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Synthetic heart valve

Andrew K Capulli, Maximillian Y Emmert, Francesco S Pasqualini, Debora Kehl, Etem Caliskan, Johan U Lind, Sean P Sheehy, Sung Jin Park, Seungkuk Ahn, Benedikt Weber, Josue A Goss, Simon P Hoerstrup, Kevin Kit Parker
Tissue engineered scaffolds have emerged as a promising solution for heart valve replacement because of their potential for regeneration. However, traditional heart valve tissue engineering has relied on resource-intensive, cell-based manufacturing, which increases cost and hinders clinical translation. To overcome these limitations, in situ tissue engineering approaches aim to develop scaffold materials and manufacturing processes that elicit endogenous tissue remodeling and repair. Yet despite recent advances in synthetic materials manufacturing, there remains a lack of cell-free, automated approaches for rapidly producing biomimetic heart valve scaffolds...
April 18, 2017: Biomaterials
Yunfei Chen, Wei Peng, Joseph D Raffetto, Raouf A Khalil
The veins of the lower extremity are equipped with efficient wall, contractile vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and competent valves in order to withstand the high venous hydrostatic pressure in the lower limb and allow unidirectional movement of deoxygenated blood toward the heart. The vein wall structure and function are in part regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are secreted as inactive pro-MMPs by different cells in the venous wall including fibroblasts, VSM, and leukocytes...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Jolanda Kluin, Hanna Talacua, Anthal I P M Smits, Maximilian Y Emmert, Marieke C P Brugmans, Emanuela S Fioretta, Petra E Dijkman, Serge H M Söntjens, Renée Duijvelshoff, Sylvia Dekker, Marloes W J T Janssen-van den Broek, Valentina Lintas, Aryan Vink, Simon P Hoerstrup, Henk M Janssen, Patricia Y W Dankers, Frank P T Baaijens, Carlijn V C Bouten
The creation of a living heart valve is a much-wanted alternative for current valve prostheses that suffer from limited durability and thromboembolic complications. Current strategies to create such valves, however, require the use of cells for in vitro culture, or decellularized human- or animal-derived donor tissue for in situ engineering. Here, we propose and demonstrate proof-of-concept of in situ heart valve tissue engineering using a synthetic approach, in which a cell-free, slow degrading elastomeric valvular implant is populated by endogenous cells to form new valvular tissue inside the heart...
May 2017: Biomaterials
Christopher M Jewell
Synthetic heart valves designed from slowly degrading polymer enable gradual replacement by new host tissue during a 12-month study in sheep.
March 1, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
Johanna Richau, Matthias A Dieringer, Julius Traber, Florian von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Andreas Greiser, Carsten Schwenke, Jeanette Schulz-Menger
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance is often used to evaluate patients after heart valve replacement. This study systematically analyses the influence of heart valve prostheses on phase contrast measurements in a phantom trial. METHODS: Two biological and one mechanical aortic valve prostheses were integrated in a flow phantom. B0 maps and phase contrast measurements were acquired at a 1.5 T MR scanner using conventional gradient-echo sequences in predefined distances to the prostheses...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Sanjay Pant, Chiara Corsini, Catriona Baker, Tain-Yen Hsia, Giancarlo Pennati, Irene E Vignon-Clementel
Inverse problems in cardiovascular modelling have become increasingly important to assess each patient individually. These problems entail estimation of patient-specific model parameters from uncertain measurements acquired in the clinic. In recent years, the method of data assimilation, especially the unscented Kalman filter, has gained popularity to address computational efficiency and uncertainty consideration in such problems. This work highlights and presents solutions to several challenges of this method pertinent to models of cardiovascular haemodynamics...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Agnieszka A Książek, Katharyn J Mitchell, Nikola Cesarovic, Colin C Schwarzwald, Simon P Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber
BACKGROUND: Bioengineered living autologous valves with remodeling and growth capacity represent a promising concept for future cardiac and venous valve repair. A meticulous understanding of the mechanisms involved in recellularization and remodeling is essential for the safe and efficient clinical translation of this technology. In this context, the first investigations of bioengineered vascular grafts in immune-incompetent or transgenic rodents represented an important step. However, the in-vivo assessment of bioengineered synthetic scaffold-based (biodegradable) valve replacements in rodent models has not been achieved to date...
