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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198092/the-burden-of-neurological-disease-in-the-united-states-a-summary-report-and-call-to-action
#1
EDITORIAL
Clifton L Gooch, Etienne Pracht, Amy R Borenstein
The United States carries a substantial fiscal burden resulting from the nearly 100 million Americans with neurological disease. The combined annual costs of Alzheimer's and other dementias, low back pain, stroke, traumatic brain injury, migraine, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and Parkinson's disease totals nearly 800 billion dollars and is rapidly rising due to the aging of the U.S. POPULATION: We provide a summary overview of the substantial current and future economic impact of neurological disease, and provide an action plan for reducing this burden through neurological research and enhanced clinical management of neurological disorders in the United States...
February 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195514/blood-brain-barrier-on-a-chip-microphysiological-systems-that-capture-the-complexity-of-the-blood-central-nervous-system-interface
#2
Duc Tt Phan, R Hugh F Bender, Jillian W Andrejecsk, Agua Sobrino, Stephanie J Hachey, Steven C George, Christopher Cw Hughes
The blood-brain barrier is a dynamic and highly organized structure that strictly regulates the molecules allowed to cross the brain vasculature into the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier pathology has been associated with a number of central nervous system diseases, including vascular malformations, stroke/vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various neurological tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. There is a compelling need for representative models of this critical interface...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164774/tauopathies-focus-on-changes-at-the-neurovascular-unit
#3
Alena Michalicova, William A Banks, Jaroslav Legath, Andrej Kovac
In the past, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) had been characterized mainly as a layer of endothelial cells forming the vessel/capillary wall of the brain. More recently, the BBB is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic and interactive system called the neurovascular unit (NVU), consisting of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons. The list of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies involving BBB dysfunction is rapidly growing. The opening of the BBB and subsequent infiltration of serum components to the brain can lead to host of processes resulting in progressive synaptic and neuronal dysfunction and loss...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157751/inherited-and-uncommon-causes-of-stroke
#4
Jennifer Juhl Majersik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article is a practical guide to identifying uncommon causes of stroke and offers guidance for evaluation and management, even when large controlled trials are lacking in these rarer forms of stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: Fabry disease causes early-onset stroke, particularly of the vertebrobasilar system; enzyme replacement therapy should be considered in affected patients. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis, causes migraines, early-onset lacunar strokes, and dementia...
February 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908171/automated-detection-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-of-all-sizes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#5
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Inge W M van Uden, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Tom Heskes, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are seen on FLAIR-MRI in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, dementia, Parkinsonism, stroke and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). WMHs are often used as biomarkers for prognosis or disease progression in these diseases, and additionally longitudinal quantification of WMHs is used to evaluate therapeutic strategies. Human readers show considerable disagreement and inconsistency on detection of small lesions. A multitude of automated detection algorithms for WMHs exists, but since most of the current automated approaches are tuned to optimize segmentation performance according to Jaccard or Dice scores, smaller WMHs often go undetected in these approaches...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893997/psychometric-properties-of-dual-task-balance-and-walking-assessments-for-individuals-with-neurological-conditions-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Lei Yang, Freddy Man Hin Lam, Lin Rong Liao, Mei Zhen Huang, Cheng Qi He, Marco Yiu Chung Pang
BACKGROUND: The ability of performing a balance or walking task in conjunction with a secondary cognitive or motor task, referred to as dual-task (DT) ability, is essential in daily living. While there is some evidence that DT performance is impaired in individuals with neurological conditions, using reliable and valid tools to measure DT performance is essential. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of DT balance and walking assessments in individuals with different neurological conditions...
November 15, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865707/a-comprehensive-database-of-published-tdcs-clinical-trials-2005-2016
#7
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique of noninvasive cortical stimulation allowing significant modification of brain functions. Clinical application of this technique was reported for the first time in March 2005. This paper presents a detailed list of the 340 articles (excluding single case reports) which have assessed the clinical effect of tDCS in patients, at least when delivered to cortical targets. The reviewed conditions were: pain syndromes, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, cerebral palsy, post-stroke limb motor impairment, post-stroke neglect, post-stroke dysphagia, post-stroke aphasia, primary progressive aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, tinnitus, depression, auditory hallucinations and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, addiction and craving, autism, and attention disorders...
