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Stroke, dementia, multiple sclerosis

Maryam Daneshpazhooh, Javad Khorassani, Kamran Balighi, Narges Ghandi, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Hamidreza Tohidinik, Shahin Hamzelou, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi
INTRODUCTION: Neurological diseases are important co-morbidities found in association with bullous pemphigoid. Various neurological conditions (stroke, Parkinson's disease, dementia, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis) have been reported as associations of this bullous disease; whether these are significant has not been definitely proved. However, the presence of neurological conditions is a predictor of poorer prognosis. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to examine the association of bullous pemphigoid and neurological diseases in Iranian bullous pemphigoid patients...
September 26, 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Md Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Kah Keng Wong, Teguh Haryo Sasongko, Siew Hua Gan
Neurological manifestations or disorders associated with central nervous system (CNS) are one of the most common as well as important clinical characteristics of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Although in the last updated (2006) classification criteria of APS its neurological manifestations encompassed only transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke, diverse 'non-criteria' neurological disorders or manifestations (headache, migraine, bipolar disorder, transverse myelitis, dementia, chorea, epileptic seizures, multiple sclerosis, psychosis, cognitive impairment, Tourette's syndrome, parkinsonism, dystonia, transient global amnesia, obsessive compulsive disorder and leukoencephalopathy) have been observed in APS patients...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
M Ishwarya, R T Narendhirakannan
Neurological disorders are diseases of the brain, the spine, and the nerves that connect them. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system, such as brain tumors, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and stroke as well as less familiar ones such as frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias; cerebrovascular diseases including stroke, migraine, and other headache disorders; multiple sclerosis; neuroinfections; brain tumors; traumatic disorders of the nervous system such as brain trauma; and neurological disorders as a result of malnutrition...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Y C Lai, Y W Yew, W C Lambert
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a chronic, autoimmune vesiculobullous disease that frequently occurs in the elderly population. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested an association between BP and neurological diseases; some studies, however, showed conflicting results. This study aimed to investigate if patients with BP have significantly higher risks for neurological disorders, compared to controls. A comprehensive search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Case-control and cohort studies that assessed the relationship between BP and neurological diseases were included...
September 7, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Massimo Filippi, Federica Agosta
The advances in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) over the last 20 years have vastly contributed to improving the understanding of the brain structure and function in patients with many diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). DWI is commonly used, for instance, in the diagnostic workup of stroke, CNS neoplasia, and rapidly progressive dementia cases. The new DTI methods provide more specific information about the most destructive aspects of tumors, neurodegenerative dementia, and multiple sclerosis pathology and give a more complete picture of the complex pathologic mechanisms of these conditions...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Peter B Crino
Defining the multiple roles of the mechanistic (formerly 'mammalian') target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway in neurological diseases has been an exciting and rapidly evolving story of bench-to-bedside translational research that has spanned gene mutation discovery, functional experimental validation of mutations, pharmacological pathway manipulation, and clinical trials. Alterations in the dual contributions of mTOR - regulation of cell growth and proliferation, as well as autophagy and cell death - have been found in developmental brain malformations, epilepsy, autism and intellectual disability, hypoxic-ischaemic and traumatic brain injuries, brain tumours, and neurodegenerative disorders...
July 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Hsing-Chuan Tsai, May H Han
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PR) are ubiquitously expressed. S1P-S1PR signaling has been well characterized in immune trafficking and activation in innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the full extent of its involvement in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is not well understood. FTY720 (fingolimod), a non-selective S1PR modulator, significantly decreased annualized relapse rates in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). FTY720, which primarily targets S1P receptor 1 as a functional antagonist, arrests lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues and reduces neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS)...
July 2016: Drugs
Flora M Hammond, David N Alexander, Andrew J Cutler, Stephen D'Amico, Rachelle S Doody, William Sauve, Richard D Zorowitz, Charles S Davis, Paul Shin, Fred Ledon, Charles Yonan, Andrea E Formella, Joao Siffert
BACKGROUND: Phase 3 trials supporting dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q) use as a treatment for pseudobulbar affect (PBA) were conducted in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or multiple sclerosis (MS). The PRISM II study provides additional DM/Q experience with PBA secondary to dementia, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Participants in this open-label, multicenter, 90-day trial received DM/Q 20/10 mg twice daily. The primary outcome was the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS), assessing change in PBA episode frequency and severity...
2016: BMC Neurology
Ramón Cacabelos, Clara Torrellas, Lucía Fernández-Novoa, Francisco López-Muñoz
Neuroimmune dysregulation is a common phenomenon in different forms of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Cross-links between central and peripheral immune mechanisms appear to be disrupted as reflected by a series of immune markers (CD3, CD4, CD7, HLA-DR, CD25, CD28, and CD56) which show variability in brain disorders such as anxiety, depression, psychosis, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, migraine, epilepsy, vascular dementia, mental retardation, cerebrovascular encephalopathy, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, cranial nerve neuropathies, mental retardation, and posttraumatic brain injury...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Stéphanie Hostenbach, Miguel D'haeseleer, Ron Kooijman, Jacques De Keyser
In the normal central nervous system, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is found in some types of neurons, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and endothelial cells of microvessels, but it is usually not detectable in glial cells. However, in different pathological conditions, astrocytes adapting a reactive phenotype express high levels of ET-1 and its receptors, mainly the ETB receptor. ET-1 released by reactive astrocytes appears mainly to have neurodeleterious effects by mechanisms that include constriction of cerebral arterioles leading to impairment of the cerebral microcirculation, increase of blood brain barrier permeability, inflammation, excitotoxicity, impairment of fast axonal transport, and astrogliosis...
