and associations of FRS in patients diagnosed with MAP and with SZ. SAMPLING AND METHOD: Data from SCID-I interviews performed on patients with either a diagnosis of SZ or MAP were compared...
December 8, 2016: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926745/a-retrospective-examination-of-the-effect-of-diabetes-on-sensory-processing-in-older-adults
#3
Larry E Humes
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine retrospectively the impact of diabetes mellitus on auditory, visual, and tactile processing in older adults. Method: Fourteen (10.4%) of a sample of 135 older adults self-reported the presence of diabetes mellitus in a study of sensory and cognitive processing across the adult lifespan. In this study, the performance of the subgroup with diabetes on a number of psychophysical sensory-processing measures was compared with that of the 121 older adults without diabetes...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926742/modeling-deficits-from-early-auditory-information-processing-to-psychosocial-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#4
Michael L Thomas, Michael F Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Melissa Tarasenko, Monica E Calkins, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Alexandra L Shiluk, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, Joyce Sprock, William S Stone, Neal R Swerdlow, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff, Gregory A Light
Importance: Neurophysiologic measures of early auditory information processing (EAP) are used as endophenotypes in genomic studies and biomarkers in clinical intervention studies. Research in schizophrenia has established correlations among measures of EAP, cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional outcome. Clarifying these associations by determining the pathways through which deficits in EAP affect functioning would suggest when and where to therapeutically intervene. Objectives: To characterize the pathways from EAP to outcome and to estimate the extent to which enhancement of basic information processing might improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926629/the-informativity-of-sound-modulates-crossmodal-facilitation-of-visual-discrimination-a-fmri-study
#5
Qi Li, Hongtao Yu, Xiujun Li, Hongzan Sun, Jingjing Yang, Chunlin Li
Many studies have investigated behavioral crossmodal facilitation when a visual stimulus is accompanied by a concurrent task-irrelevant sound. Lippert and colleagues reported that a concurrent task-irrelevant sound reduced the uncertainty of the timing of the visual display and improved perceptional responses (informative sound). However, the neural mechanism by which the informativity of sound affected crossmodal facilitation of visual discrimination remained unclear. In this study, we used event-related functional MRI to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the role of informativity of sound in crossmodal facilitation of visual discrimination...
December 6, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925650/a-pupil-size-response-model-to-assess-fear-learning
#6
Christoph W Korn, Matthias Staib, Athina Tzovara, Giuseppe Castegnetti, Dominik R Bach
During fear conditioning, pupil size responses dissociate between conditioned stimuli that are contingently paired (CS+) with an aversive unconditioned stimulus, and those that are unpaired (CS-). Current approaches to assess fear learning from pupil responses rely on ad hoc specifications. Here, we sought to develop a psychophysiological model (PsPM) in which pupil responses are characterized by response functions within the framework of a linear time-invariant system. This PsPM can be written as a general linear model, which is inverted to yield amplitude estimates of the eliciting process in the central nervous system...
December 7, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925611/differential-expression-of-bcl-2-in-the-cochlea-and-auditory-cortex-of-a-mouse-model-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#7
Qiuhong Huang, Hao Xiong, Haidi Yang, Yongkang Ou, Zhigang Zhang, Suijun Chen, Yongyi Ye, Yiqing Zheng
Bcl-2, the first gene shown to be involved in apoptosis, is a potent regulator of cell survival and known to have protective effects against a variety of age-related diseases. However, the possible relationship between hearing and Bcl-2 expression in the cochlea or auditory cortex of C57BL/6 mice, a mouse model of age-related hearing loss, is still unknown. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis, our results show that Bcl-2 is strongly expressed in the inner hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons of young mice...
December 8, 2016: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925583/modeling-electrode-place-discrimination-in-cochlear-implant-stimulation
#8
Xiao Gao, David Bruce Grayden, Mark D McDonnell
OBJECTIVE: By modeling the cochlear implant (CI) electrode-to-nerve interface and quantifying electrode discriminability in the model, we address the questions of how many individual channels can be distinguished by CI recipients and the extent to which performance might be improved by inserting electrodes deeper into the cochlea. METHOD: We adapt an artificial neural network to model electrode discrimination, as well as a commonly used psychophysical measure (four-interval forcedchoice) in CI stimulation and predict how well the locations of the stimulating electrodes can be inferred from simulated auditory nerve spiking patterns...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925501/a-case-of-musical-anhedonia-due-to-right-putaminal-hemorrhage-a-disconnection-syndrome-between-the-auditory-cortex-and-insula
#9
Masayuki Satoh, Natsuko Kato, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Makiko Abe, Risa Fujita, Hirotaka Kida, Hidekazu Tomimoto, Kiyohiko Kondo
A 63-year-old, right-handed professional chorus conductor developed right putaminal hemorrhage, and became unable to experience emotion while listening to music. Two years later, neurological examination revealed slight left hemiparesis. Neuromusicological assessments revealed impaired judgment of "musical sense," and the inability to discriminate the sound of chords in pure intervals from those in equal temperament. Brain MRI and tractography identified the old hemorrhagic lesion in the right putamen and impaired fiber connectivity between the right insula and superior temporal lobe...
December 7, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925227/an-erp-study-of-response-inhibition-in-the-auditory-domain-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#10
Matthew M Gerhold, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Colin M Andrew
BACKGROUND: Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies of response inhibition in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have used a visual Go/NoGo task to study the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition. No studies exist using auditory versions of the task; thus, it is unclear how the deficits observed in visual tasks translate into the auditory domain. METHODS: This study examined ERPs using an auditory Go/NoGo paradigm in a sample of 35 school-age children-18 with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 17 normally developing controls...
