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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944474/altered-neural-oscillations-during-multisensory-integration-in-adolescents-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#1
Alfredo D Bolaños, Brian A Coffman, Felicha T Candelaria-Cook, Piyadasa Kodituwakku, Julia M Stephen
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), who were exposed to alcohol in utero, display a broad range of sensory, cognitive, and behavioral deficits, which are broadly theorized to be rooted in altered brain function and structure. Based on the role of neural oscillations in multisensory integration from past studies, we hypothesized that adolescents with FASD would show a decrease in oscillatory power during event-related gamma oscillatory activity (30-100Hz), when compared to typically-developing healthy controls (HC), and that such decrease in oscillatory power would predict behavioral performance...
September 25, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943860/bumetanide-as-a-candidate-treatment-for-behavioral-problems-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#2
Chantal Vlaskamp, Simon-Shlomo Poil, Floor Jansen, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen, Sarah Durston, Bob Oranje, Hilgo Bruining
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate excitatory GABA action in and around tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). This may contribute to recurrent seizures and behavioral problems that may be treated by agents that enhance GABAergic transmission by influencing chloride regulation. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we used the chloride transporter antagonist bumetanide to treat a female adolescent TSC patient with refractory seizures, sensory hyper-reactivity, and a variety of repetitive and compulsive behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943842/when-non-dominant-is-better-than-dominant-kinesiotape-modulates-asymmetries-in-timed-performance-during-a-synchronization-continuation-task
#3
Riccardo Bravi, Erez J Cohen, Alessio Martinelli, Anna Gottard, Diego Minciacchi
There is a growing consensus regarding the specialization of the non-dominant limb (NDL)/hemisphere system to employ proprioceptive feedback when executing motor actions. In a wide variety of rhythmic tasks the dominant limb (DL) has advantages in speed and timing consistency over the NDL. Recently, we demonstrated that the application of Kinesio(®) Tex (KT) tape, an elastic therapeutic device used for treating athletic injuries, improves significantly the timing consistency of isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs) of the DL...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943120/diversity-of-bilateral-synaptic-assemblies-for-binaural-computation-in-midbrain-single-neurons
#4
Na He, Lingzhi Kong, Tao Lin, Shaohui Wang, Xiuping Liu, Jiyao Qi, Jun Yan
Binaural hearing confers many beneficial functions but our understanding of its underlying neural substrates is limited. This study examines the bilateral synaptic assemblies and binaural computation (or integration) in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) of the auditory midbrain, a key convergent center. Using in-vivo whole-cell patch-clamp, the excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs/IPSPs) of single ICc neurons to contralateral, ipsilateral and bilateral stimulation were recorded...
September 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943107/analyses-of-sustained-vowels-in-down-syndrome-ds-a-case-study-using-spectrograms-and-perturbation-data-to-investigate-voice-quality-in-four-adults-with-ds
#5
Tracy Jeffery, Stuart Cunningham, Sandra P Whiteside
OBJECTIVES: Automatic acoustic measures of voice quality in people with Down syndrome (DS) do not reliably reflect perceived voice qualities. This study used acoustic data and visual spectral data to investigate the relationship between perceived voice qualities and acoustic measures. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were four young adults (two males, two females; mean age 23.8 years) with DS and severe learning disabilities, at least one of whom had a hearing impairment...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942716/analysis-of-compressive-properties-of-the-bioaid-hearing-aid-algorithm
#6
Nicholas R Clark, Wendy Lecluyse, Tim Jürgens
OBJECTIVE: This technical paper describes a biologically inspired hearing aid algorithm based on a computer model of the peripheral auditory system simulating basilar membrane compression, reflexive efferent feedback and its resulting properties. DESIGN: Two evaluations were conducted on the core part of the algorithm, which is an instantaneous compression sandwiched between the attenuation and envelope extraction processes of a relatively slow feedback compressor...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942633/blind-sac-approach-using-silastic-block-for-cochlear-implantation-in-patients-with-cholesteatoma
#7
Ah-Ra Lyu, Yong-Ho Park
Cochlear implant (CI) surgery in cholesteatoma is challenging because of the risk of residual or recurrent infection. Although CI could be done with subtotal petrosectomy in single or staged surgery, this surgery needed additional surgical procedures to obliterate the mastoid cavity. This paper describes a new surgical technique for CI surgery in cholesteatoma without external auditory canal closure.