December 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848219/the-valuation-of-informal-care-in-cost-of-illness-studies-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Juan Oliva-Moreno, Marta Trapero-Bertran, Luz Maria Peña-Longobardo, Raúl Del Pozo-Rubio
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in incorporating informal care in cost-of-illness studies as a relevant part of the economic impact of some diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to review the recent literature valuating the costs of informal care in a group of selected diseases from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review on the economic impact of informal care, focusing on six selected diseases: arthritis or osteoarthritis, cancer, dementia, mental diseases, multiple sclerosis and stroke...
November 15, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845416/psychiatric-and-neurological-disorders-are-associated-with-bullous-pemphigoid-a-nationwide-finnish-care-register-study
#9
Anna-Kaisa Försti, Jari Jokelainen, Hanna Ansakorpi, Allan Seppänen, Kari Majamaa, Markku Timonen, Kaisa Tasanen
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease with increasing incidence. BP is associated with neurological disorders, but it has not been established, what subtypes of dementia and stroke are associated with BP, and what is the temporal relation between these diseases. Also, the association between BP and psychiatric disorders is controversial. We conducted a retrospective nationwide study, using the Finnish Care Register for Health Care diagnoses between 1987 and 2013. The study population of 4524 BP patients were compared with 66138 patients with basocellular carcinoma (BCC), neurological and psychiatric comorbid disorders were evaluated for both groups, and associations were estimated by Cox regression and logistic regression analyses...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679408/neurological-diseases-and-bullous-pemphigoid-a-case-control-study-in-iranian-patients
#10
Maryam Daneshpazhooh, Javad Khorassani, Kamran Balighi, Narges Ghandi, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Hamidreza Tohidinik, Shahin Hamzelou, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi
INTRODUCTION: Neurological diseases are important co-morbidities found in association with bullous pemphigoid. Various neurological conditions (stroke, Parkinson's disease, dementia, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis) have been reported as associations of this bullous disease; whether these are significant has not been definitely proved. However, the presence of neurological conditions is a predictor of poorer prognosis. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to examine the association of bullous pemphigoid and neurological diseases in Iranian bullous pemphigoid patients...
September 26, 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658514/-non-criteria-neurologic-manifestations-of-antiphospholipid-syndrome-a-hidden-kingdom-to-be-discovered
#11
Md Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Kah Keng Wong, Teguh Haryo Sasongko, Siew Hua Gan
Neurological manifestations or disorders associated with central nervous system (CNS) are one of the most common as well as important clinical characteristics of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Although in the last updated (2006) classification criteria of APS its neurological manifestations encompassed only transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke, diverse 'non-criteria' neurological disorders or manifestations (headache, migraine, bipolar disorder, transverse myelitis, dementia, chorea, epileptic seizures, multiple sclerosis, psychosis, cognitive impairment, Tourette's syndrome, parkinsonism, dystonia, transient global amnesia, obsessive compulsive disorder and leukoencephalopathy) have been observed in APS patients...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651259/the-advances-in-neurobiology
#12
M Ishwarya, R T Narendhirakannan
Neurological disorders are diseases of the brain, the spine, and the nerves that connect them. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system, such as brain tumors, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and stroke as well as less familiar ones such as frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias; cerebrovascular diseases including stroke, migraine, and other headache disorders; multiple sclerosis; neuroinfections; brain tumors; traumatic disorders of the nervous system such as brain trauma; and neurological disorders as a result of malnutrition...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599898/bullous-pemphigoid-and-its-association-with-neurological-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Y C Lai, Y W Yew, W C Lambert
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a chronic, autoimmune vesiculobullous disease that frequently occurs in the elderly population. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested an association between BP and neurological diseases; some studies, however, showed conflicting results. This study aimed to investigate if patients with BP have significantly higher risks for neurological disorders, compared to controls. A comprehensive search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Case-control and cohort studies that assessed the relationship between BP and neurological diseases were included...