December 7, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924886/an-auditory-component-to-autism
#11
Anne Pycha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2016: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924874/context-and-auditory-fear-are-differentially-regulated-by-hdac3-activity-in-the-lateral-and-basal-subnuclei-of-the-amygdale
#12
Janine L Kwapis, Yasaman Alaghband, Alberto J López, André O White, Rianne R Campbell, Richard T Dang, Diane Rhee, Ashley V Tran, Allison E Carl, Dina P Matheos, Marcelo A Wood
Histone acetylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism that is dynamically regulated during memory formation. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) compete to modulate histone acetylation, allowing for rapid changes in acetylation in response to a learning event. HDACs are known to be powerful negative regulators of memory formation, but it is not clear whether this function depends on HDAC enzymatic activity per se. Here, we tested whether the enzymatic activity of an individual Class I HDAC, HDAC3, plays a role in fear memory formation in subregions of the hippocampus and amygdala...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924662/empathy-and-its-relationship-with-cognitive-and-emotional-functions-in-alcohol-dependency
#13
Almila Erol, Asusinem Akyalcin Kirdok, Nabi Zorlu, Serap Polat, Levent Mete
BACKGROUND: Empathy can be defined as the ability to understand the other's thoughts and feelings. It contains both cognitive and emotional components. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the empathy ability of patients with alcohol dependency in association with cognitive and emotional functions, after acute detoxification and during long-term abstinence. METHODS: Thirty-three alcohol dependent inpatients that completed a detoxification process and stayed abstinent throughout the study, and 33 healthy comparison subjects that matched the patients for age, gender, and education level were included in the study...
December 7, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924444/bindings-in-working-memory-the-role-of-object-based-attention
#14
Zaifeng Gao, Fan Wu, Fangfang Qiu, Kaifeng He, Yue Yang, Mowei Shen
Over the past decade, it has been debated whether retaining bindings in working memory (WM) requires more attention than retaining constituent features, focusing on domain-general attention and space-based attention. Recently, we proposed that retaining bindings in WM needs more object-based attention than retaining constituent features (Shen, Huang, & Gao, 2015, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, doi: 10.1037/xhp0000018 ). However, only unitized visual bindings were examined; to establish the role of object-based attention in retaining bindings in WM, more emperical evidence is required...
December 6, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924222/otopathogenic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induces-myd88-dependent-auditory-hair-cell-damage
#15
Rahul Mittal, M'hamed Grati, Denise Yan, Xue Z Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923940/the-auditory-kuleshov-effect-multisensory-integration-in-movie-editing
#16
Andreas M Baranowski, H Hecht
Almost a hundred years ago, the Russian filmmaker Lev Kuleshov conducted his now famous editing experiment in which different objects were added to a given film scene featuring a neutral face. It is said that the audience interpreted the unchanged facial expression as a function of the added object (e.g., an added soup made the face express hunger). This interaction effect has been dubbed "Kuleshov effect." In the current study, we explored the role of sound in the evaluation of facial expressions in films...
December 5, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923565/sound-generator-associated-with-the-counseling-in-the-treatment-of-tinnitus-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness
#17
Andressa Vital Rocha, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia Mondelli
INTRODUCTION: The relations between the tinnitus and the hearing loss are due to the sensory deprivation caused by hearing loss, since this is followed by the functional and structural alteration of the auditory system as a whole. The cochlear lesions are accompanied by a reduction in the activity of the cochlear nerve, and the neural activity keeps increased in mainly all the central auditory nervous system to compensate this deficit. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of the sound generator (SG) associated with the counseling in the treatment of the tinnitus in individuals with and without hearing loss regarding the improvement of the nuisance through Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)...
November 11, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923417/mechanisms-of-memory-dysfunction-during-high-altitude-hypoxia-training-in-military-aircrew
#18
Daniel A Nation, Mark W Bondi, Ellis Gayles, Dean C Delis
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction from high altitude exposure is a major cause of civilian and military air disasters. Pilot training improves recognition of the early symptoms of altitude exposure so that countermeasures may be taken before loss of consciousness. Little is known regarding the nature of cognitive impairments manifesting within this critical window when life-saving measures may still be taken. Prior studies evaluating cognition during high altitude simulation have predominantly focused on measures of reaction time and other basic attention or motor processes...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922231/evaluation-of-central-nervous-system-in-patients-with-glycogen-storage-disease-type-1a
#19
Yusuf Aydemir, Figen Gürakan, İnci Nur Saltık Temizel, Hülya Demir, Kader Karlı Oğuz, Dilek Yalnızoğlu, Meral Topçu, Hasan Özen, Aysel Yüce
We aimed to evaluate structure and functions of central nervous system (CNS) in children with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a. Neurological examination, psychometric tests, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were performed. The results were compared between patients with good and poor metabolic control and healthy children. Twenty-three patients with GSD type 1a were studied. Twelve patients were in poor metabolic control group and 11 patients in good metabolic control group...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921299/one-dose-per-day-compared-to-multiple-doses-per-day-of-gentamicin-for-treatment-of-suspected-or-proven-sepsis-in-neonates
#20
REVIEW
Shripada C Rao, Ravisha Srinivasjois, Kwi Moon
BACKGROUND: Animal studies and trials in older children and adults suggest that a 'one dose per day' regimen of gentamicin is superior to a 'multiple doses per day' regimen. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of one dose per day compared to multiple doses per day of gentamicin in suspected or proven sepsis in neonates. SEARCH METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library (searched 8 April 2016), MEDLINE (1966 to 8 April 2016), Embase (1980 to 8 April 2016), and CINAHL (December 1982 to 8 April 2016)...
December 6, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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