September 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942359/uncovering-effects-of-self-control-and-stimulus-driven-action-selection-on-the-sense-of-agency
#8
Yuru Wang, Tom G E Damen, Henk Aarts
The sense of agency refers to feelings of causing one's own action and resulting effect. Previous research indicates that voluntary action selection is an important factor in shaping the sense of agency. Whereas the volitional nature of the sense of agency is well documented, the present study examined whether agency is modulated when action selection shifts from self-control to a more automatic stimulus-driven process. Seventy-two participants performed an auditory Simon task including congruent and incongruent trials to generate automatic stimulus-driven vs...
September 21, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942322/adaptation-facilitates-spatial-discrimination-for-deviant-locations-in-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-of-the-rat
#9
Xin-Xiu Xu, Yu-Ying Zhai, Xiao-Kai Kou, Xiongjie Yu
The capacity to identify unanticipated abnormal cues in a natural scene is vital for animal survival. Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) has been considered the neuronal correlate for deviance detection. There have been comprehensive assessments of SSA in the frequency domain along the ascending auditory pathway, but only little attention given to deviance detection in the spatial domain. We found that thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons exhibited stronger responses to a tone when it was presented rarely as opposed to frequently at a certain spatial location...
September 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942010/the-potential-role-of-auditory-evoked-potentials-to-assess-prognosis-in-comatose-survivors-from-cardiac-arrest
#10
Paolo De Santis, Irene Lamanna, Nicolas Mavroudakis, Benjamin Legros, Jean-Louis Vincent, Jacques Creteur, Fabio Silvio Taccone
AIM: Few data are available on the use of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in combination with other electrophysiological tools to assess prognosis of comatose survivors from cardiac arrest (CA). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from all adult patients (>18years of age) admitted to our Dept of Intensive Care after CA over a 6-year period who were comatose (Glasgow Coma Scale <9) on admission, had been treated with targeted temperature management and had had BAEP testing...
September 20, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941976/omega-3-and-6-fatty-acid-supplementation-and-sensory-processing-in-toddlers-with-asd-symptomology-born-preterm-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Kelly M Boone, Barbara Gracious, Mark A Klebanoff, Lynette K Rogers, Joseph Rausch, Daniel L Coury, Sarah A Keim
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the health and long-term survival of infants born preterm, they continue to face developmental challenges including higher risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and atypical sensory processing patterns. AIMS: This secondary analysis aimed to describe sensory profiles and explore effects of combined dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) supplementation on parent-reported sensory processing in toddlers born preterm who were exhibiting ASD symptoms...
September 20, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941768/lateralization-effects-on-functional-connectivity-of-the-auditory-network-in-patients-with-unilateral-pulsatile-tinnitus-as-detected-by-functional-mri
#12
Han Lv, Pengfei Zhao, Zhaohui Liu, Xuehuan Liu, Heyu Ding, Liheng Liu, Guopeng Wang, Jing Xie, Rong Zeng, Yuchen Chen, Zhenghan Yang, Shusheng Gong, Zhenchang Wang
Unilateral pulsatile tinnitus (PT) was proved to be a kind of disease with brain functional abnormalities within and beyond the auditory network (AN). However, changes in patterns of the lateralization effects of PT are yet to be established. Relationship between the AN and other brain networks in PT patients is also a scientific question need to be answered. In this study, we recruited 23 left-sided, 23 right-sided PT (LSPT, RSPT) patients and 23 normal controls (NC). We combined applied independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to investigate alteration feature of the FC of the AN by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941358/rates-of-vaccination-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-cochlear-implant-patients
#13
Anna Piotrowska, Iwona Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Henryk Skarżyński
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause life-threatening illness, with invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) like meningitis, sepsis, bacteremic pneumonia, and bacteremia being major causes of morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that patients who have had a cochlear implant, particularly children, have an increased risk of bacterial (pneumococcal) meningitis. Vaccination in patients with cochlear implants is important and recommended universally. The World Health Organization recommends the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in all countries and considers their use to be a priority in all national immunization programs...
