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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445916/brain-regions-essential-for-word-comprehension-drawing-inferences-from-patients
#1
Argye E Hillis, Christopher Rorden, Julius Fridriksson
Lesion-deficit association studies are important as they can reveal brain regions essential for specific functions, but sometimes appear to yield conflicting results. We aimed to show how pitfalls of lesions studies can be avoided, and converging results obtained, illustrating from studies of the role of posterior superior temporal gyrus in auditory word comprehension. We review published lesion studies on auditory comprehension and present new data from both acute and chronic stroke that address weaknesses in some previous studies...
April 26, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445580/the-influence-of-social-support-and-coping-on-quality-of-life-among-elderly-with-age-related-hearing-loss
#2
Sarah Moser, Wolfgang Luxenberger, Wolfgang Freidl
Purpose: The consequences of hearing loss hinder the everyday life of older adults and are associated with reduced well-being. The research aim was to explore the influence of hearing problems, various coping strategies, and perceived social support on quality of life. Method: Sixty-five older adults with age-related hearing loss (≥55 years) in Austria participated and completed a paper-pencil survey with standardized questionnaires: Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (Ventry and Weinstein, 1982), Assessment for Coping and Stress (Laireiter, 1997), short form of the Social Support Questionnaire (Fydrich, Sommer, Tydecks, & Brähler, 2009), and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Brief Version (World Health Organization, 1996)...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445540/individuals-with-severely-impaired-vision-can-learn-useful-orientation-and-mobility-skills-in-virtual-streets-and-can-use-them-to-improve-real-street-safety
#3
Ellen Lambert Bowman, Lei Liu
Virtual reality has great potential in training road safety skills to individuals with low vision but the feasibility of such training has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypotheses that low vision individuals could learn useful skills in virtual streets and could apply them to improve real street safety. Twelve participants, whose vision was too poor to use the pedestrian signals were taught by a certified orientation and mobility specialist to determine the safest time to cross the street using the visual and auditory signals made by the start of previously stopped cars at a traffic-light controlled street intersection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444235/right-hemisphere-structural-adaptation-and-changing-language-skills-years-after-left-hemisphere-stroke
#4
Thomas M H Hope, Alex P Leff, Susan Prejawa, Rachel Bruce, Zula Haigh, Louise Lim, Sue Ramsden, Marion Oberhuber, Philipp Ludersdorfer, Jenny Crinion, Mohamed L Seghier, Cathy J Price
Stroke survivors with acquired language deficits are commonly thought to reach a 'plateau' within a year of stroke onset, after which their residual language skills will remain stable. Nevertheless, there have been reports of patients who appear to recover over years. Here, we analysed longitudinal change in 28 left-hemisphere stroke patients, each more than a year post-stroke when first assessed-testing each patient's spoken object naming skills and acquiring structural brain scans twice. Some of the patients appeared to improve over time while others declined; both directions of change were associated with, and predictable given, structural adaptation in the intact right hemisphere of the brain...
April 24, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#5
Lakshmikumar Venkat Raghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Background Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, some patients with PDD may not tolerate the imaging procedure while awake and they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with pervasive developmental disorders...
