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Walquiria Batista Andrade, Jeferson Lucas Jacinto, Douglas Kratki da Silva, Mirela Casonato Roveratti, José Maria Estoche, Douglas Benedito Oliveira, Mario Carlos Welin Balvedi, Rubens A da Silva, Andreo Fernando Aguiar
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of L-arginine (L-arg) supplementation on muscle recovery process after a single session of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE). 20 healthy young adult (22.8 ± 3.4 y) participants were assigned to two groups (N = 10/group): a placebo-supplement group (PLA) or a L-arginine-supplement group (ARG). The groups completed a session of high-intensity RE (0h), and three subsequent fatigue tests sessions (at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise) to assess the time course of muscle recovery...
March 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Yan Zhang, Zhongyuan Huang, Letao Wang, Chunming Wang, Changde Zhang, Thomas E Wiese, Guangdi Wang, Kevin Eugene Riley, Zhe Wang
This work aims to face the challenge of monitoring small molecule drugs accurately and rapidly for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis in current clinical settings. Overdose of acetaminophen (AP), a commonly used OTC analgesic drug, has been determined to be a major cause of acute liver failure in the US and the UK. However, there is no rapid and accurate detection method available for this drug in the emergency room. The present study examined an AP sensing strategy that relies on a previously unexplored strong interaction between AP and the arginine (Arg) molecule...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
W Weinrebe, S Käbe-Frisch, I Füsgen, M Karaman, E Johannsdottir, S Rupp
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of desmopressin and placebo in independent geriatric outpatients with nocturnal polyuria (NP). METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single-center, national, double blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, parallel group comparative trial was carried out. The study included 110 geriatric outpatients, 55 patients per treatment group using desmopressin acetate nasal spray (strength: 0.1 mg/ml) once daily of 10 μg/spray blast or placebo...
March 14, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Brijesh Kumar, John L Sorensen, Silvia T Cardona
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic bacterium that can thrive in different environments, including the amino acid-rich mucus of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. B. cenocepacia responds to the nutritional conditions that mimic the CF sputum by increasing flagellin expression and swimming motility. Individual amino acids also induce swimming but not flagellin expression. Here, we show that modulation of the second messenger cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) levels by the PAS-containing c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, BCAL1069 (CdpA), regulates the swimming motility of B...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Huan Chen, Zhaowei Xu, Xiahui Li, Yangyang Yang, Bowen Li, Yanan Li, Kangkai Xia, Jian Wang, Shujing Li, Miao Wang, Huijian Wu
α-catenin has been demonstrated to suppress several different types of cancers. Here we demonstrate that α-catenin is modified by SUMO protein, which covalently binds α-catenin at the carboxy terminus at lysine 870. Substitution of lysine 870 with arginine completely abolishes α-catenin SUMOylation. This modification can be removed by SENP1. However, α-catenin SUMOylation does not affect its stability and subcellular localization. In addition, we observed that the SUMOylation-deficient α-catenin mutant has a reduced interaction with IκBα which prevents subsequent ubiquitination of IκBα, and therefore a reduced suppression of expression of the NF-κB target genes TNF-α, IL-8, VEGF, and uPA...
March 13, 2018: Oncogenesis
Gabriela Nestal de Moraes, Zongling Ji, Lavender Y-N Fan, Shang Yao, Stefania Zona, Andrew D Sharrocks, Eric W-F Lam
The forkhead transcription factor FOXK2 plays a critical role in suppressing tumorigenesis and mediating cytotoxic drug action in breast cancer. However, the mechanism by which the biological function of FOXK2 is regulated remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of SUMOylation in modulating FOXK2-mediated drug sensitivity. We identified SUMOylation consensus motifs within the FOXK2 sequence and constructed two SUMOylation-defective double mutants by converting lysine 527 and 633 to arginines and glutamic acid 529 and 635 to alanines, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Oncogenesis
Cheng-Han Yu, Chi-Chi Chou, Der-Yen Lee, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Geen-Dong Chang
Phenyl vinyl sulfone (PVS) and phenyl vinyl sulfonate (PVSN) inactivate protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) by mimicking the phosphotyrosine structure and providing a Michael addition acceptor for the active-site cysteine residue of PTPs, thus forming covalent adducts between PVS (or PVSN) and PTPs. We developed a specific antiserum against PVS. This antiserum can be used in general antibody-based assays such as immunoblotting, immunofluorescence staining, and immunoprecipitation. Target identification through immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis reveals potential targets of PVS, mostly proteins with reactive cysteine residues or low-pKa cysteine residues that are prone to reversible redox modifications...
March 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Huanchen Wang, Chunfang Gu, Ronda J Rolfes, Henning J Jessen, Stephen B Shears
Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are 'energetic' intracellular signals that are ubiquitous in animals, plant and fungi; structural and biochemical characterization of PP-InsP metabolic enzymes provides insight into their evolution, reaction mechanisms, and regulation. Here, we describe the 2.35 Å resolution structure of the catalytic core of Siw14, a 5-PP-InsP phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a member of the protein tyrosinephosphatase (PTP) superfamily. Conclusions that we derive from structural data are supported by extensive site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analyses, thereby attributing new functional significance to several key residues...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
F A Khan, T S Chenier, R A Foster, J Hewson, E L Scholtz
Emerging research suggests that the nitric oxide system may play a role in persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) in the mare. Differences in uterine nitric oxide (NO) levels between mares susceptible or resistant to PBIE and a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of NO on uterine contractility have been demonstrated. The objectives of this study were to investigate the difference in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity of the endometrium between susceptible and resistant mares and the effect of a specific inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor on the endometrial NOS activity in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Peng Zhang, Xing Hu
Urea is an important precursor of the harmful carcinogenic product ethyl carbamate in fermented wines. To decipher more fully the contributions of three arginine permeases, Can1p, Gap1p and Alp1p in urea formation, various engineered strains were examined for their ability to form urea. This included seven mutants with different combinations of permease deficiency and grown in both simple and more complex media, and the wild-type strain modified to overexpress the three arginine permeases. A truncated GATA transcription factor, Gln3p1-653 , was also overexpressed in the arginine permease deficient mutants to determine whether the permeases have a synergistic effect on urea formation with other urea reducing modules...