September 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940867/gray-matter-volumes-of-early-sensory-regions-are-associated-with-individual-differences-in-sensory-processing
#14
Sayaka Yoshimura, Wataru Sato, Takanori Kochiyama, Shota Uono, Reiko Sawada, Yasutaka Kubota, Motomi Toichi
Sensory processing (i.e., the manner in which the nervous system receives, modulates, integrates, and organizes sensory stimuli) is critical when humans are deciding how to react to environmental demands. Although behavioral studies have shown that there are stable individual differences in sensory processing, the neural substrates that implement such differences remain unknown. To investigate this issue, structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 51 healthy adults and individual differences in sensory processing were assessed using the Sensory Profile questionnaire (Brown et al...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940848/executive-function-and-functional-and-structural-brain-differences-in-middle-age-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
B Blair Braden, Christopher J Smith, Amiee Thompson, Tyler K Glaspy, Emily Wood, Divya Vatsa, Angela E Abbott, Samuel C McGee, Leslie C Baxter
There is a rapidly growing group of aging adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who may have unique needs, yet cognitive and brain function in older adults with ASD is understudied. We combined functional and structural neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests to examine differences between middle-aged men with ASD and matched neurotypical (NT) men. Participants (ASD, n = 16; NT, n = 17) aged 40-64 years were well-matched according to age, IQ (range: 83-131), and education (range: 9-20 years)...
September 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940501/consistency-of-abnormal-sensory-gating-in-first-admission-and-chronic-schizophrenia-across-quantification-methods
#16
David Schubring, Tzvetan Popov, Gregory A Miller, Brigitte Rockstroh
The auditory P50/M50 ERP/event-related field is subject to sensory gating, with partial suppression of the amplitude of the second of two (S1 and S2) clicks presented 500 ms apart. Schizophrenia patients have less gating, although quantification methods and associated effect sizes vary across studies using first-admission and/or using chronic patients. The present study evaluated the impact of several methods of quantifying gating in first-admission (FA) and chronic (CHR) schizophrenia patients and in healthy controls (HC)...
September 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940312/increased-thalamic-resting-state-connectivity-as-a-core-driver-of-lsd-induced-hallucinations
#17
F Müller, C Lenz, P Dolder, U Lang, A Schmidt, M Liechti, S Borgwardt
OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. METHOD: 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches...
September 21, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940055/cortical-and-thalamic-connectivity-to-the-second-auditory-cortex-of-the-cat-is-resilient-to-the-onset-of-deafness
#18
Blake E Butler, Alexandra de la Rua, Taylor Ward-Able, Stephen G Lomber
It has been well established that following sensory loss, cortical areas that would normally be involved in perceiving stimuli in the absent modality are recruited to subserve the remaining senses. Despite this compensatory functional reorganization, there is little evidence to date for any substantial change in the patterns of anatomical connectivity between sensory cortices. However, while many auditory areas are contracted in the deaf, the second auditory cortex (A2) of the cat undergoes a volumetric expansion following hearing loss, suggesting this cortical area may demonstrate a region-specific pattern of structural reorganization...
September 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939668/neurogranin-a-synaptic-protein-is-associated-with-memory-independent-of-alzheimer-biomarkers
#19
Kaitlin B Casaletto, Fanny M Elahi, Brianne M Bettcher, John Neuhaus, Barbara B Bendlin, Sanjay Asthana, Sterling C Johnson, Kristine Yaffe, Cynthia Carlsson, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Joel H Kramer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between synaptic functioning as measured via neurogranin in CSF and cognition relative to established Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers in neurologically healthy older adults. METHODS: We analyzed CSF concentrations of neurogranin, β-amyloid (Aβ42), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and total tau (t-tau) among 132 neurologically normal older adults (mean 64.5, range 55-85), along with bilateral hippocampal volumes and a measure of episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test, delayed recall)...
September 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939535/reading-difficulties-and-the-pediatric-ophthalmologist
#20
EDITORIAL
Sheryl M Handler, Walter M Fierson
Approximately 20% of children have dyslexia, a language-based reading disability. A variation in language processing in the brain leads to a deficit in phonological (auditory) processing, which leads to problems in learning to read, write, and spell. Myths continue to exist regarding dyslexia and vision, and although eye and vision problems may coexist with dyslexia, they are not more prevalent than in the general population. Rarely vision problems may make reading at near very difficult and may masquerade as a learning problem or attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
September 19, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
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