May 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
Yingfei Xue, Vinayak Sant, Julie Phillippi, Shilpa Sant
Valvular heart diseases are the third leading cause of cardiovascular disease, resulting in more than 25,000 deaths annually in the United States. Heart valve tissue engineering (HVTE) has emerged as a putative treatment strategy such that the designed construct would ideally withstand native dynamic mechanical environment, guide regeneration of the diseased tissue and more importantly, have the ability to grow with the patient. These desired functions could be achieved by biomimetic design of tissue-engineered constructs that recapitulate in vivo heart valve microenvironment with biomimetic architecture, optimal mechanical properties and possess suitable biodegradability and biocompatibility...
October 22, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Atieh Yousefi, Antoine Vaesken, Amna Amri, Lakshmi Prasad Dasi, Frederic Heim
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a popular alternative technique to surgical valve replacement for critical patients. Biological valve tissue has been used in TAVI procedures for over a decade, with over 100,000 implantations to date. However, with only 6 years follow up, little is known about the long-term durability of biological tissue. Moreover, the high cost of tissue harvesting and chemical treatment procedures favor the development of alternative synthetic valve leaflet materials...
February 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Joanne E Given, Maria Loane, Johannes M Luteijn, Joan K Morris, Lolkje T W de Jong van den Berg, Ester Garne, Marie-Claude Addor, Ingeborg Barisic, Hermien de Walle, Miriam Gatt, Kari Klungsoyr, Babak Khoshnood, Anna Latos-Bielenska, Vera Nelen, Amanda J Neville, Mary O'Mahony, Anna Pierini, David Tucker, Awi Wiesel, Helen Dolk
AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level of Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification) and chemical subgroup (4th level) were analysed using a 50% false detection rate. After excluding antiepileptics, antidiabetics, antiasthmatics and SSRIs/psycholeptics already under investigation, 27 associations were evaluated...
October 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Hug Aubin, Carlos Mas-Moruno, Makoto Iijima, Nicolas Schütterle, Meike Steinbrink, Alexander Assmann, Francesc Javier Gil, Artur Lichtenberg, Marta Pegueroles, Payam Akhyari
Interface biofunctionalization strategies try to enhance and control the interaction between implants and host organism. Decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) is widely used as a platform for bioengineering of medical implants, having shown its suitability in a variety of preclinical as well as clinical models. In this study, specifically designed, custom-made synthetic peptides were used to functionalize dECM with different cell adhesive sequences (RGD, REDV, and YIGSR). Effects on in vitro endothelial cell adhesion and in vivo endothelialization were evaluated in standardized models using decellularized ovine pulmonary heart valve cusps (dPVCs) and decellularized aortic grafts (dAoGs), respectively...
May 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Hossein Ghanbari, Dina Radenkovic, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Shirin Parsno, Nima Roohpour, Gaetano Burriesci, Alexander M Seifalian
In the cardiovascular system, the endothelial layer provides a natural antithrombogenic surface on the inner portion of the heart and associated vessels. For a synthetic material therefore, the ability to attract and retain endothelial or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), ultimately creating a single endothelial layer on its surface, is of prime importance. The authors have developed a nanocomposite polymer, based on a combination of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanoparticles and polycarbonate urea urethane (POSS-PCU), which is biocompatible and has been used in human for the world's first synthetic trachea, tear duct, and bypass graft...
June 13, 2016: Biointerphases
A K Capulli, L A MacQueen, Sean P Sheehy, K K Parker
Extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and biochemistry provide cell-instructive cues that promote and regulate tissue growth, function, and repair. From a structural perspective, the ECM is a scaffold that guides the self-assembly of cells into distinct functional tissues. The ECM promotes the interaction between individual cells and between different cell types, and increases the strength and resilience of the tissue in mechanically dynamic environments. From a biochemical perspective, factors regulating cell-ECM adhesion have been described and diverse aspects of cell-ECM interactions in health and disease continue to be clarified...