April 26, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443060/the-vestibular-implant-hearing-preservation-during-intralabyrinthine-electrode-insertion-a-case-report
#6
Raymond van de Berg, Florence Lucieer, Nils Guinand, Joost van Tongeren, Erwin George, Jean-Philippe Guyot, Herman Kingma, Marc van Hoof, Yasin Temel, Jacobus van Overbeeke, Angelica Perez-Fornos, Robert Stokroos
OBJECTIVE: The vestibular implant seems feasible as a clinically useful device in the near future. However, hearing preservation during intralabyrinthine implantation remains a challenge. It should be preserved to be able to treat patients with bilateral vestibulopathy and (partially) intact hearing. This case study investigated the feasibility of hearing preservation during the acute phase after electrode insertion in the semicircular canals. METHODS: A 40-year-old woman with normal hearing underwent a translabyrinthine approach for a vestibular schwannoma Koos Grade IV...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443040/the-impact-of-early-visual-deprivation-on-spatial-hearing-a-comparison-between-totally-and-partially-visually-deprived-children
#7
Giulia Cappagli, Sara Finocchietti, Elena Cocchi, Monica Gori
The specific role of early visual deprivation on spatial hearing is still unclear, mainly due to the difficulty of comparing similar spatial skills at different ages and to the difficulty in recruiting young blind children from birth. In this study, the effects of early visual deprivation on the development of auditory spatial localization have been assessed in a group of seven 3-5 years old children with congenital blindness (n = 2; light perception or no perception of light) or low vision (n = 5; visual acuity range 1...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443036/auditory-motor-rhythms-and-speech-processing-in-french-and-german-listeners
#8
Simone Falk, Chloé Volpi-Moncorger, Simone Dalla Bella
Moving to a speech rhythm can enhance verbal processing in the listener by increasing temporal expectancies (Falk and Dalla Bella, 2016). Here we tested whether this hypothesis holds for prosodically diverse languages such as German (a lexical stress-language) and French (a non-stress language). Moreover, we examined the relation between motor performance and the benefits for verbal processing as a function of language. Sixty-four participants, 32 German and 32 French native speakers detected subtle word changes in accented positions in metrically structured sentences to which they previously tapped with their index finger...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443018/the-treatment-based-on-temporal-information-processing-reduces-speech-comprehension-deficits-in-aphasic-subjects
#9
Aneta Szymaszek, Tomasz Wolak, Elzbieta Szelag
Experimental studies have reported a close association between temporal information processing (TIP) and language comprehension. Brain-injured subjects with aphasia show disturbed TIP which was evidenced in elevated temporal order threshold (TOT) as compared to control subjects. The present study is aimed at improving auditory speech comprehension in aphasic subjects using a specific temporal treatment. Fourteen patients having deficits in both speech comprehension and TIP were tested. The Token Test, phoneme discrimination tests (PDT) and Voice-Onset-Time (VOT) Test were employed to assess speech comprehension...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443012/the-posterior-parietal-cortex-subserves-precise-motor-timing-in-professional-drummers
#10
Bettina Pollok, Katharina Stephan, Ariane Keitel, Vanessa Krause, Nora K Schaal
The synchronization task is a well-established paradigm for the investigation of motor timing with respect to an external pacing signal. It requires subjects to synchronize their finger taps in synchrony with a regular metronome. A specific significance of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) for superior synchronization in professional drummers has been suggested. In non-musicians, modulation of the excitability of the left PPC by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates synchronization performance of the right hand...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443009/behavioral-and-brain-measures-of-phasic-alerting-effects-on-visual-attention
#11
Iris Wiegand, Anders Petersen, Kathrin Finke, Claus Bundesen, Jon Lansner, Thomas Habekost
In the present study, we investigated effects of phasic alerting on visual attention in a partial report task, in which half of the displays were preceded by an auditory warning cue. Based on the computational Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we estimated parameters of spatial and non-spatial aspects of visual attention and measured event-related lateralizations (ERLs) over visual processing areas. We found that the TVA parameter sensory effectiveness a, which is thought to reflect visual processing capacity, significantly increased with phasic alerting...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443005/waking-up-buried-memories-of-old-tv-programs
#12
Christelle Larzabal, Nadège Bacon-Macé, Sophie Muratot, Simon J Thorpe
Although it has been demonstrated that visual and auditory stimuli can be recalled decades after the initial exposure, previous studies have generally not ruled out the possibility that the material may have been seen or heard during the intervening period. Evidence shows that reactivations of a long-term memory trace play a role in its update and maintenance. In the case of remote or very long-term memories, it is most likely that these reactivations are triggered by the actual re-exposure to the stimulus...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442422/effects-of-low-frequency-rtms-treatment-on-brain-networks-for-inner-speech-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#13
Leonie Bais, Edith Liemburg, Ans Vercammen, Richard Bruggeman, Rikus Knegtering, André Aleman
INTRODUCTION: Efficacy of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) targeting the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) remains under debate. We assessed the influence of a 1Hz rTMS treatment on neural networks involved in a cognitive mechanism proposed to subserve AVH. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia (N=24) experiencing medication-resistant AVH completed a 10-day 1Hz rTMS treatment. Participants were randomized to active stimulation of the left or bilateral TPJ, or sham stimulation...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442358/an-oscillopathic-approach-to-developmental-dyslexia-from-genes-to-speech-processing
#14
REVIEW
Miguel Jiménez-Bravo, Victoria Marrero, Antonio Benítez-Burraco
Developmental dyslexia is a heterogeneous condition entailing problems with reading and spelling. Several genes have been linked or associated to the disease, many of which contribute to the development and function of brain areas important for auditory and phonological processing. Nonetheless, a clear link between genes, the brain, and the symptoms of dyslexia is still pending. The goal of this paper is contributing to bridge this gap. With this aim, we have focused on how the dyslexic brain fails to process speech sounds and reading cues...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442333/effects-of-auditory-stimuli-on-electrical-activity-in-the-brain-during-cycle-ergometry
#15
Marcelo Bigliassi, Costas I Karageorghis, Michael J Wright, Guido Orgs, Alexander V Nowicky
The present study sought to further understanding of the brain mechanisms that underlie the effects of music on perceptual, affective, and visceral responses during whole-body modes of exercise. Eighteen participants were administered light-to-moderate intensity bouts of cycle ergometer exercise. Each exercise bout was of 12-min duration (warm-up [3min], exercise [6min], and warm-down [3min]). Portable techniques were used to monitor the electrical activity in the brain, heart, and muscle during the administration of three conditions: music, audiobook, and control...