December 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430459/diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-functional-mri
#14
REVIEW
Massimo Filippi, Federica Agosta
The advances in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) over the last 20 years have vastly contributed to improving the understanding of the brain structure and function in patients with many diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). DWI is commonly used, for instance, in the diagnostic workup of stroke, CNS neoplasia, and rapidly progressive dementia cases. The new DTI methods provide more specific information about the most destructive aspects of tumors, neurodegenerative dementia, and multiple sclerosis pathology and give a more complete picture of the complex pathologic mechanisms of these conditions...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340022/the-mtor-signalling-cascade-paving-new-roads-to-cure-neurological-disease
#15
REVIEW
Peter B Crino
Defining the multiple roles of the mechanistic (formerly 'mammalian') target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway in neurological diseases has been an exciting and rapidly evolving story of bench-to-bedside translational research that has spanned gene mutation discovery, functional experimental validation of mutations, pharmacological pathway manipulation, and clinical trials. Alterations in the dual contributions of mTOR - regulation of cell growth and proliferation, as well as autophagy and cell death - have been found in developmental brain malformations, epilepsy, autism and intellectual disability, hypoxic-ischaemic and traumatic brain injuries, brain tumours, and neurodegenerative disorders...
July 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318702/sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-and-s1p-signaling-pathway-therapeutic-targets-in-autoimmunity-and-inflammation
#16
Hsing-Chuan Tsai, May H Han
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PR) are ubiquitously expressed. S1P-S1PR signaling has been well characterized in immune trafficking and activation in innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the full extent of its involvement in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is not well understood. FTY720 (fingolimod), a non-selective S1PR modulator, significantly decreased annualized relapse rates in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). FTY720, which primarily targets S1P receptor 1 as a functional antagonist, arrests lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues and reduces neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS)...
July 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276999/prism-ii-an-open-label-study-to-assess-effectiveness-of-dextromethorphan-quinidine-for-pseudobulbar-affect-in-patients-with-dementia-stroke-or-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Flora M Hammond, David N Alexander, Andrew J Cutler, Stephen D'Amico, Rachelle S Doody, William Sauve, Richard D Zorowitz, Charles S Davis, Paul Shin, Fred Ledon, Charles Yonan, Andrea E Formella, Joao Siffert
BACKGROUND: Phase 3 trials supporting dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q) use as a treatment for pseudobulbar affect (PBA) were conducted in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or multiple sclerosis (MS). The PRISM II study provides additional DM/Q experience with PBA secondary to dementia, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Participants in this open-label, multicenter, 90-day trial received DM/Q 20/10 mg twice daily. The primary outcome was the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS), assessing change in PBA episode frequency and severity...
June 9, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190492/histamine-and-immune-biomarkers-in-cns-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Ramón Cacabelos, Clara Torrellas, Lucía Fernández-Novoa, Francisco López-Muñoz
Neuroimmune dysregulation is a common phenomenon in different forms of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Cross-links between central and peripheral immune mechanisms appear to be disrupted as reflected by a series of immune markers (CD3, CD4, CD7, HLA-DR, CD25, CD28, and CD56) which show variability in brain disorders such as anxiety, depression, psychosis, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, migraine, epilepsy, vascular dementia, mental retardation, cerebrovascular encephalopathy, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, cranial nerve neuropathies, mental retardation, and posttraumatic brain injury...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132521/the-pathophysiological-role-of-astrocytic-endothelin-1
#19
REVIEW
Stéphanie Hostenbach, Miguel D'haeseleer, Ron Kooijman, Jacques De Keyser
In the normal central nervous system, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is found in some types of neurons, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and endothelial cells of microvessels, but it is usually not detectable in glial cells. However, in different pathological conditions, astrocytes adapting a reactive phenotype express high levels of ET-1 and its receptors, mainly the ETB receptor. ET-1 released by reactive astrocytes appears mainly to have neurodeleterious effects by mechanisms that include constriction of cerebral arterioles leading to impairment of the cerebral microcirculation, increase of blood brain barrier permeability, inflammation, excitotoxicity, impairment of fast axonal transport, and astrogliosis...
September 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124611/remote-physical-activity-monitoring-in-neurological-disease-a-systematic-review
#20
Valerie A J Block, Erica Pitsch, Peggy Tahir, Bruce A C Cree, Diane D Allen, Jeffrey M Gelfand
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. METHODS: Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded...
2016: PloS One
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