January 15, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Jeremy Asnes, William E Hellenbrand
Synthetic conduits and bioprosthetic valves are used in the treatment of patients with congenital heart disease involving the right ventricular outflow tract and pulmonary valve. In-situ time-dependent degradation uniformly results in conduit and valve dysfunction. The abnormal hemodynamics imposed by valve and conduit dysfunction have been linked to exercise intolerance, arrhythmia, right heart failure, and sudden death. Starting in childhood, affected patients are subjected to repeated open-heart surgeries to restore valve function and potentially reduce morbidity and mortality...
2015: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Marieke M C P Brugmans, R Sarita Soekhradj-Soechit, Daphne van Geemen, Martijn Cox, Carlijn V C Bouten, Frank P T Baaijens, Anita Driessen-Mol
Synthetic polymers are widely used to fabricate porous scaffolds for the regeneration of cardiovascular tissues. To ensure mechanical integrity, a balance between the rate of scaffold absorption and tissue formation is of high importance. A higher rate of tissue formation is expected in fast-degrading materials than in slow-degrading materials. This could be a result of synthetic cells, which aim to compensate for the fast loss of mechanical integrity of the scaffold by deposition of collagen fibers. Here, we studied the effect of fast-degrading polyglycolic acid scaffolds coated with poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (PGA-P4HB) and slow-degrading poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds on amount of tissue, composition, and mechanical characteristics in time, and compared these engineered values with values for native human heart valves...
January 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Maryam Eslami, Gholamreza Javadi, Nasser Agdami, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of heart valve disease is increasing worldwide and the number of heart valve replacements is expected to increase in the future. By mimicking the main tissue structures and properties of heart valve, tissue engineering offers new options for the replacements. Applying an appropriate scaffold in fabricating tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) is of importance since it affects the secretion of the main extracellular matrix (ECM) components, collagen 1 and elastin, which are crucial in providing the proper mechanical properties of TEHVs...
2015: Cell Journal
Elisabeth MacColl, Raouf A Khalil
Lower-extremity veins have efficient wall structure and function and competent valves that permit upward movement of deoxygenated blood toward the heart against hydrostatic venous pressure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in maintaining vein wall structure and function. MMPs are zinc-binding endopeptidases secreted as inactive pro-MMPs by fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and leukocytes. Pro-MMPs are activated by various activators including other MMPs and proteinases. MMPs cause degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen and elastin, and could have additional effects on the endothelium, as well as VSM cell migration, proliferation, Ca(2+) signaling, and contraction...
December 2015: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Daniel S Puperi, Liezl R Balaoing, Ronan W O'Connell, Jennifer L West, K Jane Grande-Allen
Physiologically relevant in vitro models are needed to study disease progression and to develop and screen potential therapeutic interventions for disease. Heart valve disease, in particular, has no early intervention or non-invasive treatment because there is a lack of understanding the cellular mechanisms which lead to disease. Here, we establish a novel, customizable synthetic hydrogel platform that can be used to study cell-cell interactions and the factors which contribute to valve disease. Spatially localized cell adhesive ligands bound in the scaffold promote cell growth and organization of valve interstitial cells and valve endothelial cells in 3D co-culture...
October 2015: Biomaterials
Isra Marei, Adrian Chester, Ivan Carubelli, Themistoklis Prodromakis, Tatiana Trantidou, Magdi H Yacoub
BACKGROUND: Scaffolds are a key component of tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs). Several approaches had been adopted in the design of scaffolds using both natural and synthetic resources. We have investigated the suitability of parylene C (PC), a vapor deposited polymeric material, for the use as a scaffold in TEHV. AIMS: To evaluate the adsorption of extracellular matrix components onto plasma-activated PC and study the biocompatibility of PC by measuring cellular adhesion, viability, apoptosis, and phenotypic expression of valve endothelial and interstitial cells...
October 2015: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Chetan Chaudhary, Tarun Garg
A scaffold is comprised of the polymeric central components, which are used to deliver cells, drugs, and genes into the body. Wounds, which lead to a loss of integrity of the skin and skin mortality, are common challenges encountered in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The primary goals of treatment are rapid closure, restoration of function, and aesthetic satisfaction. A paradigm shift is taking place in medicine from using synthetic implants and tissue grafts to a tissue-engineering approach that uses degradable porous material scaffolds integrated with biological cells or molecules to regenerate tissues...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
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