September 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Valerie A J Block, Erica Pitsch, Peggy Tahir, Bruce A C Cree, Diane D Allen, Jeffrey M Gelfand
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. METHODS: Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded...
2016: PloS One
Valentina Arnao, Domenico Di Raimondo, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease but the same effect seems to be produced in neurological diseases. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we focused on the interplay between physical activity and some neurological conditions (Stroke, dementia, epilepsy, headache, Parkinson' s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, insomnia, depression and anxiety) with the aim of describing the potential role of physical activity in the prevention of such diseases and the physiological mechanisms involved in these processes...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Sarah Creer, Pamela Enderby, Simon Judge, Alex John
BACKGROUND: Commissioners and providers require information relating to the number of people requiring a service in order to ensure provision is appropriate and equitable for the population they serve. There is little epidemiological evidence available regarding the prevalence of people who could benefit from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in the UK. AIM: To determine the prevalence of people who could benefit from AAC in the UK. METHODS & PROCEDURES: An epidemiological approach was taken to create a new estimate of need: the prevalence of the main medical conditions and specific symptoms leading to the requirement for AAC were identified from the literature and AAC specialists were consulted to estimate the number of people who may require AAC...
April 26, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Gary Null, Luanne Pennesi, Martin Feldman
This group study explored how an intervention of diet and lifestyle, including a vegan diet, fruit and vegetable juicing, nutritional supplements, regular exercise, and destressing techniques, would affect 27 subjects with anxiety, depression, poor memory, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, history of stroke, or multiple sclerosis. Several subjects had overlapping conditions. Videotaped testimonials were obtained describing subjective results. Testimonials stated multiple benefits across all conditions addressed by the study, with subjects often reporting substantial benefits...
March 14, 2016: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
Kaloyan Kamenov, Maria Cabello, Francisco Félix Caballero, Alarcos Cieza, Carla Sabariego, Alberto Raggi, Marta Anczewska, Tuuli Pitkänen, Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos
Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders...
2016: PloS One
Jason D Ulrich, David M Holtzman
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, is a complex neurodegenerative disease marked by the appearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles. Alzheimer's disease has a strong genetic component, and recent advances in genome technology have unearthed novel variants in several genes, which could provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to AD. Particularly interesting are variants in the microglial-expressed receptor TREM2 which are associated with a 2-4-fold increased risk of developing AD...
April 20, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
John P Ney, Barbara Johnson, Tom Knabel, Karolina Craft, Joel Kaufman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of neurologist ambulatory care in chronic neurologic diseases in a large administrative claims dataset detailing costs, adverse events, and health care utilization. METHODS: The Optum proprietary claims dataset (2010-2012) was examined to describe direct health care costs, as well as specific outcome metrics for a large population of persons with chronic neurologic illnesses. In phase I of the study, we detail neurologist involvement and differences in annualized allowed third--party payments within episode treatment groups (ETGs) for 10 neurologic illnesses...
January 26, 2016: Neurology
Carla Sabariego, Michaela Coenen, Carolina Ballert, Maria Cabello, Matilde Leonardi, Marta Anczewska, Tuuli Pitkänen, Alberto Raggi, Blanca Mellor, Venusia Covelli, Piotr Świtaj, Jonna Levola, Silvia Schiavolin, Anna Chrostek, Jerome Bickenbach, Somnath Chatterji, Alarcos Cieza
BACKGROUND: Persons with brain disorders experience significant psychosocial difficulties (PSD) in daily life, e.g. problems with managing daily routine or emotional lability, and the level of the PSD depends on social, physical and political environments, and psychologic-personal determinants. Our objective is to determine a brief set of environmental and psychologic-personal factors that are shared determinants of PSD among persons with different brain disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, convenience sample of persons with either dementia, stroke, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, depression, schizophrenia, substance dependence or Parkinson's disease...
2015: PloS One
Ramón Cacabelos, Clara Torrellas, Lucía Fernández-Novoa, Gjumrakch Aliev
The neuroimmune system represents a dense network of biochemical signals associated with neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors synthesized in neurons, glial cells and immune cells, to maintain systemic homeostasis. Endogenous and/or exogenous, noxious stimuli in any tissue are captured by sensor cells to inform the brain; likewise, signals originating at the central nervous system (CNS) level are transmitted to peripheral immune effectors which react to central stimuli...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Pooja Naik, Luca Cucullo
Tobacco smoke (TS) is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. In addition to a host of well characterized diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, oral and peripheral cancers and cardiovascular complications, epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic smokers are at equal risk to develop neurological and neurovascular complications such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, vascular dementia and small vessel ischemic disease (SVID). Unfortunately, few direct neurotoxicology studies of tobacco smoking and its pathogenic pathways have been produced so far...
October 31, 2015: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
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