March 13, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Hari R Desu, Laura A Thoma, George C Wood
PURPOSE: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a fatal syndrome in critically ill patients. It is characterized by lung edema and inflammation. Numerous pro-inflammatory mediators are released into alveoli. Among them, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) causes an increase in solute permeability across the alveolar-capillary barrier leading to edema. It activates key effector cells (alveolar epithelial and endothelial cells) releasing inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate that nebulized liposomes inhibit ALI in vivo...
March 13, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Kun Qian, Hao Hu, Hui Xu, Y George Zheng
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are crucial epigenetic regulators in eukaryotic organisms that serve as histone writers for chromatin remodeling. PRMTs also methylate a variety of non-histone protein substrates to modulate their function and activity. The development of potent PRMT inhibitors has become an emerging and imperative research area in the drug discovery field to provide novel therapeutic agents for treating diseases and as tools to investigate the biological functions of PRMTs. PRMT1 is the major type I enzyme that catalyzes the formation of asymmetric dimethyl arginine, and PRMT1 plays important regulatory roles in signal transduction, transcriptional activation, RNA splicing, and DNA repair...
2018: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
Wenkai Ren, Ranjith Rajendran, Yuanyuan Zhao, Bie Tan, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Guoqiang Zhu, Yuanyi Peng, Xiaoshan Huang, Jinping Deng, Yulong Yin
The interaction between host and pathogen decidedly shapes the outcome of an infection, thus understanding this interaction is critical to the treatment of a pathogen-induced infection. Although research in this area of cell biology has yielded surprising findings regarding interactions between host and pathogen, understanding of the metabolic cross talk between host and pathogen is limited. At the site of infection, host and pathogen share similar or identical nutritional substrates and generate common metabolic products, thus metabolic cross talk between host and pathogen could profoundly affect the pathogenesis of an infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Bo Hou, Eyleen S Heidrich, Denise Mehner-Breitfeld, Thomas Brüser
The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system that comprises the TatA, TatB, and TatC components transports folded proteins across energized membranes of prokaryotes and plant plastids. It is not known, however, how the transport of this protein cargo is achieved. Favored models suggest that the TatA component supports transport by weakening the membrane upon full translocon assembly. Using Escherichia coli as model organism, we now demonstrate in vivo that the N-terminus of TatA can indeed destabilize the membrane, resulting in a lowered membrane energization in growing cells...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nhat Tri Vo, Astam Kumar Patra, Dukjoon Kim
The new class of silica nanoparticles with unprecedented structural morphology is synthesized by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), L-arginine, and ammonium metatungstate (AMT) composite template, all in aqueous ethanol. The morphology of the synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) can be tuned from a spherical to a hollow dough-nut shape through a hollow sphere by controlling the concentration of AMT in the composite template. The formation mechanism of the hol-low doughnut shaped MSNs (hd-MSNs) is well explored by means of zeta potential, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with elemental mapping analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
March 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yathisha Ug, Ishani Bhat, Iddya Karunasagar, Mamatha Bs
The rising interest to utilize nutritionally exorbitant fish proteins has instigated research activities in fish waste utilization. The development of newer technologies to utilize fish waste has fostered use of bioactive value-added products for specific health benefits. Enzymatically obtained Fish Protein Hydrolysate (FPH) is a rich source of biologically active peptides possessing anti-oxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial and anti-hypertensive activity. Isolating natural remedies to combat alarming negative consequences of synthetic drugs has been the new trend in current research promoting identification of antihypertensive peptides from FPH...
March 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Naeem Khan, Asghari Bano, Mohammad Atikur Rahman, Bala Rathinasabapathi, Md Ali Babar
Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in chickpea requires a solid understanding of biochemical processes involved with different physiological mechanisms. The objective of this study is to demonstrate genetic variations in altered metabolic levels in chickpea varieties (tolerant and sensitive) grown under contrasting water regimes through UPLC-HRMS based untargeted metabolomic profiling. Chickpea plants were exposed to drought stress at the three-leaf stage for 25 days and the leaves were harvested at 14 days and 25 days after the imposition of drought stress...
March 13, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Tom H Wright, Benjamin G Davis
Methods for installing natural and unnatural amino acids and their modifications into proteins in a benign and precise manner are highly sought-after in protein science. Here we describe a protocol for 'post-translational mutagenesis' that enables the programmed installation of protein side chains through the use of rapid, mild and operationally simple free-radical chemistry performed on recombinantly expressed and purified proteins. By introduction of protein dehydroalanine (Dha) residues (in this instance, from a unique cysteine residue introduced by site-directed mutagenesis) as free-radical trapping 'tags' for downstream modification, exquisite control over the site of subsequent modification is achieved...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
Irina Velikyan, Örjan Lindhe
Monitoring general disease marker such as angiogenesis may contribute to the development of personalized medicine and improve therapy outcome. Readily availability of positron emitter based imaging agents providing quantification would expand clinical positron emission tomography (PET) applications. Generator produced68 Ga provides PET images of high resolution and the half-life time frame is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of small peptides comprising arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence specific to αv β3 integrin receptors...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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