April 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442169/cochlear-implantation-in-children-with-anomalous-cochleovestibular-anatomy
#16
REVIEW
Ana Sofia Melo, Jorge Martins, João Silva, Jorge Quadros, António Paiva
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to assess the audiological and surgical outcome after cochlear implantation in children with inner ear malformation and to compare them with a group of congenitally deaf children implantees without inner ear malformation. INTRODUCTION: Children with profound sensorineural deafness with malformations of the inner ear represent a challenge, accounting to 5-15% of congenital sensorineural deafness. These cases were originally regarded as a contraindication for cochlear implant surgery...
April 22, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441909/the-perceived-quality-of-in-vehicle-auditory-signals-a-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#17
Chia-Fen Chi, Ratna Sari Dewi, Yopie Yutama Surbakti, Dong-Yu Hsieh
The current study applied Structural Equation Modelling to analyze the relationship among pitch, loudness, tempo and timbre and their relationship with perceived sound quality. Twenty-eight auditory signals of horn, indicator, door open warning, and parking sensor were collected from 11 car brands. Twenty-one experienced drivers were recruited to evaluate all sound signals with 11 semantic differential scales. The results indicate that for the continuous sounds, pitch, loudness, and timbre each had a direct impact on the perceived quality...
April 25, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441710/analysis-of-cisplatin-induced-ototoxicity-risk-factors-in-iranian-patients-with-solid-tumors-a-cohort-prospective-and-single-institute-study
#18
Zahra Esfahani Monfared, Adnan Khosravi, Ali Safavi Naini, Golnar Radmand, Kian Khodadad
Background: Cisplatin has been associated with irreversible hearing damage. Up to now, there is no therapeutic intervention showing benefit in preventing Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors contributing to hearing impairment after cisplatin administration in Iranian patients. Methods: Hearing thresholds of 124 patients before and after cisplatin administration were assessed with reference to pure-tone audiometry averages at several frequencies from 2006 to 2010...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441570/neural-indices-of-phonemic-discrimination-and-sentence-level-speech-intelligibility-in-quiet-and-noise-a-p3-study
#19
Tess K Koerner, Yang Zhang, Peggy B Nelson, Boxiang Wang, Hui Zou
This study examined how speech babble noise differentially affected the auditory P3 responses and the associated neural oscillatory activities for consonant and vowel discrimination in relation to segmental- and sentence-level speech perception in noise. The data were collected from 16 normal-hearing participants in a double-oddball paradigm that contained a consonant (/ba/ to /da/) and vowel (/ba/ to /bu/) change in quiet and noise (speech-babble background at a -3 dB signal-to-noise ratio) conditions. Time-frequency analysis was applied to obtain inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) and event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) measures in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands for the P3 response...
April 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441393/sequence-learning-modulates-neural-responses-and-oscillatory-coupling-in-human-and-monkey-auditory-cortex
#20
Yukiko Kikuchi, Adam Attaheri, Benjamin Wilson, Ariane E Rhone, Kirill V Nourski, Phillip E Gander, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroto Kawasaki, Timothy D Griffiths, Matthew A Howard, Christopher I Petkov
Learning complex ordering relationships between sensory events in a sequence is fundamental for animal perception and human communication. While it is known that rhythmic sensory events can entrain brain oscillations at different frequencies, how learning and prior experience with sequencing relationships affect neocortical oscillations and neuronal responses is poorly understood. We used an implicit sequence learning paradigm (an "artificial grammar") in which humans and monkeys were exposed to sequences of nonsense words with regularities in the ordering relationships between the words...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
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